Sample records for co-authors birgitta wallstedt

  1. The Ehrenstein Illusion Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    phenomena referred to as contrast or brightness illusions (e.g. Spillmann, 1977), as for example the Hermann grid illusion (Ehrenstein, 1941; Spillmann, 1994; Schiller & Carvey, 2005) or the so-called Mach bandThe Ehrenstein Illusion Birgitta Dresp-Langley Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR7357

  2. Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2006 Total Published = 201 articles (1 co-authored with undergraduate students and 86 co-authored with graduate students)

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2006 Total Published = 201 articles (1 co-authored with undergraduate students and 86 co-authored with graduate students) Journal Articles = 134; Articles.M. German, "Master Sintering Curve Concepts as Applied to the Sintering of Molybdenum," Metallurgical

  3. Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Co-authors

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Co-authors: Lily M. Hoffman and Jiri Musil Great Cities Institute Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Abstract Although urban tourism has been services. There are still few studies of the role of tourism in the transformation of urban political

  4. Profit (p)-Index: The Degree to Which Authors Profit from Co-Authors

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nasir Ahmad; Rozing, Maarten Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Current metrics for estimating a scientist’s academic performance treat the author’s publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual’s own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the ‘profit (p)-index’, which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award), and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80%) and that researchers’ relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods introduced here may thus provide a more fair impression of a scientist’s autonomous academic performance. PMID:23573211

  5. Predicting Co-Author Relationship in Medical Co-Authorship Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qi; Long, Chao; Lv, Yanhua; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang

    2014-01-01

    Research collaborations are encouraged because a synergistic effect yielding good results often appears. However, creating and organizing a strong research group is a difficult task. One of the greatest concerns of an individual researcher is locating potential collaborators whose expertise complement his best. In this paper, we propose a method that makes link predictions in co-authorship networks, where topological features between authors such as Adamic/Adar, Common Neighbors, Jaccard's Coefficient, Preferential Attachment, Katz?, and PropFlow may be good indicators of their future collaborations. Firstly, these topological features were systematically extracted from the network. Then, supervised models were used to learn the best weights associated with different topological features in deciding co-author relationships. Finally, we tested our models on the co-authorship networks in the research field of Coronary Artery Disease and obtained encouraging accuracy (the precision, recall, F1 score and AUC were, respectively, 0.696, 0.677, 0.671 and 0.742 for Logistic Regression, and respectively, 0.697, 0.678, 0.671 and 0.743 for SVM). This suggests that our models could be used to build and manage strong research groups. PMID:24991920

  6. 25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    relate in my book Evolution for Everyone: How Darwin's Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Now on Science

  7. Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Matsunaga, Y.

    2012-12-04

    This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

  8. 2005: PUBLICATIONS WITH IRAM STAFF MEMBERS AS (CO-)AUTHORS

    E-print Network

    RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)

    STRUCTURE OF THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA PHOTO- DISSOCIATION REGION E. Habart, A. Abergel, C.M. Walmsley, D IN THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA P. Hily-Blant, D. Teyssier, S. Philipp, R. Güsten 2005, A&A 440, 909 1084. MULTIPLE CO? THE HORSEHEAD CASE J. Pety, D. Teyssier, D. Fossé, M. Gerin, E. Roueff, A. Abergel, E. Habart, J. Cernicharo

  9. 2003: PUBLICATIONS WITH IRAM STAFF MEMBERS AS (CO-)AUTHORS

    E-print Network

    RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)

    DISK: A MISSING LINK BETWEEN CLASS II AND III OBJECTS? A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, M. Simon 2003, A&A 402. Mauersberger, J. Martín- Pintado, S. García-Burillo, C. Henkel 2003, A&A 411, L465 989. NON-GAUSSIAN VELOCITY

  10. To Co-Author or Not to Co-Author: How to Write, Publish, and Negotiate Issues of Authorship with Undergraduate Research Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Romi L. Burks (Southwestern University; Associate Professor of Biology REV)

    2009-10-27

    This Teaching Resource emphasizes the value of publishing with undergraduates and may be particularly helpful to incoming faculty who are new to the process of working with students. Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

  11. Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2007 Total Published = 161 articles (7 co-authored with undergraduate students and 103 co-authored with graduate students)

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    . 15-1 - 15-7, 2007 Breon*, L.J., J.K. Van Velsor*, and J.L. Rose, "Guided Wave Damage Detection*, "Bond Durability of GFRP Bars Embedded in Concrete Beams", J. Composites for Construction, 11 Composites for Construction, B. Benmokrane and E. El- Slakawy, Eds., 22-24 May 2007, Quebec City, Quebec

  12. Bob Muenchen, Author R for SAS and SPSS Users, Co-Author R for Stata Users

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    -on packages written by... Professor who invented the method? A student interpreting the method? 13 Email.r-project.org, the Comprehensive R Archive Network 2. Download binaries for Base & run 3. Add-ons: install.packages("myPackage") 4. To update: update.packages() 15 Comprehensive R Archive Network Crantastic.com Inside-R.org R4Stats

  13. Max Baumhefner & Ed Pike, Co-Authors Andreas Klugescheid, Contributing Author

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    -in Vehicle Clean Energy Nexus 5 Source: California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Owner Survey Rooftop solar in California are already clean vehicles Source: EPA "Beyond Tailpipe Emissions" calculator #12;The Plug #12;The Importance of Time-of-Use Rates 11 Source: California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Owner Survey

  14. 59 FR- Dardanelle & Russellville Railroad Co.Authorized To Operate Lines of Arkansas Midland Railroad Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-13

    ...Barksdale Lumber Company, Bean Lumber Company, and G&S Roofing Products Company, Inc.), and one inactive shipper (Cargill). The Norman Branch extends approximately 52.9 miles from its connection with UP at Gurdon, AR, to the end of the...

  15. Thilda Nilsson HIR Malmhus, Bjrred

    E-print Network

    Thilda Nilsson HIR Malmöhus, Bjärred Birgitta Svensson Department of Horticulture, SLUSwedishRuralEconomyandAgriculturalSocieties · Thehorticulturalindustry Thilda Nilsson HIR Malmöhus, Bjärred Birgitta Svensson Department of Horticulture, SLU Nilsson and Birgitta Svensson Summary A project on expanding and improving the production of raspberries

  16. Kevin Burgess: Recent Publications and Patents Co-author of the monthly Highlights section in Chemistry and Industry since 1986.

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Kevin

    in Photodynamic Therapy, A. Kamkaew, S. H. Lim, H. B. Lee, L. V. Kiew, L. Y. Chung, K. Burgess, Chem. Soc. Rev)imidazolin-2-ylidene)iridium(I) Tetrakis(3,5-bis(tribluoromethyl)phenyl)borate, Y. Zhu, K. Burgess, EROS USGS

  17. Coherent measures of the impact of co-authors in peer review journals and in proceedings publications

    E-print Network

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the coauthor effect in different types of publications, usually not equally respected in measuring research impact. {\\it A priori} unexpected relationships are found between the total coauthor core value, $m_a$, of a leading investigator (LI), and the related values for their publications in either peer review journals ($j$) or in proceedings ($p$). A surprisingly linear relationship is found: $ m_a^{(j)} + 0.4\\;m_a^{(p)} = m_a^{(jp)} $. Furthermore, another relationship is found concerning the measure of the total number of citations, $A_a$, i.e. the surface of the citation size-rank histogram up to $m_a$. Another linear relationship exists : $A_a^{(j)} + 1.36\\; A_a^{(p)} = A_a^{(jp)} $. These empirical findings coefficients (0.4 and 1.36) are supported by considerations based on an empirical power law found between the number of joint publications of an author and the rank of a coauthor. Moreover, a simple power law relationship is found between $m_a$ and the number ($r_M$) of coauthor...

  18. Optics & Photonics News -Ultrafast Camera Could Detect Wandering Cancer Cells Co-authors of the "imaging flow analyzer"

    E-print Network

    Jalali. Bahram

    -authors of the "imaging flow analyzer" paper (left to right): Dino Di Carlo, Daniel R. Gossett, Bahram Jalali, Coleman analyzer incorporates a unique camera invented by OSA Fellow Bahram Jalali's group at UCLA three years ago

  19. Seismic Imaging and Inversion: Application of Linear Theory (2012), Cambridge University Press, co-authored with Bob Stolt

    SciTech Connect

    Weglein, Arthur B.; Stolt, Bob H.

    2012-03-01

    Extracting information from seismic data requires knowledge of seismic wave propagation and reflection. The commonly used method involves solving linearly for a reflectivity at every point within the Earth, but this book follows an alternative approach which invokes inverse scattering theory. By developing the theory of seismic imaging from basic principles, the authors relate the different models of seismic propagation, reflection and imaging - thus providing links to reflectivity-based imaging on the one hand and to nonlinear seismic inversion on the other. The comprehensive and physically complete linear imaging foundation developed presents new results at the leading edge of seismic processing for target location and identification. This book serves as a fundamental guide to seismic imaging principles and algorithms and their foundation in inverse scattering theory and is a valuable resource for working geoscientists, scientific programmers and theoretical physicists.

  20. Open Journal of Philosophy 2012. Vol.2, No.1, 45-49

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Independently of Consciousness? Birgitta Dresp-Langley, Jean Durup Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and its immediate or distant environment (Piaget, 1967). Current research in behavioral neuroscience

  1. LEADERSHIP BOARD HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

    E-print Network

    AND FUNCTIONS LANDSCAPE PLANNING URBAN VEGETATION LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE DESIGN OF URBAN LANDSCAPES Lindgren Birgitta Winberg Christina Hedman Thomas Dahlberg Wictoria Jogmark ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE VALUES

  2. This volume contains seven articles authored or co-authored by participants in the meeting Mathematical Innovative Methods and Models Of BIOsciences (MIMMO-

    E-print Network

    Milner, Fabio Augusto

    of populations or ecological systems--one analyzing a numerical approach to equilibrium are concerned with ecological systems--one with the numerical simulation of the spread, biometrics, ecology and environment, mathematical biology, and population dynamics

  3. The Role of Postgraduate Students in Co-Authoring Open Educational Resources to Promote Social Inclusion: A Case Study at the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Like many universities worldwide, the University of Cape Town (UCT) in South Africa has joined the open educational resources (OER) movement, making a selection of teaching and learning materials available through its OER directory, UCT OpenContent. However, persuading and then supporting busy academics to share their teaching materials as OER…

  4. Institutionen fr lingvistik Stockholms universitet

    E-print Network

    verbalsubstantiv i svenska och finska 7 Birgitta Englund och JUri Waldin: Sekundärspråksinterferens i primärspråketarketta Sundman Svenska institutionen Åbo Akademi BESTÄMNINGAR TILL VERBALSUBS'rAN'L'IV I SVENSKA OCH J

  5. Aposematism and crypsis combined as a result of distance dependence: functional versatility of

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    of the colour pattern in the swallowtail butterfly larva Birgitta S. Tullberg*, Sami Merilaita and Christer using human subjects. We estimated detectability of the aposematic larva of the swallowtail butterfly

  6. Commonplace Divinity: Feminine Topoi in the Rhetoric of Medieval Women Mystics 

    E-print Network

    Cedillo, Christina

    2012-10-19

    This dissertation examines the works of five medieval women mystics—Hildegard of Bingen, Hadewijch of Brabant, Angela of Foligno, Birgitta of Sweden, and Julian of Norwich—to argue that these writers used feminine topoi, commonplace images of women...

  7. Balmaseda, M. and co-authors, 2010: Initialization for Seasonal and Decadal Forecasts. Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, J. Hall, D. E.

    E-print Network

    National Oceanography Centre Southampton

    Science, 5, 59-72. Balmaseda, M. A., A. Vidard, and D. L. T. Anderson, 2008: The ECMWF ocean analysis, 29- 41. Naveira Garabato, A. C., L. Jullion, D. P. Stevens, K. J. Heywood, and B. A. King, 2009-50. McDonagh, E. L., H. L. Bryden, B. A. King, and R. J. Sanders, 2008: The circulation of the Indian

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 023408 (2014) High-spectral-resolution attosecond absorption spectroscopy of autoionization in xenon

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    of autoionization in xenon Birgitta Bernhardt,1,2,* Annelise R. Beck,1,2 Xuan Li,1 Erika R. Warrick,1,2 M. Justine; published 10 February 2014) The decay of highly excited states of xenon after absorption of extreme

  9. Communicating effectively under risk: On the need for a communication contract for the global society

    E-print Network

    such a model for a communication contract in corporate decision making helps promote stakeholder responsibility of individual responsibility in society is sometimes referred to in terms of ``individual moral agency society Birgitta Dresp-Langley ICube UMR 7357 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg France Abstract The design

  10. Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include reports, theses,…

  11. ON BUILDING AN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MOBILE AND WIRELESS SYSTEMS Report on the NSF Workshop on an Infrastructure for Mobile and Wireless Systems, Oct. 15, 2001

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    ON BUILDING AN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MOBILE AND WIRELESS SYSTEMS Report on the NSF Workshop on an Infrastructure for Mobile and Wireless Systems, Oct. 15, 2001 Birgitta König-Ries , Kia Makki , Sam Makki components and power supplies, together with the development of wireless communication paths. These two

  12. Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause Birgitta S, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how

  13. Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-259, 2011 Received Agu. 10, 2010; accepted Dec. 18, 2010.

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-259, 2011 Received Agu. 10, 2010; accepted Dec. 18, 2010. Corresponding author. E-mail: temrin@zoologi.su.se © 2011 Current Zoology Is the higher rate of parental child RYING2 , Birgitta S. TULLBERG1 1 Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm

  14. Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly CHRISTER WIKLUND & BIRGITTA S 2003; final acceptance 21 December 2003; MS. number: 7774) The comma butterfly, Polygonia c as a result of high predation pressure. Although butterflies in temperate areas that start reproduction soon

  15. 19 PARTICIPATION IN LIVING LAB: Designing Systems with Users

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    19 PARTICIPATION IN LIVING LAB: Designing Systems with Users Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn Social, Sweden Abstract Drawing on a case study of a living lab, this paper considers the process and report on the kinds of practices that may be used to assist design with users. Keywords Living lab

  16. ASSOCIATION FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF CONSCIOUSNESS ANNUAL MEETING: FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    the following: 1. Title. 2. Name, affiliation, and ASSC membership status of each co-author, with presenting co-author designated. 3. An abstract of up to 200 words. 4. Complete contact information for the author with whom

  17. The Fall of the Celtic Tiger Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    The Fall of the Celtic Tiger Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis Antoin E. Murphy (Department of the Celtic Tiger: Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis (OUP 2013) which I co-authored with Dr. Donal Donovan a number of issues drawn from The Fall of the Celtic Tiger (OUP, 2013), which I co-authored with Dr. Donal

  18. Swallowing Pills? Children Can Learn How

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bradford said, though some studies noted in this paper showed even higher percentages. Study co-author Dr. ... head positions seems most plausible," she said. "The paper was not specific about what the behavioral interventions ...

  19. Technology May Help Surgeons Tell Brain Cancer from Healthy Tissue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in patients," said study co-author Dr. Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, professor of neurological surgery and oncology and ... the cancer, the better for the patients," said Quinones-Hinojosa. However, removing the wrong kind of tissue ...

  20. Using Conservation of Flow as a Security Mechanism in Network Protocols John R. Hughes, Tuomas Aura, Matt Bishop

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    at Davis. Thanks go to WATCHERS co-authors Steven Cheung and Nick Puketza for their constructive inputUsing Conservation of Flow as a Security Mechanism in Network Protocols John R. Hughes, Tuomas Aura

  1. A Family Finds Its Way

    MedlinePLUS

    ... selling co-author, freelance writer and contributor to ABC's Good Morning America , Lee Woodruff is just like ... principal caregiver. On assignment in Iraq, her husband, ABC correspondent Bob Woodruff, was blown up by a ...

  2. Condensed Resume of Prof. Waltraud M. Kriven Waltraud M. Kriven received a Ph.D in 1976 in Solid State Chemistry from the

    E-print Network

    Shim, Moonsub

    1988 and 1991) from the American Ceramic Society Cements Division, for co-authoring the best research on Geopolymers at the ACERS Annual Meetings, the Cocoa Beach and Daytona Beach Conferences and Expositions

  3. ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition' - Duration: 12 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...

  4. Gun Violence Takes Toll on Kids' Mental Health, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... author Kimberly Mitchell, a research assistant professor of psychology at the University of New Hampshire's Crimes Against ... co-author Sherry Hamby, a research professor of psychology from Sewanee: University of the South. "After all, ...

  5. Ecology, 00(0), 0000, pp. 000000 0000 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    ecology; simulation modeling; sustain- ability. Why are starfish like an atomic bomb? The answer, according to the co-authors of Complexity in landscape ecology, is that like the chain reaction of atomic

  6. Most College Students Stressed about Money, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of students beyond just their debt levels and loans," study co-author Bryan Ashton, an assistant director ... that 64 percent of the students polled used loans to help fund their college education. Students who ...

  7. Consumer Reports Takes Liquid Detergent Pods Off 'Recommended' List

    MedlinePLUS

    ... threat to kids," report co-author Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research and ... if they bring these products into their homes," Smith added. "We're recommending that they not use ...

  8. My Life at Purdue - Department of Mathematics, Purdue University

    E-print Network

    System Administrator

    2011-05-24

    speaking knowledge of German, I knew nothing of grammar. ..... and I taught the adult men's bible class on Sunday morning ...... who did the statistical evaluation and me as co- authors. ...... due Women's Club was also considered important.

  9. MaterialsScienceandEngineeringDepartmentColloquium 4:00 P.M. Monday, noveMber 3, 2014

    E-print Network

    Jain, Kanti

    the NSF CAREER Award, ONR Young Investigator Award, The Robert Lansing Hardy Award from The Minerals 190 refereed journal articles. Award from ASME and AIAA. He is an author or co-author over 190 refereed journal articles. #12;

  10. Could Loneliness Shorten a Life?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of health," said study co-author Timothy B. Smith, a professor in the department of psychology at ... of death than any of those three things." Smith and his colleagues published their findings this month ...

  11. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Edward Kennedy (D-MA) partnered with Senator Gordon Smith (R-OR) to co-author the Laboratory Test ... introduced by Senator Edward Kennedy and Senator Gordon Smith. August 2006 : Genomics and Personalized Medicine Act of ...

  12. PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND SUPPORT LABORATORY, 1955-1969

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compilation consists of publications and reports authored or co-authored by Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory personnel since 1955. This compilation of publications and reports relate to various aspects of analytical methodology for water, environmental monitori...

  13. Diversity without representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Loreau; Alfred Oteng-Yeboah; Arroyo Igual M; D. Babin; R. Barbault; M. Donoghue; M. Gadgil; C. Häuser; C. H. R. Heip; A. Larigauderie; K. Ma; G. Mace; H. A. Mooney; C. Perrings; P. Raven; J. Sarukhan; P. Schei; R. J. Scholes; R. T. Watson

    2006-01-01

    For policymakers, biodiversity can present more complex challenges than climate change, argue Michel Loreau, Alfred Oteng-Yeboah and their co-authors. So why isn't there an international panel of experts for biodiversity?

  14. Fellow Dr. Junyong (J.Y.) Zhu Received US Forest Service R&D Deputy Chief's Distinguished Science Award

    E-print Network

    Van Veen, Barry D.

    diameter trees for commercial production of thermal mechanical pulp, upgrading and pretreatment of forest with lignocelluloses for bioconversion of woody biomass. He co-authored over 145 referred publications and is a co

  15. Essays in cooperation and repeated games

    E-print Network

    Barron, Daniel (Daniel Vincent)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores cooperation when formal contracts and legal institutions are imperfect. The first chapter (co-authored with Isaiah Andrews) considers how a principal allocates business among a group of agents ...

  16. Improving, Expanding and Extending 3D Telepresence Greg Welch, Henry Fuchs, Bruce Cairns, M.D.

    E-print Network

    Welch, Greg

    , Michael Noland, Vincent Noel, and Hua Yang The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The Department and high-frequency area lights. Right: co-author Andrei State uses the transportable rack with five high

  17. Cover: An image of the galaxy NGC6643, taken by BU undergrads Ian Cohen, Anthony

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    faculty and research associates authored or co-authored a total of 9 refereed, scholarly papers #12;Cover: An image of the galaxy NGC6643, taken by BU undergrads Ian Cohen, Anthony Lollo, Mary.................................................................................... Research

  18. NEWS FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY MAILMAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY VOLUME 2 ISSUE 3

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    in the in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, was co-authored by Associate Professor of Epidemiology measures that indicate risk for cardiovascular disease and were significantly more likely to report fair

  19. Harvesting the Rain, An Overview of the Rainwater Collection Systems at McKinney ISD 

    E-print Network

    Schreppler, S.; Estes, J. M.; Dupont, D.

    2002-01-01

    Harvesting the Rain An Overview of the Rainwater Collection Systems at McKinney ISD Authors: Primary Author: Co-Author: Co-Author: Susan Schreppler, P.E. James M. Estes, P.E. David Dupont Vice President President... irrigation cycle. This allows the remaining volume in the system to collect rainwater for that day if a rain event occurs. Depending on recent rainfall events the automatic fill amount will vary. The low level sensor insures that there is adequate...

  20. Bayesian Nonparametric Models for Bipartite Graphs Francois Caron

    E-print Network

    Bach, Francis

    ;Bipartite networks B1 B2 B3 B4 A1 A2Readers/CustomersReaders Books ? ? Scientists co-authoring the same the same item F. Caron 2 / 19 #12;Bipartite networks B1 B2 B3 B4 A1 A2Readers/CustomersReaders Books;Bipartite networks B1 B2 B3 B4 A1 A2 A3Readers/CustomersReaders Books ? Scientists co-authoring the same

  1. Erdos Number Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Have you ever wondered about the mathematics behind the idea of "six degrees of separation?" The Erd's Number Project offers several fairly comprehensive lists of co-author relationships to elaborate (with a bit of humor) studies of the dynamics involved in "the collaboration graph," which the website says is "a 'real-life' fairly large graph for combinatorialists to study." The co-author relationship list begins with the Hungarian mathematician Paul Erd's and branches outward, so that anyone who co-authored with Erd's is assigned Erd's number 1 and anyone who co-authored with an Erd's number 1 is assigned the Erd's number 2, and so on. The website offers some suggestions for how the lists might be used, including finding your own Erd's number, testing algorithms, or just getting a sense of the different areas of mathematics represented by Erd's' co-authors. Visitors can also learn more about Erd's, read articles about collaboration in mathematics, or browse through the websites which are linked from the co-author data lists.

  2. A Small World of Citations? The Influence of Collaboration Networks on Citation Practices

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Matthew L.; Larivière, Vincent; Gingras, Yves

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the proximity of authors to those they cite using degrees of separation in a co-author network, essentially using collaboration networks to expand on the notion of self-citations. While the proportion of direct self-citations (including co-authors of both citing and cited papers) is relatively constant in time and across specialties in the natural sciences (10% of references) and the social sciences (20%), the same cannot be said for citations to authors who are members of the co-author network. Differences between fields and trends over time lie not only in the degree of co-authorship which defines the large-scale topology of the collaboration network, but also in the referencing practices within a given discipline, computed by defining a propensity to cite at a given distance within the collaboration network. Overall, there is little tendency to cite those nearby in the collaboration network, excluding direct self-citations. These results are interpreted in terms of small-scale structure, field-specific citation practices, and the value of local co-author networks for the production of knowledge and for the accumulation of symbolic capital. Given the various levels of integration between co-authors, our findings shed light on the question of the availability of ‘arm's length’ expert reviewers of grant applications and manuscripts. PMID:22413016

  3. Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact

    E-print Network

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

  4. Enacting forensics in homicide investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Williams; Jason Weetman

    2012-01-01

    This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

  5. Localised bending modes in split ring resonators S. Guenneau, a,b

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the design of earthquake resistant systems. Key words: Thin-bridges, elastic split ring resonators, locallyDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, M & O Building, Peach Street, Liverpool L69 3BX, United Kingdom bInstitut Fresnel, UMR as building blocks for periodic mate- rials exhibiting artificial magnetism by Pendry and his co- authors [1

  6. Close Encounters of a Congenial Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a co-director's and co-author's review of and commentary on research carried out with Maurice Galton over the past decade. Its principal focus is the burden that recent education policies and ascent of a deleterious culture of performativity have inflicted on teachers' professional and domestic lives. It reports on four studies…

  7. Bandura, Ross, and Ross: Observational Learning and the Bobo Doll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of their seminal article entitled, "Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models" (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), the work of Albert Bandura and his co-authors has had an immeasurable impact on the field of psychology, in general, and educational psychology, more specifically. The purpose of this report is…

  8. Algebraic Techniques for Satisfiability Problems

    E-print Network

    Vollmer, Heribert

    to fascinating research topics, the good advice over the years, and much more. Then I want to thank my co-authors for the research we did together, and I want to express special thanks to Nadia Creignou for the nice times I spent ¬ (nicht) vorkommem, eine erf¨ullende Belegung hat. Dieses Problem l¨asst sich auf ver- schiedene Weisen

  9. Enumeration of 3-Letter Patterns in Compositions 1 Enumeration of 3-Letter Patterns

    E-print Network

    Heubach, Silvia

    Silvia Heubach Department of Mathematics California State University Los Angeles joint work with Toufik] · Carlitz & various co-authors - # rises, levels, falls in [n] = {1, 2, ..., n} as generalization of permutations [5],[6],[7],[8],[9] · Carlitz & Vaughan - #compositions according to specification, rises, falls

  10. Perspectives on thermoelectrics: from fundamentals to device applications

    E-print Network

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This review is an update of a previous review (A. J. Minnich, et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 466) published two years ago by some of the co-authors, focusing on progress made in thermoelectrics over the past two ...

  11. Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the

    E-print Network

    Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the Coast of EnglandU, contract SLAB5. #12;2 Cefas Document Control Title: Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around Version Draft (submitted to co-authors) 1.0 S Bolam 1 st November 2011 Draft (edits addressed) 2.0 S Bolam

  12. The Women's Studies Program and the Asian American Studies Institute present: Behind the Seams of Paul Poiret's Harem Trousers

    E-print Network

    Holsinger, Kent

    The Women's Studies Program and the Asian American Studies Institute present: Behind the Seams, Camera Obscura, Signs, Ms. magazine and others. She's also co-author of a research blog on the politics cultures and practices of U.S. women of color. For more information about Dr. Pham, please visit her

  13. The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2008-01-01

    Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation structures…

  14. A Social Studies Teacher's Sense Making of Controversial Issues Discussions of Race in a Predominantly White, Rural High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Elizabeth Yeager; Humphries, Emma K.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors first explore the "sense making" of Emma, a former high school teacher (and co-author of this study), with regard to discussion of issues around race that became controversial in her social studies classroom. Her student population comprised predominantly white, rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged…

  15. Directed Discovery of Novel Drug Cocktails1 John H. Miller2

    E-print Network

    and the BESCT Lung Cancer Program at University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. 2Carnegie Mellon Cancer Center, email: rzinner@mdanderson.org (correspond- ing co-author). 4M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, email: BriBarret@mdanderson.org. #12;Abstract Combinations of drugs can result in effective treatments

  16. Using Conservation of Flow as a Security Mechanism in Network Protocols John R. Hughes, Tuomas Aura, Matt Bishop

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Microsoft Corporation to the University of California at Davis. Thanks go to WATCHERS co­authors StevenUsing Conservation of Flow as a Security Mechanism in Network Protocols John R. Hughes, Tuomas Aura on the network topology (the ne i ghbo r agreement condition). The WATCHERS protocol also defines

  17. A Framework for Analyzing and Monitoring the Impact of Dependencies on Quality

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    to Atle Refsdal who co-authored all of the pape of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo No. 1290 ISSN 1501-7710 All rights reserved. No part all inquiries regarding the thesis to the copyright holder or the unit which grants the doctorate. #12

  18. Authorship in Research Papers Rocky K. C. Chang

    E-print Network

    Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen

    to the research. · The lead author is responsible for ­ Authorship: Including as co-authors all and only those made substantial intellectual contributions to a scientific investigation. All authors should meet with a note to explain that all authors made equal contributions to the study and the publication. 6 #12

  19. GADO: A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR CONTINUOUS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Rasheed, Khaled

    of the research presented in this thesis has appeared elsewhere with various co­authors, all of whom I thank. Some January, 1998 #12; c fl 1998 Khaled Mohamed Rasheed ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION of the resulting designs. ii #12; Acknowledgements I thank all members of the Rutgers HPCD (Hypercomputing

  20. FULL ARTICLE TITLE: Explaining the Contemporary Alignment of Race and Party: Evidence from California's 1946 Ballot Initiative on Fair Employment*

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    FULL ARTICLE TITLE: Explaining the Contemporary Alignment of Race and Party: Evidence from of Race and Party CO-AUTHORS: Anthony S. Chen University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Robert W. Mickey Democratic, while most racial conservatives (largely whites) vote Republican? To what extent

  1. About Global Forest Watch Press Release

    E-print Network

    in Indonesia, resulting in a doubling of the country's deforestation rates in the late 1990s, according. "Deforestation on this scale, at this speed, is unprecedented," said Emily Matthews, co-author of the report concludes that the doubling of deforestation rates in Indonesia is largely the result of a corrupt political

  2. Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

  3. New Methods for the Segmentation of Medical Image Data with Applications to Deep Brain Structures,

    E-print Network

    Akhmedov, Azer

    New Methods for the Segmentation of Medical Image Data with Applications to Deep Brain Structures of medical imaging data. The first method is based on a directional modification of the conformal (geodesic or co-author of five books. He also has five patents in medical imaging, computer graphics

  4. The Future of the American Faculty: An Interview with Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, R. Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster have teamed up to continue tracing the changes taking place in faculty work with their Project on the American Faculty. They have published The New Academic Generation: A Profession in Transformation (1998), co-authored with Robert Seal, and are preparing a new manuscript to appear in 2004 with a working…

  5. Book review Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Sokal, Alan

    Book review Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture By Alan Sokal. Oxford University Press sobering episodes in recent intellectual affairs. Part II, `Science and Philosophy', contains two important essays, co-authored with Jean Bricmont. The first, `Cognitive relativism in the philosophy of science

  6. Exercise Physiology and the Academy: Contributions to Physiological Concepts and Biological Systems during the Commemorative Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the contributions made by Academy Fellows during the past 75 years to concepts within the body of knowledge associated with exercise physiology, a literature search was undertaken. Of the charter Fellows, Hetherington and eight others (34%) were identified. Schneider in 1933 was the first of 18 Fellows who became authors, co-authors

  7. Australia and France on Fire: An Anti-Colonial Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa; Kempf, Arlo

    2006-01-01

    Professor George Sefa Dei has written and taught extensively in the fields of anti-colonialism and anti-racism. His latest work on the subject is "Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance," co-edited with Arlo Kempf for Sense Publishers (2006). Dei and Kempf are also co-authoring a forthcoming volume on anti-colonial theory. Arlo…

  8. Special Education in High School Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This annotated bibliography, co-authored by the National High School Center and the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center, identifies articles that address high school redesign as it relates to students with disabilities and special education's role in such initiatives. The articles are organized around the National High School…

  9. NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    to tackle the health effects of climate change, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC approach to tackling climate change for public health agencies Presenter and Co-author: Gino D. MarinucciD, Associate Director for Climate Change, Climate and Health Program, Division of Environmental Hazards

  10. Money and Schools. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; Wood, R. Craig; Crampton, Faith E.

    2008-01-01

    For future principals and others enrolled in courses on School Finance, this book explains and demonstrates the relationship between money and student achievement. New to this edition: (1) Includes updated information on the ever-changing landscape of school finance; (2) Co-author Faith E. Crampton has joined the author team, applying the…

  11. Large experiment data analysis collaboration. Annual progress report for period November 15, 1999 - November 14, 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Callen

    2000-01-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes have now entered the mainstream of tokamak research. One indication of this was the featuring of it in the ITER MHD instabilities paper at the 1998 Yokohama meeting, of which we (along with many colleagues throughout the world) were co-authors. In addition, this past year a number of talks were given on various aspects of neoclassical tearing

  12. Return of the Google Game: More Fun Ideas to Transform Students into Skilled Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    Teens are impatient and unsophisticated online researchers who are often limited by their poor reading skills. Because they are attracted to clean and simple Web interfaces, they often turn to Google--and now Wikipedia--to help meet their research needs. The Google Game, co-authored by this author, teaches kids that there is a well-thought-out…

  13. SHIKHA BASNET Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    , One Earth Future Foundation, June 2011-May 2012 Co-authored the study, "The Economic Cost of Somali of Somali Piracy, 2011," One Earth Future Working Paper Media Coverage: NY Times, WSJ, Newsweek, Financial of the study), "The Human Cost of Somali Piracy, 2011," One Earth Future Working Paper Newspaper Article "Post

  14. What does international co-authorship measure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhanaraj Thakur; Jian Wang; Susan Cozzens

    2011-01-01

    We argue that while researchers note that co­ authorship is an insufficient metric for international research collaboration there is little understanding about what else international co-authorship represents. Rather than focus on co­ authorship solely as an output of research, we focus on the interaction between researchers involved in a co-authored paper. We therefore interview a range of researchers who had

  15. Dr. Jihong Lian Department of Pediatrics

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    be sufficient to afford protection against dyslipidemia and fatty liver. #12;I also have co-author papers-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the role of Ces3/TGH in cholesterol homeostasis. For my research work knockout mice showed reduced plasma lipids and VLDL-size particles without liver steatosis, and improved

  16. A World of Ideas: International Survey Gives a Voice to Teachers Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Kristen Weatherby is a senior policy analyst at OECD in the education directorate. She runs the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and is author or co-author of publications and blog posts on TALIS and teachers. She started her career as a classroom teacher in the United States before working in education in the private sector in…

  17. Lessons from a School District-University Research Partnership: The Houston Education Research Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López Turley, Ruth N.; Stevens, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research partnerships between school districts and universities can be extremely beneficial to both institutions, but these partnerships require many skills that academics and district leaders generally do not have, making these collaborations challenging to set up and difficult to maintain. Co-authored by a university professor and a school…

  18. Cyber Security and Research Education Institute The University of Texas at Dallas

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Cyber Security and Research Education Institute The University of Texas at Dallas-Shaer, K. Sarac, B. Chu). Towards Cyber Operations - The New Role of Academic Cyber Security Research (co-author: J. Kallberg). #12;Cyber Security and Research Education Institute The University of Texas

  19. Studying Research Collaboration Patterns via Co-authorship Analysis in the Field of TeL: The Case of "Educational Technology & Society" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervas, Panagiotis; Tsitmidelli, Asimenia; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    Research collaboration is studied in different research areas, so as to provide useful insights on how researchers combine existing distributed scientific knowledge and transform it into new knowledge. Commonly used metrics for measuring research collaborative activity include, among others, the co-authored publications (concerned with who works…

  20. What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist Argonne National Laboratory & University of Chicago

    E-print Network

    Foster, Ian

    the country." [link] In a subsequent article, "The Anatomy of the Grid," co-authored with Steve Tuecke in 2000 is concerned with "coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual/or institutions defined by such sharing rules form what we call a virtual organization." We also spoke

  1. Academic portfolio for M.A. Natiello 1 Scientific qualifications

    E-print Network

    Natiello, Mario

    (Uppsala 1997), Sascha Firle (Uppsala, 1999) and Catalina Mayol (Mallorca, 2001). Concerning Catalina, her main advisor was Prof. Claudio Mirasso, UIB, Mallorca. I am the co-author with which she has) while Catalina is now a high-school teacher in physics and mathematics in Mallorca. I have advised 4

  2. External Resource: Real time Geochron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This site is developed and maintained by John Walker, founder of Autodesk, Inc. and co-author of AutoCAD. A variety of documents, images, software for various machines, and interactive Web resources are available here. Specifically, for this interactive r

  3. USGS Oceanographer Named to IPCC Report

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Asbury (Abby) H. Sallenger has been named one of the authors of a chapter in the next IPCC report, due to be published in 2014. Sallenger has been assigned to co-author Chapter 5 of the Fifth Assessment Report, entitled Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas. This chapter will contain an international ...

  4. www.agbioresearch.anr.msu.edu Northern Michigan FruitNet 2013

    E-print Network

    producers. Comstock is a climate change expert and is co-author of both the Agriculture and Ecosystems. Comstock will specifically address shifting weather patterns and the related impacts affecting agricultural chapters of the recent New York ClimAID Report, which looks at climate change vulnerabilities

  5. Top-Down Feedback in an HMAX-Like Cortical Model of Object Perception Based on Hierarchical Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Wennekers, Thomas

    Bayesian Networks and Belief Propagation Salvador Dura-Bernal1 *, Thomas Wennekers2 , Susan L. Denham2 1 sensory modalities. Citation: Dura-Bernal S, Wennekers T, Denham SL (2012) Top-Down Feedback in an HMAX Interests: Co-author Thomas Wennekers is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board member. This does not alter the authors

  6. Chicxulub's Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Twin Crater. Was There a Double Impact in the Yucatan Peninsula?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. Camargo; J. S. Juarez

    2004-01-01

    In 1980, Alvarez and co-authors proposed that the K\\/T extinctions were caused by the effects of a celestial body falling on Earth. After a long search for the impact site, the 1981 work by Penfield and Camargo on a 170 km structure in the Yucatan Peninsula got the attention of the specialists, and it was later proved that it was

  7. Last updated October 2011 Staff Publications 1989-2011

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    or co-authored by IFSH, NCFST/IIT, FDA CFSAN Division of Food Processing, Science and Technology staff processing. Food Chemistry. 127(4):1831-1834. Anderson, N.M. and P.N. Walker. 2011. Quality comparison ultraviolet light. In Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food. Zhang, H., G. Barbosa-Cánovas, V

  8. Who's on First? Listing Authors by Relative Contribution Trumps the Alphabet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Political science as a discipline lacks any convention on the order in which authors should be listed in co-authored publications. As a result, the order of authors' surnames currently provides no information to other scholars, hiring and promotion committees, and other reviewers about the relative contributions of each collaborator. This lack of…

  9. AAUP Faculty Gender Equity Indicators 2006

    E-print Network

    is Professor of Law at the University of California, Davis, teaching Employment Discrimination, Labor Law, and Sex Discrimination. She is co-author of the law school textbook, Sex- Based Discrimination (Sixth ed. Chamallas (Law), Ohio State University Barbara Curry (Education), University of Delaware Mary Gibson

  10. TREATISE ON GEOPHYSICS -CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING

    E-print Network

    Buck, Roger

    TREATISE ON GEOPHYSICS - CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING The text content for your author queries, keywords, and the authors' full address details. Please address author queries of the address at the beginning of the article will appear under your author/co-author name(s) in the published

  11. ‘That means the fish are fat’: sharing experiences of animals through Indigenous-owned tourism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Wright; Sandie Suchet-Pearson; Kate Lloyd; Lak Lak Burarrwanga; Djawa Burarrwanga

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the ways members of Indigenous-owned and operated Bawaka Cultural Experiences (BCE) from northern Australia share diverse ways of knowing the world with tourists through a focus on the sapient beings categorised as animals in western cultures. The article is co-authored by two owners of BCE and three human geographers. Lak Lak and Djawa of BCE are situated

  12. Rebecca G. Asch curriculum vitae Rebecca G. Asch

    E-print Network

    Rodgers, Keith

    Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. Ph.D. in biological oceanography. 2013. · Dissertation title eggs. · Co-authored a paper quantifying ingestion of plastic debris by mid-water fishes in the North in the timing of peak chlorophyll concentration, upwelling, and sea surface temperature (SST) was examined in 3

  13. Inspection Judgements on Urban Schools: A Case for the Defence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Julian; Williams, Melanie; Wrigley, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This article is co-authored by two urban school Heads in the north of England with the support of an academic partner. The article begins with the phenomenon of official judgements of urban schools, made by the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills, a semi-privatised and supposedly independent arm of government.…

  14. Teaching Engineering Concepts through a Middle School Transmedia Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansell, Alicia; Quintanilla, Brenda; Zimmerman, Ellen; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background and experiences of three graduate students who co-authored a print-based transmedia book during the summer of 2013. The article provides information about why the transmedia engineering book was designed and provides an overview of the book's creation process. The project was funded through a National…

  15. GSFR Research Symposium 2012-2013 September: Maroussia Ahmed, McMaster University

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    projects with immigrant and refugee women, co-authored Women's Voices in Health Promotion (1999) and published essays on dialogism, qualitative research, culture and mental health, and on exiled women Research Centre for the Promotion of Women's Health, she has conducted participatory action research

  16. CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture (Machine Structures)

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    10/9/11 1 CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture (Machine Structures Garcia hBp://inst.eecs.Berkeley.edu/~cs61c/fa11 1 10/9/11 In the news · Google 10/9/11 2 Urs Hoelzle, Google SVP Co-author of today's reading h

  17. User's Guide: Innovation Configurations for NSDC's Standards for Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This 75-page guidebook is a companion to "Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations" Volumes I (ED522734) and II (ED522581). Innovation Configurations are a tool that helps educators better understand what the standards look like in practice. Roy, who co-authored the original volumes, introduces a process…

  18. Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED University. Geologists Ernesto Pecoits and Natalie Aubet found fossilized tracks in Uruguay they believe was left behind-microbiologist at the university, co-authored the study published Thursday in the journal Science. He said the fossils have been

  19. Green Jobs and Energy Economy

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy ThoughT Leadership series Co-authors Daniel M. Kammen Series #4 Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy #12;Green is the new blue... blue collar and significant, positive economic impacts. Job creation is an especially pressing issue as we confront both our

  20. Green Jobs and Energy Economy

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy THOUGHT LEADERSHIP SERIES Co-authors Ditlev Engel, Chief Simons Januario Vestas Wind Systems A/S Thought Leadership Series #4 Green Jobs and the Clean Energy environmental bene ts from reduced greenhouse gas emissions and signi cant, positive economic impacts. Job

  1. Locally Testable Codes Require Redundant Testers Eli Ben-Sasson

    E-print Network

    Sudan, Madhu

    in the Proceeding of CCC 2009 [10]. Research of first, fourth and fifth co-authors supported by grant number subspace C Fn. The dimension of C is its dimension as a vector space, and its rate is the ratio of its dimension to n. The distance of C is the minimal Hamming distance between two different codewords. One

  2. Locally Testable Codes Require Redundant Eli Ben-Sasson

    E-print Network

    Sudan, Madhu

    subspace C Fn . The dimension of C is its dimension as a vector space, and its rate is the ratio of Research of first, fourth and fifth co-authors supported by grant number 2006104 by the US by a Packard fellowship, and NSF grants CCF-0343672 and CCF-0835814. its dimension to n. The distance of C

  3. Opening Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Beth Kanter is working hard to get the word out about how best to get the word out. Kanter is CEO of Zoetica, which provides word-of-mouth communication services to nonprofits and socially conscious companies; a decade-long blogger on the topic of social media and nonprofits; and a popular conference speaker and trainer. She is also co-author of…

  4. (Sakae Fuchino) November 23, 2014

    E-print Network

    Kikuchi, Makoto

    for Mathematical Logic, Vol.31, No.5 (1992), 319­330. [ MR 1164729 (93b:20001)] [ Zbl 0765.03024] [5] On potential-Nation property of P() Co-authors: Stefan Geschke and Lajos Soukup, Archive for Mathematical Logic, Vol.40,No.6-author: Greg Piper, Mathematical Logic Quarterly Vol.51 (6), (November 2005) 560­ 569. [ MR 2177871 (2006h

  5. A Dialogue on Reclaiming Troubled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aichhorn, August; Redl, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    This discussion is drawn from the writings of two eminent founders of strength-based approaches to troubled children and adolescents. August Aichhorn is best known for his classic book, "Wayward Youth," and Fritz Redl as co-author of "Children Who Hate". August Aichhorn and Anna Freud mentored a young educational psychologist, Fritz Redl…

  6. Proceedings of DiGRA 2005 Conference: Changing Views Worlds in Play. 2005 Authors & Digital Games Research Association DiGRA. Personal and educational classroom use of this paper is

    E-print Network

    Mateas, Michael

    Games Research Association DiGRA. Personal and educational classroom use of this paper is allowed Narratology in Game Design Space Michael Mateas1 and Andrew Stern2 (co-authors listed alphabetically) 1, OR 97205, USA andrew@interactivestory.net ABSTRACT Building experimental games offers an alternative

  7. Children's Services: Partnerships for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamant-Cohen, Betsy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Co-author of the popular titles "Booktalking Bonanza" and "The Early Literacy Kit", Betsy Diamant-Cohen brings together 18 examples of successful outreach partnerships that children's librarians and administrators can adapt to their own situations. Contributors from the U.S and Canada explain how they partnered with schools, community…

  8. Implementation of the Biosphere Compatibility Principle in Urban Planning: How to Train Next-Generation Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Zinaida Ilyinichna; Yudenkova, Olga Valeryevna; Ishkov, Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shnyrenkov, Evgeny Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The co-authors address the relevant issues concerning the need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for the symbiotic co-existence of man and nature. Caring treatment of the biosphere, termination of its excessive exploitation, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of specific areas…

  9. Unleashing Deep Smarts: The Most Valuable Untapped Source of Knowledge Lies within the District's Own Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbach, Harold J.; Butler, Alfred R., IV

    2005-01-01

    A widely applied premise in the field of business asserts that the key to an organization's success in today's changing environment is a world-class knowledge management system. The most critical value-added piece of this puzzle lies in what co-authors Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap in their book Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer…

  10. Preliminary Results with a Targeted Online Java Course Amber Settle

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Preliminary Results with a Targeted Online Java Course Amber Settle DePaul University 243 S. Wabash of Computing and Digital Media has offered online courses for 7 years, courses targeted specifically at online satisfaction with a targeted online introductory Java course developed by the first co-author. Initial results

  11. More than Tolerance for Engineering Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Herfat, Safa; Truesdell, Pam; Miller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Described herein is a science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM) secondary lesson created by graduate engineering student Safa Herfat, with modifications by her co-authors. The lessons learned from this case study are explored through an explanation of tolerance, a description of the lesson, the results obtained, and participant…

  12. On the Nature of Policy and Administration in Higher Education: A Bibliography of Algo D. Henderson. Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of materials authored, co-authored, or edited by Algo D. Henderson (1932-1978) on the nature of policy and administration in higher education is presented. Topics include: general education in the community college, training university administrators, admitting black students to medical and dental schools, liberal education in the…

  13. An Alternate Look at Educational Psychologist's Productivity from 1991 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations of the productivity of educational psychologists (Smith et al., 1998 and Smith et al., 2003) have used a points system that defines high productivity as having few co-authors and high authorship placement. Due to the increasingly collaborative nature of educational psychology research (Robinson, McKay, Katayama, & Fan,…

  14. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  15. Primary publication in microprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Davis, D.E.

    1964-01-01

    This is a progress report on an experiment to demonstrate practicality of such publication. Based on a study conducted since 1959 through the publication of 'Wildlife Disease', the co-authors review the original aims, accomplishments, and future of primary publication in microprint. Space and cost savings, as well as author and reader reactions, portend further developments and use of this medium.

  16. Taking the Awful out of the German Language: A Study of a New Way to Teach German Gender and Plural Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a study of a method for teaching German gender and plural assignment developed by the late Donald Steinmetz. My primary source for classroom material was the unpublished handbook for students that Steinmetz co-authored with Donald Nelson, The Joy of Gender: A Student Handbook made available to me by his son, Erik Steinmetz. In the…

  17. 31/08/2010 10:46Scientists Square Off on Evolutionary Value of Helping Relatives -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 4http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/31/science/31social.html?_r=1&sq=carl%20zimmer&st=cse&scp=1&pagewanted=print

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    's precisely like an ancient epicycle in the solar system," said Martin Nowak, a co-author of the paper they carry. But Dr. Hamilton argued that in order to judge the reproductive success of an individual. Hamilton called this new way of tallying reproductive success inclusive fitness. Each organism faces

  18. Culturally Sensitive Computer Support for Creative Co-authorship of a Sex Education Game

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Culturally Sensitive Computer Support for Creative Co-authorship of a Sex Education Game Junia C, Canada, ssfels@ece.ubc.ca Abstract. We describe a computer-supported game authoring system for educators to co-author a game to help teaching sensitive content, specifically sex education. Our approach

  19. NIH APPLICATIONS, PROPOSALS, AND PROGRESS REPORTS Reminder the NIH Public Access Policy (http://publicaccess.nih.gov/) is now mandatory.

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    NIH APPLICATIONS, PROPOSALS, AND PROGRESS REPORTS Reminder the NIH Public Access Policy (http under the Public Access Policy, were authored or co-authored by the applicant and arose from NIH support that are not covered by the Public Access Policy, but are publicly available in a free, online format may include URLs

  20. JPL stories: story on the story (series) Careering through JPL, presented by Alice M. Fairhurst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alice Fairhurst, co-author of Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, presented an enthusiastic overview of her tenure as a JPL career development and mentoring coordinator (1991-2001). Among other things, Alice is an expert in Keirseyian Temperament and Myers-Briggs typology.

  1. Puzzles in Statistical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; van der Loeff, Sybrand Schim

    2006-01-01

    The Statistical Reasoning Assessment or SRA is one of the first objective instruments developed to assess students' statistical reasoning. Published in 1998 (Garfield, 1998a), it became widely available after the Garfield (2003) publication. Empirical studies applying the SRA by Garfield and co-authors brought forward two intriguing puzzles: the…

  2. Intercom, 77. Explorations in the Emergent Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanvey, Robert

    The issue of Intercom promotes an awareness of the world as a system that poses new possibilities and obligations for educators as well as policy makers. The first part includes interviews with and excerpts from the works of Denis Meadows, joint author of Limits to Growth; Mihajlo Mesarovic, co-author of Mankind at the Turning Point; Robert…

  3. Brandeis University Chemistry current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    - metallics, Journal of the american Chemi- cal Society, Organic Letters, Journal of medicinal Chemistry and medicine. the chemistry department at Brandeis has a tradition of innovation and excellence in teaching. Our undergraduate students have co-authored publications in the journals Inorganic Chemistry, Organo

  4. A Paradigm Shift in the Application of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Land Surface Modeling: John Norman's Critical Contributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 10 years ago, John Norman and co-authors proposed a thermal-based land surface modeling strategy that treated the energy exchange and kinetic temperatures of the soil and vegetated components in a unique “two-source” approach addressing the key factors affecting the convective and radiative exc...

  5. Symposium 1: The Arthur casea proposal for legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Brahams; M Brahams

    1983-01-01

    Following the acquittal of Dr Leonard Arthur in the case of the Down's syndrome infant the co-authors of the first paper in this symposium prepared a draft bill on the treatment of chronically disabled infants which has since been informally commended by the Director of Public Prosecutions. A second contributor, a law student, also argues for legislation as being the

  6. Research Ideas for the Classroom: High School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patricia S., Ed.

    Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the high…

  7. From Idea to Product--Translating Knowledge between the Lab and the Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ayfer Habib

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three essays looking at innovation at Academic Medical Centers. It tries to empirically explore the problem of translating knowledge from the laboratory bench to the clinic and from the clinic to the bench. Chapter 1, co-authored with Iain Cockburn, establishes the importance of in-house complementary knowledge in…

  8. InsideIllinoisAug. 3, 2006 Vol. 26, No. 3

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jennifer

    InsideIllinoisAug. 3, 2006 Vol. 26, No. 3 InThisIssue Shelter skelter The excessive noise in animal shelters can physically stress dogs and lead to behavioral changes, says a UI researcher. PAGE 4 Web trust- temporary Educational Psychol- ogy, with publication slated for later this year. The co-author of the study

  9. GC GYOTO GRAVITY Flare Torus 3+1 Simulating observations of the vicinity of the

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    GC GYOTO GRAVITY Flare Torus 3+1 Simulating observations of the vicinity of the galactic center Simulating observations of the GC #12;GC GYOTO GRAVITY Flare Torus 3+1 My co-authors Thibaut PAUMARD University Jérôme NOVAK, Observatoire de Paris/LUTH 2/40 Frédéric VINCENT Simulating observations of the GC

  10. GC GYOTO Torus 3+1 Simulating observations of the vicinity of the

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    GC GYOTO Torus 3+1 Simulating observations of the vicinity of the galactic center compact object observations of the GC #12;GC GYOTO Torus 3+1 My co-authors Thibaut PAUMARD, Observatoire de Paris/LESIA Eric Simulating observations of the GC #12;GC GYOTO Torus 3+1 Galactic Center at large scale Chandra : size = 1

  11. Author Disambiguation: A Nonparametric Topic and Co-authorship Model

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Author Disambiguation: A Nonparametric Topic and Co-authorship Model Andrew M. Dai School disambiguation. This approach infers the topics for each author and combines that with co-author information. The problems involved are similar to other entity resolution problems where differing references may refer

  12. De la caractrisation des rseaux complexes

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    Réseau d'interactions de protéines Sites: metabolites Liens: réactions chimiques #12;Food-webs N'un réseau ? Points/sites reliés par des liens individus ordinateurs pages web aéroports molécules;Weights: depending on ·number of co-authored papers ·number of authors of each paper ·number of citations

  13. 2 Factors Greatly Boost New Moms' Odds of Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 700 women who took part in the Diabetes & Women's Health Study and developed gestational diabetes between 1991 and 2001. ... Gynecology reported that nearly half of all pregnant women gain more weight ... one of that study's co-authors, Andrea Sharma, an epidemiologist with the ...

  14. Antidepressants Ease Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depression and few studies to date have included women with severe depression," study co-author Kylee Trevillion, from King's College London, ... the Journal of the American Medical Association . The study's senior ... College London, pointed out that women who are breast-feeding need to let all ...

  15. Book Review Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics

    E-print Network

    .G.W., Zimmerman, R.W., 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachus- setts, USA 475 pp. During the past 40 years of the fourth edition, revised and expanded by the additional co-author Professor Robert Zimmerman, this book, Zimmerman has revised large por- tions of the book with a fine-toothed comb. The revisions not only update

  16. Armin Philipp Moczek Department of Biology Program Affiliation: EEB

    E-print Network

    Moczek, Armin P.

    availability controls onset of metamorphosis in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae (*undergraduate co-author): (1) Moczek AP (1998). Horn polyphenism in the beetle Onthophagus taurus: diet quality: 636-641. (2) Moczek AP (1999). Facultative paternal investment in the polyphenic beetle Onthophagus

  17. Collaborators' Attitudes about Differences of Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.

    The attitudes of long-term collaborators on research publications about the negotiation of substantive differences of opinion were studied. Long-term collaborators were those who had co-authored publications with another academic for 10 years or more. Multiple sources of data collected from both members of 12 collaborative pairs included…

  18. SPECIAL FEATURE: "In Defense of Property": An Exchange Culture, Property, and Peoplehood: A

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    SPECIAL FEATURE: "In Defense of Property": An Exchange Culture, Property, and Peoplehood: A Comment on Carpenter, Katyal, and Riley's "In Defense of Property" Michael F. Brown* First, the good news: Carpenter Law Journal published the article "In Defense of Property," co-authored by the legal scholars Kristen

  19. an Evening with Dr. Michael Graham

    E-print Network

    McPhee-Shaw, Erika

    presents THE ESSENTIAL NATURALIST an Evening with Dr. Michael Graham Please join us Tuesday new co-authored book, Dr. Michael Graham offers an eclectic collection of natural history writings. About the Speaker: Dr. Michael Graham is an Associate Professor at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

  20. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  1. BIOGRAPHIES Roger C. Hayward is a Ph.D. student in Mechanical

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    focuses on ultra short baseline GPS attitude determination. J. David Powell is a professor of Aeronautics with land, air and space vehicle navigation and control. He is the co- author of two control system textbooks. ABSTRACT Ultra short baseline attitude systems with base- lines under 0.5 meters are desirable

  2. David J. Icove, Ph.D., P.E., CFEI Adjunct Assistant Professor

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    (June 2000) o Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders" (July 2001) · American of the leading internationally recognized fire scientists and co-author of Forensic Fire Scene Reconstruction expertise in forensic fire scene reconstruction is based on a blend of on-scene experience, design

  3. Michal Havlena Education: 2005 2012 CTU, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Pragu

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Michal Havlena Education: 2005 ­ 2012 CTU, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Pragu o doctoral specified and implemented research code NAOloc ­ Humanoid robot navigation system (C++) SfM3Dr ­ Large led labs in Computer Vision and Advanced Robotics Scientific profile: (Co-)author of 19 peer

  4. N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

  5. Associate Professor of Finance Rutgers Business School

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Mozumdar. · "Design of Corporate Governance: Role of Ownership Structure, Takeovers, Bank Debt and Large Rajgopal, Revised and Resubmitted to The Accounting Review. · "The Effects of Institutional Ownership, Liquidity and Market Quality" Co-authored with Xing Zhou · "Insider Trading and Affiliated Dealers: Evidence

  6. A Portrait of Pre-kindergarten. FPG Snapshot #28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-State Study of Pre-kindergarten by the National Center for Early Development & Learning (NCEDL) offers a first glance at pre-K children, teachers, and classroom quality in six states. This Snapshot overviews three recent articles co-authored by FPG scientists that summarize findings of the study about children, pre-K teachers, and…

  7. Visual Analysis Tool for Bipartite Networks Kazuo Misue

    E-print Network

    Misue, Kazuo

    real data. The DBLP, which is maintained by Michael Ley, is a database server providing bibliographic of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 Japan misue@cs.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. To find hidden features certain co-authoring relationships. Anchored maps can help us discover important features that we cannot

  8. Asymptotic, Algorithmic and Geometric Aspects of Groups Generated by Automata

    E-print Network

    Savchuk, Dmytro M.

    2010-01-14

    help of my friends and co-authors, Ievgen Bondarenko, Rostyslav Kravchenko, Yevgen Muntyan, Zoran ?Suni?c, Maria and Yaroslav Vorobets. I am grateful to Vitaliy Sushchansky, my advisor in Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, for attracting me to the fleld...

  9. From Collaboration to Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Jerry; Marshall, Jill

    2010-01-01

    As co-authors of a recent publication in "Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research", we have received inquiries about the publication process. We will describe the process of creating an article based on team work, in our case the work of the Texas Physics Assessment Team. Many physics teachers have opportunities to participate in…

  10. Talk presented at Joint AINC and Dev Psy Seminar 21st Feb 2011 and collaborators

    E-print Network

    Sloman, Aaron

    's two last books NB: Each has several additional co-authors. Piaget, Jean, et al., Possibility Feider from French in 1987, (Original 1981) Piaget, Jean, et al., Possibility and Necessity Vol 2 It is not widely known that shortly before he died Jean Piaget and his collaborators produced a pair of books

  11. Fair Play: Teaching the Logical Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Susan

    This paper describes a freshman composition course which looks at racism and sexism in science, and within which the instructor uses a 1989 "Atlantic Monthly" piece by R.J. Herrnstein, co-author with Charles Murray of "The Bell Curve." In his article, Herrnstein argues that the intelligence of the nation is declining because educated young women…

  12. Yuri I. Galperin (1932-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Muliarchik, Tatiana; Stepanov, Vladimir

    Yuri I. Galperin, head of the Laboratory of Auroral Physics Phenomena at the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, passed away on 28 December 2001 due to a heart attack. He was a pioneer of auroral and upper atmospheric physics and contributed significantly to the development of space plasma physics. He had been an AGU member (SM) since 1974.Galperin authored and co-authored more than 200 publications in scientific journals and was a co-author of three monographs on experimental space physics. In addition to AGU, Galperin was a member of many scientific councils in Russia, and he had also been a member of the International Astronomical Union since 1958 and the International Academy of Astronautics since 1975.

  13. [Reply to “Wasting public money?” by Judith Totman] Politically motivated request?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    Judith Totman Parrish (Forum,Eos, 86(32), 9 August 2005, p. 294) asks Thomas Crowley to provide evidence that the U.S. Rep. Joe Barton's (R.-N.Y) request for information from me, and from my colleagues Michael Mann and Malcolm Hughes, was politically motivated.Among a host of items, here are some of the things Barton specifically asked for: “…all financial support you have received related to your research, including, but not limited to, all private, state, and federal assistance, grants, contracts (including subgrants or subcontracts), or other financial awards or honoraria…the location of all data archives relating to each published study for which you were an author or co-author… [a list of all] requests…you or your co-authors [have] received for data relating to the climate change studies, what was your response, and why?”

  14. New view of strategy: An interview with C.K. Prahalad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Prahalad

    1995-01-01

    ‘Strategic intent’, ‘core competence’ and ‘strategy as stretch and leverage’, are all management concepts that have become associated with C.K. Prahalad and his frequent co-author, Gary Hamel, most often in the pages of the Harvard Business Review, but also in other journals and books. These ideas now form the basis of much new thinking about competitiveness by strategic managers.With the

  15. A review of "Silvas" by Francisco de Quevedo, translated by Hilaire Kallendorf with Prologue by Eduardo Espina 

    E-print Network

    Holloway, Anne

    2014-01-01

    with the Dead: Quevedo and Statius Annotation and Imitation,” which is based on a co-authored study with Craig Kallendorf previously published in the Journal of Warburg and Courtauld Institutes in 2000, and revised here to incorporate recent scholarship.... This article, revealing the existence of a copy of Statius’ Sylvae annotated in Quevedo’s hand in Princeton University library, contributed to existing discussions of the importance of Statius within Quevedo’s work. Contemporary readers certainly identified...

  16. Using AVIRIS In The NASA BAA Project To Evaluate The Impact Of Natural Acid Drainage On Colorado Watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauff, Phoebe L.; Coulter, David W.; Peters, Douglas C.; Sares, Matthew A.; Prosh, Eric C.; Henderson, Frederick B., III; Bird, David

    2004-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey and the co-authors of this paper were awarded one of 15 NASA Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) grants in 2001. The project focuses on the use of hyperspectral remote sensing to map acid-generating minerals that affect water quality within a watershed, and to identify the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to that drainage. A further objective is to define the most cost-effective remote sensing instrument configuration for this application.

  17. A Tribute to Eugene Freuder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan K. Mackworth

    2006-01-01

    It is a pleasure to write a few words to honour Gene Freuder, a co-author, a comrade-in-arms, and a friend for more than 30 years. Gene has been, and is, a stalwart of the international constraint community. I can't list all of Gene's research achievements and his leadership roles, but I must mention some of the most prominent. Gene has

  18. Little Boxes: The Simplest Demonstration of the Failure of Einstein's Attempt to Show the Incompleteness of Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    John D. Norton

    2010-08-02

    The failure of Einstein's co-authored "EPR" attempt to show the incompleteness of quantum theory is demonstrated directly for spatial degrees of freedom using only elementary notions. A GHZ construction is realized in the position properties of three particles whose quantum waves are distributed over three two-chambered boxes. The same system is modeled more realistically using three spatially separated, singly ionized hydrogen molecules.

  19. Profiling research published in the Journal of Enterprise Information Management (JEIM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh K. Dwivedi; Navonil Mustafee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse research published in the Journal of Enterprise Information Management (JEIM) in the last ten years (1999-2008). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Employing a profiling approach, the analysis of the 381 JEIM publications includes examining variables such as the most active authors, geographic diversity, authors' backgrounds, co-author analysis, research methods and keyword analysis. Findings

  20. Detective Fiction in a Postcolonial and Transnational World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nels C. Pearson; Marc Singer

    2009-01-01

    In addition to co-editing, Nels Pearson (with Marc Singer) co-authored, Open Cases: Detection, (Post)modernity, and the State,”, pp. 1-15.\\u000aTaking up a neglected area in the study of the crime novel, this collection investigates the growing number of writers who adapt conventions of detective fiction to expose problems of law, ethics, and truth that arise in postcolonial and transnational communities.

  1. Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Wiberg

    2004-01-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Moeschlin; E. Grycko; C. Pohl; F. Steinert

    2004-01-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons

  3. Organic compounds in hydrothermal systems on the Russian Far East: relevance to the origin of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Kompanichenko

    2010-01-01

    In 70th of the last century L. Mukhin with co-authors (1) explored amino acids in the hot springs and water-steam mixture from the boreholes in Kamchatka peninsula of eastern Rus-sia. According to their results, 12 amino acids of biological origination were detected in hot springs inhabited by thermophiles and hyperthermophiles. Only a single amino acid -glycine -was found in the

  4. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms—583 New Estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL D. BENNETT; ILIA J. LEITCH

    1997-01-01

    The amount of DNA in the unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (itsC-value) varies over 600-fold between angiosperm species. Information regarding this character is used in a strikingly wide variety of plant biological fields. Moreover, recent studies have noted a significant need for more information about this important aspect of genome biodiversity. Bennett and co-authors have published four collected lists of nuclear

  5. The giant impact hypothesis: past, present (and future?).

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William K

    2014-09-13

    At the request of editors, this paper offers a historical review of early work on the giant impact hypothesis, as well as comments on new data. The author hereby claims (whether believable or not) that his interest is to move towards a correct model of lunar origin, not to defend a possibly incorrect idea, just because of being a co-author of a relevant early paper. Nonetheless, the 1974 giant impact hypothesis appears still to be viable. PMID:25114315

  6. Tribal Nations and Limitary Concepts: Examining the Dimensions and Limitations of Sovereignty and Autonomy

    E-print Network

    Prater, Travis

    2008-07-31

    : Taiaiake Alfred. Arguing the rejectionist-conceptualist thought are co-authors Comanche Chairman Wallace Coffey and Yaqui Professor of Law Rebecca Tsosie. Arguing from the revolutionary- conceptualist thought is Métis scholar and activist Howard Adams... with the decisions in the Cherokee law cases of the 1800s, known as the Marshall Trilogy. The Marshall Trilogy was a body of court decisions that set in motion congressional right to define the sovereign status of Tribal Nations. Additionally, the Marshall...

  7. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 20, 35733578 (2006)

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    .g. Stewart and McDonnell, 1991; DeWalle et al., 1997; Burns and McDonnell, 1998; McGuire et al., 2002; Rodgers et al., 2005; McGuire and McDonnell, 2006). In a comment, Criss and Winston (2006) disagree. (2005) and McGuire and McDonnell (2006). We agree that the studies co-authored by Criss since 1999

  8. The multiple views of inter-organizational authoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. McDonald; Chunhua Weng; John H. Gennari

    2004-01-01

    Collaborative authoring is a common workplace task. Yet, despite improvements in word processors, communication software, and file sharing, many problems continue to plague co-authors. We conducted a qualitative study in a setting where participants are loosely connected, physically separated, and work together over a period of 4-9 months to author a complex technical document-a clinical trial protocol. Our study differs

  9. Locally Testable Codes Require Redundant Testers Eli Ben-Sasson

    E-print Network

    Guruswami, Venkatesan

    in the Proceeding of CCC 2009 [9]. Research of first, fourth and fifth co-authors supported by grant number 2006104. A linear code over a finite field F is a linear subspace C Fn. The dimension of C is its dimension as a vector space, and its rate is the ratio of its dimension to n. The distance of C is the minimal Hamming

  10. An improved immersed boundary method for curvilinear grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Roman; E. Napoli; B. Milici; V. Armenio

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we propose an extension of the direct-forcing immersed boundary technique, recently developed and employed by Verzicco and co-authors [Fadlun EA, Verzicco R, Orlandi P, Mohd-Yusof J. Combined immersed-boundary finite-difference methods for three-dimensional complex flow simulations. J Comput Phys 2000;161:35–60; Verzicco R, Fatica M, Iaccarino G, Moin P, Khalighi B. Large eddy simulation of a road vehicle

  11. George Gamow: World line 1904–1933 (On the ninetieth anniversary of G A Gamov's birth)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    One of his articles written with a co-author Gamov called 'My half-article'. Here his 'half-biography' is presented. It covers the first very important part of his life, starting from his youth in Odessa, his student years in Petrograd–Leningrad and several of his visits to Germany, Denmark, and England in connection with his scientific work. Special attention is devoted to his

  12. Paraeducators in Physical Education : A Training Guide to Roles and Responsibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren J. Lieberman; Douglas Collier; Carin Mulawka; Rocco Aiello

    2007-01-01

    Edited by College at Brockport faculty member Lauren J. Lieberman.Also includes a chapter by College at Brockport faculty member Douglas Collier: Positive methods for dealing with difficult behavior, and chaopters co-authored by College at Brockport alumni Rocco Aiello: Instruction strategies; and Carin Mulawka: Assessment.Paraeducators work in virtually every school—but until now, no systematic training program has existed to teach them

  13. Research Principles Revealed Jennifer Widom

    E-print Network

    Chang, Edward Y.

    · Colleagues, mentors, book co-authors · Neighbors, baby-sitters, sailing crew, kids sports photographers timestamp] pairs" Temperature Sensor 1: [(72) 2:05] [(75) 2:20] [(74) 2:21] [(74) 2:24] [(81) 2:45] ... Temperature Sensor 2: [(73) 2:03] [(76) 2:20] [(73) 2:22] [(75) 2:22] [(79) 2:40] ... #12;19 Nailing Down

  14. Building interfaces for on-line collaborative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Kalas; Michal Winczer

    2006-01-01

    For several years we have been engaged in the development and research of software environments for collaborative learning, for example in the recently completed CoLabs project (which we presented at the IFIP TC3 WG3.5 working conference in Budapest in 2004, see also http:\\/\\/matchsz.inf.elte.hu\\/Colabs\\/), also within lately defended long-range doctoral research, in which the co-author of this paper together with his

  15. International Center for Gibbon Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Center for Gibbon Studies Web site has a variety of information to advocate the study, preservation, and propagation of this highly endangered primate. General information is included about the Center and about gibbons, along with a bibliography of scientific literature authored or co-authored by the Center's director. Several photo galleries include photos of the Center's gibbons and text about the various species.

  16. My Research Life through Studies in Art Education: A Body of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Enid

    2005-01-01

    This lecture is based on a dozen articles that Enid Zimmerman had published in Studies in Art Education as author and co-author from 1977 to the present as well as several articles that are in-progress. She makes an analogy of this body of research to a body of work produced by a practicing artist. She also refers to the intellectual climate in…

  17. Distinguishing features and potential roles of the RTO.k object model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Kim; L. Bacellar; Yuseok Kim; D. K. Choi; S. Howell; M. Jenkins

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, searching for a proper extension of the basic object model to meet the needs present in hard-real-time system development environments has become a serious research issue. The first co-author and Hermann Kopetz at the Technical University of Vienna formulated an extension of the basic object model, called the RTO.k object model, as one attempt to meet such

  18. Mentoring Interns and Postdoctoral Residents in Academic Health Sciences Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine J. Kaslow; Nathan A. Mascaro

    2007-01-01

    This article was co-authored by a senior mentor and one of her students who worked with her as both an intern and a postdoctoral\\u000a fellow. It is an expanded version of a presentation given by the first author after receiving the Association of Psychologists\\u000a in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Distinguished Achievement in Teaching Award. The article offers a historical view

  19. Book reviews, Fall 2012 Pierre Alquier1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Book reviews, Fall 2012 Pierre Alquier1,2 and Christian P. Robert2,3,4 1 Universit´e Denis Diderot@ceremade.dauphine.fr August 27, 2012 Abstract This note is made of a review of the books by Bryson (2011), Diaco- nis,version1-27Aug2012 #12;When I learned that Persi Diaconis and Ron Graham had co-authored a book

  20. Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and patterns of research collaboration in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Schummer

    2004-01-01

    This paper first describes the recent development that scientists and engineers of many disciplines, countries, and institutions\\u000a increasingly engage in nanoscale research at breathtaking speed. By co-author analysis of over 600 papers published in “nano\\u000a journals” in 2002 and 2003, I investigate if this apparent concurrence is accompanied by new forms and degrees of multi- and\\u000a interdisciplinarity as well as

  1. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  2. Graph-based text classification: learn from your neighbors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralitsa Angelova; Gerhard Weikum

    2006-01-01

    Automatic classification of data items, based on training samples,\\u000d\\u000a can be boosted by considering the neighborhood of data items in\\u000d\\u000a a graph structure (e.g., neighboring documents in a hyperlink\\u000d\\u000a environment or co-authors and their publications for bibliographic\\u000d\\u000a data entries). This paper presents a new method for graph-based\\u000d\\u000a classification, with particular emphasis on hyperlinked text\\u000d\\u000a documents but broader applicability. Our approach

  3. Retraction: Wettability-gradient-driven micropump for transporting discrete liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardaweel, Hamzeh K.; Zamuruyev, Konstantin; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2013-06-01

    This is a Retraction for the article 2013 J. Micromech. Microeng. 23 035036. The science reported in this article is not incorrect. This article does not include all co-authors who contributed to the work. The article incorrectly attributes work performed at the University of California to the University of Jordan, and fails to acknowledge contributions from Georgia Institute of Technology. This article does not acknowledge the sources of funding for the work and the reference list is incomplete. This article was submitted by Hamzeh K Bardaweel without the knowledge of the other authors.

  4. Heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean 

    E-print Network

    Jung, Glenn Harold

    1955-01-01

    H K o G o a> X 0 i ^o 0 lO SG oO ? lO 03 ?H CO O m |Z! bO Gd*"3 &? o o 1 P 1 1 d p to o CO d ^ Z!<33 *o o bO J? bO O 0 O 0 G 43 G<3} 03 co-author), Journal...

  5. Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

  6. Simple one-dimensional lattice model for lipids in water

    E-print Network

    Alina Ciach; Jakub P?kalski

    2014-07-03

    A lattice model for binary mixture of lipids and water is introduced and investigated. The orientational degrees of freedom of the amphiphilic molecules are taken into account in the same way as in the model for oil-water-surfactant mixtures introduced earlier by Johan H\\o ye and co-authors. The ground state of the model is discussed in detail, and the mean-field stability analysis of the disordered phase is performed. The model is compared to the recently introduced lattice model for colloidal self-assembly.

  7. KU Today, May 8 2012

    E-print Network

    Tuesday, May 8, 2012 Study: Kids thrive in positive sports climate It’s only natural that when kids are part of a positive, caring sports environment, they can have more fun. But a new study co-authored by Mary Fry, KU associate..., curator of modern and contemporary art at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, is being honored as a distinguished alumna by the University of Kansas’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences on May 15. Full Story Gift to KU honors Weinberg A $10...

  8. A review of "Royalist Women Writers 1650-1689." by Hero Chalmers 

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    by the detailed historical and textual analysis. This is an important new book that supplies much of the detail for which non-specialists have been looking for some time. Jason R. Rosenblatt. Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi: John Selden. Oxford: Oxford... by Lancelot Andrewes. His groundbreaking De Diis Syris (1617) was heavily annotated by Ben Jonson, and, as Jason Rosenblatt shows in Chapter Two of Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi (while building on his previous scholarship co-authored with Winfried...

  9. Have We Hatched the Addiction Egg: Reward Deficiency Syndrome Solution System™

    PubMed Central

    Downs, BW; Oscar-Berman, M; Waite, RL; Madigan, MA; Giordano, J; Beley, T; Jones, S; Simpatico, T; Hauser, M; Borsten, J; Marcelo, F; Braverman, ER; Lohmann, R; Dushaj, K; Helman, M; Barh, D; Schoenthaler, ST; Han, D; Blum, K

    2013-01-01

    This article co-authored by a number of scientists, ASAM physicians, clinicians, treatment center owners, geneticists, neurobiologists, psychologists, social workers, criminologists, nurses, nutritionist, and students, is dedicated to all the people who have lost loved ones in substance-abuse and “reward deficiency syndrome” related tragedies. Why are we failing at reducing the incidence of ‘Bad Behaviors’? Are we aiming at the wrong treatment targets for behavioral disorders? We are proposing a paradigm shift and calling it “Reward Deficiency Solution System” providing evidence for its adoption. PMID:24077767

  10. Distribution of electron density in charged Li@C60 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadlej-Sosnowska, Nina; Mazurek, Aleksander P.

    2013-08-01

    The Letter is an expanded commentary to the paper 'Fullerene as an electron buffer: charge transfer in Li@C60', by Pavanello and co-authors [8]. We calculated the electron density distribution in the space inside and outside the fullerene cage in Li@C60 complexes differing in total charge, based on Gauss's law. It allowed us to determine the charges contained inside surfaces isomorphic with the fullerene cage and contracted or enlarged with respect to the latter. For every complex, a surface was found in the vicinity of the central Li atom such that the charge enclosed within it was equal to +1.

  11. International Soil Reference and Information Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), which is associated with the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Berne, Switzerland, aims to "provide a better understanding of soils and to promote sustainable use of the land." The ISRIC Web site gives visitors several areas to explore, but of special note are the reports and publications link within the publications page, which contains downloadable annual and biannual reports, conference proceedings, soil briefs, technical papers, and more. These publications have been authored or co-authored by staff members, and guest researchers of ISRIC or the former International Soil Museum.

  12. Resolving Dilemmas Through Bodywork

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Pamela Ellen; Persinger, Debra; Steele, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Pamela Ellen Ferguson and Debra Persinger, co-authors and co-editors of Sand to Sky—Conversations with Teachers of Asian Medicine (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse; 2008), interview Marianne Steele in Germany on her shiatsu and massage therapy work in various forms of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The interview was conducted in a series of e-mail exchanges and telephone calls during late 2009 and early 2010 and is intended for a future German edition of Sand to Sky. PMID:21589702

  13. The Violence after 'La Violencia' in the Ch'orti' Region of Eastern Guatemala

    E-print Network

    Metz, Brent; Mariano, Lorenzo; Garcí a, Juliá n Ló pez

    2010-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu The Violence after ‘La Violencia’ in the Ch’orti’ Region of Eastern Guatemala 2010 by Brent Metz, Lorenzo Mariano, and Julián López García This work has been made available by the University... at the link below. 2010 co-authored with Lorenzo Mariano and Julián López García. “The Violence after La Violencia in the Ch’orti’ Region of Eastern Guatemala.” Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 15(1):16-41. Published version: http...

  14. A Renewal Plan for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fischetti, Robert F.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Gerig, Rodney E.; Maclean, John F.; Mills, Dennis M.; Srajer, George [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keane, Denis T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Neumann, Dan A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 6102, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2010-06-23

    With coordination from the APS Renewal Steering Committee (the members of which are the co-authors of this paper), staff and users of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory are in the process of developing a renewal plan for the facility. The renewal is a coordinated upgrade of the accelerator, beamlines, and associated technical structure that will enable users of the APS to address key scientific challenges in the coming decades. The cost of the renewal is estimated to be from $300M to $400M and to take approximately six years from start to finish.

  15. The case for creating a model insurance policy: payer coverage of breastfeeding counseling services, pumps, and supplies.

    PubMed

    Madden, Susanne; Curtis, Beverly

    2013-10-01

    With the implementation of the Health Resources and Services Administration Women's Preventive Services Guidelines, which went into effective August 1, 2012, under the Affordable Care Act, healthcare insurance companies across the country have interpreted the breastfeeding support provision in a variety of ways. In order to improve benefit design and promote transparency and accountability, the National Breastfeeding Center and the United States Breastfeeding Committee co-authored a model insurance policy that seeks to educate insurance executives about appropriately supporting breastfeeding medicine for purposes of improving population health. PMID:24112064

  16. Challenges and some new directions in channel coding

    E-print Network

    Arikan, Erdal; ul Hassan, Najeeb; Lentmaier, Michael; Montorsi, Guido; Sayir, Jossy

    2015-06-01

    ”. Further progress in channel cod- ing was made by Gottfried Ungerboeck [9] by linking coding to modulation for convolutional codes. In 1993, Claude Berrou and co-authors shocked the coding re- search community in [10] by designing a coding system known... , if F = GF(3) , i.e., the field of numbers {0, 1, 2} using arithmetic modulo 3, then the output probability that X1 be zero given Y2, Y3 and Y4 is the sum of the probabilities all configurations of X2, X3 and X4 that sum to zero, i.e., 0,0,0 or 0...

  17. A review of "Renaissance England’s Chief Rabbi: John Selden." by Jason R. Rosenblatt

    E-print Network

    Engel, William E.

    2006-01-01

    of the detail for which non-specialists have been looking for some time. Jason R. Rosenblatt. Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi: John Selden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ix + 314 + 1 halftone illus. $99.00. Review by WILLIAM E. ENGEL..., and, as Jason Rosenblatt shows in Chapter Two of Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi (while building on his previous scholarship co-authored with Winfried Schleiner on Selden?s letter to the playwright con- REVIEWS 177 cerning cross-dressing and bi...

  18. (9th international symposium on pteridines and folic acid, Zurich, Switzerland, and visit to Konstanz, W. Germany, August 28--September 8, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.

    1989-09-20

    The traveler spent five days at the University of Konstanz to continue collaborative research with Prof. Pfleiderer on pteridine chemistry, to consult with Prof. Pohl on DNA sequencing and present an invited seminar on this topic, and to consult with Prof. Pfleiderer on the synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides that can be used in DNA sequencing. He then proceeded to Zurich to attend the symposium, where he co-authored an oral presentation and presented two posters, one on pteridine mass spectrometry, and discussed pteridine biochemistry with members of the symposium. New collaborative research programs in Europe were also discussed.

  19. Kirk

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    1982-01-01

    advertising artist; LaVena g Kidd, protrait artist; Leah Rosenthal, chil- g dren's illustrator; Russell Ross, commercial g artist; and Kathleen Sky, SF and fantasy writ-g er and co-author of The Business Of Being A g Writer (1982, Harper & Row). g It is a... % of quality, one that would entertain and be a % pleasure to look at as well. In some ways we % feel we have met those goals; in others, the g pressure of time and other projects has left % its mark. So what else is new in the world % of zines? o If we...

  20. Ocin_tsim - A DVFS Aware Simulator for NoC Design Space Exploration and Optimization

    E-print Network

    Prabhu, Subodh

    2010-07-14

    _tsim simulator and who gave several insightful comments as the co-author of the initial paper on Ocin_tsim. Thanks are also due to Dr. Li-Shiuan Peh and her student Ms. Bin Li from Princeton University for providing the Orion modeling framework for development... belongs to a different island and different islands are connected by point-to-point (P2P) links [30, 31]. Fig. 2: Graph showing VF variations in a DVFS system [25] Power-gating is a standby-leakage reduction method developed in [32, 33, 34, 35...

  1. TECOAS 0.9

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    More and more persons are telecommuting everyday, and an increasing number may find it necessary to browse or comment on any number of documents interactively. This version of TECOAS provides such an opportunity to interactively browse and discuss a document, and is intended to both help with the co-authoring of papers and to provide a format in which small seminar groups can discuss various works. The website for the application also includes a helpful user's manual. TECOAS 0.9 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X or Windows 95 and above.

  2. Riley Guide: Employment Opportunities and Job Resources on the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Riley Guide was one of the earliest Web sites dedicated to job resources. The site contains introductions and annotated pointers to resources by career field, employer type, and location. There are also sections on resume preparation, and recruiting online, as well as handouts for libraries to use with patrons wanting to use the Internet for job hunting. Margaret Riley is a columnist for the National Business Employment Weekly and is one of the co-authors of the 1996 book, The Guide to Internet Job Searching.

  3. Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science

    PubMed Central

    Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this ‘co-piloting’ currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall, the probability that a given p-value was inconsistent was over 10%. Co-piloting was not found to be associated with reporting errors. PMID:25493918

  4. Costing considerations for maintenance and new construction coating work

    SciTech Connect

    Reina, M.P.; Shields, K.R.; MeLampy, M.F. [KTA-TATOR, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates ``Updated Protective Coating Costs, Products, and Service Life`` on protective coating costing and selection co-authored by G. H. Brevoort, M. F. MeLampy and K. R. Shields. Beginning with this edition, data collection and publication will be co-authored by K. R. Shields, M. F. MeLampy and M. P. Reina. Designed to assist the coatings engineer or specifier in identifying suitable protective coating systems for specific industrial environments, this paper provides guidelines for calculating approximate installed costs, expected coating life for each identified system, and how to determine the most cost-effective systems. The effect of maintenance sequences on long-term costs and system performance is also reviewed. New features of this paper include life-cycle and material costs for hot dip galvanizing. Included in the paper are (1) most commonly used generic systems in typical industrial environments, (2) service life for each, (3) current material costs, and (4) current field and shop painting costs. Guidelines for developing long-term life-cycle costs, and number of paintings for the expected life of the structure are included. The basic elements of economic analysis and justification, and how to prepare a Present Value Analysis are also addressed. Worksheets and examples are provided to aid the reader in the proper use of the information.

  5. Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: myerson@radonc.wustl.edu; Garofalo, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Apte, Aditya; Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale AZ (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J.J. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images. The imaging files were shared via the Advanced Technology Consortium. A program developed by one of the co-authors (I.E.N.) used binomial maximum-likelihood estimates to generate a 95% group consensus contour. The computer-estimated consensus contours were then reviewed by the group and modified to provide a final contouring consensus atlas. Results: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer. The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusion: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

  6. The emerging field of spiritual neuroscience: An interview with Mario Beauregard, PhD. Interview by Sheldon Lewis.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Mario Beauregard, PhD, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Montreal in Canada, has been studying the neuroscience of consciousness and mystical experience for many years, including a study investigating the brain activity of Carmelite nuns, for which he has received considerable media attention. He conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Texas and the Montreal Neurological Institute at McGill University. He was selected by the World Media Net, a consortium of major daily newspapers in Europe and North America created at the turn of the new millenium as one of "100 Pioneers of the 21st Century." He is co-author with Denyse O'Leary of the book The Spiritual Brain: A Neuroscientist's Case for the Existence of the Soul (HarperOne, 2007). Dr Beauregard was recently interviewed by Sheldon Lewis, editor in chief of Advances. PMID:20664137

  7. Theodore Millon (1928-2014).

    PubMed

    Tringone, Robert; Jolosky, Theo; Strack, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Theodore Millon was born on August 18, 1928. On January 29, 2014, Ted died peacefully in his sleep of congestive heart failure. Ted was a scholar and prolific writer. He penned--literally, since he never used a keyboard--and edited more than 30 books and authored or co-authored more than 100 book chapters and research articles. Ted may be most recognizable for the family of objective inventories that bear his name. His development of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory in the 1970s revolutionized personality assessment here and abroad. Over time, many new instruments were developed that targeted adolescent (MAPI, MACI), preadolescent (M-PACI), medical (MBMD), college (MCCI), and normal (MIPS) populations. Beginning in 2004, Ted funded the American Psychological Foundation's annual award, given in his name, honoring an outstanding psychologist engaged in advancing the science of personality psychology. PMID:25046723

  8. US Environmental Protection Agency Watershed Academy Web: Online Training in Watershed Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Watershed Academy offers training opportunities for ecologists, managers, and others interested in watersheds. Additionally, 20 Academy 2000 Distance Learning Modules are now available online to highlight key watershed management topics. While some modules are under construction, those currently available provide a solid backbone in many important areas such as Principles of Watershed Management, Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, Watershed Modeling, Economics of Sustainability, and Stream Corridor Restoration. Modules vary in depth (and intended audience), but all are (co)-authored by prominent scientists in the field of watershed ecology. Designed to reach a broad audience, many modules are provided in slide format (navigable by clicking on arrows) and could be supplemented with more technical readings; others are given in .pdf format. The inclusion of color photographs throughout, such as in the Ohio's Virtual Watershed Tour module, supplements the learning experience by providing illustrations and examples of important concepts.

  9. Rutgers University: Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences -Deep Sea Microbiology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, Dr. Costantino Vetriani's Deep Sea Microbiology Lab focuses on "the physiology, ecology and evolutionary relationships of deep-sea prokaryotes, with an emphasis on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps"." The Microbiology Lab website includes a Publications section which lists book chapters and a number of downloadable, refereed journal articles that have been authored, or co-authored, by Dr. Vetriani. The site also contains a short summary of a current research project, and a listing of oceanographic expeditions dating back to 1995. The site's Deep-Sea Video Clips include some brief, yet interesting coverage of tube worms, zoarcid fish, Pompeii worms, crabs, and more. The site also contains a few intriguing DSML underwater images of microorganisms from hydrothermal vents.

  10. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

  11. Museum of Southwestern Biology: Division of Birds-Publications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Division of Birds at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, this website contains a collection of downloadable publications regarding a number of bird species. The publications are all authored (or co-authored) by Robert W. Dickerman, a Research Associate Professor and Acting Curator for the Division of Birds. Professor Dickerman's articles have appeared in such publications as _Journal of Raptor Research_, _Western Birds_, _Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington_, _The Southwestern Naturalist_, and _The AUK_ between the years 1991 and 2004. Titles found at this site include "A review of the North American subspecies of the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)," "Talon-Locking in the Red-Tailed Hawk," "An Extinct Subspecies of Sharp-Tailed Grouse," and "On the Validity of Bubo virginianus occidentalis Stone," to name a few.

  12. “A memorable consultation”: Writing reflective accounts articulates students’ learning in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Svenberg, Kristian; Wahlqvist, Mats; Mattsson, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore and analyse students’ learning experiences of a memorable consultation during a final-year attachment in general practice. Setting After a two-week primary care attachment in the undergraduate curriculum, students were invited to write a reflective account of a memorable consultation. Design A total of 52 reflective accounts were read and processed according to qualitative content analysis. Credibility of the analysis was validated by two co-authors reading the descriptions separately and trustworthiness was tested at local seminars. Results Three main themes emerged. In “The person beyond symptoms” the students recognize the individual properties of a consultation. “Facing complexity” mirrors awareness of changing tracks in problem-solving and strategies of handling unclear conditions. “In search of a professional role” reflects the interest in role modelling and the relation to the supervisor. Conclusion Involving students in writing reflective accounts appears to stimulate them to articulate practice experiences of the consultation. PMID:17497483

  13. Becoming one person: living with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Nickeas, R

    2006-04-01

    Dissociative identity disorder is a rare diagnosis, although people currently with a diagnosis of psychosis may in fact be experiencing what is associated with the disorder. This article is co-authored by a nurse and a person who has lived with alters (multiple personalities) for nearly all of her life. Because of the rarity of the diagnosis, there is much misunderstanding and ignorance among lay people and mental health professionals. This article therefore clarifies historical and contemporary issues surrounding this particular mental health problem both through examining the literature and through narrative of the person's experience. Special attention is given to the reality of coping with the difficulties that dissociative identity disorder create. PMID:16608473

  14. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  15. Community College Non-Science Undergraduates Observe Exoplanet Transits with 8-inch Observatory in Glendale, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleim, Brian; Esteban, Henry; Lincoln, Connor; Price, Jason; Giroux, Elizabeth; Lentowski, Noreen; Valencia, Leslie; Morris, Bryce; Smith, Blake; Leffler, Chris; Bonilla, Matt; Watt, Sara D.

    2015-01-01

    Using the 8-inch Celestron telescopes at the Glendale Community College North Observatory in Glendale, Arizona, a group of undergraduate students, most of whom are non-science majors, observed exoplanet transits during the Fall 2014 semester. These students, members of the Glendale Community College's Astronomy Students for Telescope Research and Outreach (A.S.T.R.O.) Club, selected targets observable with telescopes of this size and the conditions of the sky. With these observations and using concepts and skills learned in introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, the co-authors recorded detections of exoplanet transits consistent with published professional results. These results demonstrate that post-secondary institutions can teach hands-on, practical astronomy experience given equipment that is readily available and affordable, regardless of the size of the student body majoring in the physical sciences.

  16. IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-11-24

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. Its scientific missions include the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies more than two orders of magnitude beyond those produced by accelerator beams. In these lectures, we will focus on IceCube's most publicized mission, the search for the sources of cosmic rays. We will conclude with an overview of the first results obtained with the partially completed detector.These lectures are based on a review paper co-authored with Spencer Klein (arXiv:astroph.HE/1007.1247) to be published in Review of Scientific Instruments.

  17. Equipment and skills shortage in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Khodjibaev, Abdukhakim M; Anvarov, Khikmat; Borisova, Elena; Schmitt, Roger; Murotova, Nigora

    2014-05-01

    In this article, supplied with the help of the International Federation of Hospital Engineering (IFHE), five co-authors from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)--a German organisation that seeks to encourage and co-ordinate international cooperation in areas ranging from sustainable development to fund management, and its partner organisation, IFHE member, the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine (RRCEM) in Uzbekistan, discuss the use of medical technology in the central Asian country. They also explain how a GIZ project is helping to boost the number of skilled staff, improve quality assurance and management in procurement, logistics, and maintenance, and promote good training of medical and technical staff, across Uzbekistan. PMID:24930180

  18. Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Martin Gebert

    2014-06-14

    We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  19. Obesity and what we need do about it- an interview with John Wass.

    PubMed

    Wass, John

    2014-01-01

    In this podcast we talk to Professor John Wass, co-author of the 'Action on obesity: Comprehensive care for all' report, and Chair of the Working Party for Action on Obesity in the UK. In this interview Prof Wass discusses the gaps in care for obese patients in current UK healthcare services, and outlines his recommendations on what actions should be taken to tackle these issues, including how education about nutrition and obesity should be offered to the public as well as within the formal medical education system.The podcast for this interview is available at: http://media.biomedcentral.com/content/movies/supplementary/johnwass-audio-v1.mp3. PMID:25163891

  20. Interview: stemming vision loss with stem cells: seeing is believing.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Pete

    2009-07-01

    Professor Coffey joined the faculty at the University of Oxford in 1987 on completing his doctoral work. In 1989, he was awarded a personal Royal Society Research Fellowship, at the same time moving to the University of Sheffield to establish a new laboratory for retinal transplantation. After 14 years at the University of Sheffield, Prof. Coffey was appointed Professor in the newly built Henry Wellcome building for translational eye research at the Institute of Ophthalmology in London. Prof. Coffey has many years experience in cellular therapies as applied to retinal transplantation and was recently the principal author and co-author of two landmark papers demonstrating that grafting human cells could prevent visual loss. As Professor and head of Ocular Biology and Therapeutics, Prof. Coffey has established the London Project to Cure Blindness. This project aims to deliver a stem cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration by 2011. PMID:19580400

  1. Observation of the E(38)-boson

    E-print Network

    Kh. U. Abraamyan; A. B. Anisimov; M. I. Baznat; K. K. Gudima; M. A. Nazarenko; S. G. Reznikov; A. S. Sorin

    2012-09-26

    The first results of the search for the E(38)-boson are presented. The search was conducted in the effective mass spectra of photon pairs produced in the d(2.0 GeV/n) + C, d(3.0 GeV/n) + Cu and p(4.6 GeV) + C reactions. The experimental data was obtained at internal beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Due to non ordinariness of the obtained results (standing out of The Standard Model) and at the request of co-authors the first version of the article is withdrawn for further verification and more detailed description of the experiment and data analysis. The second version is being prepared.

  2. Wright Flyer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The wind tunnel test results have been published in the literature as summarized at the end of this report. As part of the education program, an introduction to engineering course module was designed and tested on 80 freshman engineering students at Old Dominion University. The five-week module required that five-person teams design, build and fly a radio-controlled airplane using only the wind tunnel data developed by the Wright brothers in 1902. That module is described in Sparks and Ash (2001). The Principal Investigator has co-authored one dozen publications resulting from this research, as listed at the end of this report. The Principal Investigator has given fourteen lectures on the Wright brother testing program and has appeared in two documentary television programs (summarized at the end of this report). Speaking invitations have continued since the completion of the project.

  3. Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology: Calendar Year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    This [summary of] U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-585 contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology during 1991. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may generally be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225

  4. Caffeine Appears To Be Beneficial In MalesÂ?But Not FemalesÂ?With Lou GehrigÂ?s Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2006-04-17

    This is an APS press release on a study, entitled 'Caffeine Reduces Motor Performance and Antioxidant Enzyme Capacity in the Brain of Female G93A Mice, An Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)', that was conducted by Rajini Seevaratnam1 supervised by Mazen J. Hamadeh1,2 , and co-authored by Sandeep Raha2 and Mark A. Tarnopolsky2 (1School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada). The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting that was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

  5. Alexander Hamilton: The Man Who Made Modern America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alexander Hamilton was not only a member of the First Continental Congress but was also a co-author of the Federalist Papers and a vital force behind the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. To honor Hamilton the New York Historical Society has created a special museum exhibit that is due to open in September 2004 at its building in New York City. The actual exhibit is complemented nicely by this online exhibit that offers a timeline of events during (and after) his life, the Hamilton Log which offers highlights from his writings, and a biographical gallery of his peers, such as DeWitt Clinton and Robert Morris. The site is rounded out by a twenty-question quiz that tests visitor's knowledge of Alexander Hamilton and his various accomplishments.

  6. Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flows through plane cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fo?t, J.; Hun?k, M.; Kozel, K.; Lain, J.; Šejna, M.; Vav?incová, M.

    This paper of a few co-authors presents some works of the group of the Department of Technical Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Eng., TU Prague, which deals with numerical methods in fluid dynamics. We present numerical methods for a solution of different physical and mathematical models of flow through plane cascades. We use the Mac Cormack's scheme, Ron — Ho — Ni's scheme and Runge — Kutta schemes on H — type structured grid and upwind schemes on an unstructured triangular grid. This methods are used for simulation of steady or unsteady inviscid flow and for simulation of viscous laminar flow. We deal with comparison of different methods mutually and with experimental data and with comparison of different physical and mathematical models of flow used for numerical simulation.

  7. A NASA/University Joint Venture in Space Science (JOVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Danny M.

    1997-01-01

    Several papers have been given to national level meeting and a paper has been published in an international journal. Several additional papers have been co-author by students. The initial research project on the Atchafalaya Delta seems to have died in part due to a transfer of the NASA colleague to another location and subsequent reassigment to another job title. I have continued to include credit to NASA for many of my papers presented and published: A major debris flow along the Wasatch front in Northern Ogden; Spatial and volumetric changes in the Atchafalaya delta, Louisiana; An analysis of prehistoric Greenstone artifact in northern Alabama; An assessment of surfacing algorithm; Analysis of georeferencing algorithms to assess spatial accuracy.

  8. PinBus Interface for Interoperable, Grid-Responsive Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2009-12-02

    A very simple appliance interface was suggested by this author and his co-authors during Grid-Interop 2007. The approach was based on a successful collaboration between utilities, a major appliance manufacture, and the manufacturer of a load control module during the U.S. Department of Energy’s Grid Friendly Appliance project. The suggested approach was based on the assumption that demand-response objectives could be effectively communicated to and from many small electrical loads like appliances by simply agreeing on the meaning of the binary states of several shared connector pins. It was argued that this approach could pave the way for a wave of demand-response-ready appliances and greatly reduced expenses for utilities’ future demand-response programs. The approach could be supported by any of the many competing serial communication protocols and would be generally applicable to most end-use devices.

  9. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams: chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Thurow, Russell F.; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Howell, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Standardizing sampling methods for fish populations across large regions is important for consistent measurement of large-scale effects of climate or geography. In addition, pooling samples creates larger sample sizes and can facilitate data sharing among scientists and land managers. Sampling freshwater fish has largely not been standardized due to the diversity of fish and habitats. USGS aquatic ecologist Jason Dunham and co-authors contributed a chapter about sampling coldwater fish in wadeable streams to a new book that details common methods, protocols, and guidelines for sampling fish across North America. Topics include three common sampling methods: electrofishing, snorkeling, and nest counts. Each method provides complementary information about different species and life stages. The information will be useful for initiating new or fine-tuning ongoing sampling programs.

  10. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  11. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  12. The Different Wavelengths of Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malecha, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    Radio Science covers many different avenues. This summer I attempted to work in each of the different avenues to learn the full range of subjects covered by Radio Science. I began my summer by traveling to Greece for the 3rd International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-3). I went as a co-author of the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) team paper. My first job when I returned from Greece was to update the Radio Science activities webpage. I then used Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to find radio signals in recorded Radio Science experimental data and determine frequencies and powers. I read about and ran Fortran code being used to determine wind measurements on Huygens. I formatted and revised the abstracts and data lengths for the DVD data sets. By performing these tasks, I also learned the Unix operating system as well as a small amount of shell programming.

  13. Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.

  14. Pierre Curie, 1859–1906

    PubMed Central

    Mould, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background—his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years. PMID:17576470

  15. Deep sea in situ excess pore pressure and sediment deformation off NW Sumatra and its relation with the December 26, 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Nabil; Cattaneo, Antonio; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Schneider, Jean-Luc

    2009-06-01

    The swath bathymetric data acquired during the “Sumatra Aftershocks” cruise from the Sunda trench in the Indian Ocean to the north of the Sumatra Island imaged several scars and deposits. In situ pore pressure measurements using the Ifremer piezometer and coring demonstrate that high excess pore pressure and sediment deformation was generated by a recent event in the scar of the slope failure zone identified by J.T. Henstock and co-authors. This excess pore pressure is localized in the upper sedimentary layers and is not related to an interplate subduction process. Numerical simulations of the hydrological system that take into account the hydro-mechanical properties of the upper sediment layer show that the excess pore pressure and sediment deformations could be generated at the time of the December 26, 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake.

  16. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

  17. The Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics: a Web Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barlow, John P. (John Perry).

    Forgotten the third verse of "Eyes of the World?" Wondering just what Jerry mumbled after "Eight sided whispering hallelujah hatrack" on your copy of "The Eleven?" from Las Vegas in 1968? Or would you like to know what Robert Hunter meant by the "the transitive nightfall of diamonds?" Look no further than this site, created and maintained by David Dodd, Branch Manager of the Civic Center Branch of the Marin County Free Library, and co-author of The Grateful Dead and the Deadheads: An Annotated Bibliography. Clearly a labor of love, the site offers the full text of songs by Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow, the Dead's principal lyricists, accompanied by footnotes and possible explanations of various passages by Dodd and others. In addition, the site includes discographies, bibliographies, and thematic essays. Grateful Dead enthusiasts and tape collectors will undoubtedly enjoy this site.

  18. Theory of BCS-BEC Crossover in Ultracold Fermi Gases: Insights into Thermodynamical and Spectroscopic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Kathryn

    2009-05-01

    In this talk we summarize our theoretical understanding of the atomic Fermi superfluids with an emphasis on understanding current experiments. We compare and contrast different theoretical approaches for dealing with finite temperature, and discuss their respective implications for these trapped gases. Armed with a basic picture of the thermodynamics we turn to a variety of different measurements based on radio frequency spectroscopy, including both momentum integrated and momentum resolved experiments. As recently reviewed in arXiv 0810.1940 and 0810.1938, we show how a broad range of experimental phenomena can be accomodated within our natural extension of the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature, and briefly touch on the applicability of BCS-BEC crossover theory to the high temperature superconductors. Co-authors: Qijin Chen, Yan He and Chih-Chun Chien

  19. An Extended Observation of Blazar 3C279

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    1998-01-01

    The gamma-ray observations of the quasar 3C 279 during the reporting period were carried out and analyzed by Dr. Robert Hartman, the overall project principal investigator. As had been hoped, a flare was observed in late January / early February 1996. The flare was detected at X-ray energies by RXTE as well (the PI of the RXTE observations was Dr. Ian McHardy of the University of Southampton, England). The PI of this grant, Dr. Alan Marscher, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 43 GHz after the flare and provided theoretical interpretation. The results and interpretation of the multiwaveband observations are reported in a paper by Wehrle et al. published in the Astrophysical Journal, on which the PI is a co-author.

  20. A consensus statement for safety monitoring guidelines of treatments for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Tiller, John; Schweitzer, Isaac; Hickie, Ian; Khoo, Jon Paul; Bassett, Darryl L; Lyndon, Bill; Mitchell, Philip B; Parker, Gordon; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Udina, Marc; Singh, Ajeet; Moylan, Steven; Giorlando, Francesco; Doughty, Carolyn; Davey, Christopher G; Theodoras, Michael; Berk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring. Method Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content. Results Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment. Conclusion The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression. PMID:21888608

  1. Evidence-Based of Nonoperative Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Until now because there are many published journals with a variety of opinions so I will stratify these articles by giving weighted value on grade evaluation which depend on each institution (written author and co-authors) and external evaluate status (SCI, SCIE, impact factor) rather than the outcomes provided by each article. Consequently, before evaluating publicized papers, study quality assessment of each interesting paper should be performed by mean of gauging the quality of evidence. Reviewing these articles, a grade of medical literature was divided into the following 5 levels as level I (randomized controlled study), level II (non-randomized controlled study), level III (case-control study), level IV (case series), and level V (expert opinions). However, in present article I concluded only involved medical literatures with weighted value of level I and II evidence. PMID:25346826

  2. From the guest editors.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Feng, Zhilan; Song, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    Carlos Castilo-Chavez is a Regents Professor, a Joaquin Bustoz Jr. Professor of Mathematical Biology, and a Distinguished Sustainability Scientist at Arizona State University. His research program is at the interface of the mathematical and natural and social sciences with emphasis on (i) the role of dynamic social landscapes on disease dispersal; (ii) the role of environmental and social structures on the dynamics of addiction and disease evolution, and (iii) Dynamics of complex systems at the interphase of ecology, epidemiology and the social sciences. Castillo-Chavez has co-authored over two hundred publications (see goggle scholar citations) that include journal articles and edited research volumes. Specifically, he co-authored a textbook in Mathematical Biology in 2001 (second edition in 2012); a volume (with Harvey Thomas Banks) on the use of mathematical models in homeland security published in SIAM's Frontiers in Applied Mathematics Series (2003); and co-edited volumes in the Series Contemporary Mathematics entitled '' Mathematical Studies on Human Disease Dynamics: Emerging Paradigms and Challenges'' (American Mathematical Society, 2006) and Mathematical and Statistical Estimation Approaches in Epidemiology (Springer-Verlag, 2009) highlighting his interests in the applications of mathematics in emerging and re-emerging diseases. Castillo-Chavez is a member of the Santa Fe Institute's external faculty, adjunct professor at Cornell University, and contributor, as a member of the Steering Committee of the '' Committee for the Review of the Evaluation Data on the Effectiveness of NSF-Supported and Commercially Generated Mathematics Curriculum Materials,'' to a 2004 NRC report. The CBMS workshop '' Mathematical Epidemiology with Applications'' lectures delivered by C. Castillo-Chavez and F. Brauer in 2011 have been published by SIAM in 2013. PMID:24245643

  3. RETRACTED: Redox regulation of the glutathione reductase/iso-glutaredoxin system in germinating pea seed exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Smiri, Moêz; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Rouhier, Nicolas; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2010-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The editors would like to confirm the retraction of this paper at the request of the co-authors who had no prior knowledge on the actions of the lead author. This article contains data that was duplicated in: Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. Cadmium Affects the Glutathione/Glutaredoxin System in Germinating Pea Seeds. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 142 (2010) 93-105, doi:10.1007/s12011-010-8749-3; Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. Effect of cadmium on resumption of respiration in cotyledons of germinating pea seeds. Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 73 (2010) 1246-1254, doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.05.015; Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. NAD pattern and NADH oxidase activity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) under cadmium toxicity. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants, 16 (2010) 305-315, doi:10.1007/s12298-010-0033-7; Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. Oxidative damage and redox change in pea seeds treated with cadmium. C. R. Biol., 333 (2010) 801-807, doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.09.002; Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Kamel C, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. Cadmium induced mitochondrial redox changes in germinating pea seed. BioMetals, 23 (2010) 973-984, doi:10.1007/s10534-010-9344-y. The co-authors apologize for this unfortunate incident. PMID:21802601

  4. The role of a space patrol of solar X-ray radiation in the provisioning of the safety of orbital and interplanetary manned space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, S. V.; Kovalenok, V. V.; Savinykh, V. P.; Ivanchenkov, A. S.; Voronin, N. A.; Trchounian, A.; Baranova, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    In interplanetary flight, after large solar flares, cosmonauts are subjected to the action of energetic solar protons and electrons. These energetic particles have an especially strong effect during extravehicular activity or (in the future) during residence on the surface of Mars, when they spend an extended time there. Such particles reach the orbits of the Earth and of Mars with a delay of several hours relative to solar X-rays and UV radiation. Therefore, there is always time to predict their appearance, in particular, by means of an X-ray-UV radiometer from the apparatus complex of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) that is being developed by the co-authors of this paper. The paper discusses the far unexplored biophysical problem of manned flight to Mars, scheduled for the next decade. In long-term manned space flights on the orbital stations "Salyut" Soviet cosmonaut crews from three of the co-authors (cosmonauts V.V. Kovalenok, A.S. Ivanchenkov, and V.P. Savinykh) had repeatedly observed the effect of certain geophysical conditions on the psychological state of each crew. These effects coincide with the increased intensity of global illumination in the upper ionosphere space on flight altitudes (300-360 km). It is important that during all of these periods, most of the geomagnetic pulsations were completely absent. Possible ways to study the synergistic effects of the simultaneous absence of the geomagnetic field, the magnetic pulsations and the microwave radiation of the terrestrial ionosphere are considered for a flight to Mars.

  5. IAPPP and the Pro-Am Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.

    2004-05-01

    IAPPP (International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry) was born in June 1980 at a time when amateurs doing photoelectric photometry were few in number and working largely in isolation and without guidance or respect from professional astronomers. The IAPPP credo is "to facilitate collaborative research between amateur and professional astronomers". Included almost from the beginning were college professors (not necessarily astronomers by specialty) wishing to do meaningful research with their small campus telescopes and involving their students. Today we see a different and better world. To date, issues of the quarterly IAPPP Communications have been mailed to members/subscribers in 73 different countries and 78 IAPPP Symposia, many including technical how-to workshops, have been held in 8 different countries. A regular feature in the Communications has documented 518 scientific papers published and co-authored by amateurs in mainstream astronomical journals. More than 71 new variable stars have been discovered photoelectrically by amateurs, 42 percent of naked-eye brightness. A Special Session of the 165th AAS meeting in Tucson was dedicated to IAPPP. Amateurs, not professionals, were behind the renaissance of remote computer-controlled photometric telescopes that today are mainstream. Full-length books on photoelectric photometry have been authored or co-authored by almost as many amateurs as professionals. Photoelectric observing projects outlined in past issues of the Communications have involved not only stars (variable and otherwise) but also galaxies (including quasars and blazars), Solar System objects (the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets), occultation events, and even light pollution and atmospheric extinction. IAPPP has naturally embraced the advent of CCD photometry, inasmuch as CCD's are photoelectric devices - photons in, electrons out. Meaningful research by amateurs using the powerful technique of photoelectric photometry is no longer a potential touted by only a few professionals. It is a reality recognized by most. For more on amateur/professional collaboration, photoelectric photometry, and IAPPP, contact douglas.s.hall@vanderbilt.edu.

  6. Improving and Evaluating Ice-Phase Precipitation Models for GPM Radar-Radiometer Algorithm Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, W. S.; Kuo, K.; Johnson, B. T.; Grecu, M.; Tian, L.; Heymsfield, A.; Munchak, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar - GPM Microwave Imager (DPR-GMI) combined radar-radiometer precipitation algorithm will provide, in principle, the most accurate and highest resolution estimates of surface rainfall rate and precipitation vertical structure from a spaceborne observing platform. In addition to direct applications of these precipitation estimates, they will serve as a crucial reference for cross-calibrating passive microwave precipitation profile estimates from the GPM radiometer constellation. And through the microwave radiometer estimates, the combined algorithm calibration will ultimately be propagated to GPM infrared-microwave multi-satellite estimates of surface rainfall. However, in order to obtain accurate estimates of precipitation profiles from the DPR-GMI algorithm, the underlying physical parameterizations incorporated in the algorithm must be realistic and representative. One potential contributor to algorithm parameterization error is the description of the single-scattering properties of ice-phase precipitation. Studies performed by the co-authors, and those of other scientists in the remote sensing community, indicate that ice-phase precipitation particles are more accurately modeled using explicit, non-spherical particle geometries. The co-authors recently developed computationally feasible methods for simulating large and diverse sets of non-spherical, aggregate ice particles and their single-scattering properties. The bulk single-scattering properties of these particles have been incorporated into a prototype of the DPR-GMI algorithm, and applications of this prototype to airborne radar-radiometer observations from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) demonstrate greater consistency with simultaneous Ku-Ka band (13 and 35 GHz) radar and higher-frequency microwave (89-183 GHz) radiometer observations, relative to applications employing simpler particle models. Comparisons of different ice particle simulations to radar-radiometer data, and to simultaneous in situ microphysics probe data, will be presented at the meeting.lt;img border=0 src="images/H23H-03_B.jpg">

  7. Fabric measurement along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, Maurine; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe; Eichler, Jan; Fujita, Shuji; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Samyn, Denis; Svensson, Anders; Weikusat, Ilka

    2014-05-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) profile along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland, is presented in this work. Data were measured in the field by an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin climatic transition. A similar strengthening, toward an anisotropic single maximum-type fabric, has been observed in several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and can be attributed to a positive feedback between changes in ice viscosity at the climatic transition, and the impact of a shear component of stress. Centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the folding hypothesis used for a climatic reconstruction by Dahl-Jensen and co authors (2013). Comparison is made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NorthGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. The fabric profile clearly reflects the increase in shear deformation when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NorthGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NorthGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NorthGRIP. References: Dahl-Jensen, D. and 120 co-authors. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, Nature, 493, 489-493, 2013.

  8. EDITORIAL: Photonic Crystal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    2007-05-01

    The engineering of electromagnetic modes at optical frequencies in artificial dielectric structures with periodic and random variation of the refractive index, enabling control of the radiative properties of the materials and photon localization, was first proposed independently by Yablonovitch and John in 1987. It is possible to control the flow of light in the periodic dielectric structures, known as photonic crystals (PC). As light waves scatter within the photonic crystal, destructive interference cancels out light of certain wavelengths, thereby forming a photonic bandgap, similar to the energy bandgap for electron waves in a semiconductor. Photons whose energies lie within the gap cannot propagate through the periodic structure. This property can be used to make a low-loss cavity. If a point defect, such as one or more missing periods, is introduced into the periodic structure a region is obtained within which the otherwise forbidden wavelengths can be locally trapped. This property can be used to realize photonic microcavities. Similarly, a line of defects can serve as a waveguide. While the realization of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals received considerable attention initially, planar two-dimensional (2D) structures are currently favoured because of their relative ease of fabrication. 2D photonic crystal structures provide most of the functionality of 3D structures. These attributes have generated worldwide research and development of sub-?m and ?m size active and passive photonic devices such as single-mode and non- classical light sources, guided wave devices, resonant cavity detection, and components for optical communication. More recently, photonic crystal guided wave devices are being investigated for application in microfludic and biochemical sensing. Photonic crystal devices have been realized with bulk, quantum well and quantum dot active regions. The Cluster of articles in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics provides a glimpse of some of the most recent advances in the application of photonic crystals. The modelling of PC defect-mode cavities are described by Zhou et al. Ye and co-authors describe the concept and realization of a novel 3D silicon-based spiral PC. It is, in fact, the only article on 3D PCs. The design and realization of ultra-high Q heterostructure PC nanocavities are described by Song and co-authors. The concept of self-collimation of light in PCs and its applications are presented by Prather and co-workers. Experimental and numerical studies on the negative refraction related phenomenon in 2D PCs are the subject of the next article by Ozbay and co-authors. The emerging subject of slow light generation, control and propagation in PCs is presented in the next two articles by Baba and Mori and by Krauss. Finally, the progress made in the development of PC microcavity lasers and electrically injected microcavity light emitters and arrays is described, respectively, by O'Brien et al and by Chakravarty et al. It is hoped that readers will get a sense of the exciting developments and the possibilities presented by heterostructure photonic crystals and their devices from reading the articles in this Cluster.

  9. Dynamics, flow and melt content of the Southern East Pacific Rise upper mantle from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William Charles

    The Mantle ELectromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment at the super-fast spreading Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) was designed to distinguish between passive upwelling in response to basal tractions from the lithosphere, and a more diapiric, focussed upwelling resulting from melt-enhanced buoyancy and viscosity reduction. To distinguish between these models I estimate the distribution of melt and temperature anomalies beneath the SEPR using teleseismic P and S phases recorded on the MELT seismic array. The non-linear tomographic inversion for VP, VS and anisotropy variations includes an a priori model for the mantle flow-induced seismic anisotropy, constraints on smoothness, minimum norm, coupling between VP and VS , and a grid search for the best anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements also constrain the anisotropy. The best fitting models have anisotropy with the symmetry axis horizontal or dipping shallowly to the west (<30°), and magnitudes of VP and VS anomalies approximately 3.7% and 4.7%, respectively. These translate to melt fractions no greater than .013 or temperature variations no greater than 150°C beneath the rise, using relations I estimated for this purpose. The broad distribution (>100 km) of low velocities favors models of passively driven mantle flow. The orientation of the anisotropy favors shallow return flow owing to a 32 mm/yr westward migration of the SEPR and proximity of the South Pacific Superswell. To best infer melt fraction from seismic velocity, I developed quantitative models of seismic wave propagation through upper mantle partial melts. The elastic effects are estimated with finite element representations of grain-scale laboratory-derived melt geometries. Two- and three-dimensional deformation simulations show that the shear modulus is sensitive to melt inclusion geometry and organization. The anelastic effects are modeled analytically as ellipsoidal pores connected by tubes. Melt moves through the tubes in response to variable compression of the ellipsoids from seismic excitation. The results indicate that the relaxation occurs so rapidly that, in the seismic band, little or no attenuation results. Seismic velocities are reduced by at least 3.6% and 7.9% per percent melt for P and S waves, respectively. This dissertation contains both my previously published and co-authored materials and unpublished co-authored materials.

  10. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out-domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently. PMID:24625719

  11. Cospatial Longslit UV-Optical Spectra of Ten Galactic Planetary Nebulae with HST STIS: Description of observations, global emission-line measurements, and empirical CNO abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, R. J.; Kwitter, K. B.; Shaw, R. A.; Balick, B.; Henry, R. B. C.; Miller, T. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes details of HST Cycle 19 (program GO 12600), which was awarded 32 orbits of observing time with STIS to obtain the first cospatial UV-optical spectra of 10 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). The observational goal was to measure the UV emission lines of carbon and nitrogen with unprecedented S/N and wavelength and spatial resolution along the disk of each object over a wavelength range 1150-10270 Ang . The PNe were chosen such that each possessed a near-solar metallicity but the group together spanned a broad range in N/O. This poster concentrates on describing the observations, emission-line measurements integrated along the entire slit lengths, ionic abundances, and estimated total elemental abundances using empirical ionization correction factors and the ELSA code. Related posters by co-authors in this session concentrate on analyzing CNO abundances, progenitor masses and nebular properties of the best-observed targets using photoionization modeling of the global emission-line measurements [Henry et al.] or detailed analyses of spatial variations in electron temperatures, densities, and abundances along the sub arcsecond resolution slits [Miller et al. & Shaw et al.]. We gratefully acknowledge AURA/STScI for the GO 12600 program support, both observational and financial.

  12. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

  13. Fusion Talk: A Remote Participation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J. H.; Reis, F.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Duarte, A.; Oliveira, F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sa, W. P. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-07

    Remote participation tools exist for video conferencing, document co-authoring and even for data sharing mainly through graphics. However, no single integrated solution existed to be used, whether in a daily informal basis among few researchers, or as a in more formal virtual gatherings with many participants wanting to share nuclear fusion data coming from heterogeneous databases.CFN is now developing FusionTalk, an open source project consisting of server and client software available to all nuclear fusion research institutes. It is a major complement to FireSignal[l] tools for local and remote experiments, which aims to fill the gap in what video-conferencing, data access and collaboration is concerned. Using FusionTalk web tools one can access and compare data already available on the web and which is often ignored or difficult to use. FusionTalk data search features allow researchers to easily access not only information on CFN's databases but also in other databases (interfaces are already being developed for MDS Plus, DAS Access and SDAS/FireSignal) in laboratories that run a FusionTalk server.

  14. Paul Holland: contributions to transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Leo J

    2013-07-01

    Paul Holland began his career in transfusion medicine in 1963 as an assistant to Dr. Paul Schmidt in the Blood Bank at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He served at the NIH for 20 years and retired in 1983 with the rank of Captain in the Public Health Service. He subsequently became the Medical Director/CEO of the Sacramento Medical Foundation Blood Center, now Blood Source, a position he held for the next 21 years. Paul Holland has authored/co-authored 265 articles, chapters and monographs, mostly concerning issues relating to either viral hepatitis or HIV. In addition to his research career, Paul was a very active educator, having contributed importantly to the development of many current thought leaders in transfusion medicine. His distinguished career also included important administrative roles in national and international organizations relevant to transfusion medicine. He also was the recipient of many honors and awards which has won him wide-spread renown and the respect of his many colleagues. PMID:23831199

  15. The Origin and Distribution of Heavy Elements in the CD Groups MKW 4 and AWM 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, Jan; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    At this point, data for MKW4 have been received and those for AWM4 are still awaited. The MKW4 data have been fully analyzed and a complete manuscript is available and in final review by co-authors before submission for refereed publication. The following is a summary of our principal findings: We examined the distribution and properties of the hot gas which makes up the group halo. The inner halo shows some signs of structure, with circular or elliptical beta-models providing a poor fit to the surface brightness profile. This may be evidence of large-scale motion in the inner halo, but we do not find evidence of sharp fronts or edges in the emission. The temperature of the halo declines in the core, with deprojected spectral fits showing a central temperature of approximately 1.3keV compared to approximately 3keV at 250 arcsec. However, cooling flow models provide poor fits to the inner regions of the group and the estimated cooling time of the gas is long except within the central dominant galaxy, NGC4073. Abundance profiles show a sharp increase in the core of the group. We conclude that MKW4 is a fairly relaxed group, which has developed a strong central temperature gradient but not a large-scale cooling flow.

  16. From Collaboration to Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jerry; Marshall, Jill

    2010-09-01

    As co-authors of a recent publication in Physical Review Special Topics- Physics Education Research, we have received inquiries about the publication process.2 We will describe the process of creating an article based on team work, in our case the work of the Texas Physics Assessment Team. Many physics teachers have opportunities to participate in collaborations for organizations like the AAPT and state education agencies. We may think of this work as service or professional development rather than research, but it can provide valuable information to the community as a whole and merits publication when presented in an appropriate format. Collaboration can provide a particularly important avenue toward publication for those of us at institutions dedicated primarily to teaching rather than research. Many data-gathering efforts require the collaboration of individuals and institutions at all degree levels. Community colleges have more diverse student populations than large research institutions, and may be able to provide different perspectives on common problems in teaching and learning physics. We will present suggestions for future team work publications, including prospective publications reporting the work of AAPT area committees.

  17. Modelling the Neutral Atmosphere and Plasma Environment of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, John D.; Jurac, S.; Johnson, R.; McGrath, M.

    2005-01-01

    The first year of this contract has resulted in two publications with the P.I. and co-I Jurac as lead authors and two publications where these team members are co-authors. These papers discuss modeling work undertaken in preparation for Cassini; the goal was to summarize our current best knowledge of the ion and neutrals sources and distributions. One of the major goals of this project is to improve models of the plasma and neutral environment near Saturn. The paper "A self-consistent model of plasma and neutrals at Saturn: Neutral cloud morphology" [Jurac and Richardson, 20051 presents results on the neutral clouds near Saturn using a model which for the first times treats the ions and neutrals self-consistently. We also for the first time include a directly sputtered H source. The Voyager and HST observations are used as model constraints. The neutral source is adjusted to give a good match to the HST observations of OH. For this initial run the ion parameters from Richardson et al. are used; charge exchange with ions is a major neutral loss process. The neutral profile derived from the model is then used in a model of plasma transport and chemistry (with the plasma diffusion rate the only free parameter). This model gives new values of the ion composition which are then fed back into the neutral model. This iteration continues until the values converge.

  18. Single-molecule analysis of the full transcription cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strick, Terence

    2005-03-01

    By monitoring the extension of a mechanically stretched, supercoiled DNA molecule containing a single bacterial promoter, we have been able to directly observe in real time the change in DNA extension associated with topological unwinding of ˜1 helical turn of promoter DNA by RNAP during transcription initiation. We find that this stage of transcription initiation is extremely sensitive to the torque acting on the supercoiled DNA. Upon addition of limited sets of nucleotides, changes in the polymerase/promoter interaction which are related to the process of abortive initiation can be studied in detail. Upon addition of the full set of nucleotides, the subsequent stages of transcription -- promoter escape, productive elongation and transcription termination -- can also be observed in real-time. The changes in DNA topology which occur at each of these stages have been determined, and these results provide for the first global view of the entire transcription cycle at the resolution of single molecules. Co-authors: Richard H. Ebright, Chen-Yu Liu and Andrey Revyakin, HHMI & Waksman Institute, Rutgers University.

  19. Yup'ik culture and context in Southwest Alaska: community member perspectives of tradition, social change, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James; Rasmus, Stacy M

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup'ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup'ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup'ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup'ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup'ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

  20. Evolution of Galaxies and the Star Formation Rate in the Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahre, Michael A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A central goal of extragalactic observational astronomy is to understand how normal galaxies evolve with redshift, and particularly when galaxies formed their stars. While optical and rest-frame UV observations have begun to address these issues, the interpretation of such data is particularly challenging because of the sensitivity to dust obscuration (at optical and UV wavelengths). The absorbed light is re-radiated at IR wavelengths, hence the optimal indicators of the star formation rate (SFR) is at a rest-frame wavelength of approx. 60 microns. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission is revolutionizing the study of the global properties and evolution of galaxies. Spitzer reaches nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than previous IR space missions. This research program is to study the SFR using statistical samples of galaxies in the local universe, at intermediate redshifts, and set the stage for continuing studies up to z=5. The overall research program is divided into three main investigations: A Mid-IR Hubble Atlas and SFR estimators in the local universe, Evolution of the SFR at 0 < z < 1 using pencil beam redshift surveys, and Galaxy formation and evolution at 1 < z < 5. The first papers from Spitzer were published during the last year, including ten refereed journal papers where the PI was first or co-author.

  1. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  2. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  3. Dosimetry and Vibration measurements in BIOLAB and EMCS (Dos-ViBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideström, Johan Olof; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Hauslage, Jens; Schuber, Marianne; Fossum, Knut R.; Vanhavere, Filip

    Space irradiation and vibrations in even small dosages can impact biological experiments and have not yet been measured in the biological payloads of the Columbus module at the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). Installing active dosimeters and accelerometers in the Experiment Containers (EC) of Biolab and the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), to sur-vey in-situ the radiation and vibrations in these facilities, should be performed to serve as a reference of the space conditions to future experiments. To monitor the radiation field, the space radiation should be measured with an active dosime-ter inside the Multi-User-Facilities, as close to the actual shielding conditions of the biological experiments as possible. To measure the full spectrum of vibration frequencies, several instru-ments with different measurement ranges and sensitivity should be combined. The radiation and vibrations should be measured simultaneously in Biolab and EMCS to compare their radiation shielding and sensitivities to vibrations from the ISS. The radiation could also be measured with passive dosimeters. On the one hand this would be a back-up to the active dosimeter and on the other hand it would provide additional data since the passive dosimeters can give additional information on the radiation LET spectrum. As a response to ESA's Announcement of Opportunity (ILSRA-2009), a joint experiment in Biolab and EMCS, entitled Dos-ViBE, was proposed by the co-authors. The objectives and experimental flow of Dos-ViBE are outlined in this presentation.

  4. Thirteen years of pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk surveys a thirteen-year collaboration with Chris Bottcher on various aspects of strong field electrodynamics. Most of the work centers on the atomic physics associated with the peripheral collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy atoms. The earliest, beginning in about 1979, dealt with the spontaneous emission of positrons from nuclear quasimolecules and touched briefly on the formation of axions as a possible explanation of the anomalous peaks in the spectrum. This work stimulated the extensive studies of particle production from coherent fields that laid the foundations for investigations of nuclear form factors, structure functions, and production mechanisms for the Higgs and other exotic particles. Chris conjectured that the strong fields that are present in these collisions would give rise to nonperturbative effects. Thus, during this time, Chris also worked to develop basis-spline collocation methods for solving dynamical relativistic fermions in super strong fields. This was perhaps one of the best of times for Chris; on these problems alone, he co-authored fifty articles with more than twenty different collaborators.

  5. An analysis of the structure and evolution of the scientific collaboration network of computer intelligence in games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Cabrera, R.; Cotta, C.; Fernández-Leiva, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    Games constitute a research domain that is attracting the interest of scientists from numerous disciplines. This is particularly true from the perspective of computational intelligence. In order to examine the growing importance of this area in the gaming domain, we present an analysis of the scientific collaboration network of researchers working on computational intelligence in games (CIG). This network has been constructed from bibliographical data obtained from the Digital Bibliography & Library Project (DBLP). We have analyzed from a temporal perspective several properties of the CIG network at the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic levels, studying the large-scale structure, the growth mechanics, and collaboration patterns among other features. Overall, computational intelligence in games exhibits similarities with other collaboration networks such as for example a log-normal degree distribution and sub-linear preferential attachment for new authors. It also has distinctive features, e.g. the number of papers co-authored is exponentially distributed, the internal preferential attachment (new collaborations among existing authors) is linear, and fidelity rates (measured as the relative preference for publishing with previous collaborators) grow super-linearly. The macroscopic and mesoscopic evolution of the network indicates the field is very active and vibrant, but it is still at an early developmental stage. We have also analyzed communities and central nodes and how these are reflected in research topics, thus identifying active research subareas.

  6. Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

  7. Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations

    PubMed Central

    Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416

  8. John Bolton and the discovery of discrete radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Peter; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    John Bolton was born in Sheffield in 1922 and educated at Cambridge University. After wartime service in the Royal Navy, in 1946 he joined the CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory in Sydney and began work in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. Radio emission from our Galaxy had been discovered and studied during the 1930s by the Americans Karl Jansky and Grote Reber. It was thought that the emission emanated from interstellar space, but the mechanism was unknown. In June 1947, observing from Dover Heights near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Bolton discovered that strong emission from the constellation of Cygnus came from a discrete point-like source. By the end of the year, with colleagues Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee ( a co-author of this paper) , Bolton had discovered a further five of these discrete sources. However, the positions measured for them were not accurate enough to allow them to be identified optically with any known celestial objects. In 1948 Bolton organised a three-month expedition to New Zealand where there were observing sites superior to the one at Dover Heights. The new observations gave more accurate positions and allowed Bolton to identify three of the sources: one was a supernova remnant in our Galaxy and two were unusual extragalactic objects. This paper will document this remarkable chapter in the development of twentieth century astronomy.

  9. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1992. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  10. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1990. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  11. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1994-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1993. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  12. Bioprocess monitoring and computer control: key roots of the current PAT initiative.

    PubMed

    Junker, B H; Wang, H Y

    2006-10-01

    This review article has been written for the journal, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, to commemorate the 70th birthday of Daniel I.C. Wang, who served as doctoral thesis advisor to each of the co-authors, but a decade apart. Key roots of the current PAT initiative in bioprocess monitoring and control are described, focusing on the impact of Danny Wang's research as a professor at MIT. The history of computer control and monitoring in biochemical processing has been used to identify the areas that have already benefited and those that are most likely to benefit in the future from PAT applications. Past applications have included the use of indirect estimation methods for cell density, expansion of on-line/at-line and on-line/in situ measurement techniques, and development of models and expert systems for control and optimization. Future applications are likely to encompass additional novel measurement technologies, measurements for multi-scale and disposable bioreactors, real time batch release, and more efficient data utilization to achieve process validation and continuous improvement goals. Dan Wang's substantial contributions in this arena have been one key factor in steering the PAT initiative towards realistic and attainable industrial applications. PMID:16933288

  13. Particle theory and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of the research supported by this contract is to further our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter as well as the role fundamental interactions play in cosmology and astrophysics. Astrophysical data, such as from high energy cosmic rays and large scale structure of the universe, are employed to constrain particle physics theories. Particle collisions at Tevatron and higher (SSC) energies are also under investigation. During the past year a systematic reanalysis of the correlation between solar activity and the solar neutrino flux was undertaken. The conclusion seems to be that the Homestake experimental data show a correlation at a significant level, supporting the hypothesis that the neutrino possesses a magnetic moment. A separate, but related, theoretical investigation of electromagnetic properties of elementary particles has led to the discovery of a class of models in which the neutrino is endowed with an appreciable magnetic moment while its remains small. Altogether members of the group have been co-authors of 28 papers during the grant year on topics ranging from fermion masses to the role of ultra-high energy hadronic interactions in cosmic ray physics.

  14. A new introductory quantum mechanics curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnle, Antje; Bozhinova, Inna; Browne, Dan; Everitt, Mark; Fomins, Aleksejs; Kok, Pieter; Kulaitis, Gytis; Prokopas, Martynas; Raine, Derek; Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Physics New Quantum Curriculum consists of freely available online learning and teaching materials (quantumphysics.iop.org) for a first course in university quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. This approach immediately immerses students in inherently quantum-mechanical aspects by focusing on experiments that have no classical explanation. It allows from the start a discussion of the interpretive aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. This paper gives an overview of the resources available from the IOP website. The core text includes around 80 articles which are co-authored by leading experts, arranged in themes, and can be used flexibly to provide a range of alternative approaches. Many of the articles include interactive simulations with accompanying activities and problem sets that can be explored by students to enhance their understanding. Much of the linear algebra needed for this approach is included in the resource. Solutions to activities are available to instructors. The resources can be used in a variety of ways, from being supplemental to existing courses to forming a complete programme.

  15. Authentic Research Experience for University of the Fraser Valley Undergraduate Students through the Global Rivers Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is organized by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. In addition, we have been afforded the opportunity to undertake a time series sampling of Fraser Valley tributaries of the Fraser River. These small salmon bearing streams are being threatened by increased urbanization within their watersheds and runoff from agricultural activity. Students in upper level courses and individual research students have had the opportunity to become involved in GRO research projects. These students have been instructed in the sampling protocol and techniques and have become more aware of the threats to both local streams and the Fraser River watershed. Additionally, individual research students have been able to develop their own research projects within the larger project and present their findings at academic conferences. They have also been involved in peer-reviewed publications as co-authors of research papers.

  16. "Novel Techniques in Non-Stationary Analysis of Rotorcraft Vibration Signitures"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    This research effort produced new methods to analyze the performance of linear predictors that track non-stationary processes. Specifically, prediction methods have been applied to the vibration pattern of rotorcraft drivetrains. This analysis is part or a larger rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) that can diagnose immediate failures of the subsystems, as indicated by abrupt change in the vibration signature, and prognosticate future health, by examining the vibration patterns against long-term trends. This problem is described by a earlier joint paper co-authored by members of the funding agency and the recipient institutions prior to this grant effort. Specific accomplishments under this grant include the following: (1) Definition of a framework for analysis of non-stationary time-series estimation using the coefficients of an adaptive filter. (2) Description of a novel method of combining short-term predictor error and long-term regression error to analyze the performance of a non-stationary predictor. (3) Formulation of a multi-variate probability density function that quantifies the performance of a adaptive predictor by using the short- and long-term error variables in a Gamma function distribution. and (4) Validation of the mathematical formulations with empirical data from NASA flight tests and simulated data to illustrate the utility beyond the domain of vibrating machinery.

  17. On advanced estimation techniques for exoplanet detection and characterization using ground-based coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; G?adysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-07-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  18. Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2008-07-08

    A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced.

  19. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2002-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (size about 2-200 km). The CRMs also allow explicit interaction between out-going longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation with clouds. Observations can provide the initial conditions and validation for CRM results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model, a cloud-resolving model, has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past two decades. Dr. Joanne Simpson played a central role in GCE modeling developments and applications. She was the lead author or co-author on more than forty GCE modeling papers. In this paper, a brief discussion and review of the application of the GCE model to (1) cloud interactions and mergers, (2) convective and stratiform interaction, (3) mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction, (4) latent heating profiles and TRMM, and (5) responses of cloud systems to large-scale processes are provided. Comparisons between the GCE model's results, other cloud-resolving model results and observations are also examined.

  20. [Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ogata, K

    1981-08-01

    Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

  1. Geometer energy unified field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

    GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

  2. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-01ER54617 Computer Modeling of Microturbulence and Macrostability Properties of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Noel Leboeuf

    2004-03-04

    OAK-B135 We have made significant progress during the past grant period in several key areas of the UCLA and national Fusion Theory Program. This impressive body of work includes both fundamental and applied contributions to MHD and turbulence in DIII-D and Electric Tokamak plasmas, and also to Z-pinches, particularly with respect to the effect of flows on these phenomena. We have successfully carried out interpretive and predictive global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell calculations of DIII-D discharges. We have cemented our participation in the gyrokinetic PIC effort of the SciDAC Plasma Microturbulence Project through working membership in the Summit Gyrokinetic PIC Team. We have continued to teach advanced courses at UCLA pertaining to computational plasma physics and to foster interaction with students and junior researchers. We have in fact graduated 2 Ph. D. students during the past grant period. The research carried out during that time has resulted in many publications in the premier plasma physics and fusion energy sciences journals and in several invited oral communications at major conferences such as Sherwood, Transport Task Force (TTF), the annual meetings of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society, of the European Physical Society, and the 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, FEC 2002. Many of these have been authored and co-authored with experimentalists at DIII-D.

  3. Ancient Jets of Fiery Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    Chondrules are intriguing millimeter-sized crystallized droplets that are abundant in chondrites, so named because of the presence of numerous chondrules. They have puzzled cosmochemists since they were described by English scientist H. C. Sorby in 1877. Everyone agrees that they formed as molten droplets of silicates, but nobody agrees on how the little things formed. Ideas range from impacts onto asteroids, primary condensation in the solar nebula, shock waves and/or lightening in the solar nebula, or by processes operating as planets began to form. A new twist on this last idea was investigated in a new way by Brandon Johnson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT) and co-authors David Minton and Jay Melosh (Purdue University), and Maria Zuber at MIT. Johnson and coworkers modeled the effects of impacts between planetesimals 100-1000 kilometers in diameter. When such objects hit each other, the first thing that happens is jetting of molten rock. Johnson and colleagues propose that the jets will subdivide into droplets as the jetted material is shot into space. They estimate that the chondrules would have the correct cooling rates (as determined from previous studies of chondrules) and the collision frequency would be high enough to produce abundant chondrules. Johnson and coworkers suggest that chondrules are a "byproduct of [planetary] accretion."

  4. Asynclitism: a literature review of an often forgotten clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Barbera, Antonio; Di Vagno, Giovanni; Gimovsky, Alexis; Berghella, Vincenzo; Ghi, Tullio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Tinelli, Andrea

    2014-10-29

    Abstract Asynclitism is defined as the "oblique malpresentation of the fetal head in labor". Asynclitism is a clinical diagnosis that may be difficult to make; it may be found during vaginal examination. It is significant because it may cause failure of progress operative or cesarean delivery. We reviewed all literature for asynclitism by performing an extensive electronic search of studies from 1959 to 2013. All studies were first reviewed by a single author and discussed with co-authors. The following studies were identified: 8 book chapters, 14 studies on asynclitism alone and 10 papers on both fetal occiput posterior position and asynclitism. The fetal head in a laboring patient may be associated with some degree of asynclitism; this is seen as usual way of the fetal head to adjust to maternal pelvic diameters. However, marked asynclitism is often detected in presence of a co-existing fetal head malposition, especially the transverse and occipital posterior positions. Digital diagnosis of asynclitism is enhanced by intrapartum ultrasound with transabdominal or transperineal approach. The accurate diagnosis of asynclitism, in an objective way, may provide a better assessment of the fetal head position that will help in the correct application of vacuum and forceps, allowing the prevention of unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25283847

  5. Jim Starnes' Contributions to Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Harris, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    A summary of advances in residual strength analyses methods for metallic structures that were realized under the leadership of Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr., is presented. The majority of research led by Dr. Starnes in this area was conducted in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Dr. Starnes, respectfully referred to herein as Jim, had a passion for studying complex response phenomena and dedicated a significant amount of research effort toward advancing damage tolerance and residual strength analysis methods for metallic structures. Jim's efforts were focused on understanding damage propagation in built-up fuselage structure with widespread fatigue damage, with the goal of ensuring safety in the aging international commercial transport fleet. Jim's major contributions in this research area were in identifying the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads, and geometric nonlinearity, on the response of built-up structures with damage. Analytical and experimental technical results are presented to demonstrate the breadth and rigor of the research conducted in this technical area. Technical results presented herein are drawn exclusively from papers where Jim was a co-author.

  6. Basal vertebrates clarify the evolutionary history of ciliopathy-associated genes Tmem138 and Tmem216.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Warren, Wesley C; Brenner, Sydney

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Lee et al. (Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Lee JE, et al. (30 co-authors). 2012. Evolutionarily assembled cis-regulatory module at a human ciliopathy locus. Science (335:966-969.) demonstrated that mutation in either of the transmembrane protein encoding genes, TMEM138 or TMEM216, causes phenotypically indistinguishable ciliopathy. Furthermore, on the basis of the observation that their orthologs are linked in a head-to-tail configuration in other mammals and Anolis, but present on different scaffolds or chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis and zebrafish, the authors concluded that the two genes were joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the evolutionary amphibian-to-reptile transition to form a functional module. We have sequenced these gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, and found that the two genes together with a related gene (Tmem80) constitute a tandem cluster. This suggests that the two genes were already linked in the vertebrate ancestor and then rearranged independently in Xenopus and zebrafish. Analyses of the coelacanth and lamprey genomes support this hypothesis. Our study highlights the importance of basal vertebrates as critical reference genomes. PMID:22936720

  7. Stereoscopic CAD and Environmental Sculpture: Enhancement of the Design Process in the Visual Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Bandini, Pier L.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper, co-authors Robert Fisher and Pier Luigi Bandini describe their personal observations concerning stereo enhancements of computer graphics images employed in their research. in Part One, Robert Fisher, a professional sculptor, Professor and Artist-in-Residence in the College of Engineering at Penn State, cites three recent environmental sculpture projects: "See-scape," "A Page from the Book of Skies," and an as yet untitled work. Wireframe images, interior views of architectural spaces, and complex imagery are rendered comprehensible by stereo 3-D. In Part Two, Pier L. Bandini, Associate Professor of Architecture and Director of the Architecture CAD Lab at Penn State, describes the virtues of the stereo-enhanced wireframe model--the benefits of the "see-through coupled with a complete awareness of the whole space." The final example, of a never-realized XVIII-century project, suggests a new and profound application of stereo 3-D to historical inquiry, namely, the experience of ancient spaces and structures that are no longer existing or that were never constructed.

  8. Towards a North Atlantic Marine Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Bryant, Charlotte; Rae, James; Burke, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Service du dejeuner! Twenty years ago, in 1995, I sailed as a post-doctoral researcher based at the University of Edinburgh (UK) on the first scientific mission of the new Marion Dufresne II. In this presentation, I will provide an update on the work that first quantified North Atlantic marine radiocarbon reservoir ages, highlighting how advances in marine tephrochronology over the last twenty years have significantly improved our understanding (and ability to test) land-ice-ocean linkages. The mechanistic link that connects marine radiocarbon reservoir ages to ocean ventilation state will also be discussed with reference to the Younger Dryas climate anomaly, where models and data have been successfully integrated. I will discuss the use of reference chronologies in the North Atlantic region and evaluate the common practice of climate synchronization between the Greenland ice cores and some of the key MD records that are now available. The exceptional quality of the MD giant piston cores and their potential to capture high-resolution last glacial sediment records from the North Atlantic provides an exciting opportunity to build new regional marine radiocarbon calibration curves. I will highlight new efforts by my co-authors and others to build such curves, setting-out a new agenda for the next twenty years of the IMAGES programme.

  9. Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: “Reflecting” on the Mirror, Part II

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Robert J.; Stevenson, James G.; White, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    The Director’s Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror’s results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession’s progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421566

  10. A bottom-up, scientist-based initiative for the communication of climate sciences with the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter

    2015-04-01

    This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch

  11. Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

  12. Publishing a nursing textbook: collaborating through "seamless technology".

    PubMed

    Jacob, S R; Cherry, B

    2000-01-01

    Electronic communication can enhance long-distance networking and scholarly activity and make long-distance collaboration through technology a reality. Technology presents a new world of opportunity for improving writing skills, nurturing collegiality, and maximizing efficiency in the successful completion of collaborative projects. The concept of "seamless technology" introduced by the authors provides a guide to assist partners involved in collaborative projects to manage technology for a successful, rewarding experience. Basic questions regarding technology that need to be answered on the front end of a long-distance project are suggested in this article. In addition, the steps taken by the authors to co-author and co-edit a nursing textbook and accompanying instructor's manual by using electronic communication and other sources of technology are outlined. The authors address ways that long-distance collaboration required them to maximize their communication and planning skills, thereby increasing productivity and reducing costs. The challenges and rewards of working together exclusively through technology are discussed, and finally, implications for professional nursing are addressed. PMID:11016102

  13. Workshop Report: AAPS Workshop on Method Development, Validation, and Troubleshooting of Ligand-Binding Assays in the Regulated Environment.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Marian; Stevenson, Lauren; Golob, Michaela; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao; Staack, Roland F; Jenkins, Rand; Booth, Brian; Wakshull, Eric; Bowsher, Ronald; Rock, Marie; Dudal, Sherri; DeSilva, Binodh

    2015-07-01

    A novel format was introduced at the recent AAPS NBC Workshop on Method Development, Validation and Troubleshooting in San Diego on 18th May 2014. The workshop format was initiated by Binodh De Silva; Marie Rock and Sherri Dudal joined the initiative to develop and chair the workshop. Questions were solicited by a variety of avenues, including a Linked-In Discussion Group. Once collated and clarified, the topics covered assay development, validation, and analysis of PK, Immunogenicity, and Biomarkers with an additional topic on alternative bioanalytical technologies. A panel of experts (workshop report co-authors) was assigned to each topic to bring forward thought-provoking aspects of each topic. The format of the workshop was developed to target the needs of bioanalytical scientists with intermediate to advanced experience in the field ranging to enable robust discussion and to delve deeper into the current bioanalytical hot topics. While the new format allowed for an interactive session with the topical discussion driven by the audience members, it did not foster equal discussion time for all of the proposed topics, especially Biomarkers and alternative LBA technologies. PMID:25921938

  14. Yup’ik Culture and Context in Southwest Alaska: Community Member Perspectives of Tradition, Social Change, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup’ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup’ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup’ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup’ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup’ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

  15. Profiles in Leadership: Clifton J. Latiolais, MSc, DSc

    PubMed Central

    White, Sara; Godwin, Harold N.; Weber, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of pharmacy services in the United States. The late Clifton J. Latiolais, MS, DSc, served as the assistant program director for the study and was a co-author of the Mirror. The late Don E. Francke, MS, DSc, was the lead author of the Mirror and the principal investigator of the federally funded study that reviewed hospital pharmacy services across the United States. The next 2 articles in Director’s Forum profile the leadership of Drs. Latiolais and Francke. This article highlights Dr. Latiolais (“Clif”) by briefly reviewing his biography and key career accomplishments, describing his leadership philosophy, and translating that philosophy to today’s health care challenges. Clif’s influence on health system pharmacy serves as an example of effective leadership. This historical perspective on Clif’s leadership, as seen through the eyes of those who knew him, provides directors of pharmacy a valuable leadership viewpoint as they develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421540

  16. Young Voices on Climate Change: The Paul F-Brandwein 2010 NSTA Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Lynne

    2011-04-01

    Lynne Cherry Brandwein Lecture March 2010 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, Philadelphia, PA. Young Voices on Climate Change: Inspired and Empowered Youth Tackle Climate Science and Find Climate Solutions. As a child, Lynne Cherry was profoundly connected to the natural world and a special place. She watched the destruction of her world. Now, through her Young Voices on Climate Change project, she is trying to give teachers and young people the tools to prevent planetary meltdown on a greater scale. Global climate change is upon us and the need for education and action is immediate. Outreach, visual storytelling, and scientific understanding are especially necessary in light of the recent polls that show that the public is becoming more confused and less concerned about climate change. Cherry's climate book, co-authored with photojournalist Gary Braasch, and her Young Voices on Climate Change films feature climate solutions. They're about win-win—save the environment, protect human health, reduce global warming gases, demonstrate youth making a difference with practical tools, motivate engagement in climate science, take pride in increased science literacy, reach young people through their hearts as well as their minds, and save money. Although young people can help their parents, peers and communities understand climate science, they can also show them that reducing CO2 is in their economic interest, and spur them to take action. School carbon reduction initiatives are spilling over into communities yielding measurable results in both global warming gas reductions and significant monetary savings.

  17. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  18. Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

  19. Sweet old things: moral complexities in old age in Muriel Spark's Memento Mori.

    PubMed

    England, Suzanne E; Rust, Martha D

    2015-04-01

    Through the lens of Muriel Spark's dark comedic novel, Memento Mori, this paper explores questions of morality, mortality, and the moral choices and performances in old age and in the systems and places of care. Spark's elderly characters are complex moral actors - some virtuous and some decidedly not - who have been receiving mysterious phone calls telling them simply, "Remember you must die." We, the co-authors, are from two different disciplines, namely Renaissance and medieval literature, and social work and critical gerontology. Among the questions that interest us is the paradox of a master narrative that on the one hand exempts the old from moral criticism yet holds them to a higher moral standard - essentially positioning them as moral nonentities, and relieving the old, their caretakers, and society of moral responsibility. Another is the question of whether moral agency in old age has distinctive aspects, and whether consciousness of one's impending mortality effects moral reasoning and performance. In this paper we offer our individual readings of the ways the novel opens up conceptual space in aging theory, and conclude with our thoughts about what our collaboration suggests for continuing cross-disciplinary dialogue. PMID:25841732

  20. Case studies of stakeholder decision making on radioactive waste management in the US and UK

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, W.F. [Paine College, Augusta, GA (United States); Whitton, J. [Nexia Solutions, Risley, Warrington, Chesire, WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A case study of stakeholder engagement for UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management and another for waste management decision making in the US are presented. The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). Work by the co-author focuses on the preliminary findings of a questionnaire that has been issued to all members of the NDA NSG and associated sub-groups to assess stakeholder perceptions of the engagement process to date. Findings are reviewed. In the US case study, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC, considered upgrading the seismic design for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at SRS. This decision, proposed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), provoked heated debate among DOE, SRSCAB and DNFSB representatives. Theory advances are reviewed. (authors)

  1. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes. PMID:25085235

  2. Transforming Introductory Physics for Life Scientists: Researching the consequences for students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpen, Chandra

    2011-10-01

    In response to policy documents calling for dramatic changes in pre-medical and biology education [1-3], the physics and biology education research groups at the University of Maryland are rethinking how to teach physics to life science majors. As an interdisciplinary team, we are drastically reconsidering the physics topics relevant for these courses. We are designing new in-class tasks to engage students in using physical principles to explain aspects of biological phenomena where the physical principles are of consequence to the biological systems. We will present examples of such tasks as well as preliminary data on how students engage in these tasks. Lastly, we will share some barriers encountered in pursuing meaningful interdisciplinary education.[4pt] Co-authors: Edward F. Redish and Julia Svaboda [4pt] [1] National Research Council, Bio2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (NAP, 2003).[0pt] [2] AAMC-HHMI committee, Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (AAMC, 2009).[0pt] [3] American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action (AAAS, 2009).

  3. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  4. Panel discussion review: session 1--exposure assessment and related errors in air pollution epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Jeremy A; Wilson, William E; Strand, Matthew; Brook, Jeff; Wyzga, Ron; Lumley, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Examining the validity of exposure metrics used in air pollution epidemiologic models has been a key focus of recent exposure assessment studies. The objective of this work has been, largely, to determine what a given exposure metric represents and to quantify and reduce any potential errors resulting from using these metrics in lieu of true exposure measurements. The current manuscript summarizes the presentations of the co-authors from a recent EPA workshop, held in December 2006, dealing with the role and contributions of exposure assessment in addressing these issues. Results are presented from US and Canadian exposure and pollutant measurement studies as well as theoretical simulations to investigate what both particulate and gaseous pollutant concentrations represent and the potential errors resulting from their use in air pollution epidemiologic studies. Quantifying the association between ambient pollutant concentrations and corresponding personal exposures has led to the concept of defining attenuation factors, or alpha. Specifically, characterizing pollutant-specific estimates for alpha was shown to be useful in developing regression calibration methods involving PM epidemiologic risk estimates. For some gaseous pollutants such as NO2 and SO2, the associations between ambient concentrations and personal exposures were shown to be complex and still poorly understood. Results from recent panel studies suggest that ambient NO2 measurements may, in some locations, be serving as surrogates to traffic pollutants, including traffic-related PM2.5, hopanes, steranes, and oxidized nitrogen compounds (rather than NO2). PMID:18079768

  5. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    1999-08-23

    The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

  6. Development of the merchant plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfinger, R.; Gilliss, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ``H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ``system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ``hot bed'' for merchant plant development.

  7. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Robert C. Allen was a gifted educator, as well as experienced ophthalmologist, who was a close personal friend of Dr. Edlich at the University of Virginia Health System. While serving on the faculty at the University of Virginia Health System, Dr. Allen proved to be a compassionate physician, who developed close personal relationships with the residents, faculty, and his patients. Dr. Allen was invited by Dr Edlich to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. When Dr. Allen told Dr. Edlich that he had ocular melanoma in 2000, this news was a wake-up call to Dr. Edlich on the need to prevent skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Empowered by this news, Dr. Edlich was honored to co-author four articles on skin cancer prevention, as well as the latest article focusing on prevention of ocular melanoma. The Ocular Melanoma Foundation (Richmond, VA (USA)) was founded in 2003 by Dr. Robert C. Allen to increase awareness, enhance education, and provide advocacy among both patients and health care professionals regarding this rare, but potentially lethal cancer. It has a website that provides patient information, up-to-date information and enables communication/ discourse between and among patients and practitioners (admin@ocularmelanoma.org). Dr. Allen died on March 24, 2005, at his home surrounded by family and loved ones. When surgeons are faced with challenging healthcare diseases, Dr. Edlich's mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, advised Dr. Edlich that he should seek the advice and guidance of skilled basic scientists, who are familiar with the problem. Dr. Wangensteen is recognized as the greatest surgical teacher during the 20th century. Consequently, Dr. Edlich enlisted the advice and guidance from the two co-authors of the next article regarding the scientific basis for the selection of sunglasses to prevent the development of cataracts, pterygia, skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Dr. Reichow is a Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact lens, you should go to the website for more information http://www.nike.com/nikevision/content.html

  8. Quantum Simulation of Frustrated Magnetism with Many Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senko, Crystal

    2013-05-01

    A collection of trapped atomic ions is an excellent system for simulating quantum many-body physics, like magnetism, which may be difficult to access via classical computation or traditional condensed-matter experiments. Our large crystals of 10-20 ions comprise a platform to study a long-range quantum Ising model with tunable couplings in a 1D spin chain. State-dependent optical dipole forces exploit the Coulomb interaction to generate the spin-spin couplings, and fluorescence measurements on a camera are used to read out individual spin states. We investigated the spin order resulting from changing the range of antiferromagnetic interactions or the strength of an axial magnetic field, demonstrating our control over the amount of frustration present. We are turning to the study of dynamics in this system, with the aim of exploring topics including adiabaticity, spectroscopy of the Hamiltonian, the emergence of Kibble-Zurek-like behavior in a finite system, thermalization in an isolated quantum system, and nonequilibrium phase transitions. There is great promise in extending the system to 30+ spins, where computations become classically intractable. Co-authors are R. Islam, P. Richerme, W. C. Campbell, S. Korenblit, J. Smith, A. Lee, E. E. Edwards, C.-C. J. Wang, J. K. Freericks, and C. Monroe. A collection of trapped atomic ions is an excellent system for simulating quantum many-body physics, like magnetism, which may be difficult to access via classical computation or traditional condensed-matter experiments. Our large crystals of 10-20 ions comprise a platform to study a long-range quantum Ising model with tunable couplings in a 1D spin chain. State-dependent optical dipole forces exploit the Coulomb interaction to generate the spin-spin couplings, and fluorescence measurements on a camera are used to read out individual spin states. We investigated the spin order resulting from changing the range of antiferromagnetic interactions or the strength of an axial magnetic field, demonstrating our control over the amount of frustration present. We are turning to the study of dynamics in this system, with the aim of exploring topics including adiabaticity, spectroscopy of the Hamiltonian, the emergence of Kibble-Zurek-like behavior in a finite system, thermalization in an isolated quantum system, and nonequilibrium phase transitions. There is great promise in extending the system to 30+ spins, where computations become classically intractable. Co-authors are R. Islam, P. Richerme, W. C. Campbell, S. Korenblit, J. Smith, A. Lee, E. E. Edwards, C.-C. J. Wang, J. K. Freericks, and C. Monroe. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  9. [Vaccines and autism: a myth to debunk?].

    PubMed

    Battistella, Melania; Carlino, Cristiana; Dugo, Valentina; Ponzo, Patrizia; Franco, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation. He proposed the administration of the MMR vaccine as a possible. cause of the inflammatory process. The hypothesis suggested by Wakefield led to a drastic drop in vaccination coverage in the UK and to the failure to achieve adequate levels of immunization in many countries, with a consequent increase in the incidence of measles and its complications. Wakefield work stimulated a broad discussion in the scientific community and many studies conducted over the next few years contradicted the research results of the English physician. In 2004, journalist Brian Deer conducted an accurate investigation that revealed how the Wakefield research presented many not regular aspects and was performed with predominantly economic objectives. In 2010, Wakefield was expelled from the General Medical Council, while the "Lancet" retracted the paper. The scientific research conducted in recent years confirm the inconsistency of the relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. The possible association with other factors, such as autoimmune processes, hyperactivation of mast cells in the hypothalamus, use of paracetamol in genetically predisposed children are currently investigated. PMID:24316883

  10. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    ScienceCinema

    Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2012-06-28

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  11. Comment on: `The quest for a consistent signal in ground and GRACE gravity time-series', by Michel Van Camp, Olivier de Viron, Laurent Metivier, Bruno Meurers and Olivier Francis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Boy, J.-P.; Hinderer, J.; Jahr, T.; Weise, A.; Wziontek, H.; Abe, M.; Förste, C.

    2014-12-01

    The paper in question by Van Camp and co-authors [MVC] challenges previous work showing that ground gravity data arising from hydrology can provide a consistent signal for the comparison with satellite gravity data. The data sets used are similar to those used previously, that is, the gravity field as measured by the GRACE satellites versus ground-based data from superconducting gravimeters (SGs) over the same continental area, in this case Central Europe. One of the main impediments in this paper is the presentation that is frequently confusing and misleading as to what the data analysis really shows, for example, the irregular treatment of annual components that are first subtracted then reappear in the analysis. More importantly, we disagree on specific points. Two calculations are included in our comment to illustrate where we believe that the processing in [MVC] paper is deficient. The first deals with their erroneous treatment of the global hydrology using a truncated spherical harmonic approach which explains almost a factor 2 error in their computation of the loading. The second shows the effect of making the wrong assumption in the GRACE/hydrology/surface gravity comparison by inverting the whole of the hydrology loading for underground stations. We also challenge their claims that empirical orthogonal function techniques cannot be done in the presence of periodic components, and that SG data cannot be corrected for comparisons with GRACE data. The main conclusion of their paper, that there is little coherence between ground gravity stations and this invalidates GRACE comparisons, is therefore questionable. There is nothing in [MVC] that contradicts any of the previous papers that have shown clearly a strong relation between seasonal signals obtained from both ground gravity and GRACE satellite data.

  12. Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Evaluation of Research Capacity in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Molyneux, David H.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria carries the highest burden and diversity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa and is preparing to scale up its efforts to control/eliminate these diseases. To achieve this it will require a range of internal technical support and expertise for mapping, monitoring and evaluating, operational research and documenting its success. In order to begin to evaluate this potential in Nigeria, this study collated and analysed information for lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH), which are currently being targeted with preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings Information from 299 scientific articles published on the selected NTDs in 179 journals between January 2008 and September 2013 was extracted and systematically compiled into a geo-referenced database for analysis and mapping. The highest number of articles was from the southern geo-political zones of the country. The majority of articles focused on one specific disease, and schistosomiasis and STH were found to have the highest and most wide ranging research output. The main type of study was parasitological, and the least was biotechnological. Nigerian authors were mostly affiliated with universities, and there was a wide range of international co-authors from Africa and other regions, especially the USA and UK. The majority of articles were published in journals with no known impact factor. Conclusions/Significance The extensive database and series of maps on the research capacity within Nigeria produced in this study highlights the current potential that exists, and needs to be fully maximized for the control/elimination of NTDs in the country. This study provides an important model approach that can be applied to other low and middle income countries where NTDs are endemic, and NTD programmes require support from the expertise within their own country, as well as internationally, to help raise their profile and importance. PMID:25121582

  13. New directions for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.

    PubMed

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Kaman, Tulin; Lim, Hyunkyung

    2013-11-28

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing layer, presenting simulations in agreement with experimental data. This problem is an idealized subproblem of important scientific and engineering problems, such as gravitationally induced mixing in oceanography and performance assessment for inertial confinement fusion. Engineering codes commonly achieve correct simulations through the calibration of adjustable parameters. In this sense, they are interpolative and not predictive. As computational science moves from the interpolative to the predictive and reduces the reliance on experiment, the quality of decision making improves. The diagnosis of errors in a multi-parameter, multi-physics setting is daunting, so we address this issue in the proposed idealized setting. The validation tests presented are thus a test for engineering codes, when used for complex problems containing RT features. The RT growth rate, characterized by a dimensionless but non-universal parameter ?, describes the outer edge of the mixing zone. Increasingly accurate front tracking/large eddy simulations reveal the non-universality of the growth rate and agreement with experimental data. Increased mesh resolution allows reduction in the role of key subgrid models. We study the effect of long-wavelength perturbations on the mixing growth rate. A self-similar power law for the initial perturbation amplitudes is here inferred from experimental data. We show a maximum ±5% effect on the growth rate. Large (factors of 2) effects, as predicted in some models and many simulations, are inconsistent with the experimental data of Youngs and co-authors. The inconsistency of the model lies in the treatment of the dynamics of bubbles, which are the shortest-wavelength modes for this problem. An alternative theory for this shortest wavelength, based on the bubble merger model, was previously shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:24146006

  14. Sino-Canadian Collaborations in Stem Cell Research: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Khan, Sarah E.; Ray, Monali; McMahon, Dominique S.; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla

    2013-01-01

    Background International collaboration (IC) is essential for the advance of stem cell research, a field characterized by marked asymmetries in knowledge and capacity between nations. China is emerging as a global leader in the stem cell field. However, knowledge on the extent and characteristics of IC in stem cell science, particularly China’s collaboration with developed economies, is lacking. Methods and Findings We provide a scientometric analysis of the China–Canada collaboration in stem cell research, placing this in the context of other leading producers in the field. We analyze stem cell research published from 2006 to 2010 from the Scopus database, using co-authored papers as a proxy for collaboration. We examine IC levels, collaboration preferences, scientific impact, the collaborating institutions in China and Canada, areas of mutual interest, and funding sources. Our analysis shows rapid global expansion of the field with 48% increase in papers from 2006 to 2010. China now ranks second globally after the United States. China has the lowest IC rate of countries examined, while Canada has one of the highest. China–Canada collaboration is rising steadily, more than doubling during 2006–2010. China–Canada collaboration enhances impact compared to papers authored solely by China-based researchers This difference remained significant even when comparing only papers published in English. Conclusions While China is increasingly courted in IC by developed countries as a partner in stem cell research, it is clear that it has reached its status in the field largely through domestic publications. Nevertheless, IC enhances the impact of stem cell research in China, and in the field in general. This study establishes an objective baseline for comparison with future studies, setting the stage for in-depth exploration of the dynamics and genesis of IC in stem cell research. PMID:23468927

  15. The interlayer exchange interaction in multilayer magnetic systems Fe/Cr/Fe (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreines, N. M.; Kholin, D. I.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2012-09-01

    Upsurge of interest in the study of magnetic multilayer structures began in the mid-80s of the twentieth century and was caused by significant progress in the technology of ultrathin metallic films. For a few years, phenomena extremely interesting from both fundamental and applied point of view have been found in these structures: the antiparallel arrangement of the ferromagnetic layers, giant magnetoresistance, alternating oscillations of the interlayer exchange, noncollinear interlayer ordering of magnetic moments. All this and the closeness of technologies, used for the sample preparation to those traditionally applied in microelectronics, promised great potentials for developing compact magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memory for electronic devices, etc. To date, some of these features are already implemented in the mass commercial products (e.g., read heads of hard drives), and others still wait in the wings. The Nobel Prize, awarded in 2007 to A. Fert and P. Grünberg with the words "For the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect" can be considered as recognition of the importance of the discoveries made in this area. A special place in these works was given to the Fe/Cr/Fe system. It is there for the first time almost all of the most interesting phenomena were observed that caused a boom in the physics of magnetic films. However, until recently the nature of the exchange interaction in this system aroused great debates. First of all, it was due to a complex phase diagram of chromium spacer and strong influence on the sample properties of technological perfection of its structure. Here we made a brief review of the main experimental and theoretical studies on the multilayer systems Fe/Cr/Fe, as well as recounted the results of our own studies (performed with a group of co-authors), which greatly clarify the mechanism of the interlayer interaction in this system.

  16. Measurements of solar wind and pick-up ions from new horizons/solar wind around Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randol, Brent M.

    As the spacecraft New Horizons makes its journey toward Pluto and beyond, the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument collects energy spectra of the solar wind and interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs), which are interstellar neutral particles that have been ionized and picked-up by the solar wind's motional electric field. For this dissertation, working with several co-authors, I performed analysis of this data and of the SWAP instrument itself. First, we analyzed SWAP data taken between 11 and 12 AU and found a correlation between the number density of PUIs and solar wind protons. Then, we were able to fit an isotropic PUI model to a previously reported special SWAP measurement taken at 11.3 AU of unexpectedly anisotropic PUIs, as well as to a similar SWAP measurement taken at 17 AU. Finally, we analyzed SWAP data taken between 11 and 22 AU to characterize PUI properties in the outer heliosphere, where essentially no PUIs had been previously measured. Through simulations of the SWAP instrument, we discovered a previously unaccounted-for energy dependence of the instrument's geometric factor, a result that accounted for the apparent anisotropic PUI distributions measured by SWAP. Also, through simulations and detailed calibration of the SWAP flight spare in the laboratory, we showed that particles from the measured distribution reflect from the walls of the instrument to produce an important background at energies around and far below that of the primary distribution; this discovery could be important for design and analysis of data from some space plasma instruments.

  17. Reduction in choroidal blood flow occurs in chicks wearing goggles that induce eye growth toward myopia

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yung-Feng; Fitzgerald, Malinda E.C.; Norton, Thomas T.; Gamlin, Paul D.R.; Hodos, William; Reiner, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Goggles that degrade the retinal image produce axial enlargement of the ocular globe and large myopic refractive errors. Many authors have assumed that visual image degradation itself leads to myopia. Hodos and co-authors have shown, however, that goggled eyes in chicks are considerably warmer than normal. Such temperature changes may either underlie or be a consequence of alterations in choroidal blood flow (CBF). Since alterations in CBF could affect eye growth, we explored the effect of monocular goggling on CBF in chicks. Plastic goggles were glued over one eye in four-day old chicks and the goggles were left in place for 12 or 14 days. Fourteen days after the goggling, CBF was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. Three groups of chicks were studied: 1) chicks with goggles for 14 days; 2) chicks with goggles for 12 days followed by no goggles for the two days; 3) age matched non-goggled chicks. A-scan ultrasonography confirmed that the visual deprivation produced vitreous chamber elongation in the goggled eye and that the degree of elongation for the goggled eye was the same for the two goggled groups. The results were : 1) blood flow in non-goggled chicks was similar in both eyes; 2) blood flow was significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks wearing goggles for 14 days- 37% of control; and 3) blood flow was still significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks whose goggles were removed two days before measurement- 51% of control. These results show that CBF is reduced by goggles that result in myopic eye growth. These findings have implications for the mechanisms underlying myopic eye growth and for the retinopathy that often attends high myopia. PMID:8482110

  18. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Seventh Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 12-16, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helterbrand, Wm. Steve, (Edited By); Sieverling, Jennifer B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Seventh Biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop (USGS-GIS 2008) on May 12 through 16, 2008, at the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado, is unique in that it brings together GIS professionals from all of the USGS disciplines across all regions, and focuses primarily on the needs and accomplishments of the USGS. The theme for the 2008 workshop, ?GIS for Tomorrow?s Challenges,? provides an opportunity for USGS GIS professionals to demonstrate how they have responded to the challenges set forth in the USGS Science Strategy. During this workshop, attendees will have an opportunity to present or demonstrate their work; develop their knowledge by attending hands-on workshops and presentations given by professionals from the USGS and other Federal agencies, GIS-related companies, and academia; and to network with other professionals to develop collaborative opportunities. In addition to participation in numerous workshops and presentations, attendees will have opportunities to listen to top-level managers from the USGS present updates and goals concerning the future of several USGS programs. Monday evening?s Star Guest presentation by Thomas Wagner, NSF Office of Polar Programs, and Paul Morin, Antarctic Geospatial Information Center, entitled ?Mapping all that is White: Antarctic Science and Operations Viewed Though Geospatial Data,? will be one of many valuable presentations. This Proceedings volume will serve as an activity reference for workshop attendees, as well as an archive of technical abstracts presented at the workshop. Author, co-author, and presenter names, affiliations, and contact information are listed with presentation titles with the abstracts. Some hands-on sessions are offered twice; in these instances, abstracts submitted for publication are presented in the proceedings on both days on which they are offered. All acronyms used in these proceedings are explained in the text of each abstract.

  19. Academic Impact of a Public Electronic Health Database: Bibliometric Analysis of Studies Using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Wu, Jau-Ching; Haschler, Ingo; Majeed, Azeem; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD) is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. Methodology and Findings A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with ‘General Practice Research Database’ as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors) contributed nearly half (47.9%) of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of “Pharmacology and Pharmacy”, “General and Internal Medicine”, and “Public, Environmental and Occupational Health”. The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. Conclusions A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research. PMID:21731733

  20. Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells. PMID:23885955

  1. Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, Yassine; Hajjem, Chawki; Larivière, Vincent; Gingras, Yves; Carr, Les; Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Background Articles whose authors have supplemented subscription-based access to the publisher's version by self-archiving their own final draft to make it accessible free for all on the web (“Open Access”, OA) are cited significantly more than articles in the same journal and year that have not been made OA. Some have suggested that this “OA Advantage” may not be causal but just a self-selection bias, because authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. To test this we compared self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving for a sample of 27,197 articles published 2002–2006 in 1,984 journals. Methdology/Principal Findings The OA Advantage proved just as high for both. Logistic regression analysis showed that the advantage is independent of other correlates of citations (article age; journal impact factor; number of co-authors, references or pages; field; article type; or country) and highest for the most highly cited articles. The OA Advantage is real, independent and causal, but skewed. Its size is indeed correlated with quality, just as citations themselves are (the top 20% of articles receive about 80% of all citations). Conclusions/Significance The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. It is hoped that these findings will help motivate the adoption of OA self-archiving mandates by universities, research institutions and research funders. PMID:20976155

  2. 25 years of telepathology research: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The first appearance of the word “telepathology” in a scientific paper can be tracked down to 1986, in a famous editorial of Ronald Weinstein. Since that paper, research in telepathology grew up developing different subfields, including static and dynamic telepathology and more recently virtual microscopy. The present work attempts an analysis of research in telepathology, starting from the tools provided by bibliometrics. Methods A query has been developed to extract papers related to telepathology and virtual microscopy, and it has been then submitted to Pubmed by means of Entrez Utilities functions. Results obtained in XML have been processed through ad-hoc developed PHP scripts, in order to extract data on Authors, countries, and keywords. Results On PubMed, 967 papers related to telepathology and virtual microscopy have been retrieved, which involved 2904 Authors; corresponding authors were from 37 countries. Of those authors, 2213 co-authored just one paper. Papers were published on 344 different journals, of which only 52 from the Pathology field. An analysis of papers per year has been also attempted, that demonstrates variable research output in time. Conclusions From the proposed analysis, telepathology seems to have been consistently studied, in time, by about 400 researchers, with occasional participation of many other people. Telepathology research seems also to have varied in time, although some peaks in paper publishing are certainly related to the proceedings of the European congress on telepathology series, when they have been published on journals. However, some clear sign appears that suggests research in traditional telepathology, after a peak in 2000, showed some decline until virtual microscopy became mainstream, topic that currently pushes research again. The low number of clinical trials calls for more randomized studies in telepathology, to enable evidence-based application. PMID:21489197

  3. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively) and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively), and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher’s career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training, and encouraging transparent communication amongst researchers. PMID:26083381

  4. Surface modification and multiple exciton generation studies of lead(II) sulfide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.

    2011-12-01

    Solar energy is a green alternative to fossil fuels but solar technologies to date have been plagued by low conversion efficiencies and high input costs making solar power inaccessible to much of the developing world. Semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) may provide a route to efficient, economical solar devices through a phenomenon called multiple exciton generation (MEG). Through MEG, semiconductor NPs use a high-energy input photon to create more than one exciton (electron-hole pair) per photon absorbed, thereby exhibiting large photoconversion efficiencies. While MEG has been studied in many NP systems, and we understand some of the factors that affect MEG, a rigorous analysis of the NP-ligand interface with respect to MEG is missing. This dissertation describes how the NP ligand shell directly affects MEG and subsequent charge carrier recombination. Chapter I describes the motivation for studying MEG with respect to NP surface chemistry. Chapter II provides an in-depth overview of the transient absorption experiment used to measure MEG in the NP samples. Chapter III highlights the effect of oleic acid and sodium 2, 3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate on MEG in PbS NPs. The differences in carrier recombination were accounted for by two differences between these ligands: the coordinating atom and/or the secondary structure of the ligand. Because of these hypotheses, experiments were designed to elucidate the origin of these effects by controlling the NP ligand shell. Chapter IV details a viable synthetic route to thiol and amine-capped PbS NPs using sodium 3-mercaptopropane sulfonate as an intermediate ligand. With the versatile ligand exchange described in Chapter IV, the MEG yield and carrier recombination was investigated for ligands with varying headgroups but the same secondary structure. The correlation of ligand donor atom to MEG is outlined in Chapter V. Finally, Chapter VI discusses the conclusions and future outlook of the research reported in this dissertation. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  5. Control of New Kinetic Barriers & Design of Nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchen Huang

    2012-05-29

    The accomplishments of this project include three elements. The first element directly relates to the focus of this project. Specifically, we have determined the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers, with and without surfactants, and two manuscripts in preparation; references refer to the list of journal publications. Further, we have discovered a characteristic length scale - the dimension of atomic islands bounded by multiple-layer surface steps. This discovery has made it possible to understand scientifically why nanorods synthesis is possible at all, will enable science-based design of nanorods, and may impact energy technology through nanomaterials design and synthesis. The second element relates to an exploration - synthesis of nanowires. This exploration is made possible through additional support of a Small Grant Exploratory Research from NSF. Through a combination of atomistic simulations, theories, and experiments, the PI and colleagues have made two contributions to the field. Specifically, they have revealed the physical reason why periodic twins develop during growth of SiC nanowires. Further, they have discovered that SiC nanowire films have an order-of-magnitude higher friction that their macroscopic counterpart, something that has never been reported before. The third elements relates to knowledge dissemination. The PI has co-edited (with Helena van Swygenhoven of PSI) an issue of MRS Bulletin, with the theme of Atomistic Simulations of Mechanics of Nanostructures, co-authored a review article in JOM, and authored a review paper in connection with a Banff workshop series co-sponsored by Canada, US, and Mexico.

  6. Quantifying Spin Hall and Rashba effect contributions to spin-orbit toque in magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, John Q.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has been energized by recent observation of spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers made of a heavy metal (HM) and ferromagnet (FM). It has been demonstrated that the spin-orbit torques driven by an in-plane current can switch magnetization, manipulate magnetic domains and excite magnetization auto-oscillation. However, the microscopic mechanism for the spin-orbit torques is still under debate. The question being whether the dominating spin-orbit coupling (SOC) arises from the HM/FM interface due to the Rashba effect or arises in the bulk of HM due to the spin Hall effect, or a combination of the two. It has been theoretically demonstrated that both the Rashba effect and the spin Hall effect generate a field-like torque (TSOF) and damping-like torque (TSOT) on the magnetization, with only quantitative differences. Therefore, an accurate method to determine the TSOF and TSOT with various thicknesses of the FM and HM are needed. We present a newly developed, magneto-optic-Kerr-effect based spin-orbit torque magnetometer that measures both TSOF and TSOT, which can have both spatial and time resolution. We observed both TSOF and TSOT are nonlocal and does not require direct contact between FM and HM .... By engineering the interface which modifies the Rashba interaction, we are able to show the co-existence of spin Hall and Rashba effect as well as quantify both contributions to spin-orbit torques. Co-authors: Xin Fan, Halise Celik, Yunpeng Chen, Jun Wu1, Kyung-Jin Lee, and Virginia O. Lorenz.

  7. Story telling and social action: engaging young people to act on climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.

    2014-12-01

    The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.

  8. Quantifying Selection Acting on a Complex Trait Using Allele Frequency Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Christopher J.R.; Parts, Leopold; Schiffels, Stephan; Liti, Gianni; Mustonen, Ville

    2012-01-01

    When selection is acting on a large genetically diverse population, beneficial alleles increase in frequency. This fact can be used to map quantitative trait loci by sequencing the pooled DNA from the population at consecutive time points and observing allele frequency changes. Here, we present a population genetic method to analyze time series data of allele frequencies from such an experiment. Beginning with a range of proposed evolutionary scenarios, the method measures the consistency of each with the observed frequency changes. Evolutionary theory is utilized to formulate equations of motion for the allele frequencies, following which likelihoods for having observed the sequencing data under each scenario are derived. Comparison of these likelihoods gives an insight into the prevailing dynamics of the system under study. We illustrate the method by quantifying selective effects from an experiment, in which two phenotypically different yeast strains were first crossed and then propagated under heat stress (Parts L, Cubillos FA, Warringer J, et al. [14 co-authors]. 2011. Revealing the genetic structure of a trait by sequencing a population under selection. Genome Res). From these data, we discover that about 6% of polymorphic sites evolve nonneutrally under heat stress conditions, either because of their linkage to beneficial (driver) alleles or because they are drivers themselves. We further identify 44 genomic regions containing one or more candidate driver alleles, quantify their apparent selective advantage, obtain estimates of recombination rates within the regions, and show that the dynamics of the drivers display a strong signature of selection going beyond additive models. Our approach is applicable to study adaptation in a range of systems under different evolutionary pressures. PMID:22114362

  9. Over a Decade of Lessons Learned from an REU Program in the Science of Global Change and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersh, E. S.; James, E. W.; Banner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in "The Science of Global Change and Sustainability" at the University of Texas at Austin Environmental Science Institute (ESI) has just completed its twelfth summer. The program has 113 REU alumni plus 5 Research Experience for Teachers (RET) alumni, selected from a competitive pool of 976 applicants (~14% acceptance rate), 68% from 61 smaller colleges and universities (of 79 schools represented), 40% of those who self-reported coming from demographics underrepresented in STEM, and with nearly 70% women. Students conduct independent research under the supervision of a faculty mentor in four major interdisciplinary themes: Impacts on Ecosystems, Impacts on Watersheds and the Land Surface, Campus Sustainability, and Reconstructing Past Global Change. These themes bridge chemistry, biology, ecology, environmental policy, civil and environmental engineering, marine science, and geological science. The summer cohort participates in weekly research and professional development seminars along with group field exercises. Topics include graduate school, career preparation, research ethics, sustainability, global change, environmental justice, and research communication. These activities plus the student's individual research comprise a portfolio that culminates in a reflection essay integrating the concepts, methods, and perspectives gained over the 10-week program. Program alumni were surveyed in 2014 to gauge long-term impact and outcomes. Of the 76 surveyed from 2006-2013, 39% responded. 67% have earned or are working on a graduate degree, and 94% of the graduate programs are in STEM. 93% of the responding alumni felt that the program "influenced my job and educational choices" and 97% felt that the program "helped me better understand scientific research." 40% presented their findings at a conference and 17% authored or co-authored a peer-reviewed publication. This presentation will include a discussion of best practices and lessons learned over twelve years, such as strategies to increase cohort diversity, innovative activities, and results from long-term program evaluation on attitudes toward STEM careers and program outcomes.

  10. Turcotte Receives 2003 William Bowie Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, Lawrence M.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    ``Few have contributed more to fundamental geophysics, or been better at encouraging others to contribute, than Donald L. Turcotte. Don trained as an engineer, receiving a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1958. After a year at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, he joined the Cornell Graduate School of Aeronautical Engineering, rising to full professor. He established expertise on seeded combustion, magnetohydrodynamic and electrical phenomena in turbulent boundary layers, and shock waves and authored a book, Space Propulsion, and co-authored a textbook, Statistical Thermodynamics. ``In 1965 he went on sabbatical to Oxford and returned an Earth scientist. The catalyst was Ron Oxburgh. Plate tectonics was just on the horizon, and Don joined his quantitative abilities and physical intuition with Ron's skills and knowledge of geology to produce over the next decade a remarkable series of 24 papers that explored topics such as the many implications of the Earth's thermal boundary layer, ridge melting, subduction zone volcanism, and intraplate tectonics and magmatism, and established the physical bases for many of the processes operating on our planet. Shifting to the Cornell Department of Geological Sciences in 1973, Don explored virtually every aspect of physical Earth geology and became an expert on planetary remote sensing and geophysical interpretation. He published over 150 papers on thermal subsidence in sedimentary basins, two-phase hydrothermal porous media convection, lithosphere flexure, cyclic sedimentation, and stick-slip earthquakes and the lithospheres and mantles of the other planets. He worked and published with outstanding students and colleagues including Ken Torrance, Gerald Schubert, David Spence, Marc Parmentier, Bill Haxby, John Ockendon, Kevin Burke, Jud Ahern, Steve Emerman, and Charlie Angevine. In 1982 he published Geodynamics with Jerry Schubert, a book that became the primary reference in the field.

  11. Real-time Science and Educational Collaboration Online from the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. H.; Sager, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    During Summer of 2007, scientists and students (via the web) jointly participated in research during the Ninety East Ridge Expedition (cruise KNOX06RR) . Staff organizers from Joint Oceanographic Institutions" JOI Learning and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program planned and implemented an interactive website to allow students to directly participate with scientists during the site survey aboard the R/V Roger Revelle. Dr. Will Sager and middle school teacher Rory Wilson collaborated daily during the scientific expedition with science team, ship crew and students. From the outset, students were involved and helped to guide the program; this included coming up with the website name and initial design work. Communication with students included the website, individual and group emails and video conferences with student groups. Seven secondary schools from the USA, Europe, India and Thailand participated actively in the project from June to August. Students viewed daily updates on the website, sent in answers for weekly science challenge questions, and interacted with scientists and crew. Student participants learned about navigation, geophysics and petrology, as well as ship operations and technology. Students and educators tracked the expedition's progress in a multi-media environment. Website statistics were recorded; participation began well and increased during the expedition as more people became engaged with the website. All of the crew and scientists wrote self-profiles to help students learn about the range of ocean careers; several of the scientists and graduate students on board wrote or co- authored website articles for students. During this presentation, we will explore and review the major features of the outreach program using the Sea90e website to demonstrate how this real-time interaction engages students in science learning. We will discuss the benefits of collaboration for science and education in our "classroom at sea."

  12. Readability Analysis of Introductory Astronomy Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruning, David H.

    2008-05-01

    Increasingly, first-year students have reading deficiencies and do not have the academic discipline to read introductory textbooks. Few students have the skills needed to organize ideas elicited from texts, and even fewer seem capable of evaluating ideas and concepts as to importance. While the amount of pedagogical support has increased in introductory astronomy texts in recent years, it is worthwhile to investigate how the readability of these books has changed with time. Dukes and co-authors (1979, 1980, 1983) surveyed numerous introductory astronomy textbooks using the Flesch Readability index. For a direct comparison to Dukes' work, I have used Flesch's index to survey three groups of introductory astronomy texts. Group I samples editions from Dukes' surveys to normalize the current survey and to provide a text baseline from 25 years ago, while group II includes texts from the 1940s and 1950s and group III current texts to compare the readability of present texts with those from previous decades. At first glance, this study indicates that texts have not changed in readability over the past several decades. However, other issues arise when the results are investigated in detail. Flesch measures readability but not understandability; understandability may have changed. Reading load has increased as texts have increased in size from 478 to 605 pages, on average. While texts may have a grade 11-12 reading level, that is an average and parts of texts soar to post-graduate reading levels; the ups and downs may affect student comprehension. Readability is just one measure for analyzing texts and these other issues may be more important for judging why our students have difficulty reading introductory astronomy books.

  13. Diagnostics and experiments on LAPPS

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, D.; Murphy, D.P.; Walton, S.G.; Meger, R.A.; Fernsler, R.F.; Pechacek, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    NRL is developing a new plasma processing reactor called the Large Area Plasma Processing System with applications to semiconductor processing and other forms of surface modification. The system consists of a planar plasma distribution generated by a magnetically collimated sheet of 2--5kV, 10 mA/cm{sup 2} electrons injected into a neutral gas background. This beam ionization process is both efficient at plasma production and readily scalable to large (square meters) area. The use of a beam ionization source largely decouples the plasma production from the reactor chamber. Ion densities (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, helium) of up to 5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3} in a volume of 2 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm have been produced in the laboratory. Typical operating pressure range from 20--200 mtorr with beam collimating magnetic fields strengths of 10--300 Gauss. Thus far the system has been operated with a pulsed (10--2,000 {micro}s pulse length, <10 kHz pulse repetition frequency) hollow cathode. Temporally resolved measurements of the plasma sheet using Langmuir probes, spectrally resolved optical emission, microwave interferometry, and cyclotron harmonic microwave emission will be presented. Results of initial processing tests using an oxygen plasma showing isotropic ashing of a photoresist will be shown. Progress in the development of a dc hot filament cathode will be presented along with the status of the 1 m{sup 2} UHV chamber for future processing tests. An overview of the LAPPS process along with theoretical treatments and issues will also be presented by co-authors.

  14. Science of Global Climate Modeling: Confirmation from Discoveries on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2012-10-01

    As early as 1993, analysis of obliquity changes on Mars revealed irregular cycles of high excursion, over 45°1. Further obliquity analyses indicated that insolation and climatic conditions vary with time, with the four most recent episodes of obliquity >45° occurring about 5.5, 8, 9, and 15 My.2 Various researchers applied global climate models, using Martian parameters and obliquity changes. The models (independent of Martian geomorphological observations) indicate exceptional climate conditions during the high-obliquity episodes at >45°3,4, with localized massive ice deposition effects east of Hellas and on the west slopes of Tharsis.5 At last year’s DPS my co-authors and I detailed evidence of unusual active glaciation in Greg crater, near the center of the predicted area of ice accumulation during high obliquity.6 We found that the timescale of glacial surface layer activity matches the general 5-15 My timescale of the last episodes of high obliquity and ice deposition. Radar results confirm ice deposits in debris aprons concentrated in the same area.7 Less direct evidence has also been found for glacial ice deposits in the west Tharsis region.8 Here I emphasize that if the models can be adjusted to Mars and then successfully indicate unusual, specific features that we see there, it is an argument for the robustness of climate modeling in general. In recent years we have see various public figures casting doubt on the validity of terrestrial global modeling. The successful match of Martian climate modeling with direct Martian geological and chronometric observations provides an interesting and teachable refutation of the attacks on climate science. References: 1. Science 259:1294-1297; 2. LPSC XXXV, Abs. 1600; 3. Nature 412:411-413; 4. Science 295:110-113; 5. Science 311:368-371; 6. EPSC-DPS Abs. 1394; 7. Science 322:1235-1238; 8. Nature 434:346-351.

  15. [Co-authorship and collaboration networks in Spanish research into multiple sclerosis (1996-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Gonzalez de Dios, J; Sempere, A P; Castello-Cogollos, L; Bolanos-Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurian, J C

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Scientific collaboration is vital for to the advance of knowledge and is especially important in health sciences. The aim of this study is to identify scientific collaboration indicators and co-authorship networks of researchers and Spanish institutions that publish on multiple sclerosis (MS) during the period 1996-2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The analyzed papers were obtained from Web of Science and Scopus international databases, and IBECS and IME national databases, applying specific search profiles in each one of them. In order to identify collaboration networks all signed papers were quantified and co-authored measures were obtained, as the different indexes, degree, intermediation and closeness. RESULTS. 1,613 articles were published in the period 1996-2010, 92% of them in collaboration. With 10 or more works signed in collaboration, 20 Spanish research groups in MS were identified. 64.23% of the papers were published in collaboration between Spanish institutions, and 33.85% were in collaboration with foreign institutions. The institutional participation analysis has identified a large network of institutional partnerships that integrates 27 institutions, with the Hospital Vall d'Hebron in a central position. International collaboration is headed by the U.S. and European countries, most notably the UK and Italy. CONCLUSION. The most collaborative authors, institutions, and work groups in Spanish research in MS have been identified. Despite these indicators that characterize the collaboration in this area, it is necessary to enhance cooperation between them, since this collaboration is positively related to the quality and impact of research and publications. PMID:23884870

  16. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present in the future. PMID:18221692

  17. The practical zealot. Interview by Joe Flower.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, E

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Ellen Gaucher took an unusual trip. As senior associate director of the University of Michigan's sprawling 11,000-employee Medical Center, she was invited to a conference about a movement that was rapidly growing in the word of business--total quality. The occasion was the organizational conference of the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care, led by the Harvard Community Health Plan in Boston. Gaucher was skeptical at first. Total quality seemed a great way to make better cars, light bulbs, and aluminum siding, but would it work in a service industry? More to the point, would it work in an industry as complex, as critical, as pressured, as high-tech, as human, and as intellectual as healthcare? But by the second day, she says, "I was sold that this was what we had needed for a long time." She hurried back to Michigan like a missionary trekking into cannibal country. Today, not only is the University Medical Center deep in a total quality conversion experience, so is the University itself, through its president, James J. Duderstadt. He was exposed to the idea through Gaucher: In his ex-officio position as chairman of the Medical Center's board, he had experienced her vivid and enthusiastic educational efforts. Gaucher has related her intense experiences with TQ at conferences, in articles, in the 1990 book, Transforming Healthcare Organizations (winner of the Hamilton Award given by the American College of Healthcare Executives for the best book of the year) as well as the forthcoming Total Quality in Healthcare (both co-authored with Richard Coffey). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10116129

  18. An introduction to the INQUA Dunes Atlas Chronologic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Nicholas; Bristow, Charlie; Bubenzer, Olaf; Burrough, Sallie; Duller, Geoff; Halfen, Alan; Hesse, Paul; Roskin, Joel; Singhvi, Ashok; Thomas, David; Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Yang, Xiaoping; Wolfe, Stephen; Zarate, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    The INQUA Dunes Atlas project has developed a global digital database of chronologic information for periods of desert sand dune accumulation and stabilization. The database currently contains 3278 luminescence and 535 radiocarbon records of directly dated periods of aeolian sand deposition from 1200 inland dune locations throughout the world, mostly in low- and mid-latitudes. Co-authors of this abstract have compiled data for their geographic region of expertise. Additional data are being added from publications, reports, and theses and dissertations as they become available. In addition to age data, the database includes information on the site location (including coordinates), dune type, and stratigraphic context, pertinent analytical information (e.g. luminescence procedures), and literature citations to the original data source (with doi). The database has so far enabled: (1) analysis of patterns of dated dune deposits at multiple temporal and spatial scales; (2) correlation of these patterns with other paleoclimatic proxies; and (3) assessment of the paleoclimatic and paleohydrologic implications of periods of aeolian deposition. The database has highlighted several issues with the available luminescence data set, especially the uneven spatial coverage of dated dune deposits and the heterogenous nature of the dune sedimentary record in many areas. It is clear that resolution of these issues to provide a better understanding of dune and dunefield responses to Quaternary climate change is not just a matter of additional dates. A systematic dating program that reflects fundamental patterns of dunefield sensitivity to climatic and hydrologic changes and relates dated deposits to patterns of dune morphology and sedimentology is needed as a research priority.

  19. Has large-scale named-entity network analysis been resting on a flawed assumption?

    PubMed

    Fegley, Brent D; Torvik, Vetle I

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that a name uniquely identifies an entity introduces two types of errors: splitting treats one entity as two or more (because of name variants); lumping treats multiple entities as if they were one (because of shared names). Here we investigate the extent to which splitting and lumping affect commonly-used measures of large-scale named-entity networks within two disambiguated bibliographic datasets: one for co-author names in biomedicine (PubMed, 2003-2007); the other for co-inventor names in U.S. patents (USPTO, 2003-2007). In both cases, we find that splitting has relatively little effect, whereas lumping has a dramatic effect on network measures. For example, in the biomedical co-authorship network, lumping (based on last name and both initials) drives several measures down: the global clustering coefficient by a factor of 4 (from 0.265 to 0.066); degree assortativity by a factor of ?13 (from 0.763 to 0.06); and average shortest path by a factor of 1.3 (from 5.9 to 4.5). These results can be explained in part by the fact that lumping artificially creates many intransitive relationships and high-degree vertices. This effect of lumping is much less dramatic but persists with measures that give less weight to high-degree vertices, such as the mean local clustering coefficient and log-based degree assortativity. Furthermore, the log-log distribution of collaborator counts follows a much straighter line (power law) with splitting and lumping errors than without, particularly at the low and the high counts. This suggests that part of the power law often observed for collaborator counts in science and technology reflects an artifact: name ambiguity. PMID:23894639

  20. Visually impaired researchers get their hands on quantum chemistry: application to a computational study on the isomerization of a sterol.

    PubMed

    Lounnas, Valère; Wedler, Henry B; Newman, Timothy; Schaftenaar, Gijs; Harrison, Jason G; Nepomuceno, Gabriella; Pemberton, Ryan; Tantillo, Dean J; Vriend, Gert

    2014-11-01

    In molecular sciences, articles tend to revolve around 2D representations of 3D molecules, and sighted scientists often resort to 3D virtual reality software to study these molecules in detail. Blind and visually impaired (BVI) molecular scientists have access to a series of audio devices that can help them read the text in articles and work with computers. Reading articles published in this journal, though, is nearly impossible for them because they need to generate mental 3D images of molecules, but the article-reading software cannot do that for them. We have previously designed AsteriX, a web server that fully automatically decomposes articles, detects 2D plots of low molecular weight molecules, removes meta data and annotations from these plots, and converts them into 3D atomic coordinates. AsteriX-BVI goes one step further and converts the 3D representation into a 3D printable, haptic-enhanced format that includes Braille annotations. These Braille-annotated physical 3D models allow BVI scientists to generate a complete mental model of the molecule. AsteriX-BVI uses Molden to convert the meta data of quantum chemistry experiments into BVI friendly formats so that the entire line of scientific information that sighted people take for granted-from published articles, via printed results of computational chemistry experiments, to 3D models-is now available to BVI scientists too. The possibilities offered by AsteriX-BVI are illustrated by a project on the isomerization of a sterol, executed by the blind co-author of this article (HBW). PMID:25091066

  1. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  2. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H.Y.; Cole, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages. PMID:23594416

  3. The work of Glenn F. Webb.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, William E

    2015-08-01

    It is my distinct pleasure to introduce this volume honoring the 70th birthday of Professor Glenn F. Webb. The existence of this compiled volume is in itself a testimony of Glenn's dedication to, his pursuit of, and his achievement of scientific excellence. As we honor Glenn, we honor what is excellent in our profession. Aristotle clearly articulated his concept of excellence. ``We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." As we look over the course of his career we observe ample evidence of Glenn Webb's habitual practice of excellence. Beginning with Glenn's first paper [1], one observes a constant stream of productivity and high impact work. Glenn has authored or co-authored over 160 papers, written one research monograph, and co-edited six volumes. He has delivered plenary lectures, colloquia, and seminars across the globe, and he serves on the editorial boards of 11 archival journals. He is a Fellow of the American Mathematical Society. Glenn's scientific career chronicles an evolution of scientific work that began with his interest in nonlinear semigroup theory and leads up to his current activity in biomedical mathematics. At each stage we see seminal contributions in the areas of nonlinear semigroups, functional differential equations, infinite dimensional dynamical systems, mathematical population dynamics, mathematical biology and biomedical mathematics. Glenn's work is distinguished by a clarity and accessibility of exposition, a precise identification and description of the problem or model under consideration, and thorough referencing. He uses elementary methods whenever possible but couples this with an ability to employ power abstract methods when necessitated by the problem. PMID:25974339

  4. Quiet Sun coronal heating: A statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Podladchikova, O.; Lefebvre, B.; Vilmer, N.

    2002-02-01

    Recent observations of Krucker & Benz (\\cite{Krucker98}) give strong support to Parker's hypothesis (\\cite?) that small-scale dissipative events make up the main contribution to quiet Sun coronal heating. They also showed that these small-scale events are associated not only with the magnetic network, but also with the cell interiors (Benz & Krucker \\cite{Benz98}). Taking into account in addition the results of the analysis performed by Priest with co-authors (\\cite{pr1}) who demonstrated that the heating is quasi-homogeneous along the arcs, we come to the conclusion that the sources driving these dissipative events are also small-scale sources. Typically they are of the order of or smaller than the linear scale of the events observed, that is <2000 km. To describe statistical properties of quiet Sun corona heating by microflares, nanoflares, and even smaller events, we consider a cellular automata model subject to uniform small-scale driving and dissipation. The model consists of two elements, the magnetic field source supposed to be associated with the small scale hydrodynamic turbulence convected from the photosphere and local dissipation of small scale currents. The dissipation is assumed to be provided by either anomalous resistivity, when the current density exceeds a certain threshold value, or by the magnetic reconnection. The main problem considered is how the statistical characteristics of dissipated energy flow depend upon characteristics of the magnetic field source and on physical mechanism responsible for the magnetic field dissipation. As the threshold value of current is increased, we observe the transition from Gaussian statistics to power-law type. In addition, we find that the dissipation provided by reconnection results in stronger deviations from Gaussian distribution.

  5. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively) and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively), and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training, and encouraging transparent communication amongst researchers. PMID:26083381

  6. JPL/Student Independent Research Internship (SIRI): Research and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Alvidrez, R. F.; Kahn, R. A.; Whitney, W.

    2006-09-01

    One of NASA's Strategic goals is the education and retention of students in math and science, and providing outreach experiences to all levels of the public (formal and informal). At JPL, an innovative program, SIRI, was initiated in 2003 with the following goals: 1. Provide local college students, with strong support from their faculty advisors, hands-on experience in scientific research and engineering while they are still forming their higher-education and career plans. 2. JPL and NASA education office interests in providing more help to college students in preparing for careers in science and engineering. Following its initial pilot program with eight students from two local community colleges, the SIRI program branched out in two directions: (1) providing research opportunities to students from a wider range of colleges and (2) research apprenticeship or RA program, so eligible students could continue their research after completing their semester. With support of their JPL mentors, students derived educational and technical benefits. Currently, the SIRI Program includes eight local 2-year and 4-year colleges; serves approximately 25-30 students per year. To date, nearly 50% of interns become apprentices to their JPL mentors. The SIRI program is currently complementary to many undergraduate internship programs as the SIRI interns participate during school year for credit. The RA students are empowered to attend scientific meetings; co-author peer-reviewed papers; continue their research through fellowships, and mentor other students. The success of the SIRI program stems both from the contributions of the students to their mentors’ efforts and JPL's outreach efforts to afford exposure and research experience to students in all fields of science to develop the next generation of scientists. Specific examples of SIRI projects will be showcased.

  7. The distribution of waves in the inner magnetosphere as a function of solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, Homayon; Balikhin, Michael A.; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Yearby, Keith

    Energetic electrons within the Earth’s radiation belts represent a serious hazard to geostationary satellites. The interactions of electrons with chorus waves play an important role in both the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. Studies of the evolution of energetic electron fluxes rely heavily on numerical codes in order to model energy and pitch angle diffusion due to electron interaction with plasma waves in the frame of quasilinear approximation. Application of these codes requires knowledge of statistical wave models to present wave distributions in the magnetosphere. A number of such models are based on CRESS, Cluster, THEMIS and other mission data. These models present wave distributions as a function of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude and geomagnetic activity expressed by geomagnetic indices (Kp or Ae). However, it has been shown by G. Reeves and co-authors that only 50% of geomagnetic storms increase flux of relativistic electrons at GEO while 20% cause a decrease. This emphasizes the importance of including solar wind parameters in addition to geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation) data from Double Star TC1 combined with geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters from OMNI database in order to present a comprehensive model of chorus wave intensities as a function of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters. The results show that chorus emission is not only sub-storm dependent but also dependent upon solar wind parameters with solar wind velocity evidently the most influential solar wind parameter. The largest peak intensities are observed for lower band chorus during active conditions, high solar wind velocity, low density and high pressure.

  8. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web application framework to let users explore knowledge domain maps interactively. This workflow is implemented and demonstrated for a data set of more than 66,000 conference abstracts.

  9. Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wei

    2006-08-09

    This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystal structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites - Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites) [5].

  10. Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).

    PubMed

    Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. PMID:24016121

  11. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  12. 3min. poster presentations of B01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations from ILEWG International conferences held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. Priorities for scientific investigations include: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), historical records, astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The ILEWG technology task group set priorities for the advancement of instrumenta-tion: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems. The ILEWG ExogeoLab pilot project was developed as support for instru-ments, landers, rovers,and preparation for cooperative robotic village. The ILEWG lunar base task group looked at minimal design concepts, technologies in robotic and human exploration with Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Man-Machine interface and performances. The ILEWG ExoHab pilot project has been started with support from agencies and partners. We discuss ILEWG terrestrial Moon-Mars campaigns for validation of technologies, research and human operations. We indicate how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Co-Authors: ILEWG Task Groups on: Science, Technology, Robotic village, Lunar Bases , Commercial and Societal aspects, Roadmap synergies with other programmes, Public en-gagemnet and Outreach, Young Lunar Explorers.

  13. The APECS Virtual Poster Session: a virtual platform for science communication and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, A.; Jochum, K.; Jullion, L.; Pavlov, A.; Liggett, D.; Fugmann, G.; Baeseman, J. L.; Apecs Virtual Poster Session Working Group, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Virtual Poster Session (VPS) of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) was developed by early career scientists as an online tool for communicating and discussing science and research beyond the four walls of a conference venue. Poster sessions often are the backbone of a conference where especially early career scientists get a chance to communicate their research, discuss ideas, data, and scientific problems with their peers and senior scientists. There, they can hone their 'elevator pitch', discussion skills and presentation skills. APECS has taken the poster session one step further and created the VPS - the same idea but independent from conferences, travel, and location. All that is needed is a computer with internet access. Instead of letting their posters collect dust on the computer's hard drive, scientists can now upload them to the APECS website. There, others have the continuous opportunity to comment, give feedback and discuss the work. Currently, about 200 posters are accessible contributed by authors and co-authors from 34 countries. Since January 2010, researchers can discuss their poster with a broad international audience including fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues and collaborators, policy makers and educators during monthly conference calls via an internet platform. Recordings of the calls are available online afterwards. Calls so far have included topical sessions on e.g. marine biology, glaciology, or social sciences, and interdisciplinary calls on Arctic sciences or polar research activities in a specific country, e.g. India or Romania. They attracted audiences of scientists at all career stages and from all continents, with on average about 15 persons participating per call. Online tools like the VPS open up new ways for creating collaborations and new research ideas and sharing different methodologies for future projects, pushing aside the boundaries of countries and nations, conferences, offices, and disciplines, and provide early career scientists with easily accessible training opportunities for their communication and outreach skills, independent of their location and funding situation.

  14. GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers have unmasked hundreds of black holes hiding deep inside dusty galaxies billions of light-years away Normal Galaxies Normal Galaxies The massive, growing black holes, discovered by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes, represent a large fraction of a long-sought missing population. Their discovery implies there are hundreds of millions of additional black holes growing in our young universe, more than doubling the total amount known at that distance. "Active, supermassive black holes are everywhere in the early universe," said Mark Dickinson of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "We had seen the tip of the iceberg before in our search for these objects. Now, we can see the iceberg itself." Dickinson is a co-author of two new papers appearing in the Nov. 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Emanuele Daddi of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France led the research. The findings are also the first direct evidence that most, if not all, massive galaxies in the distant universe spend their youths building monstrous black holes at their cores. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. "We knew from other studies from about 30 years ago that there must be more quasars in the universe, but we didn't know where to find them until now," said Daddi. Daddi and his team initially set out to study 1,000 dusty, massive galaxies that are busy making stars, and were thought to lack quasars. The galaxies are about the same mass as our own spiral Milky Way galaxy, but irregular in shape. At 9 to 11 billion light-years away, they exist at a time when the universe was in its infancy, between 2.5 and 4.5 billion years old. When the astronomers peered more closely at the galaxies with Spitzer's infrared eyes, they noticed that about 200 of the galaxies gave off an unusual amount of infrared light. X-ray data from Chandra, and a technique called "stacking," revealed the galaxies were in fact hiding plump quasars inside. The scientists now think that the quasars heat the dust in their surrounding doughnut clouds, releasing the excess infrared light. "We found most of the population of hidden quasars in the early universe," said Daddi. Previously, only the rarest and most energetic of these hidden black holes had been seen at this early epoch. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. The newfound quasars are helping answer fundamental questions about how massive galaxies evolve. For instance, astronomers have learned that most massive galaxies steadily build up their stars and black holes simultaneously until they get too big and their black holes suppress star formation. The observations also suggest that collisions between galaxies might not play as large a role in galaxy evolution as previously believed. "Theorists thought that mergers between galaxies were required to initiate this quasar activity, but we now see that quasars can be active in unharrassed galaxies," said co-author David Alexander of Durham University, United Kingdom. "It's as if we were blind-folded studying the elephant before, and we weren't sure what kind of animal we had," added co-author David Elbaz of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. "Now, we can see the elephant

  15. Chandra Finds Evidence for Stellar Cannibalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    Evidence that a star has recently engulfed a companion star or a giant planet has been found using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The likely existence of such a "cannibal" star provides new insight into how stars and the planets around them may interact as they age. The star in question, known as BP Piscium (BP Psc), appears to be a more evolved version of our Sun, but with a dusty and gaseous disk surrounding it. A pair of jets several light years long blasting out of the system in opposite directions has also been seen in optical data. While the disk and jets are characteristics of a very young star, several clues -- including the new results from Chandra -- suggest that BP Psc is not what it originally appeared to be. Instead, astronomers have suggested that BP Psc is an old star in its so-called red giant phase. And, rather than being hallmarks of its youth, the disk and jets are, in fact, remnants of a recent and catastrophic interaction whereby a nearby star or giant planet was consumed by BP Psc. When stars like the Sun begin to run out of nuclear fuel, they expand and shed their outer layers. Our Sun, for example, is expected to swell so that it nearly reaches or possibly engulfs Earth, as it becomes a red giant star. "It appears that BP Psc represents a star-eat-star Universe, or maybe a star-eat-planet one," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology, who led the Chandra study. "Either way, it just shows it's not always friendly out there." Several pieces of information have led astronomers to rethink how old BP Psc might be. First, BP Psc is not located near any star-forming cloud, and there are no other known young stars in its immediate vicinity. Secondly, in common with most elderly stars, its atmosphere contains only a small amount of lithium. Thirdly, its surface gravity appears to be too weak for a young star and instead matches up with one of an old red giant. Chandra adds to this story. Young, low-mass stars are brighter than most other stars in X-rays, and so X-ray observations can be used as a sign of how old a star may be. Chandra does detect X-rays from BP Psc, but at a rate that is too low to be from a young star. Instead, the X-ray emission rate measured for BP Psc is consistent with that of rapidly rotating giant stars. The spectrum of the X-ray emission -- that is how the amount of X-rays changes with wavelength -- is consistent with flares occurring on the surface of the star, or with interactions between the star and the disk surrounding it. The magnetic activity of the star itself might be generated by a dynamo caused by its rapid rotation. This rapid rotation can be caused by the engulfment process. "It seems that BP Psc has been energized by its meal," said co-author Rodolfo (Rudy) Montez Jr., also from the Rochester Institute of Technology. The star's surface is obscured throughout the visible and near-infrared bands, so the Chandra observation represents the first detection at any wavelength of BP Psc itself. "BP Psc shows us that stars like our Sun may live quietly for billions of years," said co-author David Rodriguez from UCLA, "but when they go, they just might take a star or planet or two with them." Although any close-in planets were presumably devastated when BP Psc turned into a giant star, a second round of planet formation might be occurring in the surrounding disk, hundreds of millions of years after the first round. A new paper using observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope has reported possible evidence for a giant planet in the disk surrounding BP Psc. This might be a newly formed planet or one that was part of the original planetary system. "Exactly how stars might engulf other stars or planets is a hot topic in astrophysics today," said Kastner. "We have many important details that we still need to work out, so objects like BP Psc are really exciting to find." These results appeared in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other co-authors on the study were Nicolas Grosso

  16. How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar - an unusual type of neutron star - was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole? To reach their conclusions, the astronomers looked in detail at the extraordinary star cluster Westerlund 1 [1], located 16 000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar). From previous studies (eso0510), the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn). "If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results. Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event. A magnetar (eso0831) is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field - a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth, which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun. As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that exploded and left a magnetar remnant must have had a shorter life than the surviving stars in the cluster. "Because the lifespan of a star is directly linked to its mass - the heavier a star, the shorter its life - if we can measure the mass of any one surviving star, we know for sure that the shorter-lived star that became the magnetar must have been even more massive," says co-author and team leader Simon Clark. "This is of great significance since there is no accepted theory for how such extremely magnetic objects are formed." The astronomers therefore studied the stars that belong to the eclipsing double system W13 in Westerlund 1 using the fact that, in such a system, masses can be directly determined from the motions of the stars. By comparison with these stars, they found that the star that became the magnetar must have been at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. This proves for the first time that magnetars can evolve from stars so massive we would normally expect them to form black holes. The previous assumption was that stars with initial masses between about 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes. "These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead," says co-author Ignacio Negueruela. "Such huge mass losses before the explosion present great challenges to current theories of stellar evolution." "This therefore raises the thorny question of just how massive a star has to be to collapse to form a black hole if stars over 40 times as heavy as our Sun cannot manage this feat," concludes co-author Norbert Langer. The formation mechanism preferred by the astronomers postulates that the star that became the magnetar - the progenitor - was born with a stellar companion. As both stars evolved they would begin to interact, with energy derived from their orbital motion expended in ejecting the requisite huge quantities of mass from t

  17. Comparative biomass structure and estimated carbon flow in food webs in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Wei, Chihlin; Nunnally, Clifton; Haedrich, Richard; Montagna, Paul; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Bernhard, Joan M.; Wicksten, Mary; Ammons, Archie; Briones, Elva Escobar; Soliman, Yousra; Deming, Jody W.

    2008-12-01

    A budget of the standing stocks and cycling of organic carbon associated with the sea floor has been generated for seven sites across a 3-km depth gradient in the NE Gulf of Mexico, based on a series of reports by co-authors on specific biotic groups or processes. The standing stocks measured at each site were bacteria, Foraminifera, metazoan meiofauna, macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna, and demersal fishes. Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) by the sediment-dwelling organisms was measured at each site using a remotely deployed benthic lander, profiles of oxygen concentration in the sediment pore water of recovered cores and ship-board core incubations. The long-term incorporation and burial of organic carbon into the sediments has been estimated using profiles of a combination of stable and radiocarbon isotopes. The total stock estimates, carbon burial, and the SCOC allowed estimates of living and detrital carbon residence time within the sediments, illustrating that the total biota turns over on time scales of months on the upper continental slope but this is extended to years on the abyssal plain at 3.6 km depth. The detrital carbon turnover is many times longer, however, over the same depths. A composite carbon budget illustrates that total carbon biomass and associated fluxes declined precipitously with increasing depth. Imbalances in the carbon budgets suggest that organic detritus is exported from the upper continental slope to greater depths offshore. The respiration of each individual "size" or functional group within the community has been estimated from allometric models, supplemented by direct measurements in the laboratory. The respiration and standing stocks were incorporated into budgets of carbon flow through and between the different size groups in hypothetical food webs. The decline in stocks and respiration with depth were more abrupt in the larger forms (fishes and megafauna), resulting in an increase in the relative predominance of smaller sizes (bacteria and meiofauna) at depth. Rates and stocks in the deep northern GoM appeared to be comparable to other continental margins where similar comparisons have been made.

  18. Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

  19. Study of Multi-Scale Cloud Processes Over the Tropical Western Pacific Using Cloud-Resolving Models Constrained by Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dudhia, Jimy

    2013-03-12

    Clouds in the tropical western Pacific are an integral part of the large scale environment. An improved understanding of the multi-scale structure of clouds and their interactions with the environment is critical to the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations, understanding the consequences of model biases, and providing a context for interpreting the observational data collected over the ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Three-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs) are powerful tools for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations. However, a significant challenge in using CRMs in the TWP is that the region lacks conventional data, so large uncertainty exists in defining the large-scale environment for clouds. This project links several aspects of the ARM program, from measurements to providing improved analyses, and from cloud-resolving modeling to climate-scale modeling and parameterization development, with the overall objective to improve the representations of clouds in climate models and to simulate and quantify resolved cloud effects on the large-scale environment. Our objectives will be achieved through a series of tasks focusing on the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ARM data. Our approach includes: -- Perform assimilation of COSMIC GPS radio occultation and other satellites products using the WRF Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation system to represent the tropical large-scale environment at 36 km grid resolution. This high-resolution analysis can be used by the community to derive forcing products for single-column models or cloud-resolving models. -- Perform cloud-resolving simulations using WRF and its nesting capabilities, driven by the improved regional analysis and evaluate the simulations against ARM datasets such as from TWP-ICE to optimize the microphysics parameters for this region. A cirrus study (Mace and co-authors) already exists for TWP-ICE using satellite and ground-based observations. -- Perform numerical experiments using WRF to investigate how convection over tropical islands in the Maritime Continent interacts with large-scale circulation and affects convection in nearby regions. -- Evaluate and apply WRF as a testbed for GCM cloud parameterizations, utilizing the ability of WRF to run on multiple scales (from cloud resolving to global) to isolate resolution and physics issues from dynamical and model framework issues. Key products will be disseminated to the ARM and larger community through distribution of data archives, including model outputs from the data assimilation products and cloud resolving simulations, and publications.

  20. Canada's Neglected Tropical Disease Research Network: Who's in the Core—Who's on the Periphery?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kaye; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Pennefather, Peter; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla; Wong, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD) research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. Methodology Multiple methods were used to conduct this study, including: (1) a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2) a country-level “core-periphery” network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3) a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network (“k-core measure”) and the quantity and quality of research produced. Principal Findings Over the past sixty years (1950–2010), Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n?=?4,145) have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom) and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran). Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. Conclusion/Significance The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the NTD research they generate; there is opportunity to leverage existing research collaborations and help advance regions and NTD areas that are currently under-developed. PMID:24340113

  1. Geophysical and hydrogeologic investigations of two primary alluvial aquifers embedded in the southern San Andreas fault system: San Bernardino basin and upper Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, Beth Ann

    This study of alluvial aquifer basins in southern California is centered on observations of differential surface displacement and the search for the mechanisms of deformation. The San Bernardino basin and the Upper Coachella Valley aquifers are bound by range fronts and fault segments of the southern San Andreas fault system. I have worked to quantify long-term compaction in these groundwater dependent population centers with a unique synthesis of data and methodologies using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and groundwater data. My dissertation contributes to the understanding of alluvial aquifer heterogeneity and partitioning. I model hydrogeologic and tectonic interpretations of deformation where decades of overdraft conditions and ongoing aquifer development contribute to extreme rapid subsidence. I develop the Hydrogeologic InSAR Integration (HII) method for the characterization of surface deformation in aquifer basins. The method allows for the separation of superimposed hydraulic and/or tectonic processes in operation. This formalization of InSAR and groundwater level integration provides opportunities for application in other aquifer basins where overdraft conditions may be causing permanent loss of aquifer storage capacity through compaction. Sixteen years of SAR data for the Upper Coachella Valley exhibit rapid vertical surface displacement (? 48mm/a) in sharply bound areas of the western basin margin. Using well driller logs, I categorize a generalized facies analysis of the western basin margin, describing heterogeneity of the aquifer. This allowed for assessment of the relationships between observed surface deformation and sub-surface material properties. Providing the setting and context for the hydrogeologic evolution of California's primary aquifers, the mature San Andreas transform fault is studied extensively by a broad range of geoscientists. I present a compilation of observations of creep, line integrals across the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary, and strain tensor volumes for comparison to the Working Group 2007 (UCERF 2) seismicity-based deformation model. I find that the moment accumulation across the plate boundary is consistent with the deformation model, suggesting fault displacement observations within the plate boundary zone accurately capture the strain across the plate boundary. This dissertation includes co-authored materials previously published, and also includes unpublished work currently under revisions for submission to a technical journal.

  2. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training new schools in Maple Watch protocols. The program also includes assessment of educational philosophy as we consider how to discuss climate change with K-12 students. Maple Watch teachers are learning how to discuss the death of a tree, extirpation of a species, and human connections with nature.

  3. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, “Mongolism” was changed to Down’s syndrome; “Australia” antigen to HBsAg; “Mexican” Swine flu to H1N1; “GRID” (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-?-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. “Geographical” and “racial” names giving must be replaced by “scientific” names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all authors, especially the lead author, to the final draft of a paper and include this in their guidelines for paper submissions. PMID:21694981

  4. Astrobiological Studies Plan at UCSD and the University of Buckingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    A UC-HBCU grant is requested to assist undergraduate and masters level HBCU Interns to achieve their professional and academic goals by attending summer school classes at UCSD along with graduate students in the UCSD Astrobiology Studies program, and by also attending a NASA sponsored scientific meeting in San Diego on Astrobiology organized by NASA scientist Richard Hoover (the 14th in a sequence). Hoover has recently published a paper in the Journal of Cosmology claiming extraterrestrial life fossils in three meteorites. Students will attend a workshop to prepare research publications on Astrobiological Science for the Journal of Cosmology or equivalent refereed journal, mentored by UCSD faculty and graduate students as co-authors and referees, all committed to the several months of communication usually required to complete a publishable paper. The program is intended to provide pathways to graduate admissions in the broad range of science and engineering fields, and by exposure to fundamental science and engineering disciplines needed by Astrobiologists. A three year UC-HBCU Astrobiological Studies program is proposed: 2011, 2012 and 2013. Interns would be eligible to enter this program when they become advanced graduate students. A center of excellence in astrobiology is planned for UCSD similar to that Directed by Professor Wickramasinghe for many years with Fred Hoyle at Cardiff University, http://www.astrobiology.cf.ac.uk /chandra1.html. Professor Wickramasinghe's CV is attached as Appendix 1. Figures A2-1,2 of Appendix 2 compare Astrobiology timelines of modern fluid mechanical and astrobiological models of Gibson/Wickramasinghe/Schild of the Journal of Cosmology with standard NASA- CDMHC models. NASA support will be sought to support research and educational aspects of both initiatives. Overload teaching of up to two courses a year by UCSD faculty of key astrobiology courses at either UCSD or at HBCU campuses is authorized by recent guidelines of UCSD Senior Vice Chancellor Subramani for Academic Affairs, following recommendations of Dean Seible of the UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering. Appendix 3 summarizes how this proposal will meet the goals of the UCOP initiatives.

  5. Personal Landmarks from the Legacy of Arthur Phelps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowke, John

    2013-09-01

    I have been influenced for my whole life by Art Phelps, more than by anyone else - other than my wife! I first heard of Art Phelps in 1960 when, in the middle of doing my PhD in Adelaide, South Australia, Frost and Phelps published their land-mark paper, not only on drift velocities, the subject of my PhD, but on Boltzmann analyses, which were to deliver detailed cross sections for all common gases. Later I dared to suggest to my university that one of my two external PhD examiners be Phelps, a move that led to me being accepted for a position at Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh for 6 years, with Phelps as my direct supervisor. Throughout this period, Phelps refused to be a co-author of any of my papers, leaving me with severe doubts as to what he thought of their quality! I list areas where insights from Phelps inspired the growth of new fruit. (1) That transverse and longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients differ, typically by a factor of two. (2) That averaging radiation absorption coefficients in electric arcs, using common weightings involving Black Body radiation, can and usually do lead to errors of orders of magnitude. (3) That CO2 laser discharges are largely controlled by electron attachment rather than by diffusion or recombination. (4) That boundary conditions for electrons at metal electrodes in arc welding, are not zero, but from an astrophysical analogy, are zero when extrapolated to one mean free path beyond the surface. (5) That the metastable vibrational states of nitrogen become an energy gain rather than a loss process for low energy electrons as occur in electrical breakdown in air, resulting in increases of the ionisation coefficient by orders of magnitude. Coupled with the detachment of electrons from negative ions by singlet delta states of metastable oxygen molecules, sustaining discharge electric fields are reduced a factor of five. Phelps worked on this problem with me until a few months before he died.

  6. Low frequency electromagnetic signals in the atmosphere caused by geodynamics and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    Due to the composed structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) forcing on the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in a lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors’ detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain effect of location of the future seismic epicenter area (obtained by Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. from Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci. and co-authors) as the result of the magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. We believe that the biosphere effects of forcing on the atmosphere may not be ignored. We formulate the result of our measurements with the system of micro-voltmeters: low-frequency EM disturbances of the atmosphere caused by solar activity (namely, geomagnetic storms with the geomagnetic index values K = 5 and K = 6), are decreasing temporarily the coherence of oscillations of the electric potentials of different points on the surface of a head, i.e. the coherence of the human brain EM processes. We are grateful to Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. and participants of the scientific seminars and conferences in IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute, Russian Acad. Sci., for discussions and researchers of the IZMIRAN observatory for data about the K index dynamics.

  7. Topological insulator gap in graphene with heavy adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruqian

    2013-03-01

    It is important to search an effective approach to expand the spin-orbit coupling gap of graphene for the realization of the two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) state. We found that heavy In or Tl adatoms may dramatically enhance the gap to detectable values of order 7 or 20 meV, large enough for the realization of quantum spin Hall effect in experimental conditions. However, In and Tl atoms may easily coalesce on graphene due to their weak binding energies and shallow segregation barriers. We proposed a new way to produce a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling gap using the impurity bands that are mediated through graphene. First principles calculations predict that the gaps generated by osmium and iridium exceed 200 meV over a broad range of adatom coverage The position of the Fermi level can be manipulated by using external electric field and co-adsorbates. The mechanism at work is expected to be rather general and may open the door to designing new TI phases in many materials. It is important to search an effective approach to expand the spin-orbit coupling gap of graphene for the realization of the two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) state. We found that heavy In or Tl adatoms may dramatically enhance the gap to detectable values of order 7 or 20 meV, large enough for the realization of quantum spin Hall effect in experimental conditions. However, In and Tl atoms may easily coalesce on graphene due to their weak binding energies and shallow segregation barriers. We proposed a new way to produce a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling gap using the impurity bands that are mediated through graphene. First principles calculations predict that the gaps generated by osmium and iridium exceed 200 meV over a broad range of adatom coverage The position of the Fermi level can be manipulated by using external electric field and co-adsorbates. The mechanism at work is expected to be rather general and may open the door to designing new TI phases in many materials. Co-Authors: J. Hu, J. Alicea, and M. Franz

  8. On the wavelength of self-organized shoreline sand waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falqués, A.; van den Berg, N.; Ribas, F.; Caballeria, M.; Calvete, D.

    2012-04-01

    Shoreline sand waves are undulations of the shoreline that extend into the bathymetry up to a certain depth. Here we will focus on self-organized sand waves that form due to shoreline instability in case of very oblique wave incidence (Ashton et al., 2001). The model of Ashton and co-authors did not predict any wavelength selection for the emerging sand waves whereas Falqués and Calvete (2005) predicted a wavelength selection in the range 4-15 km. This difference is attributable to that Falqués and Calvete (2005) computed wave refraction and shoaling over the actual curvilinear depth contours while Ashton et al. (2001) assumed locally rectilinear and parallel contours. Although there exist shoreline features at a larger scale (Ashton et al. 2001; Falqués et al. 2011) sand waves at a few km scale are more common (Ruessink and Jeuken, 2002; Davidson-Arnott and van Heyningen, 2003; Falqués et al., 2011; Medellin et al., 2008) . While their characteristic wavelength is a robust model output (Falqués and Calvete, 2005; Uguccioni et al., 2006; van den Berg et al., 2011) the physical reasons for the existence of a wavelength selection are still unknown. Furthermore, the parameter dependence of the dominant wavelength, Lm, is largely unexplored. In particular, the disparity between the large length scale of sand waves and the relevant length scales of the problem: width of the surf zone, water wave wavelength, etc. is intriguing. The aim of the present contribution is to gain insight into those physical reasons and the dependence of Lm on beach profile and water wave properties. The essence of sandwave behaviour can be captured with the simple one-line shoreline modelling concept by looking at the alongshore position of the maximum in total transport rate Q, which is here investigated with both the linearized model of Falqués and Calvete (2005) and the nonlinear model of van den Berg et al. (2011) . It is found that the position of that maximum is largely controlled by the alongshore distribution of wave energy associated to the sand wave, mainly affected in turn by : A) refractive wave energy spreading and B) refractive energy focusing by the crest. Furthermore, for large L the growthrate decreases to 0 since the gradients in wave energy and hence the gradients in Q decrease. As a result, there is a minimum wavelength, Lc, for growth and an optimum wavelength Lm > Lcof maximum growth. Experiments with different bathymetric profiles and different wave conditions are made to investigate the sensitivity of Lm . It is found that Lm scales with ?0/? where ?0 is the water wave wavelength in deep water and ? the beach slope.

  9. Water: Where, What, Why, How?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vicki Hansen

    Students in groups of 2-3 are charged with making posters that explain the role of water in key processes within selected Earth environments. Each group will be given a poster board. Student groups will chose from a list of possible environments: 1) upper mantle; 2) role of water in the asthenosphere; 3) hydrothermal systems at spreading centers; 4) water in subducting slabs to ~100 km; 5) arc magma generation; 6) water in subducting deep slabs; 7) water in the lower mantle (reactions with metallic iron to form hydrous phases); 8) water in the mantle transition zone; 9) continental basins; 10) upper crust/ground water; 11) mid-continental crust; 12) water in fault zones; 13) interaction of climate and tectonics; 14) origin of Earth's water. [By the end of the semester I should know student well enough that I can help guide students toward topics of appropriate interest/difficulty as necessary]. Posters will include: a) a concise statement of: the environment, and the key process(es) in which water plays a role (I prefer that the students stick to one major process if possible); b) concept maps/logic diagrams as a means to organize the key questions, processes, information, 'knowns', and unknowns; c) figures/illustrations to elucidate key concepts; d) concise text to guide the reader through the poster; e) unanswered questions/concerns; f) one or two key references; g) a complete list of references. Posters will be displayed on a public location in on campus. (We have a wonderful extra-wide hallway/alcove the Department of Geological Sciences that serves this purpose). Each student will view each of the class posters and submit a written evaluation of each poster. Evaluation will follow specific items including content, clarity, value of visuals, and creativity. To focus students' evaluation we will have an evaluation form that is consistent throughout the semester, used for all poster project activities. (past experience tells me the form will evolve). Evaluations will be signed, and all evaluations will be shared with the co-authors of the appropriate poster. As a class we will have a guided group discussion of the individual environments and the connections between environments. Poster authors will help guide discussion/answer questions during the discussion of their environment. The discussion will take place instead of a final exam, but during the scheduled exam time (2 hours). Beginning reference materials: I am in the process of gathering appropriate reference material to get students started. A preliminary list follows:

  10. Final Report for Phase I Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J

    2010-10-26

    On June 8, 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory released a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA 0000015) with the title, Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO{sub 2} Use. C6 Resources (C6), an affiliate of Shell Oil Company, responded with a proposal for Technology Area 1: Large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects from industrial sources. As DOE Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) Contractors, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL) proposed to collaborate with C6 and perform technical tasks, which C6 included in the C6 proposal, titled the Northern California CO{sub 2} Reduction Project. The proposal was accepted for Phase I funding and C6 received DOE Award DEFE0002042. LLNL and LBNL each received Phase I funding of $200,000, directly from DOE. The essential task of Phase I was to prepare a proposal for Phase II, which would be a five-year, detailed technical proposal, budget, and schedule for a complete carbon capture, transportation, and geologic storage project, with the objective of starting the injection of 1 million tons per year of industrial CO2 by the end of FY2015. LLNL and LBNL developed technical proposals (and DOE Field Work Proposals [FWPs]) for many aspects of the geologic testing and CO{sub 2} monitoring that were included in the C6 Phase II proposal, which C6 submitted by the deadline of April 16, 2010. This document is the Final Report for LLNL's Phase I efforts and is presented in two parts. Part 1 is the complete text of the technical proposal provided to C6 by LLNL and LBNL for inclusion in the C6 Phase II proposal. Because of space limitations, however, C6 may not have included all of this information in their proposal. In addition to developing the proposal presented below, LLNL's Bill Foxall and Laura Chiarmonte, in collaboration with LBNL, undertook preliminary technical work evaluating the potential for induced seismicity in Solano County. Part 2 presents technical work preformed during Phase I in the development of a preliminary Certification Framework: Leakage Risk Assessment for CO{sub 2} Injection at the Montezuma Hills Site, Solano County, California, co-authored by LLNL and LBNL collaborators.

  11. Consequences and potential problems of operating room outbursts and temper tantrums by surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, George B.; Wille, Rosanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anecdotal tales of colorful temper tantrums and outbursts by surgeons directed at operating room nurses and at times other health care providers, like residents and fellows, are part of the history of surgery and include not only verbal abuse but also instrument throwing and real harassment. Our Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Nancy Epstein, has made the literature review of “Are there truly any risks and consequences when spine surgeons mistreat their predominantly female OR nursing staff/colleagues, and what can we do about it?,” an assigned topic for members of the editorial board as part of a new category entitled Ethical Note for our journal. This is a topic long overdue and I chose to research it. Methods: There is no medical literature to review dealing with nurse abuse. To research this topic, one has to involve business, industry, educational institutions, compliance standards and practices, and existing state and federal laws. I asked Dr. Rosanne Wille to co-author this paper since, as the former Dean of Nursing and then Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at a major higher educational institution, she had personal experience with compliance regulations and both sexual harassment and employment discrimination complaints, to make this review meaningful. Results: A review of the existing business practices and both state and federal laws strongly suggests that although there has not been any specific legal complaint that is part of the public record, any surgeon who chooses to act out his or her frustration and nervous energy demands by abusing co-workers on the health care team, and in this case specifically operating room personnel, is taking a chance of making legal history with financial outcomes which only an actual trial can predict or determine. Even more serious outcomes of an out-of-control temper tantrum and disruptive behavior can terminate, after multiple hearings and appeals, in adverse decisions affecting hospital privileges. Conclusions: Surgeons who abuse other health care workers are in violation of institutional bylaws and compliance regulations and create a hostile environment at work which adversely affects efficient productivity and violates specific State and Federal laws which prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. PMID:22905323

  12. Laudation Laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    During the opening session of the 2014 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, I was pleased to present the 2013 and 2014 Nuclear Fusion journal prizes. The IAEA's monthly journal, Nuclear Fusion, has been publishing preeminent research in controlled thermonuclear fusion for over 50 years. In 2006, we inaugurated an annual journal prize to recognise outstanding contributions. This prize is presented to the lead author of the paper judged by the journal's Board of Editors to have made the greatest scientific contribution in the two years following its publication. The 2013 prize was awarded to Dennis Whyte, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the 2010 paper: 'I-mode: an H-mode energy confinement regime with L-mode particle transport in Alcator C-Mod' [1] This ground breaking paper, presenting results from Alcator C-Mod, enhances our understanding of the formation of energy transport barriers and temperature pedestals, without particle barriers, through the I-mode regime. The discovery of a stationary ELM-free improved confinement regime with no impurity accumulation in a metallic high field tokamak, like ITER, has implications that will stimulate much future research. The 2014 prize was awarded to Philip Snyder, General Atomics, USA, for the 2011 paper: 'A first-principles predictive model of the pedestal height and width: development, testing and ITER optimization with the EPED model' [2]. Pedestal height will have a dramatic impact on overall fusion performance in next-step devices. This exceptional paper presents a compelling model for the edge pedestal width and height based on coupling peeling-ballooning theory for stability and kinetic ballooning transport theory. Comparison is made to experimental observations across a range of devices and convincing agreement is demonstrated. This model, therefore, has the potential to significantly focus the predictions of performance in future devices. I congratulate the prize winners and their co-authors and thank the Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors for their deliberations. References [1] Whyte D.G. et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 105005 [2] Snyder P. et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 103016

  13. Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a-?? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ??? clinoenstatite and w u ??rtzite ??? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO ?? nAl2O3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to field structural geologists to test whether interactions of these types occur in nature, and to theoreticians to reach a deeper understanding of the complex relations between phase transformations, the local state of stress and associated deformation and deformation rates. ?? 1993.

  14. Towards well-defined gold nanomaterials via diafiltration and aptamer mediated synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Scott Francis

    Gold nanoparticles have garnered recent attention due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent properties. Routine access to well-defined gold nanoparticle samples in terms of core diameter, shape, peripheral functionality and purity is required in order to carry out fundamental studies of their properties and to utilize these properties in future applications. For this reason, the development of methods for preparing well-defined gold nanoparticle samples remains an area of active research in materials science. In this dissertation, two methods, diafiltration and aptamer mediated synthesis, are explored as possible routes towards well-defined gold nanoparticle samples. It is shown that diafiltration has considerable potential for the efficient and convenient purification and size separation of water-soluble nanoparticles. The suitability of diafiltration for (i) the purification of water-soluble gold nanoparticles, (ii) the separation of a bimodal distribution of nanoparticles into fractions, (iii) the fractionation of a polydisperse sample and (iv) the isolation of [rimers from monomers and aggregates is studied. NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that diafiltration produces highly pure nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that diafiltration offers the ability to separate nanoparticles of disparate core size, including linked nanoparticles. These results demonstrate the applicability of diafiltration for the rapid and green preparation of high-purity gold nanoparticle samples and the size separation of heterogeneous nanoparticle samples. In the second half of the dissertation, the identification of materials specific aptamers and their use to synthesize shaped gold nanoparticles is explored. The use of in vitro selection for identifying materials specific peptide and oligonucleotide aptamers is reviewed, outlining the specific requirements of in vitro selection for materials and the ways in which the field can be advanced. A promising new technique, in vitro selection on surfaces (ISOS), is developed and the discovery using ISOS of RNA aptamers that bind to evaporated gold is discussed. Analysis of the isolated gold binding RNA aptamers indicates that they are highly structured with single-stranded polyadenosine binding motifs. These aptamers, and similarly isolated peptide aptamers, are briefly explored for their ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles. This dissertation contains both previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  15. Geoethical Audit of Himalayan Stratigraphy: A Current Insight from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep Ahluwalia, Arun

    2014-05-01

    Focus of this presentation is to illustrate how learned societies and an eminent academy fellow can unfortunately become a pressure group. It is a very unfair and unbecoming even perhaps more than HIMALAYAN HOAX perpetrated by V. J. Gupta two decades back for over 25 years where he fooled journals, funding agencies and about 120 co-authors. Unless corrected, our learned societies and academies may continue degenerate even more. If this can happen today in the biggest democracy of the world with rule of law and freedom of press, what may happen in other set ups across our planet. The ill conceived and highly misleading book HIMALAYAN FOSSIL FRAUD recently published from PSI, Lucknow University, gives some vital but also unfortunately partial, selective and falsified historical and scientific perspectives of the Himalayan Hoax. This book is a standing testimony of a geoethical failure of individuals and of a learned society who published it without checking facts. Lot of personal testimonies and experiences can be added by the presenter. Some INSA Fellows are today like a cooperative society for cover ups and dirty politicking. The nexus within INSA Fellows to mutually protect each other and gratify at public cost is transparent but ignored for fear and power of their huge clout. Mistakes are allowed in science but science ethics does not allow silence once a fraud is known. If one is such a celebrated VIP like Ashok Sahni and D. M. Banerjee highly rewarded and awarded by so many, it becomes mandatory to maintain highest ethical standards and appear to be doing so. Our eminent INSA Fellows and learned society PSI are making themselves look like a mafia. This is neither ethics nor science. It is pure reckless money making and petty politicking by big guns to save their own skin. Very unfortunate indeed for Lucknow University, Lucknow where PSI is based and the retired teachers manning it are staying put for a life time endlessly getting self elected. Ever lowering ethical standards in learned societies of India and Indian National Science Academy stand exposed thanks to this historic revisit.

  16. EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

  17. Eight-dimensional methodology for innovative thinking about the case and ethics of the Mount Graham, Large Binocular Telescope project.

    PubMed

    Berne, Rosalyn W; Raviv, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    This paper introduces the Eight Dimensional Methodology for Innovative Thinking (the Eight Dimensional Methodology), for innovative problem solving, as a unified approach to case analysis that builds on comprehensive problem solving knowledge from industry, business, marketing, math, science, engineering, technology, arts, and daily life. It is designed to stimulate innovation by quickly generating unique "out of the box" unexpected and high quality solutions. It gives new insights and thinking strategies to solve everyday problems faced in the workplace, by helping decision makers to see otherwise obscure alternatives and solutions. Daniel Raviv, the engineer who developed the Eight Dimensional Methodology, and paper co-author, technology ethicist Rosalyn Berne, suggest that this tool can be especially useful in identifying solutions and alternatives for particular problems of engineering, and for the ethical challenges which arise with them. First, the Eight Dimensional Methodology helps to elucidate how what may appear to be a basic engineering problem also has ethical dimensions. In addition, it offers to the engineer a methodology for penetrating and seeing new dimensions of those problems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the Eight Dimensional Methodology as an analytical tool for thinking about ethical challenges to engineering, the paper presents the case of the construction of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mount Graham in Arizona. Analysis of the case offers to decision makers the use of the Eight Dimensional Methodology in considering alternative solutions for how they can proceed in their goals of exploring space. It then follows that same process through the second stage of exploring the ethics of each of those different solutions. The LBT project pools resources from an international partnership of universities and research institutes for the construction and maintenance of a highly sophisticated, powerful new telescope. It will soon mark the erection of the world's largest and most powerful optical telescope, designed to see fine detail otherwise visible only from space. It also represents a controversial engineering project that is being undertaken on land considered to be sacred by the local, native Apache people. As presented, the case features the University of Virginia, and its challenges in consideration of whether and how to join the LBT project consortium. PMID:15152849

  18. Using Mars and the Mer Mission to Teach Science: A Curriculum Designed for Teachers and Their Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2006-12-01

    Learning opportunities can be exceptionally successful when linked to national, newsworthy events. Planetary missions are particularly exciting in engaging teachers, and their students, because they combine the human "stories" of scientists and engineers with cutting-edge technology and new science. Planetary suface missions, such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, return beautiful and human-scale images that can virtually transport the viewer to another world. The MER mission allows children and adults to participate in the exploration of one of our nearest neighbors in space. New discoveries in the natural history of Mars have been used as the basis of a new integrated curriculum created by Museum and class-room educators designed to serve informal (family learning) and formal (classroom) audiences. The curriculum uses Mars and the MER mission as a "hook" to teach a wide range of topics that relate to all of the sciences, mathematics, social studies (history and exploration), science and society, career readiness, language and literacy, and visual arts. The curriculum, entitled "Making Tracks on Mars: Teacher Resource and Activity Guide," includes the following key features that have contributed to its success and usefulness: (1) basic information about Mars, Mars missions, and the MER mission providing teachers with the knowledge they may lack; (2) activities that follow a standardized format and include necessary information, pre-lesson preparation and post-lesson closure and extensions, and all information and/or images needed; (3) activities that cross the curriculum and can be used to address many different standards; (4) relevant state and national standards listed for each activity; (5) annotated MER image file and PowerPoint presentation for easy classroom use; (6) lists of additional Mars-related resources; (7) emphasis on local connections to the mission to enable teachers and students to feel personally connected; (8) elementary through high school classroom teachers as co-authors and co-developers of the curriculum; (9) evaluation and assessement by "pilot program" teachers; and (10) collaboration and partnership with other local and regional science education providers, such as SCORE, which provided partial funding and dissemination support, and NM MESA, a statewide organization of teachers.

  19. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

  20. [Prevention is the name of the game].

    PubMed

    Bass, Arie

    2010-12-01

    The review on critical limb ischemia (CLI) by Melamed and his co-authors in this issue of Harefuah focuses on treatment modalities but does not address the important issue of prevention, which, I believe, is the most effective tool in saving limbs. Peripheral arterial occlusion secondary to atherosclerosis (ASO) is common in the western hemisphere. Ten percent of the population between the ages 50-55 years and more than 20% of the population over 70 years of age suffer from some degree of ASO. Three percent of these patients will develop severe forms of ischemia. The problem is even worse amongst diabetic patients, where 1 in 1000 will lose a leg. Most patients with leg pain are treated by the orthopedic surgeon and many of those with minor skin changes are referred to a dermatologist, often without proper vascular evaluation, until the condition deteriorates. The secret of limb preservation is threefold: 1) High level of awareness by the primary medical team 2) Dedicated foot clinics and 3) A multidisciplinary team. A rigid protocol of foot examination, pulse palpation and Doppler evaluation, combined with clinical education regarding proper foot wear, can prevent close to 70% of major limb amputations. These simple, inexpensive and non-invasive modalities enable us to both diagnose arterial disease and follow-up on the treatment. An interdisciplinary team of a diabetes expert, foot orthopedic surgeon, podiatrist and a vascular surgeon can, in most cases, build a treatment plan which will alter the course of the disease at an early stage and prevent the development of CLI. The natural course of CLI without revascularization leads to major limb amputation in 70% of patients within a year or two of diagnosis. When vascular reconstruction is not an option, more conservative measures, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), can also be useful in some patients but over-use and abuse of this modality and other alternative treatments must be avoided. The fact that 30% of those patients do not lose their leg, leads to unsubstantiated claims of limb salvage by unproven methods. A major effort of educating both the medical teams and the patients is required in order to decrease the number of patients who will develop CLI. On the other hand, one must remember that for some patients primary amputation can be the best alternative, offering minimal risk and a reasonable quality of life. PMID:21916101

  1. Four Big-Telescope Planetary Astronomers of the 1920's at Mount Wilson, Yerkes, and Lick Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Contrary to current mythology, many professional astronomers tried to do planetary research before World War II, as Ronald Doel and I have previously emphasized. Their difficulty was that once the known planets had been studied with the biggest and best telescopes, spectrographs, and radiometers there was little more they could do until some new instrumental development came along, and these were rare in those years. Two astronomers who observed planets in the 1920's were Frank Ross, of the Yerkes Observatory faculty, with the Mount Wilson 60- and 100-inch telescopes, and William H. Wright, at Lick, with its 36-inch Crossley reflector, which he considered a big telescope. Both were keenly interested in photographic emulsions (Ross had been a research physicist at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory), and when fast new panchromatic films and plates became available in the 1920's they quickly applied them to photographing the planets. Robert J. Trumpler, also at Lick, used its 36-inch refractor in a combination of photographic (in the yellow and red spectral regions) and visual observing to map and describe Martian surface features. All three of them began planetary observing at the close opposition of Mars in 1924; they were all mainline scientists who ultimately were elected to the National Academy of Sciences. All three of them were doing descriptive work, seeing what was there, and none of them had any theoretical ideas to check or disprove. Francis G. Pease, more of a telescope designer and engineer at Mount Wilson, also used its 60- and 100-inch reflectors, chiefly to take photographs of the planets for illustrations in books and magazines. They all used fine-grain photographic plates, but seeing was a problem they could not overcome. Examples of their planetary photographs, papers, and letters will be posted. Ross and Trumpler dropped out of planetary astronomy after 1928, but Wright and Pease continued in it for many years. An interesting sidelight is that Gerard P. Kuiper, as a young postdoc at Lick, co-authored his first planetary paper in English with Wright (on Mars).

  2. Measuring interdisciplinary research and education outcomes in the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    The interdisciplinary postgraduate research and education programme - the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems - was initiated in 2009. To date, 35 research students, three post-docs and ten faculty members have been engaged in the Programme, from ten research fields (aquatic microbiology, hydrology, hydro-climatology, hydro-geology, mathematical economics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, resource management, structural mechanics, and water quality). The Programme aims to develop research students with the capacity to work across the disciplines, to conduct cutting edge research and foster an international perspective. To do this, a variety of mechanisms are adopted that include research cluster groups, joint study sites, joint supervision, a basic study programme and a research semester abroad. The Programme offers a unique case study to explore if and how these mechanisms lead to research and education outcomes. Outcomes are grouped according to whether they are tangible (publications with co-authors from more than one research field, analysis of graduate profiles and career destinations) or non-tangible (interaction between researchers, networks and trust). A mixed methods approach that includes bibliometric analysis combined with interviews with students is applied. Bibliometric analysis shows that as the Programme has evolved the amount of multi-disciplinary work has increased (32% of the 203 full papers produced by the programme's researchers have authors from more than one research field). Network analysis to explore which research fields collaborate most frequently show that hydrology plays a significant role and has collaborated with seven of the ten research fields. Hydrology researchers seem to interact the most strongly with other research fields as they contribute understanding on water system processes. Network analysis to explore which individuals collaborate shows that much joint work takes place through the five research cluster groups (water resource management, land-surface processes, Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, water and health, modelling and risk). Student interviews highlight that trust between colleagues and supervisors, and the role of spaces for interaction (joint study sites, cluster group meetings, shared offices etc.) are important for joint work. Graduate analysis shows that students develop skills and confidence to work across disciplines through collaborating on their doctoral research. Working collaboratively during the doctorate appears to be strongly correlated with continuing to work in this way after graduation.

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also provide a short summary of the quarterly activities within Nova laser operations, Beamlet laser operations, and National Ignition Facility laser design. LLNL's ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet (LLNL), OMEGA (University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics), Nike (Naval Research Laboratory), and Trident (Los Alamos National Laboratory) laser facilities. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (Z) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories. General Atomics, Inc., develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. Many of the ICF Annual Report articles are co-authored with our colleagues from these other ICF institutions.

  4. Challenges from new lunar data: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    Recent lunar missions including Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1, Selene Kaguya, Chang'E 1 , Chandrayaan-1 have been producing new data in large volumes. We shall discuss the challenges in data calibration and intercalibration, integration, the defin ition of an accurate coordinate systems and geodesic grid, incorporation of latest altimetry and gravimetry data. LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and subsequent missions will go even futher in data volume and diversity of instruments. We shall discuss the upcoming challenges in data archiving, management and interpretative tools, to merge orbital remote sensing with surface data from landers and rovers for the various elements of ILEWG lunar robotic village. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Data and Outreach Relevant ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-Space Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -7th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Toronto Sept 2005, Programme and Proceedings on line at www.ilewg.org, R. Richards et al Editors -6th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Udaipur Nov. 2004, Proceedings ( N. Bhandari Editor), Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841 -5th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Hawaii Nov 2003, Pro-ceedings ILC2005/ICEUM5 (S.M. Durst et al Editors), Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Tech-nology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004 -4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462 (B.H. Foing M. Perry, editors)

  5. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

  6. Engineering interfaces at the micro- and nanoscale for biomolecular and nanoparticle self-assembled devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, Gregory Justin

    There is a lot of interest in developing nanoparticle-based electronic devices. These devices rely on single-electron charging effects and offer advantages in size and performance over traditional transistors. Two significant challenges to the development of nanoparticle electronics are to (a) arrange the particles into useful device structures and (b) characterize the structures of these arrays. We developed methods for arranging nanoparticies in one- and two-dimensional arrays, and have developed a new tool for characterization of nanostructures on SiO2. In order to characterize nanoparticle structures on SiO2, we have designed substrates for TEM that are composed of a Si grid that supports electron transparent SiO2 membrane windows. These grids are easily fabricated in large batches using standard microelectronic processing techniques and can be chemically processed in the same manner as a Si wafer. Two-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles were patterned on SiO2 using photolithography to pattern the oxide with a monolayer of Hf(IV), which is known to bind phosphoric acids. After removal of the photoresist, the chemically patterned surface is exposed to a solution of phosphoric acid-stabilized nanoparticles which selectively bind to the Hf(IV) patterned regions. EPMA analysis of the patterns shows that both Hf and Au are isolated within the patterned regions, and SEM images of these surfaces show that the particles form dense arrays on Hf(IV) modified Si. This assembly technique will allow facile integration of nanoparticle devices with current Si processing methods. One-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles were assembled into device structures using DNA as a scaffold to direct the array. DNA is first aligned on SiO 2, then the substrate is exposed to thiocholine-stabilized nanoparticles, which bind selectively to the DNA through electrostatic interactions. We have shown by TEM that nanoparticles deposited on DNA maintain their core size, and the interparticle spacing in these arrays is dictated by the length of the nanoparticle ligand shell. By controlling the surface chemistry of SiO 2 and Au, we contacted isolated arrays of nanoparticles. These devices exhibit electrical properties consistent with theoretical treatments of nanoparticle arrays. "These advances will be useful in developing complex electronic circuits that take advantage of single-electron charging effects. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

  7. A Science-Driven Photojournalistic Documentation of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, G.; Rothlein, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. The intended outcomes of the work - the photographs, reportage and publications - are based on the principles of scientific accuracy, a journalistic approach, strong photographic skills, long-term observations, science literacy, education, documentation for policy makers and inspiration to others. During the course of this project the team of photojournalist and public health toxicologist visited, interviewed and/or had correspondence with more than 150 scientists in the field on every continent. Hundreds more have influenced and informed the work. World View of Global Warming has tested the idea that climate change can be more easily understood by the public and government officials through photographs which accurately and engagingly depict the locations and the scientists involved in research, communities responding to impacts of climate change and innovations for mitigation. Use of the photographs by scientists to further their own work and outreach was an immediate and continuing result, including use in journals, reports, textbooks and conferences. This presentation will demonstrate the many uses of photography in climate change communications and discuss how scientists and educators can more effectively interact with the public and media and artists. The website for this project was established in 2002 and now has more than 100 pages of photographs and information. It is strictly non-commercial and documented. Wide and repeated publication indicates the value of the project's climate communication: Exhibition at the Boston Museum of Science (2013), the National Academy of Sciences and the American Assn. for the Advancement of Science and other venues; extended use by the United Nations, UNFCCC, World Meteorological Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President; two original books (one for middle schools with a co-author); publication in hundreds of magazines, textbooks and public interest websites; use during university, government and civic seminars and scientific meetings; and distribution among and use by Congressional offices. Most recently the project inspired films about youth involvement in citizen science and climate change education; and co-developed Apps for the iPad and iPhone which graphically show climate-driven changes in repeat photographs and maps. Financial support for this work has come principally from publication fees and grants from small foundations and individuals (via Blue Earth Alliance of Seattle).

  8. A systematic review of cluster randomised trials in residential facilities for older people suggests how to improve quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous reviews of cluster randomised trials have been critical of the quality of the trials reviewed, but none has explored determinants of the quality of these trials in a specific field over an extended period of time. Recent work suggests that correct conduct and reporting of these trials may require more than published guidelines. In this review, our aim was to assess the quality of cluster randomised trials conducted in residential facilities for older people, and to determine whether (1) statistician involvement in the trial and (2) strength of journal endorsement of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement influence quality. Methods We systematically identified trials randomising residential facilities for older people, or parts thereof, without language restrictions, up to the end of 2010, using National Library of Medicine (Medline) via PubMed and hand-searching. We based quality assessment criteria largely on the extended CONSORT statement for cluster randomised trials. We assessed statistician involvement based on statistician co-authorship, and strength of journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement from journal websites. Results 73 trials met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 (27%) reported accounting for clustering in sample size calculations and 54 (74%) in the analyses. In 29 trials (40%), methods used to identify/recruit participants were judged by us to have potentially caused bias or reporting was unclear to reach a conclusion. Some elements of quality improved over time but this appeared not to be related to the publication of the extended CONSORT statement for these trials. Trials with statistician/epidemiologist co-authors were more likely to account for clustering in sample size calculations (unadjusted odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 26.0) and analyses (unadjusted OR 3.2, 1.2 to 8.5). Journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement was not associated with trial quality. Conclusions Despite international attempts to improve methods in cluster randomised trials, important quality limitations remain amongst these trials in residential facilities. Statistician involvement on trial teams may be more effective in promoting quality than further journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement. Funding bodies and journals should promote statistician involvement and co-authorship in addition to adherence to CONSORT guidelines. PMID:24148859

  9. The Hibernating Stellar Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    First Optically Active Magnetar-Candidate Discovered Astronomers have discovered a most bizarre celestial object that emitted 40 visible-light flashes before disappearing again. It is most likely to be a missing link in the family of neutron stars, the first case of an object with an amazingly powerful magnetic field that showed some brief, strong visible-light activity. Hibernating Stellar Magnet ESO PR Photo 31/08 The Hibernating Stellar Magnet This weird object initially misled its discoverers as it showed up as a gamma-ray burst, suggesting the death of a star in the distant Universe. But soon afterwards, it exhibited some unique behaviour that indicates its origin is much closer to us. After the initial gamma-ray pulse, there was a three-day period of activity during which 40 visible-light flares were observed, followed by a brief near-infrared flaring episode 11 days later, which was recorded by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Then the source became dormant again. "We are dealing with an object that has been hibernating for decades before entering a brief period of activity", explains Alberto J. Castro-Tirado, lead author of a paper in this week's issue of Nature. The most likely candidate for this mystery object is a 'magnetar' located in our own Milky Way galaxy, about 15 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Vulpecula, the Fox. Magnetars are young neutron stars with an ultra-strong magnetic field a billion billion times stronger than that of the Earth. "A magnetar would wipe the information from all credit cards on Earth from a distance halfway to the Moon," says co-author Antonio de Ugarte Postigo. "Magnetars remain quiescent for decades. It is likely that there is a considerable population in the Milky Way, although only about a dozen have been identified." Some scientists have noted that magnetars should be evolving towards a pleasant retirement as their magnetic fields decay, but no suitable source had been identified up to now as evidence for this evolutionary scheme. The newly discovered object, known as SWIFT J195509+261406 and showing up initially as a gamma-ray burst (GRB 070610), is the first candidate. The magnetar hypothesis for this object is reinforced by another analysis, based on another set of data, appearing in the same issue of Nature.

  10. The Wild, Hidden Cousin of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    First Optically Active Magnetar-Candidate Discovered Astronomers have discovered a most bizarre celestial object that emitted 40 visible-light flashes before disappearing again. It is most likely to be a missing link in the family of neutron stars, the first case of an object with an amazingly powerful magnetic field that showed some brief, strong visible-light activity. Hibernating Stellar Magnet ESO PR Photo 31/08 The Hibernating Stellar Magnet This weird object initially misled its discoverers as it showed up as a gamma-ray burst, suggesting the death of a star in the distant Universe. But soon afterwards, it exhibited some unique behaviour that indicates its origin is much closer to us. After the initial gamma-ray pulse, there was a three-day period of activity during which 40 visible-light flares were observed, followed by a brief near-infrared flaring episode 11 days later, which was recorded by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Then the source became dormant again. "We are dealing with an object that has been hibernating for decades before entering a brief period of activity", explains Alberto J. Castro-Tirado, lead author of a paper in this week's issue of Nature. The most likely candidate for this mystery object is a 'magnetar' located in our own Milky Way galaxy, about 15 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Vulpecula, the Fox. Magnetars are young neutron stars with an ultra-strong magnetic field a billion billion times stronger than that of the Earth. "A magnetar would wipe the information from all credit cards on Earth from a distance halfway to the Moon," says co-author Antonio de Ugarte Postigo. "Magnetars remain quiescent for decades. It is likely that there is a considerable population in the Milky Way, although only about a dozen have been identified." Some scientists have noted that magnetars should be evolving towards a pleasant retirement as their magnetic fields decay, but no suitable source had been identified up to now as evidence for this evolutionary scheme. The newly discovered object, known as SWIFT J195509+261406 and showing up initially as a gamma-ray burst (GRB 070610), is the first candidate. The magnetar hypothesis for this object is reinforced by another analysis, based on another set of data, appearing in the same issue of Nature.

  11. Research Opportunities in Solid Earth Science (RESESS): Broadening Participation in Geology and Geophysics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Hubenthal, M.

    2009-12-01

    RESESS is a multi-year, paid, summer research internship program designed for students from underrepresented groups. The students receive extensive mentoring in science research and communication and become part of a community that provides ongoing support. This has been possible in the initial 5 years of the program through collaboration with Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS), where solid earth students have been an integral part of the SOARS cohort, benefiting from social as well as educational interactions. 11 students have taken part in RESESS for at least one year and of these, four students have graduated in geoscience and entered graduate programs in geophysics and one was recently awarded an NSF graduate fellowship. Students have presented over 20 posters at national science meetings, and one has co-authored a peer-reviewed article. 23 scientists have mentored students over the past 5 years and 17 percent of these mentors are from underrepresented groups in science; 19 other scientists and university/science consortia staff have mentored students in written and verbal presentations and supported their integration into the local communities. Mentorship over a period of years is one important hallmark of this program as students have benefited from the support of UNAVCO, IRIS, USGS, and university scientists and staff during the summer, academic year, and at professional meetings such as AGU, GSA, NABGG, and SACNAS as well as consortia and project science workshops (UNAVCO, IRIS, and EarthScope). One goal of the project has been to educate the scientific community on the benefits of mentoring undergraduate students from underrepresented groups in STEM fields. Increasingly, scientists are approaching RESESS to include this program in their implementation of broader impacts. RESESS has been funded by NSF for the next five years with plans to expand the number of students, geographic and scientific diversity, and sources of funding for a sustainable program. Collaboration with the IRIS REU program and major research programs such as POLENET began over the past three years. Synergistic activities will be increased with the inauguration of the IRIS Minority Speakers Series, partnership with the Colorado Diversity Initiative, and expanded recruitment and research opportunities from universities and colleges nation-wide.

  12. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil. If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

  13. Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.

    Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome and its equipment with a telescope and, thus, laid the base for the modern Urania Popular Observatory. Please note: The printed version contains an error: Unfortunately, Reinhard E. Schielicke was not indicated as co-author of this paper.

  14. Basaltic lava flow surface morphology: Genesis, evolution and impact on flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soule, Samuel Adam

    The emplacement of basaltic lava flows is impacted by a number of interdependent parameters. For the purposes of predictive modeling and hazard assessment, it is necessary to obtain ranges for these parameters and to understand how they are dependent on each other. This dissertation includes several studies to infer lava flow emplacement parameters and their relationships to one another from the surface morphology preserved on solidified flows. Surface morphology maps of a number of Kilauean lava flows reveal a characteristic lava flow facies evolution that results in a sigmoidal surface morphology evolution with distance. I find that differences in the length scale of the transition relate to the eruption temperature and effusion rate of the lava for the transition onset, and interaction with local topography and resulting enhanced thermal efficiency for the transition length. In addition to examining the flow-scale surface morphology transition, I use a corn syrup-rice suspension to investigate the transition at the local-scale. I find several distinct styles of deformation including clumping, shear zones, and detachment whose onsets follow an inverse relationship between particle concentration and shear rate. Each style of deformation shows progressively enhanced shear localization and any or all of these processes may be responsible for the transition from pahoehoe- to `a`a-type deformation. Lava flow surfaces can also impact flow dynamics, with progressively thickening crusts providing increased resistance to flow as illustrated qualitatively by experiments using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 wax. I conduct a series of experiments to characterize the mechanical properties of solidified PEG and find that its strength is 104 times stronger than predicted from flow simulations, suggesting that a sub-surface visco-elastic layer, rather than the solidified crust, provides the primary resistance to PEG, and by analog, lava flows. Finally, I develop a computational code to identify alignments of volcanic vents, which act as an indicator of the tectonic stress field at the time of emplacement. The code includes several filtering criteria to limit the detection of spurious alignments. I apply the code to a data set of Pacific Northwest vents and find a slight progressive clockwise rotation of the Cascade trend and westward impingement of the Brothers trend over the last 1 Ma. This dissertation includes published, co-authored materials.

  15. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers have found the most powerful eruption seen in the Universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A supermassive black hole generated this eruption by growing at a remarkable rate. This discovery shows the enormous appetite of large black holes, and the profound impact they have on their surroundings. The huge eruption is seen in a Chandra image of the hot, X-ray emitting gas of a galaxy cluster called MS 0735.6+7421. Two vast cavities extend away from the supermassive black hole in the cluster's central galaxy. The eruption - which has lasted for 100 million years and is still going - has generated the energy equivalent to hundreds of millions of gamma-ray bursts. Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole This event was caused by gravitational energy release as enormous amounts of matter fell toward a black hole. Most of the matter was swallowed, but some of it was violently ejected before being captured by the black hole. "I was stunned to find that a mass of about 300 million Suns was swallowed," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens, lead author of the study that appears in the January 6, 2005 issue of Nature. "This is almost as massive as the supermassive black hole that swallowed it." Astronomers are not sure where such large amounts of matter came from. One theory is that gas from the host galaxy catastrophically cooled and was then swallowed by the black hole. Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 The energy released shows that the black hole in MS 0735 has grown very dramatically during this eruption. Previous studies suggest that other large black holes have grown very little in the recent past, and that only smaller black holes are still growing quickly. "This new result is as surprising as it is exciting", said co-author Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics. "This black hole is feasting when it should be fasting." Radio emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville,

  16. All In The Family: Chandra Finds Evidence That Massive Stars Are More Like The Sun Than Previously Believed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that massive stars may be much more like the Sun than previously thought. Astronomers determined that magnetic loop structures, similar to those on the Sun, may exist on the surface of so-called O-type stars, some of the most luminous stars in the universe. "This result is quite surprising," says Wayne Waldron of Emergent Information Technologies, Inc., and co-author of a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This bucks conventional wisdom to find that these stars may really resemble our Sun." Zeta Orionis Press Image and Caption Using Chandra's High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) in conjunction with a CCD X-ray camera, astronomers observed the star Zeta Orionis (one of the three belt stars in the constellation of Orion) and found strong X-ray line emission from ions of iron, oxygen, and other elements. The high-resolution X-ray spectrum enabled astronomers to determine that the X-ray emitting gas has a density 1000 times larger than predicted by current models, an amount comparable to the atmospheric density just above the surface of the star. For many years, solar astronomers have derived densities of X-ray producing plasmas on the Sun using emission lines of ions like helium, those with just two bound electrons remaining. Chandra allows this approach to be used for other stars and it has detected X-rays from silicon ions that have been stripped of 12 of their usual complement of 14 electrons. This ion is an especially useful diagnostic of plasma densities in the extremely ultraviolet-bright environment surrounding O-stars. Following the discovery of X-ray emission from O-class stars some 20 years ago, astronomers assumed that the X-rays were created in a hot corona near the star, similar to the Sun's corona. Those models were then abandoned in favor of the currently preferred explanation: the X-ray radiation is created by energetic shocks in the stellar winds (steady streams of matter ejected from many stars, including the Sun). However, these new Chandra spectral data reveal a much higher density for the hot, X-ray producing gas than predicted if such shock models were correct. The Chandra observations also contradict current understanding since the team of researchers found no evidence of expansion in the emission lines - a fundamental prediction for shock models. According to Waldron and co-author Joseph Cassinelli of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, their observations are best explained if the high density X-ray emission comes from confined structures of very hot plasma, similar to the magnetic loops found on the Sun. [For recent results on the Sun's magnetic loops, see the NASA HQ press release, "Fountains of Fire Illuminate Solar Mystery," issued September 26, 2000.] A challenge for scientists will be to explain how these magnetic loops are generated and maintained. Although O-type stars have inner convection zones in their core, they are believed to lack outer convection zones, an ingredient scientists considered necessary to create such hot and energetic plasmas confined in magnetic loops. Convection zones are regions where most of the energy is transported by fluid motions from hotter regions to cooler ones. Without these zones being located near the stellar surface, astronomers are currently unable to explain how such high-densities knots of X-rays could exist. O-type stars, often found in groups of similar stars known as "OB associations," are massive objects, which are typically 10 or more times the Sun's mass. These stars are known to have relatively short life spans, since they burn their nuclear fuel much faster than smaller stars. The star Waldron and Cassinelli observed with Chandra, Zeta Orionis, is classified as an O "supergiant," which is 30 times larger, 30 times more massive, and radiates one hundred thousand times more energy than the Sun. The binary system of Zeta Orionis can be seen with the unaided eye from both Hemispheres for much of the year. Viewing

  17. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The cooling in the Cas A

  18. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after it has died," said co-author Scott Chapman, also of Cambridge University. "This means we don't have to catch the black holes in the act to witness the big impact they have." This is the first X-ray ghost ever seen after the demise of radio-bright jets. Astronomers have observed extensive X-ray emission with a similar origin, but only from galaxies with radio emission on large scales, signifying continued eruptions. In HDF 130, only a point source is detected in radio images, coinciding with the massive elliptical galaxy seen in its optical image. This radio source indicates the presence of a growing supermassive black hole. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs "This result hints that the X-ray sky should be littered with such ghosts," said co-author Caitlin Casey, also of Cambridge, "especially if black hole eruptions are as common as we think they are in the early Universe." The power contained in the black hole eruption was likely to be considerable, equivalent to about a billion supernovas. The energy is dumped into the surroundings and transports and heats the gas. "Even after the ghost disappears, most of the energy from the black hole's eruption remains", said Fabian. "Because they're so powerful, these eruptions can have profound effects lasting for billions of years." The details of Chandra's data of HDF 130 helped secure its true nature. For example, in X-rays, HDF 130 has a cigar-like shape that extends for some 2.2 million light years. The linear shape of the X-ray source is consistent with the shape of radio jets and not with that of a galaxy cluster, which is expected to be circular. The energy distribution of the X-rays is also consistent with the interpretation of an X-ray ghost. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandr

  19. Black Hole Paradox Solved By NASA's Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    Black holes are lighting up the Universe, and now astronomers may finally know how. New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory show for the first time that powerful magnetic fields are the key to these brilliant and startling light shows. It is estimated that up to a quarter of the total radiation in the Universe emitted since the Big Bang comes from material falling towards supermassive black holes, including those powering quasars, the brightest known objects. For decades, scientists have struggled to understand how black holes, the darkest objects in the Universe, can be responsible for such prodigious amounts of radiation. Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star New X-ray data from Chandra give the first clear explanation for what drives this process: magnetic fields. Chandra observed a black hole system in our galaxy, known as GRO J1655-40 (J1655, for short), where a black hole was pulling material from a companion star into a disk. "By intergalactic standards J1655 is in our backyard, so we can use it as a scale model to understand how all black holes work, including the monsters found in quasars," said Jon M. Miller of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, whose paper on these results appears in this week's issue of Nature. Gravity alone is not enough to cause gas in a disk around a black hole to lose energy and fall onto the black hole at the rates required by observations. The gas must lose some of its orbital angular momentum, either through friction or a wind, before it can spiral inward. Without such effects, matter could remain in orbit around a black hole for a very long time. Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Scientists have long thought that magnetic turbulence could generate friction in a gaseous disk and drive a wind from the disk that carries angular momentum outward allowing the gas to fall inward. Using Chandra, Miller and his team provided crucial evidence for the role of magnetic forces in the black hole accretion process. The X-ray spectrum, the number of X-rays at different energies, showed that the speed and density of the wind from J1655's disk corresponded to computer simulation predictions for magnetically-driven winds. The spectral fingerprint also ruled out the two other major competing theories to winds driven by magnetic fields. "In 1973, theorists came up with the idea that magnetic fields could drive the generation of light by gas falling onto black holes," said co-author John Raymond of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "Now, over 30 years later, we finally may have convincing evidence." Evidence for Wind in the GRO J1655-40 Spectrum Evidence for Wind in the GRO J1655-40 Spectrum This deeper understanding of how black holes accrete matter also teaches astronomers about other properties of black holes, including how they grow. "Just as a doctor wants to understand the causes of an illness and not merely the symptoms, astronomers try to understand what causes phenomena they see in the Universe," said co-author Danny Steeghs also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "By understanding what makes material release energy as it falls onto black holes, we may also learn how matter falls onto other important objects." In addition to accretion disks around black holes, magnetic fields may play an important role in disks detected around young sun-like stars where planets are forming, as well as ultra-dense objects called neutron stars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  20. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was to prepare a visual identification chart of the navigational stars to be used for backup navigation on Apollo 8 and several subsequent space missions. In 1973, Alan Fiala was assigned to take over and modernize the prediction of solar and lunar eclipses. He developed software for calculating eclipse phenomena and generating eclipse maps that is still the basis of the computations at the observatory almost four decades later. As one of the world's experts on eclipse calculations, he was the lead author of the chapter on eclipse calculations in the 1992 Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, and was also the co-author of Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1500 B.C-A.D. 3000 with Bao-Lin Liu, the foremost Chinese expert. In 1979, Alan Fiala began a collaborative effort with two other colleagues, supported by NSF and NASA, to observe solar eclipses in order to detect possible long-term variations in the solar diameter. Fiala pioneered the use of portable video cameras to record the disappearance and reappearance of the Sun from behind the Moon's limb during an eclipse, as viewed from the edges of the central eclipse paths. He was the leader or co-organizer of expeditions to ten solar eclipses around the world and was the co-author of several articles on this project. In 1996, Alan Fiala was appointed Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office. The office, which dates from 1849, is responsible for four annual publications that set the international standard for accuracy for positional astronomy and celestial navigation. Fiala made great progress in modernizing and standardizing the production process for the publications. He also began revision of the scientific basis of the books while adding complementary information on the Internet. Fiala was Chief of NAO during its sesquicentennial and, with Steven J. Dick, co-edited the Proceedings of the Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium. Alan Fiala received numerous awards during his career at the Observatory, including the Captain James Melville Gilliss Award for service. Minor planet 3695 Fia

  1. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o

  2. Obituary: Ralph Robert Robbins, Jr., 1938-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jefferys, William H.; Lambert, David L.

    2007-12-01

    Ralph Robert Robbins, Jr., died on 2 December 2005, in Kyle, Texas. His wife, Maria Elena Robbins, his daughters Julia Robbins Kelso and Stephanie Juarez Balles, his son Matthew Juarez, and five grandchildren survive him. Bob was on the faculty at the University of Texas from 1968 until his retirement in 2003. Bob was born in Wichita, Kansas, on 2 September 1938, the only son of Mildred and Ralph Robert Robbins, Sr. Guided by his high school's policy to provide a practical education to children of working-class parents, Bob began high school with a heavy dose of vocational courses until the results of a test indicated his special talent in mathematics. He was awarded a full scholarship to Yale University, graduating magna cum laude in mathematics in 1960. He won the Warner Prize in Mathematics at Yale that year. He received his Ph.D. in 1966 with a dissertation entitled "The Triplet Spectrum of Neutral Helium in Expanding Nebulae" from the University of California at Berkeley. His interest in college teaching was ignited at this time through summer teaching positions at San Mateo California Junior College and the Ohio State University. Following a year at Texas as a McDonald Observatory Post-doctoral Fellow, Bob taught for a year in the physics department of the University of Houston before returning to the University of Texas at Austin as an Assistant Professor of Astronomy in 1968. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1972. Bob's research in the early 1970s on theoretical studies of helium was of vital importance to astronomers for over three decades. These pioneering calculations became vital to observational astronomers in the mid-1990s as interest grew in the primordial helium produced by the Big Bang. Bob's interest and influence in education was international in scope. In the summers 1968-1970, he was a government consultant in Mathematics in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He consulted with the government that was preparing a master plan for technical education. While teaching all the mathematics instructors of the polytechnic institutes of the country, he co-authored a textbook "Polytechnic Mathematics." Bob also was active for many years in Commission 46 of the International Astronomical Union, including compiling overviews of educational materials available in English for over a decade and serving on the organizing committee for several international meetings. In the 1970s, Bob and William Jefferys refined their view of how introductory astronomy should be taught — pioneering a "minds-on, hands-on" approach that emphasized "learning by doing" even in the non-science majors courses. This innovative work in astronomy education led to several co-authored books: a general-level textbook (Discovering Astronomy), a book to accompany upper-division laboratory courses (Modern Astronomy: an Activities Approach), and a workbook for college teachers (Effective Astronomy Teaching and Student Reasoning Ability). Bob also popularized self-paced astronomy courses that demanded in-depth understanding from students as well as requiring observations of the sky and small experiments. Bob was named a Piper Professor in 1972, a statewide award that recognized his teaching excellence. For many years Bob served both as an American Astronomical Society Shapley Visiting Lecturer and as a National Science Foundation Chautauqua lecturer, thus bringing his expertise to colleges and college instructors across the nation. Bob was fascinated with not only how undergraduate students learn, but also how people of past civilizations learned about astronomy and used it in their lives and rituals. Bob's colleague William Jefferys recalled a 1967 Spring Break trip: "We got into Bob's white and purple Dodge and went to Mexico with a large tent, big enough for the party of six. We camped on the beach and by the side of the road, got royally bitten by mosquitoes, suffered a broken spring and flat tire on the car (both of which were fixed in Mexico, but the tire expired just as we reentered the US).

  3. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365 "Thanks to this eclipse, we were able to probe much closer to the edge of this black hole than anyone has been able to before," said co-author Martin Elvis from CfA. "Material this close in will likely cross the event horizon and disappear from the universe in about a hundred years, a blink of an eye in cosmic terms." In addition to measuring the size of this disk of material, Risaliti and his colleagues were also able to estimate the location of the dense gas cloud that eclipsed the X-ray source and central black hole. The Chandra data show that this cloud is one hundredth of a light year from the black hole's event horizon, or 300 times closer than generally thought. "AGN include the brightest objects in the Universe and are powerful probes of the early universe. So, it's vital to understand their basic structure," said Risaliti. "It turns out that we still have work to do to understand these monsters." A series of six Chandra observations of NGC 1365 were made every two days over a period of two weeks in April 2006. During five of the observations, high energy X-rays from the central X-ray source were visible, but in the second one - corresponding to the eclipse - they were not. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  4. Semi-analytical model of brine leakage through an abandoned plugged well to determine the Area of Review for CO2 geological storages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reveillere, A. R.; Rohmer, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Deep saline aquifers are currently considered for CO2 storage in different places of the world. Many of these aquifers are located in sedimentary basins that have experienced a past oil and gas prospection and / or production, which has left a quantity of wells with sometimes undetermined plugging history. Despite a careful site selection, a remaining risk of leakage outside the storage reservoir cannot be excluded, and potential leakage pathways have to be reviewed. Existing semi-analytical models can estimate the leakage flow rate of brine, possibly followed by CO2, from the storage aquifer to an overlying one (cf. publications by Nordbotten and co-authors, 2004-2009). These models use a time discretization, but do not use any spatial grid. They are consequently very computationally efficient but require considering homogeneous horizontal aquifer models with uniform properties. In addition, several authors have proposed a definition of the "Area of Review" of CO2 storage sites as the area where the pressure changes due to the injection can drive the reservoir brine up to a shallower aquifer. This approach relies on a static equilibrium of the denser brine replacing a lighter one, which implies supposing that the wellbore does not present any cement plug or any element that can slow down the leakage. In the present study, we combine these two approaches by developing a semi-analytical model able to consider the dynamic brine flow from the storage reservoir to an overlying aquifer through a vertical conduit. That leak is composed of an open wellbore and a porous column, whose characteristics are representative of degraded cements of an abandoned well. During the leakage, the saline brine coming from the storage reservoir progressively fills in the leak and replaces the original fluid, which was less saline and therefore less dense. The model computes the transient leakage rate, the progressive filling of the leak and several pressures variations. For a given injection scenario, we use this model for estimating the Area of Review and prioritizing the regions where potential pathways have to be examined: from the most conservative case where the leak is merely composed of a open wellbore, one can also consider the presence of a cement plug that will slow down the leakage. Considering a given plug characteristics (porous column height and permeability), the Area of Review can be reduced compared to the conservative case (i.e. with no cement plug) in order to focus the review. We apply this Area of Review delimitation methodology to the Paris basin context, considering the Dogger aquifer as a storage reservoir and the Albien shallower aquifer as a drinking water resource. Both formations are linked through a 820 m long vertical leak made of a cement plug and an "open" wellbore. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the typical characteristics of the wellbore + cement plug of this region.

  5. Successfully integrating aged care services: a review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael J.; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy) project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice. The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt. Methods Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis. Results Forty-five journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional decline and handicap levels, and improving feelings of empowerment and satisfaction with care provided. The research also demonstrated benefits to the health system, including a more appropriate use of emergency rooms, and decreased consultations with medical specialists. Discussion Reviewing the body of research reveals the importance of both designing programs with an eye to local context, and building in flexibility allowing the program to be adapted to changing circumstances. Creating partnerships between policy designers, project implementers, and academic teams is an important element in achieving these goals. Partnerships are also valuable for achieving effective monitoring and evaluation, and support to ‘evidence-based’ policy-making processes. Despite a shared electronic health record being a key component of the service model, there was an under-investigation of the impact this technology on facilitating and enabling integration and the outcomes achieved. Conclusions PRISMA provides evidence of the benefits that can arise from integrating care for older persons, particularly in terms of increased feelings of personal empowerment, and improved client satisfaction with the care provided. Taken alongside other integrated care experiments, PRISMA provides further evidentiary support to policy-makers pursuing integrated care programs. The scale and scope of the research body highlights the long-term and complex nature of program evaluations, but underscores the benefits of evaluation, review and subsequent adaptation of programs. The role of information technology in supporting integration of services is likely to substantially expand in the future and the potential this technology offers should be investigated and harnessed. PMID:23687475

  6. Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never had good evidence until now," said co-author Paul Martini, also of OSU. "This can help solve a couple of mysteries about galaxy clusters." One mystery is why there are so many blue, star-forming galaxies in young, distant clusters and fewer in nearby, older clusters. AGN are believed to expel or destroy cool gas in their host galaxy through powerful eruptions from the black hole. This may stifle star formation and the blue, massive stars will then gradually die off, leaving behind only the old, redder stars. This process takes about a billion years or more to take place, so a dearth of star-forming galaxies is only noticeable for older clusters. The process that sets the temperature of the hot gas in clusters when they form is also an open question. These new results suggest that even more AGN may have been present when most clusters were forming about ten billion years ago. Early heating of a cluster by large numbers of AGN can have a significant, long-lasting effect on the structure of a cluster by "puffing up" the gas. "In a few nearby clusters we've seen evidence for huge eruptions generated by supermassive black holes. But this is sedate compared to what might be going on in younger clusters," said Eastman. These results appeared in the July 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  7. Obituary: Heinrich Johannes Wendker, 1938-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchtmeier, Walter; Altenhoff, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Heinrich Johannes Wendker, retired professor at Hamburg University, died on 3 April 2008 at the age of 69 at Reinbek near Hamburg, Germany. He was born on 30 June 1938 in Gimbte, near Munster, Westphalia, Germany. In 1958 he finished high-school and started his studies of mathematics, physics, and astronomy at Munster University. In 1960 Wendker joined the Astronomical Institute at the University and became attracted to the relatively new field of radio astronomy. In the same year he participated in a radio survey (at a wavelength of 11 cm) with the 25-m dish of Stockert observatory. In 1964 he joined the NRAO in Green Bank, Virginia, for one year and started with observations of the Cygnus area of the Galactic plane that would become a real passion for him (resulting in over twenty publications about the Cygnus X region, a deep study of the structure of the local spiral arm). Wendker was awarded the Ph.D. in 1966 (University of Munster), and in the same year he accepted an appointment at the University of Illinois at Urbana. There he participated in the All Sky Survey of the Vermilion Radio Telescope including the Cygnus region. In 1968 he joined the newly founded Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie at Bonn, Germany, where he got involved in planning the institute's new building among other things. In 1972 Wendker was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Hamburg University where he would spend most of his academic career. From 1985 to 1989 he was director of the observatory (Hamburger Sternwarte), and from 1989 to 1991 he was Dean of the physics department. Wenker's research activities concentrated on the radio structure of the Milky Way, especially on the Cygnus region, observing the radio continuum emission at different frequencies in order to separate thermal from nonthermal emission (i.e., HII-regions and SNRs). He identified foreground stars and extragalactic sources in the background. Additional observations of molecular lines and of the neutral atomic hydrogen completed these studies. These activities culminated in participation with the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey [CGPS] of the Dominion Radio Astronomy Observatory [DRAO]. With the detection of radio emission from Betelgeuse (a Ori) Wendker opened the field of normal radio stars (e.g., the editorial in Nature 241, 9 (1973)). He detected dozens of radio stars, among them MCW349 and P Cyg. Another highlight was the detection of radio recombination lines in MCW349. Observations of a few dozen radio stars led to the conclusion that many of them possessed atmospheres not known before. Wendker collected and catalogued all radio observations into a catalog of radio stars (1978, 1987, 1995). This data collection of spectra of the radio continuum emission of radio stars contains clues relating to the radiation mechanism responsible for the observed radio emission. Variability of the emission of some stars points at nonthermal radiation. Together with Alfred Weigert, Wendker published a textbook on astronomy and astrophysics, Astronomie und Astrophysik--ein Grundkurs. For the 4th edition, L. Wisotzki became a co-author. This introductory text is widely used at high-schools and for the first-grade university level in German speaking contries. Wendker is survived by his wife, Walburga, and two sons, Martin and Andreas. He was a dedicated researcher and academic teacher. Many colleagues will remember his advice and support. We have lost a colleague and a good friend.

  8. [Figures of first laureates of the Wiktor Dega medal (XXXVII Jubilee Congress of Polish Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Society, 10-13 September 2008)].

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; Rapa?a, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    Figures of two outstanding orthopaedists Professor Stefan Malawski and Professor Jerzy Król rewarded with the medal of the name of Wiktor Degi were described. The medal is being granted by the Chapter of the Medal as regarding for outstanding achievements for the Polish and world orthopaedics and rehabilitation. Profesor Stefan Kazimierz Malawski was born 26. 12. 1920 in the Vilnius area. In Vilnius he stated his medical studies, which he continued in Lwow and graduated in 1946 at the Marie Curie Sk?odowska in Lublin. Professor Malawski's main field of interest were related to the problems related to tuberculosis of bones and joints and trauma of the lumbar and cervical spine. In the problems of bone tuberculosis he remains an unquestioned authority in Poland. His deep understanding of these clinical problems can be found in his text-book "Tuberculosis of bones and joints", which was printed in 1976. The information pertaining diagnosis and surgical treatment remain extremely valuable today. Another field of interest of Professor Malawski are pathologies of the spine. Disc disease, neoplasms of the spine, spinal stenosis and infections of the spine, spondylolisthesis are among many of his interests. This very wide field of interest can be dound in his 3 tome publication Spondyloorthopedics. His 166 papars printed in Poland and abroad bear proof of the Professors wide field of interest and deep knowledge. Professor Malawski was the first surgeon in Poland to perform surgery on the front elements of the spine in tuberculotic paraplegia. In 1958 he implemented surgical treatment of spine tumor--both primary and metastatic, by resecting them and stabilizing the spine with grafts. In the early 70's he focused on spinal stenosis. In the years 1982-1986 he was the Chairman of the Board of the Polish Orthopedic and Trauma Society. Professor Malawski introdued a modern set of Rules and Regulations, greatly simplifying the decision making process during General assemblies of the Society. Professor Malawski is undoubtedly a great successor to the active way of surgical thinking introduced by professor Adam Gruca. Professor Jerzy Król is among the greatest Polish orthopedic surgeons. He was born on 21st February 1926 in Baranowice (Nowogródek woiwodship). He graduated from high school in the underground schooling system during the Second World War, receiving his maturity exam in 1945 from the Konarski High Scool School of the Western Lands in Czestochowa. In 1945 the professor started his medical studies at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, where he graduated in 1949. In 1950 he started his medical career in in Orthopedic Department of Poznan head by professor Wiktor Dega. Professor Król is the author of over 100 medical papers printed in national and international journals. His key fields of interest are congenital dislocation of the hip, hip arthroplasty, scoliosis and rehabilitaton and prosthesis problems. In 1968 he performed the first scoliosis correction with the Harrington rod in Poland as well as the implantation of the first McKee-Ferara hip prosthesis. He is the co-author of the text-book Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Medical Rehabilitation and a number of WHO text books: Community Health Worker and Guide for prevention of Deformities in Poliomyelitis. He also took part in the publishing of the WHO text-book Rehabilitation Surgery, for which he received the Ministry of Health Award. He overlooked 7 Ph.D thesis and 4 papers qualifying for assistant professor. Between 1972 and 1995 professor Król worked as a WHO expert, as member of the Expert Committee for Rehabilitation. Between 1986-1987 head was the director of the Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Institute in Poznan. He resigned from this function due to his work with WHO in Madagaskar. After his return he was the head of the Orthopedic Department in Poznan University of Medical Sciennces until October 1996 when he retired. PMID:19241890

  9. Obituary -- Enrique Chavira Navarrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, A.

    2001-04-01

    During the twentieth century, Mexican astronomical observatories migrated Tonantzintla and from there to the selected mountain sites of San Pedro Mártir and Cananea. In Tonantzintla Mexican astronomy progressed from cosmography to astrophysics. There, during the fifties and sixties, Guillermo Haro used the Schmidt camera to place México in the astronomical map. Instrumental to this process was Enrique Chavira, whose scientific life almost exactly matched the second half of the century which has just finished, going from the pioneer times of the Tonantzintla Astrophysical Observatory to the fully developed Mexican astronomy of the dawn of the XXI century. Enrique Chavira died unexpectedly 38 days before the turn of the century. Even though his heart had shown past weaknesses, his daily presence in the corridors of the Tonantzintla Institute somehow led us to believe he would always be here. Chavira was the most senior of the astronomers at Tonantzintla and, though he never entered the decision circles, he always had an opinion, frequently ironic, about the main problems of the Instituto. I do remember more than one occasion Alfonso Serrano asking for the advice of Chavira, seeking the experience of the former assistant of Don Guillermo Haro. Born and raised in México City, Chavira eventually moved to Puebla, the closest large city to Tonantzintla, following the steps of Mexican observational astronomy. Without concluding his formal studies, Chavira managed to adjudicate for himself the title of ``astrónomo'', earning it with his skillful handling of the Schmidt camera and the photographic plates. Over the years he took over 8000 astronomical plates, which is a little more than half of the precious Tonantzintla collection. Even though Chavira was aware of his limitations, his ability in photographic astronomy made him a recognized astronomer. The list of his co-authors includes, apart from Guillermo Haro, other renamed astronomers like Manuel Peimbert, Luis Felipe Rodríguez, and Lee Hartmann. He worked in the study of stars with emission lines, flare stars, FU Orionis stars, infrared stars, mainly in in the Tonantzintla plates. Perhaps the closest step to immortality made by Chavira was the co-discovery of comet 1954K which bears the joint name Haro-Chavira, a tacit recognition to the doublet of observers of the golden years of Mexican astronomy. Chavira, witness of the transition from Tacubaya to Tonantzintla, of the overlap of both observatories and the birth of the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica, survivor of the hardest times of this institute to see it finally blossom, stood with a calm mixture of humility, enthusiasm and humour. When the interest of the community for the use of Schmidt cameras decayed, when photographic plates were substituted by photoelectronic detectors and the urban light-pollution damaged the skies of Tonantzintla, Chavira went into the careful examination of astronomical plates, dedicating part of his time to attend the frequent visitors who arrive to the ``Observatorio de Tonantzintla''. He proudly showed to the public the Schmidt camera, telling witty anecdotes, often colored with a touch of fantasy. He stayed always close to astronomy and went to the Institute in an almost religious manner until the last day that life allowed him to do so.

  10. Facts and Suggestions from a Brief History of the Galilean Moons and Space Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    2010-05-01

    From Galileo Galilei's Starry Messenger of four centuries ago we began the long journey of Galilean moon exploration now planned to continue with the joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission. Nearly eighty years after this historic beginning, the Keplerian orbital motions of these moons could be understood in terms of universal laws of motion and gravitation with Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy of 1687. But now looking back from the present to long before the discovery of magnetospheric radio emissions from Jupiter by Burke and Franklin in 1955 [1], we can infer the first apparent evidence for magnetospheric space weathering of the moon surfaces only from the 1926 first report of Stebbins [2] on photometric measurements of surface albedo light curves. These observations established the tidal locking of rotational and orbital motions from leading-trailing albedo asymmetries that we now significantly (if not entirely) associate with space weathering effects of the moon-magnetosphere-moon interactions. Of all the remote and in-situ observations that followed, those of the Pioneer (1973-1974), Voyager (1979), and Galileo (1995-2003) missions, and of the supporting measurements that followed in passing by the Ulysses (1992), Cassini (2000), and New Horizons (2007) missions, the discovery of greatest impact for space weathering may have been the first detection of Io volcanism by the Voyagers [3]. Accelerated as pickup ions in the corotating planetary magnetic field of Jupiter, atoms and molecules from the volcanic plume ejecta provide the primary source of magnetospheric ions for interactions with the other Galilean moons. These interactions include simple surface implantation of the iogenic ions, erosion of surface materials by ion sputtering, and modification of surface chemistry induced by volume ionization from more penetrating ions and electrons. From the highest energy magnetospheric protons and heavier ions, these interactions can be energetic enough to change isotopic ratios in the affected surface materials. The sputtered materials partially escape either directly to the magnetosphere or indirectly through exospheric losses, so these additionally contribute at trace levels to the magnetospheric interconnections of surface composition for all the moons. In order to determine the intrinsic composition of the moons from EJSM surface and exospheric measurements, we must first peel back the surficial patina of space weathering products. Conversely, future measurements of the magnetospheric ion composition at high resolution in elemental and significant isotopic abundances, including as products of space weathering on the moon surfaces, can be projected back to the Io source for huge advancements of our knowledge on the origins of Io volcanism and more generally of the Jupiter system. These are some of the relevant facts for space weathering from 400 years of Jupiter system exploration, the main suggestion is that one the highest returns on international investments in the EJSM mission would be from advancement of capabilities for in-situ sample analysis in the magnetosphere and from moon surfaces to cover the full range of elements and key isotopes. Modest investments in appropriate technologies for ion and neutral gas measurements to this level would be insignificant in cost as compared to Earth sample return. This suggestion was submitted by Cooper et al. [4] to the ongoing decadal survey of planetary science and mission priorities in the United States. References: [1] Stebbins, J., Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 38 (225), 321-322, 1926; [2] Burke, B.F., and K. L. Franklin, J. Geophys. Res. 60, 213-217, 1955. [3] Morabito, L. A., et al., Science 204, 972, 1979; [4] Cooper, J. F., and 21 Co-authors, Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Mission Science, Community White Paper submitted to Planetary Science Decadal Survey, 2013--2022. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Sept. 15, 2009.

  11. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Sixth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop, Denver, Colorado, April 24-28, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Sixth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop April 24 - 28, 2006, at the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado, provides a unique opportunity for multi-disciplinary Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and associated scientific professionals to share, learn, present, and discuss a wide variety of geospatial-related topics. Information is exchanged through a series of plenary sessions, hands-on technical workshops, user and commercial vendor demonstrations, lecture and poster sessions, and specialty meetings. Workshop attendance is limited to Department of Interior (DOI) and USGS employees and contractors; however, plenary, hands-on, and lecture sessions have presenters from other Federal agencies, numerous commercial vendors, universities, and several consortia. Over 175 participants are expected to attend the Workshop. Several prominent speakers are featured at this Workshop. Monday evening Star Guest Speaker and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astronaut Captain Dominic Gorie will talk about his experiences as a veteran of three space flights and over 32 days in space, including the NASA Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission that mapped more than 47 million miles of the Earth's land surface. Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in December 1994, Captain Gorie is currently Chief of the Astronaut Shuttle Branch. Monday evening also features a town hall meeting with Geographic Information Office (GIO) leaders Karen Siderelis, Kevin Gallagher, Bob Pierce, Steve Guptill, Mark DeMulder, John Mahoney, and Mark Negri, who will discuss changes and activities within the GIO in an open discussion format. Tuesday plenary sessions feature keynote speaker Dr. P. Patrick Leahy, Acting USGS Director. Dr. Leahy holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in geology (1968) and geophysics (1970) from Boston College. In 1979, he received his doctorate in geology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he specialized in regional ground-water studies and hydraulics. Dr. Leahy has been with the USGS since 1974, and has held various technical and managerial positions, including Associate Director for Geology and Chief of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Dr. Leahy will be discussing a broad range of topics including Bureau accomplishments, initiatives, and budgets. The purpose of this proceedings volume is to serve as an activity reference for Workshop attendees as well as an archive of technical abstracts submitted, presented, and discussed at the Workshop. Author, co-author, and presenter names, affiliations, and contact information are listed with presentation titles along with submitted abstracts. Some hands-on sessions are offered twice. In these instances, abstracts submitted for publication are presented in the proceedings on both days they are offered. All acronyms used in these proceedings are explained in the text of each abstract. The term 'ArcGIS' refers to an integrated collection of GIS software products produced by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  12. The Double Firing Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers from around the world combined data from ground- and space-based telescopes to paint a detailed portrait of the brightest explosion ever seen. The observations reveal that the jets of the gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B were aimed almost directly at the Earth. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 28/08 A Gamma-Ray Burst with Two Jets Read more on this illuminating blast in the additional story. GRB 080319B was so intense that, despite happening halfway across the Universe, it could have been seen briefly with the unaided eye (ESO 08/08). In a paper to appear in the 11 September issue of Nature, Judith Racusin of Penn State University, Pennsylvania (USA), and a team of 92 co-authors report observations across the electromagnetic spectrum that began 30 minutes before the explosion and followed it for months afterwards. "We conclude that the burst's extraordinary brightness arose from a jet that shot material almost directly towards Earth at almost the speed of light - the difference is only 1 part in 20 000," says Guido Chincarini, a member of the team. Gamma-ray bursts are the Universe's most luminous explosions. Most occur when massive stars run out of fuel. As a star collapses, it creates a black hole or neutron star that, through processes not fully understood, drives powerful gas jets outward. As the jets shoot into space, they strike gas previously shed by the star and heat it, thereby generating bright afterglows. The team believes the jet directed toward Earth contained an ultra-fast component just 0.4 degrees across (this is slightly smaller than the apparent size of the Full Moon). This jet is contained within another slightly less energetic jet about 20 times wider. The broad component is more typical of other bursts. "Perhaps every gamma-ray burst has a narrow jet, but astronomers miss it most of the time," says team member Stefano Covino. "We happened to view this monster down the barrel of the very narrow and energetic jet, and the chance for this nearly head-on alignment to occur is only about once a decade," added his colleague Cristiano Guidorzi. GRB 080319B was detected by the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift satellite towards the constellation of Boötes, the "Herdsman". A host of ground-based telescopes reacted promptly to study this new object in the sky, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, which was the first to provide the distance of the object, 7.5 billion light-years. The visible light from the burst was detected by a handful of wide-field cameras worldwide that are mounted on telescopes constantly monitoring a large fraction of the sky. One of these was the TORTORA camera mounted on the 0.6-m REM telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (ESO 26/07). TORTORA's rapid imaging provides the most detailed look yet at the visible light associated with the initial blast of a gamma-ray burst. "We've been waiting a long time for this one," says TORTORA senior scientist Grigory Beskin of Russia's Special Astrophysical Observatory. The data collected simultaneously by TORTORA and the Swift satellite allowed astronomers to explain the properties of this burst.

  13. Obituary: Geoffrey R. Burbidge (1925-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    Geoffrey R. Burbidge, one of the principal architects of 20th century astrophysics, died in La Jolla, California on January 26, 2010. Together with his wife and life-long collaborator, Margaret Burbidge and several leading astrophysicists, he originated ideas that remain at the core of current astrophysical research. He was, of course, co-author of B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, & Hoyle 1957), one of the most influential scientific papers ever written, which explained how elements heavier than helium are synthesized in the interiors of stars. Geoff Burbidge's research interests spanned a wide range of topics. He was the first to estimate the colossal energetics of extragalactic radio sources. Together with Margaret and Kevin Prendergast he initiated the first systematic program to measure the masses of galaxies from their rotation curves. He published research that effectively began the field of "active galactic nuclei," and he made the fundamental suggestion that galactic X-ray sources were powered by viscous transport of energy in accretion disks surrounding neutron stars or black holes in binary star systems. After the discovery of quasars in 1963, he wrote influential papers on gravitational collapse as their energy source and an excellent book summarizing research on this subject. During the latter part of his career Geoff Burbidge became known as the "great contrarian" who remained skeptical about the cosmological origin of quasar redshifts and rejected the big bang theory. He was author of 355 publications. Geoff was born in 1925 September in Chipping Norton Oxfordshire, where he grew up and developed a lifelong passion for tennis. He attended the yearly matches at Wimbledon with his father, a ritual he maintained for most of his life. In 1946 he got his undergraduate degree in physics at the University of Bristol. After graduating he was assigned for eighteen months to a government ballistics laboratory in London where he became an expert in testing penetration bombs and other types of demolition devices, and where he decided to pursue a graduate career in physics. In 1947 he began studying theoretical physics with H. Massey at University College London and received his PhD in physics in 1950 with a thesis concerning capture of muons by atoms. During his stay in London, Geoff 's interest in astronomy was sparked upon meeting his future wife, Margaret Peachey, who was the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory; they married in 1948. Margaret was working on spectral variations in Be stars, and Geoff collaborated with her by participating in her observing runs and in performing theoretical analysis, beginning a unique and famous scientific partnership that lasted over 60 years. After Geoff obtained his PhD, he and Margaret went to the U.S. in 1951, he to Harvard and she to Yerkes Observatory. Between 1951 and 1957 the Burbidges held research appointments at Cambridge University, Carnegie Observatories, and Caltech. Between 1957 and 1962 Geoff and Margaret held faculty positions at the University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin. Between 1959 and 1969, Geoff, Margaret, and their Yerkes colleague Kevin Prendergast carried out the first comprehensive investigation of galaxy masses. Geoff Burbidge, along with Margaret, joined the faculty of the University of California, San Diego in 1962, where, except for short stints back in the U.K. and his directorship of Kitt Peak National Observatory, he stayed until he passed away. Burbidge's research focused on quasars after their discovery in 1963. He participated in the discovery of quasar absorption lines in 1966, which led to much fruitful research concerning the foreground absorbing gas. Burbidge also contributed in many other ways to the astronomical community. He was editor of Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (i.e., ARAA) from 1973 to 2004. The editorial committees regarded him as an excellent editor who kept his scientific prejudices out of the discussions and who was mainly responsible for the superb r

  14. Investigation of spatiotemporal relations between water budget components and soil water content patterns at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, A.; Bogena, H. R.; Hardelauf, H.; Putz, T.; Druee, C.; Heinemann, G.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of the TERENO project, terrestrial observatories have been implemented in order to observe hydrological phenomena at several scales, from small highly instrumented headwater catchments to mesoscale watersheds covering several 1000 sq. km (Zacharias et al., 2011). At the headwater catchment scale, field experiments are conducted in which the effects of controlled manipulation are monitored to provide empirical data describing hydrological processes and responses. The TERENO test site Wüstebach is a forested headwater catchment located in a low mountain range, Germany. With state of the art monitoring methods, the major water budget components evapotranspiration, precipitation and runoff as well as the spatial distribution of water storage have been assessed (Rosenbaum et al., 2012). This comprehensive hydrological data set offers the unique opportunity for a data-driven investigation of the spatiotemporal pattern of hydrological fluxes and states without the need to make detailed assumptions regarding the involved processes. Here, we present 3 years of measured water budget components and belowground water storage of this catchment and results of a statistical analysis using wavelet coherence transform of water budget time series and empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) of spatial soil water content pattern. The long-term water budget was closed with a residual of 3% of annual precipitation. On the daily timescale, the increasing residual of the water budget was explained to a moderate extent by soil water content (R^2 = 0.40). Wavelet coherence analysis revealed timescales of about 4 days and less, which were presumably dominated by unaccounted fast-turnover storage terms such as interception, as a major source of uncertainty. At weekly resolution, soil water storage explained more than half (R^2 = 0.62) of the water budget residual. By means of combined EOF and cluster analysis, two different spatial patterns of soil water content could be identified that switched at a mean soil water content of ~35 Vol.%. In addition, it was possible to detect non-stationary events. For instance, although a major European drought in spring 2011 had only marginal effects on the annual water budget, it was possible to detect its impact on the coherence between actual and potential evapotranspiration and on the spatial pattern of soil water content until autumn 2011. References: Rosenbaum, U., H. R. Bogena, M. Herbst, J. A. Huisman, T. J. Peterson, A. Weuthen, A. W. Western, and H. Vereecken (2012), Seasonal and event dynamics of spatial soil moisture patterns at the small catchment scale. Water Resour. Res., 48, W10544, doi: 10.1029/2011WR011518 Zacharias, S., H. Bogena, L. Samaniego and co-authors (2011), A network of terrestrial environmental observatories in Germany. Vadose Zone J., 10, 955-973, doi: 10.2136/vzj2010.0139.

  15. Estimation of the spatial validity of local aerosol measurements in Europe using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Carlos; Gómez-Amo, J. Luis; Pedrós, Roberto; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The actual impact of atmospheric aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget is still associated to large uncertainties [IPCC, 2007]. Global monitoring of the aerosol properties and distribution in the atmosphere is needed to improve our knowledge of climate change. The instrumentation used for this purpose can be divided into two main groups: ground-based and satellite-based. Ground-based instruments, like lidars or Sun-photometers, are usually designed to measure accurate local properties of atmospheric aerosols throughout the day. However, the spatial validity of these measurements is conditioned by the aerosol variability within the atmosphere. Satellite-based sensors offer spatially resolved information about aerosols at a global scale, but generally with a worse temporal resolution and in a less detailed way. In this work, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm from MODIS Aqua, product MYD04 [Remer, 2005], is used to estimate the area of validity of local measurements at different reference points, corresponding to the AERONET [Holben, 1998] stations during the 2011-2012 period in Europe. For each case, the local AOD (AODloc) at each reference point is calculated as the averaged MODIS data within a radius of 15 km. Then, the AODloc is compared to the AOD obtained when a larger averaging radius is used (AOD(r)), up to 500 km. Only those cases where more than 50% of the pixels in each averaging area contain valid data are used. Four factors that could affect the spatial variability of aerosols are studied: proximity to the sea, human activity, aerosol load and geographical location (latitude and longitude). For the 76 reference points studied, which are sited in different regions of Europe, we have determined that the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between AODloc and AOD(r) , averaged for all cases, increases in a logarithmic way with the averaging radius (RMSD ? log(r)), while the linear correlation coefficient (R) decreases following a logarithmic trend (R ? -log(r)). Among all the factors studied, the aerosol load is the most influential one in the aerosol spatial variability: for averaging radii smaller than 40 km, the RMSD increases with AODloc. Another important factor is the latitude and longitude: the variation of the RMSD in the AOD with regard to the averaging radius can differ up to a 60%, depending on the location. On the contray, the proximity to the sea and the amount of population surrounding each reference point do not have a noticeable influence compared to the above mentioned factors. Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1-16, 1998. IPCC (2007). S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, USA. Remer, L. A., y co-authors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1

  16. The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    "Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

  17. NASA's Chandra Reveals Origin of Key Cosmic Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    WASHINGTON -- New findings from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have provided a major advance in understanding a type of supernova critical for studying the dark energy that astronomers think pervades the universe. The results show mergers of two dense stellar remnants are the likely cause of many of the supernovae that have been used to measure the accelerated expansion of the universe. These supernovae, called Type Ia, serve as cosmic mile markers to measure expansion of the universe because they can be seen at large distances, and they follow a reliable pattern of brightness. However, until now, scientists have been unsure what actually causes the explosions. "These are such critical objects in understanding the universe," said Marat Gilfanov of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and lead author of the study that appears in the Feb. 18 edition of the journal Nature. "It was a major embarrassment that we did not know how they worked. Now we are beginning to understand what lights the fuse of these explosions." Most scientists agree a Type Ia supernova occurs when a white dwarf star -- a collapsed remnant of an elderly star -- exceeds its weight limit, becomes unstable and explodes. Scientists have identified two main possibilities for pushing the white dwarf over the edge: two white dwarfs merging or accretion, a process in which the white dwarf pulls material from a sun-like companion star until it exceeds its weight limit. "Our results suggest the supernovae in the galaxies we studied almost all come from two white dwarfs merging," said co-author Akos Bogdan, also of Max Planck. "This is probably not what many astronomers would expect." The difference between these two scenarios may have implications for how these supernovae can be used as "standard candles" -- objects of a known brightness -- to track vast cosmic distances. Because white dwarfs can come in a range of masses, the merger of two could result in explosions that vary somewhat in brightness. Because these two scenarios would generate different amounts of X-ray emission, Gilfanov and Bogdan used Chandra to observe five nearby elliptical galaxies and the central region of the Andromeda galaxy. A Type 1a supernova caused by accreting material produces significant X- ray emission prior to the explosion. A supernova from a merger of two white dwarfs, on the other hand, would create significantly less X-ray emission than the accretion scenario. The scientists found the observed X-ray emission was a factor of 30 to 50 times smaller than expected from the accretion scenario, effectively ruling it out. This implies that white dwarf mergers dominate in these galaxies. An open question remains whether these white dwarf mergers are the primary catalyst for Type Ia supernovae in spiral galaxies. Further studies are required to know if supernovae in spiral galaxies are caused by mergers or a mixture of the two processes. Another intriguing consequence of this result is that a pair of white dwarfs is relatively hard to spot, even with the best telescopes. "To many astrophysicists, the merger scenario seemed to be less likely because too few double-white-dwarf systems appeared to exist," said Gilfanov. "Now this path to supernovae will have to be investigated in more detail." In addition to the X-rays observed with Chandra, other data critical for this result came from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based, infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey. The infrared brightness of the galaxies allowed the team to estimate how many supernovae should occur. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  18. Dark Energy Found Stifling Growth in Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    WASHINGTON -- For the first time, astronomers have clearly seen the effects of "dark energy" on the most massive collapsed objects in the universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By tracking how dark energy has stifled the growth of galaxy clusters and combining this with previous studies, scientists have obtained the best clues yet about what dark energy is and what the destiny of the universe could be. This work, which took years to complete, is separate from other methods of dark energy research such as supernovas. These new X-ray results provide a crucial independent test of dark energy, long sought by scientists, which depends on how gravity competes with accelerated expansion in the growth of cosmic structures. Techniques based on distance measurements, such as supernova work, do not have this special sensitivity. Scientists think dark energy is a form of repulsive gravity that now dominates the universe, although they have no clear picture of what it actually is. Understanding the nature of dark energy is one of the biggest problems in science. Possibilities include the cosmological constant, which is equivalent to the energy of empty space. Other possibilities include a modification in general relativity on the largest scales, or a more general physical field. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Ghostly Glow Reveals a Hidden Class of Long-Wavelength Radio Emitters Powerful Nearby Supernova Caught By Web Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space To help decide between these options, a new way of looking at dark energy is required. It is accomplished by observing how cosmic acceleration affects the growth of galaxy clusters over time. "This result could be described as 'arrested development of the universe'," said Alexey Vikhlinin of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., who led the research. "Whatever is forcing the expansion of the universe to speed up is also forcing its development to slow down." Vikhlinin and his colleagues used Chandra to observe the hot gas in dozens of galaxy clusters, which are the largest collapsed objects in the universe. Some of these clusters are relatively close and others are more than halfway across the universe. The results show the increase in mass of the galaxy clusters over time aligns with a universe dominated by dark energy. It is more difficult for objects like galaxy clusters to grow when space is stretched, as caused by dark energy. Vikhlinin and his team see this effect clearly in their data. The results are remarkably consistent with those from the distance measurements, revealing general relativity applies, as expected, on large scales. "For years, scientists have wanted to start testing how gravity works on large scales and now, we finally have," said William Forman, a co-author of the study from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "This is a test that general relativity could have failed." When combined with other clues -- supernovas, the study of the cosmic microwave background, and the distribution of galaxies -- this new X-ray result gives scientists the best insight to date on the properties of dark energy. The study strengthens the evidence that dark energy is the cosmological constant. Although it is the leading candidate to explain dark energy, theoretical work suggests it should be about 10 raised to the power of 120 times larger than observed. Therefore, alternatives to general relativity, such as theories involving hidden dimensions, are being explored. "Putting all of this data together gives us the strongest evidence yet that dark energy is the cosmological constant, or in other words, that 'nothing weighs something'," said Vikhlinin. "A lot more testing is needed, but so far Einstein's theory is looking as good as ever." These results have consequences for predicting the ultimate fate of the universe. If dark energy is explained by the cosmological constant, the expansion of the universe will cont

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the depression combined with the prevailing wind direction in the winter provides perfect condition

  20. Stratospheric aerosol enhancements from the Nabro eruption in 2011: an investigation of possible transport pathways using trajectory ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hobe, Marc; Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Höpfner, Michael; Plöger, Felix; Hoppe, Charlotte; Müller, Rolf; Konopka, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Based on OSIRIS satellite observations, Bourassa et al. (2012) suggested that the June 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano had the strongest impact on stratospheric aerosol since Pinatubo. Based on a reported visible plume height of 13 km, they claimed that no direct stratospheric injection of ash, sulfate and SO2 occurred, and that volcanic material was transported to the stratosphere exclusively via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. In contrast, Sawamura et al. (2012) and Vernier et al. (2012) present undisputable evidence for a direct injection contribution using back trajectory calculations from ground based lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations within the first few days after the eruption. To assess which pathway - direct injection (DI) or uplift via the Asian monsoon (AMU) - dominated transport of Nabro sulfur and aerosol to the stratosphere, we use a trajectory ensemble approach. Forward trajectories were started from Nabro at the time of eruption, and the distribution of air parcels in the stratosphere was monitored separately for trajectories initial-ized in the stratosphere (corresponding to DI) and in the troposphere (some of which reaching the stratosphere by AMU). While the path of a single trajectory tends to become rather uncertain after several days, the ensemble approach allows for a statistical analysis where random errors are expected to average out. During the first week after the eruption, only DI air parcels are found in the stratosphere, in agreement with satellite observations of SO2 (MIPAS) and aerosols (MIPAS, CALIOP). About a week after the eruption, the first trajectories initialized in the troposphere reach the stratosphere inside the Asian monsoon anticyclone. By the end of July, the pattern of the AMU air parcels resembles the observed distribution of stratospheric aerosol much more closely than the pattern of the DI air parcels does. The simulations further show that some of the air parcels that entered the stratospheric part of the TTL rise further when upwelling intensifies with the onset of boreal winter. The observation of stronger aerosol signatures in MIPAS spectra for tangent altitudes above 20 km in the tropics in winter 2011/12 compared to other years suggests that aerosol originating from Nabro may enter the upper branch of the BD-circulation. This study has implications beyond revealing the transport pathway of a stratospheric aerosol plume from the Nabro volcano. Because the aerosol signal is readily picked up by satellites, it represents an ideal case study to investigate the efficiency of the Asian monsoon as a transport pathway to the stratosphere in general, e.g. for anthropogenic SO2 and other pollutants. Bourassa, A. E., et al.: Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport, Science, 337, 78-81, 2012. Sawamura, P., et al.: Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 2012. Vernier, J.-P., et al.: Comment on "Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian Monsoon Transport" by Bourassa and co-authors. Accepted for publication Science (December 2012).

  1. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic and particle spectrum, from what is expected to be common sources of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation as well as neutrinos, have created great excitement, lively discussions and have given birth to collaborations for joint analyses and observations. A special thank you to our non-gravitational wave presenters and participants for making the time to join us. We hope this will be the beginning of a long tradition for this workshop. In this workshop we also introduced the student prize for the best poster. Twenty student posters participated in this competition. Pinkesh Patel of Caltech was the prize winner on a 'Resampling Technique to Calculate the F-statistic', co-authored with X Siemens and R Dupuis. We are grateful to the MIT Kavli Institute for providing the financial support for the cash prize that accompanied this. We would like to thank the local and international organizing committees for putting together a great scientific program, all the conference presenters and participants and finally the CQG editorial staff for making this conference proceeding volume happen.

  2. Unexplored biophysical problem of manned flight to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergey; Voronin, Nikolai; Kovalenok, Vladimir; Trchounian, Armen

    The presentation discusses so far unexplored biophysical problem of manned flight to the Mars, scheduled for the next decade. In long-term manned space flights on the orbital stations "Salyut-6" Soviet cosmonaut crews under the command of one of the co-authors (cosmonaut V.V. Kovalenok) had repeatedly observed the effect of certain geophysical conditions on the psychological state of each crew. These effects were coinciding with the increased intensity of global illumination in the upper ionosphere space on flight altitudes (300-360 km). It is important that, during all these periods, the geomagnetic pulsation's were completely absent. Previously a new but very important for long interplanetary expeditions problem of psychophysical state of the crew in the absence of alternating electromagnetic fields and radiation, including the ionosphere one, was first raised for evolutionarily adapted humanity. However, up to date, this subject, particularly during the long simulation experiments such as "Mars 500", which eliminates much of their value and contribution to the Mars mission, has almost no attention. Indeed, the obtained results have clearly shown that the cosmonaut crews in orbital flight, even deep one within geomagnetic sphere, might experience severe psychological discomfort, the nature of which is fully defined. This is the appearance of such rather unusual geophysical periods of different durations (from minutes to days) those are in the form of an almost complete lack of geomagnetic pulsations on the Earth. The aim is to confirm the need of considering possible pathological effects of the complete lack of rhythm forming, inherent for terrestrial environment geomagnetic pulsation's on psychological and physical state of the cosmonaut crew. This is important for the preparation and conducting the manned flights beyond the Earth's magnetosphere, particularly to the Mars. The influence of the presence of different types of geomagnetic pulsation's recorded by the Geophysical Observatory "Borok" of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth after O.Yu. Schmidt, Russian Academy of Sciences, on the statistics manifestations of various diseases for Murom City, located in the same region (Central Russia) at a distance of about 50 km has been investigated. It has been observed that the period of the absence of pulsation's is typical for the maximum number of events in the manifestation of the diseases, especially nervous ones. High-frequency pulsation's similar to frequency in the basic human biorhythms are absent in 60-100 % for neurasthenia and 100 % - for neurosis and psychosis. All these electromagnetic waves are usually the background for the earthling to disappear with the release of the interplanetary spacecraft beyond the magnetosphere, and after a few days of flight the cosmonauts will be out of the usual electromagnetic "noise", as well as outside the geomagnetic field. It is unknown however if under the simultaneous absence either the geomagnetic field or electromagnetic waves in a wide range of frequencies - from low (including those of the field of brain rhythms, heart, etc.) to the highest ones the extremely high frequencies affect the human organism upon the resonance effects on the body cells. Therefore, in the coming years, during the preparatory stages of the first interplanetary flight, it is required to study synergistic effects of exposure to the fields on human - under expected absence of the usual "sets" oscillations of electromagnetic fields, especially geomagnetic pulsations, when real background of hypo-magnetic field exists. It should be emphasized that the flights and landings on the Moon cannot be analogous for discussion of the situation, as the flights continued outside the magnetosphere of the Earth are less than a week. Most importantly, the Moon during each lunar month (29 days) for several days is trailing geomagnetic sphere.

  3. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on ecosystems. Modelling results from a preliminary study have suggested a risk to both human health and the environment in the UK and across other parts of Europe from harmful levels of sulphate aerosol (as previously recognised from modelling of a Laki-type eruption by Schmidt et al (2011), amongst others), but also sulphur dioxide, which has not received as much attention. The presentation will discuss the UK's national assessment of risk and how the Government works to prepare for newly identified high impact hazards. We will show how this is benefitting from innovative approaches being taken in the research community and more detailed modelling findings will be presented. We will demonstrate that this work is a good example of practical hazard assessment through collaboration of scientists with decision makers. This work also has wider reaching links back to Supersite and observations initiatives such as the FUTUREVOLC project, as improved monitoring of source characteristics will enable the UK to refine its models (both numerical and procedural) for better risk management. "This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright."

  4. A Sub-Stellar Jonah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered a rather unusual system, in which two planet-size stars, of different colours, orbit each other. One is a rather hot white dwarf, weighing a little bit less than half as much as the Sun. The other is a much cooler, 55 Jupiter-masses brown dwarf. ESO PR Photo 28a/06 ESO PR Photo 28a/06 Two Planet-Size Dwarfs (Artist's View) "Such a system must have had a very troubled history", said Pierre Maxted, lead author of the paper that reports the study in this week's issue of Nature. "Its existence proves that the brown dwarf came out almost unaltered from an episode in which it was swallowed by a red giant." The two objects, separated by less than 2/3 of the radius of the Sun or only a few thousandths of the distance between the Earth and the Sun, rotate around each other in about 2 hours. The brown dwarf [1] moves on its orbit at the amazing speed of 800 000 km/h! ESO PR Photo 28b/06 ESO PR Photo 28b/06 Brown Dwarf Swallowed by Red Giant The two stars were not so close in their past. Only when the solar-like star that has now become a white dwarf [1] was a red giant, did the separation between the two objects diminish drastically. During this fleeting moment, the giant engulfed its companion. The latter, feeling a large drag similar to trying to swim in a bath full of oil, spiralled in towards the core of the giant. The envelope of the giant was finally ejected, leaving a binary system in which the companion is in a close orbit around a white dwarf. "Had the companion been less than 20 Jupiter masses, it would have evaporated during this phase", said Maxted." The brown dwarf shouldn't rejoice too quickly to have escaped this doom, however. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicts that the separation between the two stars will slowly decrease. "Thus, in about 1.4 billion years, the orbital period will have decreased to slightly more than one hour", said Ralf Napiwotzki, from the University of Hertfordshire (UK) and co-author of the study. "At that stage, the two objects will be so close that the white dwarf will work as a giant "vacuum cleaner", drawing gas off its companion, in a cosmic cannibal act." The low mass companion to the white dwarf (named WD0137-349) was found using spectra taken with EMMI at ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla. The astronomers then used the UVES spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope to record 20 spectra and so measure the period and the mass ratio.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons interested in experimental stochastics'. To please this diverse audience, the authors offer a book that has four parts. Part 1, called `Artificial Randomness', is the longest of the four parts. It gives an overview of the generation, testing and basic usage of pseudo random numbers in simulation. Although algorithms for generating sequences of random numbers are fundamental to simulation, it is a slightly unusual choice to give it such weight in comparison to other algorithmic topics. The remaining three parts consist of simulation case studies. Part 2, `Stochastic Models', treats four problems---Buffon's needle, a queuing system, and two problems related to the kinetic theory of gases. Part 3 is called `Stochastic Processes' and discusses the simulation of discrete time Markov chains, birth--death processes, Brownian motion and diffusions. The last section of Part 3 is about simulation as a tool to understand the traffic flow in a system controlled by stoplights, an area of research for the authors. Part4 is called `Evaluation of Statistical Procedures'. This section contains examples where simulation is used to test the performance of statistical methods. It covers four examples: the Neymann--Pearson lemma, the Wald sequential test, Bayesian point estimation and Hartigan procedures. The CD-ROM contains an easy-to-install software package that runs under Microsoft Windows. The software contains the text and simulations from the book. What I found most enjoyable about this book is the number of topics covered in the case studies. The highly individual selection of applications, which may serve as a source of inspiration for teachers of computational stochastic methods, is the main contribution of this electronic monograph. However, both the book and software suffer from several severe problems. Firstly, I feel that the structure of the text is weak. Probably this is partly the result of the text from the CD-ROM being put into a book format, but the short paragraphs and poorly structured sentences destroy the reading experience. Secondly, although the software is functional, I believe that, like me, many users will be disappointed by the quality of the user interface and the visualizations. The opportunities to interact with the simulations are limited. Thirdly, the presentation is slightly old fashioned and lacking in pedagogical structure. For example, flow charts and Pascal programs are used to present algorithms. To conclude, I am surprised that this electronic monograph warranted a second edition in this form. Teachers may find the examples useful as a starting point, but students and researchers are advised to look elsewhere. JG was supported by KBN grant no 2 P03A 020 24.

  6. The Behemoth Has a Thick Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Talk about a diet! By resolving, for the first time, features of an individual star in a neighbouring galaxy, ESO's VLT has allowed astronomers to determine that it weighs almost half of what was previously thought, thereby solving the mystery of its existence. The behemoth star is found to be surrounded by a massive and thick torus of gas and dust, and is most likely experiencing unstable, violent mass loss. dusty torus around WOH G64 ESO PR Photo 15/08 The Torus around WOH G64 Artist's Impression WOH G64 is a red supergiant star almost 2 000 times as large as our Sun and is located 163 000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies. "Previous estimates gave an initial mass of 40 times the mass of the Sun to WOH G64. But this was a real problem as it was way too cold, compared to what theoretical models predict for such a massive star. Its existence couldn't be explained," says Keiichi Ohnaka, who led the work on this object. New observations, made with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, conclude that the gas and dust around the star is arranged in a thick ring, rather than a spherical shell, and the star is thus less hidden than had been assumed. This implies that the object is in fact half as luminous as previously thought, and thus, less massive. The astronomers infer that the star started its life with a mass of 25 solar masses. For such a star, the observed temperature is closer to what one would expect. "Still, the characteristics of the star mean that it may be experiencing a very unstable phase accompanied by heavy mass loss," says co-author Markus Wittkowski from ESO. "We estimate that the belt of gas and dust that surrounds it contains between 3 and 9 solar masses, which means that the star has already lost between one tenth and a third of its initial mass." To reach this conclusion, the team of astronomers used the MIDI instrument to combine the light collected by three pairs of 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT. This is the first time that MIDI has been used to study an individual star outside our Galaxy. The observations allowed the astronomers to clearly resolve the star. Comparisons with models led them to conclude that the star is surrounded by a gigantic, thick torus, expanding from about 15 stellar radii (or 120 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun - 120 AU!) to more than 250 stellar radii (or 30 000 AU!). "Everything is huge about this system. The star itself is so big that it would fill almost all the space between the Sun and the orbit of Saturn," says Ohnaka. "And the torus that surrounds it is perhaps a light-year across! Still, because it is so far away, only the power of interferometry with the VLT could give us a glimpse on this object. "

  7. What if the power-law model did not apply for the prediction of very large rockfall events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Dewez, T.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme events are of primary importance for risk management in a variety of natural phenomena, and more particularly for landslides and rockfalls, because they might be associated with huge losses. Numerous research works have addressed this problem based on the same paradigm: if events exhibit the same statistical properties across a broad range of sizes, the probability of extreme events can be evaluated by extrapolating the frequency-size distribution. Considering landslides' areas or rockfalls' volumes, the frequency distribution has been found to be heavy-tailed and the well-known power law distribution has been proposed to model it. Yet, the vision of very large extreme event (catastrophic) frequency being an extrapolation of the power laws fitted on small and intermediate events has been challenged in various contexts, in particular by Sornette and co-authors, who proposed viewing such catastrophic events as "outliers" from the power-law model, i.e. they deviate by an abnormal large distance from the extrapolated prediction. In this study, we address such an issue considering a rockfall inventory, containing >8500 events spanning 8 orders of magnitudes of volume and collated from 2.5 years of high-accuracy repeated terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys on a coastal chalk cliff in Normandy (France). This inventory contains a particularly large event of 70,949 m3 which occurred some time between February 1 and 7 April 2008. It is the second largest cliff failure reported in Normandy, and is larger than those collated in historical cliff failure inventories across various geological and geomorphological coastal settings. Is this event an outlier of the power-law volume-frequency distribution ? And if so, why? This largest event recorded appears to stand out of the rest of the sample. We use it to revisit the techniques to fit power-law distribution with robust techniques (robust weighted maximum likelihood estimator), rarely used in rockfall studies, and presenting the appealing feature to be less sensitive to the presence of outliers by assigning a weight within [0 ; 1] to each observation according to its representativeness. Through a bootstrap-based technique, we demonstrate the statistical significance (with p-value <1 %, i.e. not arising by chance) of the low weight assigned to the largest rockfall event i.e. of the deviation from the fractal set of the smaller events. Excluding gross volumetric error on our observation since we used a high-accuracy TLS, we discuss possible mechanisms and their implications for prediction, focusing on two main issues: 1. normal faults bounding the largest rockfall and along which the rupture occurred, which may suggest the hypothesis of a "characteristic" rockfall, i.e. presenting a characteristic scale of the same order of the fault length, as suggested for earthquakes; 2. possible log-periodic signature that decorates the pure power law and linked with the concept of Discrete Scale Invariance. This concept means that scale invariance is kept, but only for specific scales organized in a discrete hierarchy and with some fixed preferred scaling ratio. Such scaling ratio may itself be linked to pre-existing fracture networks.

  8. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0.93/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.55/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.46/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, $0.30/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.16/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3. At the high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are even higher with a NPV $1.37/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.86/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.84/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.82/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, and $0.65/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 6. DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 28 cfm per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 14 and 16. Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case.

  9. ExoGeoLab Pilot Project for Landers, Rovers and Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a pilot facility with a Robotic Test Bench (ExoGeoLab) and a Mobile Lab Habitat (ExoHab). They can be used to validate concepts and external instruments from partner institutes. The ExoGeoLab research incubator project, has started in the frame of a collaboration between ILEWG (International Lunar Exploration working Group http://sci.esa.int/ilewg), ESTEC, NASA and academic partners, supported by a design and control desk in the European Space Incubator (ESI), as well as infrastructure. ExoGeoLab includes a sequence of technology and research pilot project activities: - Data analysis and interpretation of remote sensing and in-situ data, and merging of multi-scale data sets - Procurement and integration of geophysical, geo-chemical and astrobiological breadboard instruments on a surface station and rovers - Integration of cameras, environment and solar sensors, Visible and near IR spectrometer, Raman spectrometer, sample handling, cooperative rovers - Delivery of a generic small planetary lander demonstrator (ExoGeoLab lander, Sept 2009) as a platform for multi-instruments tests - Research operations and exploitation of ExoGeoLab test bench for various conceptual configurations, and support for definition and design of science surface packages (Moon, Mars, NEOs, outer moons) - Field tests of lander, rovers and instruments in analogue sites (Utah MDRS 2009 & 2010, Eifel volcanic park in Sept 2009, and future campaigns). Co-authors, ILEWG ExoGeoLab & ExoHab Team: B.H. Foing(1,11)*#, C. Stoker(2,11)*, P. Ehrenfreund(10,11), L. Boche-Sauvan(1,11)*, L. Wendt(8)*, C. Gross(8, 11)*, C. Thiel(9)*, S. Peters(1,6)*, A. Borst(1,6)*, J. Zavaleta(2)*, P. Sarrazin(2)*, D. Blake(2), J. Page(1,4,11), V. Pletser(5,11)*, E. Monaghan(1)*, P. Mahapatra(1)#, A. Noroozi(3), P. Giannopoulos(1,11) , A. Calzada(1,6,11), R. Walker(7), T. Zegers(1, 15) #, G. Groemer(12)# , W. Stumptner(12)#, B. Foing(2,5), J. K. Blom(3)#, A. Perrin(14)#, M. Mikolajczak(14)#, S. Chevrier(14)#, S. Direito(6)#, S. Voute (15)#, A. Olmedo-Soler(17)#, T. E. Zegers(1, 15)#, D. Scheer(12)#, K. Bickert(12)#, D. Schildhammer(12)#, B. Jantscher(1, 11, 12)#, MECA Team(6)#, ExoGeoLab ILEWG ExoHab teams(1,4,11) EuroGeoMars team(1,4,5); 1)ESTEC/SRE-S Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, NL, 2)NASA Ames , 3)Delft TU , 4)ESTEC TEC Technology Dir., 5)ESTEC HSF Human Spaceflight, 6)VU Amsterdam, 7)ESTEC Education Office, 8)FU Berlin, 9)Max Planck Goettingen, 10)Leiden/GWU , 11)ILEWG ExoHab Team, 12)Austrian Space Forum (OEWF Innsbruck); 14) Ecole de l'Air, Salons de Provence, 15) Utrecht U., 16) MECA Team, 17) Olmedo Knowledge Systems S.L.; * EuroGeoMars Utah crew , # ILEWG Eifel crew, EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX Utah crew.

  10. CLIVAR-GSOP/GODAE Ocean Synthesis Inter-Comparison of Global Air-Sea Fluxes From Ocean and Coupled Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The GODAE OceanView and CLIVAR-GSOP ocean synthesis program has been assessing the degree of consistency between global air-sea flux data sets obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses (Valdivieso et al., 2014). So far, fifteen global air-sea heat flux products obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses have been examined: seven are from low-resolution ocean reanalyses (BOM PEODAS, ECMWF ORAS4, JMA/MRI MOVEG2, JMA/MRI MOVECORE, Hamburg Univ. GECCO2, JPL ECCOv4, and NCEP GODAS), five are from eddy-permitting ocean reanalyses developed as part of the EU GMES MyOcean program (Mercator GLORYS2v1, Reading Univ. UR025.3, UR025.4, UKMO GloSea5, and CMCC C-GLORS), and the remaining three are couple reanalyses based on coupled climate models (JMA/MRI MOVE-C, GFDL ECDA and NCEP CFSR). The global heat closure in the products over the period 1993-2009 spanned by all data sets is presented in comparison with observational and atmospheric reanalysis estimates. Then, global maps of ensemble spread in the seasonal cycle, and of the Signal to Noise Ratio of interannual flux variability over the 17-yr common period are shown to illustrate the consistency between the products. We have also studied regional variability in the products, particularly at the OceanSITES project locations (such as, for instance, the TAO/TRITON and PIRATA arrays in the Tropical Pacific and Atlantic, respectively). Comparisons are being made with other products such as OAFlux latent and sensible heat fluxes (Yu et al., 2008) combined with ISCCP satellite-based radiation (Zhang et al., 2004), the ship-based NOC2.0 product (Berry and Kent, 2009), the Large and Yeager (2009) hybrid flux dataset CORE.2, and two atmospheric reanalysis products, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (referred to as ERAi, Dee et al., 2011) and the NCEP/DOE reanalysis R2 (referred to as NCEP-R2, Kanamitsu et al., 2002). Preliminary comparisons with the observational flux products from OceanSITES are also underway. References Berry, D.I. and E.C. Kent (2009), A New Air-Sea Interaction Gridded Dataset from ICOADS with Uncertainty Estimates. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc 90(5), 645-656. doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2639.1. Dee, D. P. et al. (2011), The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 137: 553-597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828. Kanamitsu M., Ebitsuzaki W., Woolen J., Yang S.K., Hnilo J.J., Fiorino M., Potter G. (2002), NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83:1631-1643. Large, W. and Yeager, S. (2009), The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Clim. Dynamics, Volume 33, pp 341-364 Valdivieso, M. and co-authors (2014): Heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses, Clivar Exchanges. Issue 64. Yu, L., X. Jin, and R. A. Weller (2008), Multidecade Global Flux Datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project: Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes, Ocean Evaporation, and Related Surface Meteorological Variables. Technical Report OAFlux Project (OA2008-01), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Zhang, Y., WB Rossow, AA Lacis, V Oinas, MI Mishchenk (2004), Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmsophere based on ISCCP and other global data sets. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012) 109 (D19).

  11. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http://www.spallanzanitivoli.it/stazionesismica/ and http://www.iesn.it. Furthermore, until the end of January 2012 a semi-professional seismograph will work with educational aims. These activities allowed the school to receive the first prize in the 2002 contest held by the italian scientific magazine Quark "Giornalisti Scientifici si diventa" (How to become a scientific journalist), with an article co-authored with three students titled "Una TAC per il Vesuvio" (CT scan for Vesuvius). The article was published in the n. 15 issue of Quark magazine, May 2002. The school also runs a Science and Chemistry Laboratory, equipped with: (a) 1 mobile seismograph with six geophones for seismic invesitgation (rifraction, reflection, REMI, MASW, and HVSR), (b) 1 polarized microscope for mineralogy and petrography, (c) various geochemical instruments for water analysis (pH, Eh, T, etc.), (d) 1 Geiger counter to detect ?- particles and ? rays, and (e) 2 calcimeters to calculate the percentage of calcium carbonate in calcareous rocks. Two meteorological stations managed by Physics Laboratory, both online with data processing in real time, are hosted inside school building. Finally, we are planning a new scientific project for the next school year, involving students and science teachers, probably named "Gas hazard in volcanic and geothermal areas of the eastern Rome province".

  12. OBITUARY: Professor Jan Evetts in memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Glowacki, Bartek

    2005-11-01

    It is with great sadness that we report the death of Jan Evetts, who lost his second battle with cancer on 18 August 2005. In 1988 he was appointed Founding Editor of this journal where his leadership created the foundation upon which its success rests today. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials, and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the scientific community is incalculable, as is attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' embryonic superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for applications in magnets. Competing theories for the critical current density at that time were fine filaments or `Mendelssohn Sponge' versus the pinning of Abrikosov quantized vortices. The results of the group's work, to which Jan made a major contribution, came down heavily in favour of the latter theory. Jan's outstanding characteristic was his meticulous and painstaking approach to every piece of work that he tackled. His attention to detail, and his ability to design elegant experiments, was unique. He was awarded a PhD for his thesis `The Magnetisation of Superconducting Lead Alloys'. The work on flux pinning culminated in the publication of `Critical Currents in Superconductors', a research monograph (co-authored with Archie Campbell) that rapidly became the standard reference work in the field. It has recently been reprinted in the Advances in Physics `Classic Articles' series as the 9th most cited article in the journal's history (2001 Adv. Phys. 50 1249-449). Jan was appointed to a research fellowship at Pembroke College and to a Science Research Council Research Fellowship in the Department of Metallurgy in 1965. After David Dew-Hughes left Cambridge, Jan inherited the superconducting materials research group and was appointed University Demonstrator in Metallurgy and a full Fellow in Pembroke College in 1966. He progressed steadily through the various levels of academic rank, finally being appointed Professor of Device Materials in 1998. Employing an astonishing combination of administrative skill, long term planning, manipulation of the University system and high quality research at the top international level, Jan built up the largest superconductivity group in the UK, comprising some 40 members. Five of his group obtained permanent positions in the Metallurgy Department, and there are many scientists all over the world, as well as many in Cambridge, who owe their careers to him. Jan served on many UK and European Committees, and in the organization of several international conferences. The major event of the 1980s was undoubtedly the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Jan's group was well placed to move very rapidly into this area and the paper submitted to Nature in March 1987 was the first in the literature to report the deposition of a thin ceramic film with a 90 K superconducting transition temperature. During 1987 Jan helped co-ordinate the successful Cambridge University applica

  13. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek

    2006-03-01

    A few days before the beginning of the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity we learned that Professor Jan Evetts, a pioneer of superconductor research, a brilliant scientist, a wonderful person and a great personal friend, had passed away. We therefore decided to dedicate the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity to the memory of Jan Evetts. The following citation is based on material provided by his former supervisor (D Dew-Hughes) and his closest co-workers in Cambridge. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan Evetts passed away after losing his second battle with cancer on 24th August 2005. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the superconductivity community is incalculable, as attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He entered the college in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for applications in magnets. Competing theories for the critical current density at that time were fine filaments or `Mendelssohn Sponge' versus the pinning of Abrikosov quantized vortices. The results of the group's work, to which Jan made a major contribution, came down heavily in favour of the latter theory. Jan's outstanding characteristic was his meticulous and painstaking approach to every piece of work that he tackled. His attention to detail, and his ability to design elegant experiments, was unique. He was awarded a PhD for his thesis `The Magnetisation of Superconducting Lead Alloys'. The work on flux pinning culminated in the publication of `Critical Currents in Superconductors', a research monograph (co-authored with Archie Campbell) that rapidly became the standard reference work in the field. It has recently been reprinted in the Advances in Physics `Classic Articles' series as the 9th most cited article in the journal's history (2001 Adv. Phys. 50 1249-449). Jan was appointed to a research fellowship at Pembroke College and to a Science Research Council Research Fellowship in the Department of Metallurgy in 1965. After David Dew-Hughes left Cambridge, Jan inherited the superconducting materials research group and was appointed University Demonstrator in Metallurgy and a full Fellow in Pembroke College in 1966. He progressed steadily through the various levels of academic rank, finally being appointed Professor of Device Materials in 1998. Under his direction his research group grew until it comprised some 40 people, and expanded its research interests to thin films and magnetic materials. Jan's work on superconductivity was always paralleled by research on magnetic materials; the cross fertilization between disciplines has been very fruitful and led to him editing Pergamon's `Concise Encyclopedia of Magnetic and Superconducting Materials' in 1992. This work has been a major success with a world-wide readership. To give a more personal picture of Jan and his achievements one can do no better than to quote in full the eulogy delivered by Professor Archie Cam

  14. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing values with increases in the electric field magnitude above 3 kV/m. An extreme value analysis showed that VAHIRR values less than or equal to 10 dBZ-km showed that the probability of having an electric field magnitude larger than 3 kV/m was less than one in ten thousand. VAHIRR also was found to be sensitive at indicating anvil clouds that posed a threat of initiating a lightning flash. This project seeks to use VAHIRR to analyze its utility as a lightning cessation tool, particularly dealing with the threat posed by detached anvils. The results from this project will serve as a baseline effectiveness of radar ]based lightning cessation algorithms. This baseline will be used in the second, and concurrent work by the co ]author fs who are developing a lightning cessation algorithm based on dual ]polarimetric radar data. Ultimately, an accurate method for identifying lightning cessation can save money on lost manpower time as well as greatly improve lightning safety.

  15. Obituary: John Louis Africano III, 1951-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Edwin, S.

    2007-12-01

    The orbital debris, space surveillance, and astronomical communities lost a valued and beloved friend when John L. Africano passed away on July 27, 2006, at the young age of 55. John passed away in Honolulu, Hawaii, from complications following a heart attack suffered while playing racquetball, which was his avocation in life. Born on February 8, 1951, in Saint Louis, Missouri, John graduated with a B.S. in Physics from the University of Missouri at Saint Louis in 1973, and received a Master's degree in Astronomy from Vanderbilt University in 1974. John had a real love for astronomical observing and for conveying his many years of experience to others. He encouraged many young astronomers and mentored them in the basics of photometry and astronomical instrumentation. John was author or co-author on nearly one-hundred refereed publications ranging from analyses of cool stars to the timing of occultations to space surveillance. He was honored for his contributions to minor planet research when the Jet Propulsion Laboratory named Minor Planet 6391 (Africano) after him. John held operational staff positions at several major observatories including McDonald Observatory in Texas, Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, and the Cloudcroft Telescope Facility in New Mexico. He observed at numerous observatories worldwide, including Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, developing a world-wide network of friends and colleagues. John's ability to build diverse teams through his managerial and technical skills, not to mention his smiling personality, resulted in numerous successes in the observational astronomy and space surveillance arenas. As an astronomer for Boeing LTS Inc., he worked for many years at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance site (AMOS) on Maui, Hawaii, where he contributed his operational and instrumental expertise to both the astronomy and space surveillance communities. He was also the co-organizer of the annual AMOS Technical Conference whose attendance expanded dramatically during his tenure. John moved to the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in 1998 to work full time on orbital debris projects including the 3.0 meter Liquid Mirror Telescope and the CCD Debris Telescope in Cloudcroft, New Mexico. In 2000 he moved back to Colorado Springs, Colorado, to be closer to his family. From there he continued to support both the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) and AMOS. John was very instrumental in establishing cooperative programs between the ODPO and AMOS, which will benefit both organizations for many years to come. John left an indelible mark on his programs and all those who knew and loved him. The impact of his untimely departure will reverberate for many years. As John's wife Linda put it, "John is now visiting the stars and galaxies he adored from afar." John is survived by his wife, Linda Ann Africano; two sons, James Keith and Brian Michael; a daughter, Monica Lynn Africano; a sister, Diana Smith; and four grandchildren. The author acknowledges valuable input from Brian Africano (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs), Eugene Stansbery (NASA), Mark Mulrooney (NASA contractor), Tom Kelecy (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Paul Sydney (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Kira Abercromby (NASA contractor), and Patrick Seitzer (University of Michigan).

  16. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also performed. A Kipp and Zonen system for monitoring direct and diffuse broadband radiative fluxes will also be in operation soon, as well as an ICOS/RAMCES CO2 and CH4 monitoring instrument. Through this unprecedented effort and with the support from ChArMEx, ADEME, and CORSiCA programs (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica), this observatory represents so far the most achieved French atmospheric station having the best set of instruments for measuring in-situ reactive gases and aerosols. It stands out as the station of not one laboratory but of a large number (see list of co-authors). It provides "real time" information useful to the local air quality network (Qualitair Corse, http://www.qualitaircorse.org/) concerning EU regulated parameters (O3, PMx). This station aims providing quality controlled climatically relevant gas/aerosol database following the recommendations of the EU-FP7 ACTRIS infrastructure, EMEP and WMO-GAW programs. Atmospheric datasets are currently available at the MISTRALS database (http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx/) and soon at the ACTRIS & GAW databases. After a brief presentation of the Cape Corsica Station (location, climatology, instrumental settings ...), we present here the first months of aerosols properties (optical / chemical / particle size) obtained at this station. Acknowledgements: the station is mainly supported by ADEME, CNRS-INSU, CEA, CTC, EMD, FEDER, and Météo-France.

  17. Trio of Neptunes and their Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    Using the ultra-precise HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), a team of European astronomers have discovered that a nearby star is host to three Neptune-mass planets. The innermost planet is most probably rocky, while the outermost is the first known Neptune-mass planet to reside in the habitable zone. This unique system is likely further enriched by an asteroid belt. ESO PR Photo 18a/06 ESO PR Photo 18a/06 Planetary System Around HD 69830 (Artist's Impression) "For the first time, we have discovered a planetary system composed of several Neptune-mass planets", said Christophe Lovis, from the Geneva Observatory and lead-author of the paper presenting the results [1]. During more than two years, the astronomers carefully studied HD 69830, a rather inconspicuous nearby star slightly less massive than the Sun. Located 41 light-years away towards the constellation of Puppis (the Stern), it is, with a visual magnitude of 5.95, just visible with the unaided eye. The astronomers' precise radial-velocity measurements [2] allowed them to discover the presence of three tiny companions orbiting their parent star in 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days. "Only ESO's HARPS instrument installed at the La Silla Observatory, Chile, made it possible to uncover these planets", said Michel Mayor, also from Geneva Observatory, and HARPS Principal Investigator. "Without any doubt, it is presently the world's most precise planet-hunting machine" [3]. ESO PR Photo 18d/06 ESO PR Photo 18d/06 Phase Folded Measurements of HD 69830 The detected velocity variations are between 2 and 3 metres per second, corresponding to about 9 km/h! That's the speed of a person walking briskly. Such tiny signals could not have been distinguished from 'simple noise' by most of today's available spectrographs. The newly found planets have minimum masses between 10 and 18 times the mass of the Earth. Extensive theoretical simulations favour an essentially rocky composition for the inner planet, and a rocky/gas structure for the middle one. The outer planet has probably accreted some ice during its formation, and is likely to be made of a rocky/icy core surrounded by a quite massive envelope. Further calculations have also shown that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. ESO PR Photo 18e/06 ESO PR Photo 18e/06 Formation Process of the Planetary System The outer planet also appears to be located near the inner edge of the habitable zone, where liquid water can exist at the surface of rocky/icy bodies. Although this planet is probably not Earth-like due to its heavy mass, its discovery opens the way to exciting perspectives. "This alone makes this system already exceptional", said Willy Benz, from Bern University, and co-author. "But the recent discovery by the Spitzer Space Telescope that the star most likely hosts an asteroid belt is adding the cherry to the cake." With three roughly equal-mass planets, one being in the habitable zone, and an asteroid belt, this planetary system shares many properties with our own solar system. "The planetary system around HD 69830 clearly represents a Rosetta stone in our understanding of how planets form", said Michel Mayor. "No doubt it will help us better understand the huge diversity we have observed since the first extra-solar planet was found 11 years ago." High resolution images and their captions are available on this page. Video footage and animations are also available on this page.

  18. EDITORIAL: Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Silver has long been valued not just for its rarity but also for its broad ranging attractive properties as a conductor, catalyst and antimicrobial agent, among others. In nanoscale structures, silver takes on a number of additional attributes, as properties such as antimicrobial activity show size dependence. In addition plasmonic properties are exhibited, which enhance local electromagnetic fields and can be hugely beneficial in sensing and imaging applications. As a result silver nanoparticles are increasingly in demand. In this issue researchers describe a microplasma-assisted electrochemical synthesis that allows excellent control over the size and spacing of the resulting particles, which are important parameters for optimizing their performance in device applications [1]. Wet chemistry [2] and lithography [3] are common processes for silver nanoparticle synthesis. However, other methods are constantly in development. Biosynthesis approaches have been attracting increasing interest as more environmentally friendly alternatives. Takayuki Kuwabara and colleagues at Xiamen University in China used the sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf to reduce silver nitrate [4], demonstrating a cost-efficient alternative to conventional methods which might also be suitable for large-scale production. At Zhejiang Normal University researchers noted that the abasic site (AP site) in the DNA duplex can act as a capping scaffold in the generation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters [5]. In addition the resulting fluorescence of the nanocrystals can be used for detecting DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism. Researchers in Malaysia have also noted the potential sensing applications of nanoparticles of another noble metal for swine DNA [6]. They observed that single-strand DNA was absorbed on gold nanoparticles and led to a colour shift from pinkish-red to grey-purple. The shift was the result of a reduction in the surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and new features appearing in the 620-800 nm regions of the absorption spectra. A number of research groups have investigated the possibility of exploiting the plasmonic properties of silver and gold nanostructures for optoelectronic devices [7-9]. The advantages can be quite substantial. Researchers in Korea successfully used silver nanoparticles to obtain a 38% increase in performance of blue LEDs by using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN [10]. The researchers attribute the improvement to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between the excitons in multiple quantum wells and localized surface plasmons in the silver nanoparticles. In their work reported in this issue Kostya Ostrikov and his co-authors bridge the link between microplasma-assisted electrochemical process parameters and the plasmonic response. As they point out, 'This is an important experimental step towards bringing together plasma chemistry and plasmonics' [1]. All-gas-phase plasma approaches have already been demonstrated for the synthesis of nanoparticles of other metals. X D Pi and colleagues from the University of Minnesota demonstrated how one simple gas-phase process could produce stable silicon nanocrystal emitters with tailored size and surface functionalization [11]. Previously silicon nanocrystals had been prone to emission instabilities in air. Now Ostrikov and colleagues at the University of Sydney, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering in Australia and the Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas in China have studied microplasma-assisted electrochemical synthesis of Ag nanoparticles for plasmonic applications [1]. The synthesis uses moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressures and does not involve any toxic reducing agents. In addition they demonstrate how it allows control over nanoparticle size and interparticle spacing to optimize performance in device applications. Despite the overlap in plasma physics and the origins of plasmonic phenomena, studies of the relationship between plasma electrochemical synthesis and the plasmonic properties of nanoparticles ha

  19. Recruiting and Retaining Geology Majors at CSUSB: Successes and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. L.; McGill, S. F.; Fryxell, J. E.; Leatham, W. B.; Melchiorre, E.; Brunkhorst, B.

    2003-12-01

    Our efforts to build a strong geology department at CSUSB have focused on two main areas (1) increasing the number of geology majors, and (2) involving our majors more directly in the department through their involvement in scientific research and outreach activities. To increase the number of majors we have undertaken a three pronged approach: (a) by actively working with middle and high school teachers to better prepare them to teach Earth Sciences in their schools, by providing them with the necessary tools to accomplish this, and by developing a new course on Earth Sciences with emphasis on the California Earth Science Standards to be taken by students in the multi-subject credential program; (b) by showing middle school, high school, and college students that geology is interesting and exciting by involving them in geological activities such as field trips, hands on geological exercises, and in directed research projects; and (c) by conducting a public relations campaign to inform both potential students and the general public about activities being undertaken by the department. The latter has been accomplished by the use of a glossy color brochure designed to illustrate what geology is, and what kinds of careers are possible; by flyers sent to approximately 120 local schools outlining opportunities for field trips and for teachers to bring their students to our campus for various activities; by developing an outreach web site; and by various newspaper articles on departmental activities. We are also looking into the use of TV spots on geological subjects to be aired on public access television. Since the start of our efforts two years ago we have seen a positive response by local teachers, and an increase in the number of applications to study geology at CSUSB, including a significant increase in the number of minority applicants. A major barrier to recruitment has been the misconceived idea in local schools that a course in Earth Sciences does not count towards college entrance requirements. To better integrate our students into departmental activities, we have actively involved them in our outreach activities, and are currently strongly advising our majors to undertake directed research under the supervision of a faculty member. We are also discussing making a "research project" part of the graduation requirements. Representative projects involving our undergraduate students include GPS studies in the San Bernardino area, volcanological studies on the island of Dominica, West Indies, hydrological studies of the springs in the San Bernardino Mountains and studies of biostratigraphy and marine invertebrate paleoecology of the Death Valley region, California. Although a number of these projects have already resulted in students being co-authors on papers and abstracts, the extensive GE requirements and the fact that CSUSB is on the quarter system usually does not allow students sufficient time to develop a research project and take it to completion within an academic year.

  20. PREFACE: XXII International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    The 22nd International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS) was convened at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee, USA, during June 1 to 6, 2014. A variety of topics of interest to the line shape community were addressed during invited and contributed oral and poster presentations. General categories of the ICSLS 2014 scientific contents included Astrophysics, Biomedical Physics, High and Low Temperature Plasma Physics, Magnetic Fusion Physics, Neutrals Atomic–Molecular–Optical (AMO) Physics, and Applied Physics. Research interests at UTSI and at the Center for Laser Applications (CLA) focus on Applied Physics and Plasma Physics areas such as laser–induced breakdown spectroscopy, spectroscopy with ultra–short light pulses, combustion diagnostics, to name a few. Consequently, the presentations during the conference addressed a variety of these topics. Attendance at the conference included researchers from North America, Africa, Asia and Europe, with an international representation showing 250 authors and co–authors with over 25 different citizenships, and 100 participants at the Conference. Figure 1 shows a photo of Conference attendees. The schedule included 82 contributions, 41 oral and 41 poster presentations. The 29 invited, 12 contributed oral and 41 contributed poster presentations were selected following communication with the international organizing committee members. A smart phone ''app'' was also utilized, thanks to Elsevier, to communicate electronic versions of the posters during the conference. Special thanks go to the members of the international and local committees for their work in organizing the 22nd ICSLS. In addition, thank you notes also go to the peer reviewers for the proceedings. Following the success of the IOP: Journal of Physics Conference Series selected for the 21st ICSLS publication, the proceedings papers report ongoing research activities. Papers submitted amount to 68 in number, or 83% of the 82 papers contributed to the 22nd ICSLS conference will be published in the IOP: Journal of Physics proceedings. The Executive Director of the University of Tennessee Space Institute welcomed all participants of the Conference on the first day of the technical sessions on Monday June 2, 2014. This welcome address is also included in the conference series publication, especially important for Physics and Engineering research at UTSI is the concurrent 50–year celebration of the Institute in 2014. Informal welcome occurred on Sunday June 1, 2014, and various social activities included a tour to the Jack Daniel's distillery in Lynchburg, Tennessee, followed by the conference dinner. The international scientific committee met to look into various aspects of the ICSLS and future role of this conference for the spectral line shape community. The next meeting locations have been discussed, including the scheduling of the next 23rd conference in Torun, Poland, in June of 2016. Further meeting locations include hosting the conference in Egypt in 2018, possibly in Luxor, Egypt. Communication regarding the 24th ICSLS in 2020 included mentioning of scheduling the Conference to occur in Dublin, Ireland. Clearly, there is a wealth of interest in continuing the long standing tradition of communicating spectral signatures and line shapes at the biannual ICSLS meetings. The 22nd International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes was supported by the Institute of Physics, the University of Tennessee Space Institute, the Center for Laser Applications, the Quantel Laser company, and by Elsevier. On behalf of the organizing committee, I greatly appreciate the support.

  1. Measurement of Differential Cross-Sections in the ttbar -> l+jets Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kvita, J.; /Charles U.

    2009-04-01

    The analysis presented in this thesis focuses on kinematic distributions in the t{bar t} system and studies in detail selected differential cross sections of top quarks as well as the reconstructed t{bar t} pair, namely the top quark transverse momentum and the t{bar t} system mass. The structure of the thesis is organized as follows: first the Standard Model of the particle physics is briefly introduced in Chapter 1, with relevant aspects of electroweak and strong interactions discussed. The physics of the top quark and its properties are then outlined in Chapter 2, together with the motivation for measuring the transverse top quark momentum and other kinematic-related variables of the t{bar t} system. The concepts of present-day high energy physics collider experiments and the explicit example of Fermilab Tevatron collider and the D0 detector in Chapters 3 and 4 are followed by the description of basic detector-level objects, i.e. tracks, leptons and jets, in Chapter 5; their identification and calibration following in next chapter with the emphasis on the jet energy scale in Chapter 6 and jet identification at the D0. The analysis itself is outlined in Chapter 7 and is structured so that first the data and simulation samples and the basic preselection are described in Chapter 8 and 9, followed by the kinematic reconstruction part in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 on background normalization and Chapter 12 with raw reconstructed spectra results (at the detector-smeared level) are followed by the purity-based background subtraction method and examples of signal-level corrected spectra in Chapter 13. Next, the procedure of correcting measured spectra for detector effects (unfolding) is described in Chapters 14-15, including migration matrix studies, acceptance correction determination as well as the regularized unfolding procedure itself. Final differential cross sections are presented in Chapter 16 with the main results in Figures 16.19-16.20. Summary and discussion close the main analysis part in Chapter 17, supplemented by appendices on the wealthy of analysis control plots of the t{bar t} {yields} {ell} + jets channel, selected D0 event displays and finally the list of publications and references. Preliminary results of this analysis have been documented in D0 internal notes [UnfoldTop], [p17Top], [p14Top]; as well as presented at conferences [APS08], [APS05]. The author has also been a co-author of more than 135 D0 collaboration publications since 2005. The author has taken part in the jet energy scale calibration efforts performing final closure tests and deriving a correction to jet energy offset due to the suppression of the calorimeter signal. The author has also co-performed the {phi}-intercalibration of the hadronic calorimeter and co-supervised the electromagnetic {phi}-intercalibration; recently has also been involved in maintaining the jet identification efficiencies measurement as a JetID convener. During the years in Fermilab, many events have taken place in the course of the analysis in persuasion, including more than 170 shifts served for the D0 detector with or without the beam, 168 talks presented with mixed results and reactions; and tens of thousands of code lines in C (and sometimes perhaps even really C++) written while terabytes of data were processed, analyzed, and sometimes also lost. It has been a long but profoundly enriching chapter of my life.

  2. Organic compounds in hydrothermal systems on the Russian Far East: relevance to the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir

    In 70th of the last century L. Mukhin with co-authors (1) explored amino acids in the hot springs and water-steam mixture from the boreholes in Kamchatka peninsula of eastern Rus-sia. According to their results, 12 amino acids of biological origination were detected in hot springs inhabited by thermophiles and hyperthermophiles. Only a single amino acid -glycine -was found in the lifeless condensate of water-steam mixture. These authors proposed its abiotic genesis. Our research is devoted to exploration of moderately volatile organic com-pounds in the hot springs and water-steam mixture in Kamchatka peninsula, Kuriles and intracontinental part of eastern Russia. Samples were taken from hot springs far from poten-tial sources of contamination by human populations, and from boreholes 60 to 1200 meters in depth. The temperature ranged from 175C (sterile water-steam mixture) to 55C (hot water with thermophile populations). The samples were analyzed by the gas chromatomass-spectrometer Shimatsu (GCMS-QP20105). Lifeless condensate of water-steam mixture (t = 108-175C) con-tains aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, 1,2-methylnaphtaline biphenyl, phenathrene, fluo-rene,squalene, 1,3-diethylbenzene, and trichlorobenzene)., n-alkanes (decane, dodecane, tride-cane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, and geptadecane), aldehyde (oktadekanal), ketone (2-geptadekanon), and alcohol (2-undetsenol-1). 10 homologous series have been found in hot solutions (t = 55-99C) inhabited by thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms hav-ing low concentrations: aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, dietoxyalkanes, naphthenes, fatty acids, methyl ethers of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and steroids. Especially diverse organic substance is detected in alkaline lower-temperature solutions (pH 9-9.5, t up to 72C). The source of these compounds is not yet established. They may represent pre-existing organic material that has been chemically degraded by pyrolysis. For instance, Simoneit et al. (2) established that the light oil associated with the Uzon caldera in Kamchatka was formed by pyrolysis of buried algal mats. More interesting would be to determine that the aromatics and alkanes are products of a Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis. Intermediately the possible in-put of the abiotic organics is confirmed with the availability of Cl-alkanes in the hot solution because these compounds cannot be produced in a living organism. Besides, concentrations of even and uneven carbon atoms are similar in the juvenile hot water from the central zone of Kuldur field (the intracontinental part) that indicates their probable abiotic origination, while the uneven carbon atoms much prevail over the even ones (in 5 times) in the lower-temperature meteoric water on the flank. The detected organic compounds could enter into the composi-tion of various prebiotic microsystems or aggregates existed in the changeable hydrothermal media suitable for the origin of life. It follows of the inversion approach to the origin of life (Kompanichenko, 2008) that synthesis of other biologically important molecules (sugars, ATP, nucleotides), which are not typical for hydrothermal medium, started at the moment of the in-version the ratio "free energy contribution to entropy contribution" in the network of chemical reactions. The re-organized and turned into negentropy way network might promote the syn-thesis of these molecules under higher temperature conditions than revealed for the laboratory experiments in Vitro (50-60C). References. 1. Mukhin L.M., Bondarev V.B., Vakin E.A., Iljukhina I.I., Kalinichenko V.I., Milekhina E.I., Safonova E.N., 1979. Amino acids in hydrothermal systems in Southern Kam-chatka. Doklady AN USSR 244 (4), 974-977, (In Russian). 2. Simoneit, B., Deamer, D.W. and Kompanichenko, V. 2009. Characterization of hydrothermally generated oil from the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. Applied Geochemistry 24: 303-309. 3. Kompanichenko V.N. 2008. Three stages of the origin-of-life process: bifurcation, stabilization and inversion. International Jou

  3. Chandra Turns Up the Heat in the Milky Way Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    A long look by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed new evidence that extremely hot gas exists in a large region at the center of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of the high-energy X-rays produced by this gas present a puzzle as to how it is being heated. The discovery came to light as a team of astronomers, led by Michael Muno of UCLA used Chandra's unique resolving power to study a region about 100 light years across and painstakingly remove the contributions from 2,357 point-like X-ray sources due to neutron stars, black holes, white dwarfs, foreground stars, and background galaxies. What remained was an irregular, diffuse glow from a 10-million-degree Celsius gas cloud, embedded in a glow of higher-energy X-rays with a spectrum characteristic of 100-million-degree gas. Animation of Galactic Center Animation of Galactic Center "The best explanation for the Chandra data is that the high-energy X-rays come from an extremely hot gas cloud," says Muno, lead author on a paper describing the results to appear in the September 20, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This would mean that there is a significant shortcoming in our understanding of heat sources in the center of our Galaxy." The combined gravity from the known objects in the center of the Milky Way -- all the stars and the supermassive black hole in the center - is not strong enough to prevent the escape of the 100 million degree gas from the region. The escape time would be about 10,000 years, a small fraction of the 10-billion-year lifetime of the Galaxy. This implies that the gas would have to be continually regenerated and heated. The gas could be replenished by winds from massive stars, but the source of the heating remains a puzzle. The high-energy diffuse X-rays from the center of the Galaxy appear to be the brightest part of a ridge of X-ray emission observed by Chandra and previous X-ray observatories to extend for several thousand light years along the disk of the Galaxy. The extent of this hot ridge implies that it is probably not being heated by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. VLA Radio Image of Galactic Center VLA Radio Image of Galactic Center Scientists have speculated that magnetic turbulence produced by supernova shock waves can heat the gas to 100 million degrees. Alternatively, high-energy protons and electrons produced by supernova shock waves could be the heat source. However, both these possibilities have problems. The spectrum is not consistent with heating by high-energy particles, the observed magnetic field in the Galactic center does not have the proper structure, and the rate of supernova explosions does not appear to be frequent enough to provide the necessary heating. The team also considered whether the high-energy X-rays only appear to be diffuse, and are in fact due to the combined glow of an as yet undetected population of point-like sources, like the diffuse lights of a city seen at a great distance. The difficulty with this explanation is that 200,000 sources would be required in the observed region. Although the total number of stars in this region is about 30 million, the number of stars of the type expected to produce X-rays at the required power and energy is estimated to be only 20 thousand. Further, such a large unresolved population of sources would produce a much smoother X-ray glow than is observed. Chandra Broadband X-ray Image of Galactic Center Chandra Broadband X-ray Image of Galactic Center, Without Point Sources "There is no known class of objects that could account for such a large number of high-energy X-ray sources at the Galactic center," said Fred Baganoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, a coauthor of the study. These results were based on over 170 hours of observations of a 17-by-17-arcminute region around the Milky Way's center using Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. Other team members from UCLA, MIT, and Penn State are also co-authors on the upcoming paper in The Astrop

  4. Images From Hubbles's ACS Tell A Tale Of Two Record-Breaking Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking back in time nearly 9 billion years, an international team of astronomers found mature galaxies in a young universe. The galaxies are members of a cluster of galaxies that existed when the universe was only 5 billion years old, or about 35 percent of its present age. This compelling evidence that galaxies must have started forming just after the big bang was bolstered by observations made by the same team of astronomers when they peered even farther back in time. The team found embryonic galaxies a mere 1.5 billion years after the birth of the cosmos, or 10 percent of the universe's present age. The "baby galaxies" reside in a still-developing cluster, the most distant proto-cluster ever found. The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope was used to make observations of the massive cluster, RDCS 1252.9-2927, and the proto-cluster, TN J1338-1942. Observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory yielded the mass and heavy element content of RDCS 1252, the most massive known cluster for that epoch. These observations are part of a coordinated effort by the ACS science team to track the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies over a broad range of cosmic time. The ACS was built especially for studies of such distant objects. These findings further support observations and theories that galaxies formed relatively early in the history of the cosmos. The existence of such massive clusters in the early universe agrees with a cosmological model wherein clusters form from the merger of many sub-clusters in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. The precise nature of cold dark matter, however, is still not known. The first Hubble study estimated that galaxies in RDCS 1252 formed the bulk of their stars more than 11 billion years ago (at redshifts greater than 3). The results were published in the Oct. 20, 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The paper's lead author is John Blakeslee of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md. Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 HST Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 The second Hubble study uncovered, for the first time, a proto-cluster of "infant galaxies" that existed more than 12 billion years ago (at redshift 4.1). These galaxies are so young that astronomers can still see a flurry of stars forming within them. The galaxies are grouped around one large galaxy. These results will be published in the Jan. 1, 2004 issue of Nature. The paper's lead author is George Miley of Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands. "Until recently people didn't think that clusters existed when the universe was only about 5 billion years old," Blakeslee explained. "Even if there were such clusters," Miley added, "until recently astronomers thought it was almost impossible to find clusters that existed 8 billion years ago. In fact, no one really knew when clustering began. Now we can witness it." Both studies led the astronomers to conclude that these systems are the progenitors of the galaxy clusters seen today. "The cluster RDCS 1252 looks like a present-day cluster," said Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., and co-author of both research papers. "In fact, if you were to put it next to a present-day cluster, you wouldn't know which is which." A Tale of Two Clusters How can galaxies grow so fast after the big bang? "It is a case of the rich getting richer," Blakeslee said. "These clusters grew quickly because they are located in very dense regions, so there is enough material to build up the member galaxies very fast." This idea is strengthened by X-ray observations of the massive cluster RDCS 1252. Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton provided astronomers with the most accurate measurements to date of the properties of an enormous cloud of hot gas that pervades the massive cluster. This 160-million-degree Fahrenheit (70-million-degree Celsius) gas is a reservoir of most of the heavy elements in the cluster and an accurate tr

  5. Chandra Discovers Light Echo from the Milky Way's Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Like cold case investigators, astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to uncover evidence of a powerful outburst from the giant black hole at the Milky Way's center. A light echo was produced when X-ray light generated by gas falling into the Milky Way's supermassive black hole, known as Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star"), was reflected off gas clouds near the black hole. While the primary X-rays from the outburst would have reached Earth about 50 years ago, the reflected X-rays took a longer path and arrived in time to be recorded by Chandra. Variability in Chandra Images of Light Echo Variability in Chandra Images of Light Echo "This dramatic event happened before we had satellites in space that could detect it," said Michael Muno of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "So, it's remarkable that we can use Chandra to dig into the past and see this monster black hole's capacity for destruction." Previously, scientists have used Chandra to directly detect smaller and more recent outbursts from the black hole. This latest outburst revealed by the X-ray echo was about 1,000 times brighter and lasted well over 1,000 times longer than any of the recent outbursts observed by Chandra. Theory predicts that an outburst from Sagittarius A* would cause X-ray emission from the clouds to vary in both intensity and shape. Muno and his team found these changes for the first time, thus ruling out other interpretations. The latest results corroborate other independent, but indirect, evidence for light echoes generated by the black hole in the more distant past. Illustrations of Light Echo Illustrations of Light Echo Scientists have long known that Sagittarius A*, with a mass of about 3 million suns, lurked at the center for Milky Way. However, the black hole is incredibly faint at all wavelengths, especially in X-rays. "This faintness implies that stars and gas rarely get close enough to the black hole to be in any danger," said co-author Frederick K. Baganoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. "The huge appetite is there, but it's not being satisfied." During the outburst, the area close to the black hole would have been about 100,000 times brighter than it is currently. If such an outburst had occurred more recently, it likely would have been detected by an X-ray instrument, or would have produced similar features in other nearby clouds. Chandra X-ray Image of Sagittarius A* Chandra X-ray Image of Sagittarius A* "Our data show it has been 50 years or so since the black hole had its last decent meal," said Muno. "This is nothing like the feasting that black holes in other galaxies sometimes enjoy, but it gives unique knowledge about the feeding habits of our closest supermassive black hole." The details of how Sagittarius A* feeds remain unclear. For example, one possibility is that the black hole grows by pulling in matter from the winds of nearby young stars. Also, if there is a disk of material swirling around Sagittarius A*, it might be unstable in such a way that material migrates toward the black hole's edge in clumps, emitting X-rays before disappearing from the universe forever. The theoretical work is still being developed. Studying this light echo is also important because it illuminates and probes the poorly understood molecular clouds near the center of the galaxy. In particular, it gives information about the dense cores of these clouds where new stars may be forming. Variability in the X-ray emission between three Chandra observations in 2002, 2004 and 2005 argues against an alternate source for the light echo, which is that it came from a neutron star or black hole pulling matter away from a binary companion. This explanation is not favored because the data show the outburst would have been unusually long and bright for such a binary. These results were presented at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, Wash., and will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letter

  6. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint neutron star. The background of a few brighter but more distant stars displayed by Hubble's camera provided a frame of reference. In the course of a year, Geminga moved northeastwards by 0.17 arc-seconds, equivalent to one degree in 21,000 years. That was due to Geminga's high-speed motion through the Galaxy. But the neutron star also seemed to shift to either side of its interstellar track, because of changes in Hubble's viewpoint as the Earth orbited around the Sun. At opposite seasons, spring and autumn in this case, the Earth is on opposite sides of the Sun, at vantage points 300 million kilometres apart. As a result, the bearings of stars change a little, by the effect called parallax. Nearby stars shift more than very distant stars, and astronomers can measure their distances by trigonometry. The sideways displacement measured using the Hubble Space Telescope was 0.00636 arc-seconds, less than two millionths of a degree. From this figure the astronomers calculate that Geminga is 512 light-years away (157 parsecs) with an uncertainty of the order of 100 light-years. The strong gamma-rays and weak light observed today left Geminga around the time that Columbus discovered America. "We are pleased to have measured a parallax for an object at the limit of detection, which was never done before," says Patrizia Caraveo. "But what really matters is that we have pinned down an important object that has puzzled us for more than 20 years." From "it's not there" to "here it is" Geminga has tested the patience of the Milanese astronomers for twenty years. NASA's shortlived SAS-2 satellite (1973) first recorded a mysterious source of gamma-rays in the constellation of Gemini. In 1976 Giovanni Bignami named it Geminga. This is a pun signifying either "Gemini gamma" or "gh'è minga" which in the Milanese argot means "it's not there". Geminga lived up to its name when Bignami and his colleagues looked in vain for radio emissions from it. By 1981, data from ESA's longlived gamma-ray satellite COS-B had def

  7. A Look into the Hellish Cradles of Suns and Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    New images released today by ESO delve into the heart of a cosmic cloud, called RCW 38, crowded with budding stars and planetary systems. There, young stars bombard fledgling suns and planets with powerful winds and blazing light, helped in their task by short-lived, massive stars that explode as supernovae. In some cases, this onslaught cooks away the matter that may eventually form new solar systems. Scientists think that our own Solar System emerged from such an environment. The dense star cluster RCW 38 glistens about 5500 light years away in the direction of the constellation Vela (the Sails). Like the Orion Nebula Cluster, RCW 38 is an "embedded cluster", in that the nascent cloud of dust and gas still envelops its stars. Astronomers have determined that most stars, including the low mass, reddish ones that outnumber all others in the Universe, originate in these matter-rich locations. Accordingly, embedded clusters provide scientists with a living laboratory in which to explore the mechanisms of star and planetary formation. "By looking at star clusters like RCW 38, we can learn a great deal about the origins of our Solar System and others, as well as those stars and planets that have yet to come", says Kim DeRose, first author of the new study that appears in the Astronomical Journal. DeRose did her work on RCW 38 as an undergraduate student at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA. Using the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope [1], astronomers have obtained the sharpest image yet of RCW 38. They focused on a small area in the centre of the cluster that surrounds the massive star IRS2, which glows in the searing, white-blue range, the hottest surface colour and temperatures possible for stars. These dramatic observations revealed that IRS2 is actually not one, but two stars - a binary system consisting of twin scorching stars, separated by about 500 times the Earth-Sun distance. In the NACO image, the astronomers found a handful of protostars - the faintly luminous precursors to fully realised stars - and dozens of other candidate stars that have eked out an existence here despite the powerful ultraviolet light radiated by IRS2. Some of these gestating stars may, however, not get past the protostar stage. IRS2's strong radiation energises and disperses the material that might otherwise collapse into new stars, or that has settled into so-called protoplanetary discs around developing stars. In the course of several million years, the surviving discs may give rise to the planets, moons and comets that make up planetary systems like our own. As if intense ultraviolet rays were not enough, crowded stellar nurseries like RCW 38 also subject their brood to frequent supernovae when giant stars explode at the ends of their lives. These explosions scatter material throughout nearby space, including rare isotopes - exotic forms of chemical elements that are created in these dying stars. This ejected material ends up in the next generation of stars that form nearby. Because these isotopes have been detected in our Sun, scientists have concluded that the Sun formed in a cluster like RCW 38, rather than in a more rural portion of the Milky Way. "Overall, the details of astronomical objects that adaptive optics reveals are critical in understanding how new stars and planets form in complex, chaotic regions like RCW 38", says co-author Dieter Nürnberger. Notes [1] The name "NACO" is a combination of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) and the Near-Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (CONICA). Adaptive optics cancels out most of the image-distorting turbulence in Earth's atmosphere caused by temperature variations and wind. More information This research was presented in a paper that appeared in the Astronomical Journal: A Very Large Telescope / NACO study of star formation in the massive embedded cluster RCW 38, by DeRose et al. (2009, AJ, 138, 33-45). The team is composed of K.L. DeRose, T.L. Bourke, R.A. Gutermuth and S.J. Wolk (Harvard-Smith

  8. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co-author Jack Hughes, professor of physics and astronomy at Rutgers. "We were not expecting so much order to appear in so much chaos. It could mean that the theory is incomplete, or that there's something else we don't understand." Assuming that the spacing between the X-ray stripes corresponds to the radius of the spiraling motion of the highest energy protons in the supernova remnant, the spacing corresponds to energies about 100 times higher than reached in the Large Hadron Collider. These energies equal the highest energies of cosmic rays thought to be produced in our Galaxy. Because cosmic rays are composed of charged particles, like protons and electrons, their direction of motion changes when they encounter magnetic fields throughout the galaxy. So, the origin of individual cosmic rays detected on Earth cannot be determined. Supernova remnants have long been considered a good candidate for producing the most energetic cosmic rays in our Galaxy. The protons can reach energies that are hundreds of times higher than the highest energy electrons, but since they do not radiate efficiently like the electrons, direct evidence for the acceleration of cosmic ray protons in supernova remnants has been lacking. These results also support the prediction that magnetic fields in interstellar space are greatly amplified in supernova remnants, but the difference between the observed and predicted structures means that other interpretations cannot be ruled out. "We were excited to discover these stripes because they might allow us to directly track, for the first time, the origin of the most energetic particles produced in our galaxy," said Eriksen. "But, we're not claiming victory yet." The Tycho supernova remnant is named for the famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, who reported observing the supernova in 1572. Scientists think the explosion occurred when a white dwarf star grew in mass and exceeded its weight limit, forming a so-called Type Ia supernova. The Tycho remnant is located in the Milky Way, about

  9. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO's La Silla Observatory and announced two years ago -- this star was known to harbour a system with a Neptune-sized planet (ESO 30/05) and two super-Earths (ESO 22/07). With the discovery of Gliese 581 e, the planetary system now has four known planets, with masses of about 1.9 (planet e), 16 (planet b), 5 (planet c), and 7 Earth-masses (planet d). The planet furthest out, Gliese 581 d, orbits its host star in 66.8 days. "Gliese 581 d is probably too massive to be made only of rocky material, but we can speculate that it is an icy planet that has migrated closer to the star," says team member Stephane Udry. The new observations have revealed that this planet is in the habitable zone, where liquid water could exist. "‘d' could even be covered by a large and deep ocean -- it is the first serious 'water world' candidate," continued Udry. The gentle pull of an exoplanet as it orbits the host star introduces a tiny wobble in the star's motion -- only about 7 km/hour, corresponding to brisk walking speed -- that can just be detected on Earth with today's most sophisticated technology. Low-mass red dwarf stars such as Gliese 581 are potentially fruitful hunting grounds for low-mass exoplanets in the habitable zone. Such cool stars are relatively faint and their habitable zones lie close in, where the gravitational tug of any orbiting planet found there would be stronger, making the telltale wobble more pronounced. Even so, detecting these tiny signals is still a challenge, and the discovery of Gliese 581 e and the refinement of Gliese 581 d's orbit were only possible due to HARPS's unique precision and stability. "It is amazing to see how far we have come since we discovered the first exoplanet around a normal star in 1995 -- the one around 51 Pegasi," says Mayor. "The mass of Gliese 581 e is 80 times less than that of 51 Pegasi b. This is tremendous progress in just 14 years." The astronomers are confident that they can still do better. "With similar observing conditions an E

  10. X-ray Discovery Points to Location of Missing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Using observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton, astronomers have announced a robust detection of a vast reservoir of intergalactic gas about 400 million light years from Earth. This discovery is the strongest evidence yet that the "missing matter" in the nearby Universe is located in an enormous web of hot, diffuse gas. This missing matter — which is different from dark matter -- is composed of baryons, the particles, such as protons and neutrons, that are found on the Earth, in stars, gas, galaxies, and so on. A variety of measurements of distant gas clouds and galaxies have provided a good estimate of the amount of this "normal matter" present when the universe was only a few billion years old. However, an inventory of the much older, nearby universe has turned up only about half as much normal matter, an embarrassingly large shortfall. The mystery then is where does this missing matter reside in the nearby Universe? This latest work supports predictions that it is mostly found in a web of hot, diffuse gas known as the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Scientists think the WHIM is material left over after the formation of galaxies, which was later enriched by elements blown out of galaxies. "Evidence for the WHIM is really difficult to find because this stuff is so diffuse and easy to see right through," said Taotao Fang of the University of California at Irvine and lead author of the latest study. "This differs from many areas of astronomy where we struggle to see through obscuring material." To look for the WHIM, the researchers examined X-ray observations of a rapidly growing supermassive black hole known as an active galactic nucleus, or AGN. This AGN, which is about two billion light years away, generates immense amounts of X-ray light as it pulls matter inwards. Lying along the line of sight to this AGN, at a distance of about 400 million light years, is the so-called Sculptor Wall. This "wall", which is a large diffuse structure stretching across tens of millions of light years, contains thousands of galaxies and potentially a significant reservoir of the WHIM if the theoretical simulations are correct. The WHIM in the wall should absorb some of the X-rays from the AGN as they make their journey across intergalactic space to Earth. Using new data from Chandra and previous observations with both Chandra and XMM-Newton, absorption of X-rays by oxygen atoms in the WHIM has clearly been detected by Fang and his colleagues. The characteristics of the absorption are consistent with the distance of the Sculptor Wall as well as the predicted temperature and density of the WHIM. This result gives scientists confidence that the WHIM will also be found in other large-scale structures. Several previous claimed detections of the hot component of the WHIM have been controversial because the detections had been made with only one X-ray telescope and the statistical significance of many of the results had been questioned. "Having good detections of the WHIM with two different telescopes is really a big deal," said co-author David Buote, also from the University of California at Irvine. "This gives us a lot of confidence that we have truly found this missing matter." In addition to having corroborating data from both Chandra and XMM-Newton, the new study also removes another uncertainty from previous claims. Because the distance of the Sculptor Wall is already known, the statistical significance of the absorption detection is greatly enhanced over previous "blind" searches. These earlier searches attempted to find the WHIM by observing bright AGN at random directions on the sky, in the hope that their line of sight intersects a previously undiscovered large-scale structure. Confirmed detections of the WHIM have been made difficult because of its extremely low density. Using observations and simulations, scientists calculate the WHIM has a density equivalent to only 6 protons per cubic meter. For comparison, the in

  11. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected between the galaxies, as expected for a true galaxy cluster rather than one that has been caught in the act of forming. Also, without the X-ray observations, the possibility remained that this object could have been a blend of different groups of galaxies along the line of sight, or a filament, a long stream of galaxies and gas, viewed front on. The mass and temperature of the hot gas detected estimated from the Chandra observations rule out both of those alternatives. The extent and shape of the X-ray emission, along with the lack of a central radio source argue against the possibility that the X-ray emission is caused by scattering of cosmic microwave background light by particles emitting radio waves. It is not yet possible, with the detection of just one extremely distant galaxy cluster, to test cosmological models, but searches are underway to find other galaxy clusters at extreme distances. "This discovery is exciting because it is like finding a Tyrannosaurus Rex fossil that is much older than any other known," said co-author Ben Maughan, from the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. "One fossil might just fit in with our understanding of dinosaurs, but if you found many more, you would have to start rethinking how dinosaurs evolved. The same is true for galaxy clusters and our understanding of cosmology." The previous record holder for a galaxy cluster was 9.2 billion light years away, XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, discovered by ESA's XMM-Newton in 2006. This broke the previous distance record by only about 0.1 billion light years, while JKCS041 surpasses XMMXCS J2215.9 by about ten times that. "What's exciting about this discovery is the astrophysics that can be done with detailed follow-up studies," said Andreon. Among the questions scientists hope to address by further studying JKCS041 are: What is the build-up of elements (such as iron) like in such a young object? Are there signs that the cluster is still forming? Do the temperature and X-ray brightness of such a distant cluster relate to its mass in th

  12. NASA Scientists Witness a Supernova Cosmic Rite of Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have witnessed a cosmic rite of passage, the transition from a supernova to a supernova remnant, a process that has never been seen in much detail until now, leaving it poorly defined. A supernova is a massive star explosion; the remnant is the beautiful glowing shell that evolves afterwards. When does a supernova become supernova remnant? When does the shell appear and what powers its radiant glow? A science team led by Dr. Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., has taken a fresh look at a supernova that exploded in 1970, called SN 1970G, just off the handle of the Big Dipper. This is the oldest supernova ever seen by X-ray telescopes. Chandra X-ray Image of SN 1970G Chandra X-ray Image of SN 1970G "Some astronomers have thought there's a moment when the supernova remnant magically turns on years after the supernova itself has faded away, when the shock wave of the explosion finally hits and lights up the interstellar medium," said Immler. "By contrast, our results show that a new supernova quickly and seamlessly evolves into a supernova remnant. The star's own debris, and not the interstellar medium gas, fuels the remnant." These results appear in The Astrophysical Journal, co-authored by Dr. Kip Kuntz, also of Goddard. They support previous Chandra observations of SN 1987A by Dr. Sangwook Park of Penn State. Using new data from Chandra and archived data from the European-led ROSAT and XMM-Newton observatories, Immler and Kuntz pieced together how SN 1970G evolved over the years. They found telltale signs of a supernova remnant - bright X-ray light - yet no evidence of interstellar gas, even across a distance around the site of the explosion 35 times larger than our solar system. Instead, the material that is heated by the supernova shock to glow in X-ray light, what we call the remnant, is from the stellar wind of the star itself and not distant gas in the interstellar medium. This wind, comprising energetic ions, was shed by the progenitor star thousands to million of years before the explosion. If this were from the interstellar medium, it would be much denser than this stellar wind. NOAO Optical Image of SN 1970G NOAO Optical Image of SN 1970G Immler and Kuntz next studied the density profiles of all other supernovae that have been detected over the past two decades. Sure enough, the low-density circumstellar matter from the stellar wind was the source of X-rays, not the interstellar medium. Immler said that historical supernova remnants such as Cassiopeia A, which exploded some 320 years ago, also show no signs of activity from the interstellar medium. This is more than just a name game, more than hypothetically changing SN 1970G to SNR 1970G. "We have to rethink this notion that a shock wave from the supernova crashes into the interstellar medium to create a supernova remnant," said Immler. "The luminous supernova remnants that we see can be created without the need of a dense interstellar medium. In fact, our study showed that all supernovae detected in X-rays over the past 25 years live in a low-density environment." SN 1970G is located in the galaxy M101, also called the Pinwheel Galaxy, a stunning spiral galaxy about 22 million light years away in the constellation Ursa Major, home of the Big Dipper. Although the galaxy itself is visible from dark skies with binoculars, telescopes cannot resolve much structure in SN 1970G, unlike for supernova remnants in our Milky Way galaxy. Discovered with an optical telescope in 1970, SN 1970G was not seen with X-ray telescopes until the 1990s. Immler's work at NASA Goddard is supported through the Universities Space Research Association. Kuntz is supported through University of Maryland, Baltimore County. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambrid

  13. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    2011-12-01

    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated on astrophysics. In 1957 he was appointed as Professor at Kyoto University. In the study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution, he discovered the famous "Hayashi phase," which was described in a three-page paper published (1961). He also compiled his studies of stellar evolution into a thick paper of 183 pages published in Supplement of Progress of Theoretical Physics with co-authors R. Hoshi and D. Sugimoto (1962). The paper was quite comprehensive, involving the whole stellar evolution from birth as protostars through death as supernovae, and frequently referred to as HHS. It was a bible in the field of stellar evolution for a long time, and may be so still. The study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution made Hayashi himself become interested in star formation and then planetary formation. Hayashi and his co-worker T. Nakano found that dynamical collapse of an interstellar cloud (which we should call a molecular cloud core, today) proceeded isothermally, by comparing the cooling time with the free-fall time (1965). Also, Hayashi and his co-workers made computer simulation of spherical collapse of a cloud to form a star (1970), resulting in rather high flare-up luminosity than Larson's simulation (1969). These studies were really pioneer works in the field of star formation. From 1970s through 1980s, Hayashi investigated the origin of the solar system extensively together with his co-workers (mostly his graduate students or former students). Once a year at Kyoto University there was held a small workshop on the origin of solar system by Hayashi; in addition to astrophysicists and astronomers, geochemists, cosmochemists and mineralogists came to the workshop from everywhere in Japan. Discussion was always active and tough. Hayashi and his co-workers presented many theoretical studies in the workshop every year, and they compiled those studies into a chapter in the Protostars and Planets II Book (1985). Like HHS above, the chapter gives a quite comprehensive planetary cosmogony, which includes formation of solar nebula,

  14. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snodgrass, Herschel B.

    2009-01-01

    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles (1994), published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November 2007. Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. He traveled extensively, holding visiting appointments at the University of Colorado (JILA), at Cambridge University, at the College de France (Paris), and at the California Institute of Technology [CalTech]. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides. Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in 1911, and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken." Peter's enjoyment of this story as characteristic of Australian academia (as any fan of Monty Python would understand) is indicative of his infectious sense of humor. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself." "Bill" Wilson married Naomi Christian, a Melbourne native, and together they had three children. Peter was the eldest; he was born on 17 October 1929. He attended Scotch College, where his father taught, and went on to the University of Melbourne where he eventually earned an M. Sc. in experimental physics. This was not his cup of tea, however, and he first endeavored to follow in his father's footsteps, taking short-term appointments teaching mathematics at the secondary-school level abroad, in England, and in Scotland. After a few years Peter returned to Melbourne and took a post at Scotch College following his father's retirement. He soon decided, however, that teaching young boys in a private school was not his cup of tea either, and in 1959 he secured a position in applied mathematics at the University of Sydney. He had just married his first wife, Margaret, and they moved north together to start their family. Peter flourished at the University of Sydney, but his advancement in rank was hampered by the lack of a Ph. D. The problem was solved by Ron Giovanelli, Chief of the Division of Physics at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization [CSIRO], an astrophysicist whose interest lay in the transfer of radiation through the outer layers in the Sun. Giovanelli took Peter on as a thesis student. This both earned him the needed Ph. D. and started him on his research career in solar physics. He now began to move up the academic ladder at Sydney. To satisfy his love of adventure, Peter was also able to take a series of visiting positions in the United States, working with Dick Thomas and others at JILA and Sacramento Peak Observatory (National Solar Observatory) in New Mexico. During this time he created a framework for further collaborations that became known as the Sydney-Boulder Astrophysics Association [SBAA]. In 1971 Peter was appointed Professor and Chair of the Department of Applied Mathematics at Sydney, and for the next two decades he worked hard to strengthen this department. He was very successful in this endeavor; he had

  15. In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institut

  16. A Trio of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at an international conference, a team of European astronomers announced a remarkable breakthrough in the field of extra-solar planets. Using the HARPS instrument at the ESO La Silla Observatory, they have found a triple system of super-Earths around the star HD 40307. Moreover, looking at their entire sample studied with HARPS, the astronomers count a total of 45 candidate planets with a mass below 30 Earth masses and an orbital period shorter than 50 days. This implies that one solar-like star out of three harbours such planets. A trio of Super-Earths ESO PR Photo 19a/08 A trio of Super-Earths "Does every single star harbour planets and, if yes, how many?" wonders planet hunter Michel Mayor from Geneva Observatory. "We may not yet know the answer but we are making huge progress towards it." Since the discovery in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Pegasi by Mayor and Didier Queloz, more than 270 exoplanets have been found, mostly around solar-like stars. Most of these planets are giants, such as Jupiter or Saturn, and current statistics show that about 1 out of 14 stars harbours this kind of planet. "With the advent of much more precise instruments such as the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, we can now discover smaller planets, with masses between 2 and 10 times the Earth's mass," says Stéphane Udry, one of Mayor's colleagues. Such planets are called super-Earths, as they are more massive than the Earth but less massive than Uranus and Neptune (about 15 Earth masses). The group of astronomers have now discovered a system of three super-Earths around a rather normal star, which is slightly less massive than our Sun, and is located 42 light-years away towards the southern Doradus and Pictor constellations. "We have made very precise measurements of the velocity of the star HD 40307 over the last five years, which clearly reveal the presence of three planets," says Mayor. The planets, having 4.2, 6.7, and 9.4 times the mass of the Earth, orbit the star with periods of 4.3, 9.6, and 20.4 days, respectively. RV signal ESO PR Photo 19b/08 Radial Velocity Variations "The perturbations induced by the planets are really tiny - the mass of the smallest planets is one hundred thousand times smaller than that of the star - and only the high sensitivity of HARPS made it possible to detect them," says co-author François Bouchy, from the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France. Indeed, each planet induces a motion of the star of only a few metres per second. At the same conference, the team of astronomers announced the discovery of two other planetary systems, also with the HARPS spectrograph. In one, a super-Earth (7.5 Earth masses) orbits the star HD 181433 in 9.5 days. This star also hosts a Jupiter-like planet with a period close to 3 years. The second system contains a 22 Earth-mass planet having a period of 4 days and a Saturn-like planet with a 3-year period as well. "Clearly these planets are only the tip of the iceberg," says Mayor. "The analysis of all the stars studied with HARPS shows that about one third of all solar-like stars have either super-Earth or Neptune-like planets with orbital periods shorter than 50 days." A planet in a tight, short-period orbit is indeed easier to find than one in a wide, long-period orbit. "It is most probable that there are many other planets present: not only super-Earth and Neptune-like planets with longer periods, but also Earth-like planets that we cannot detect yet. Add to it the Jupiter-like planets already known, and you may well arrive at the conclusion that planets are ubiquitous," concludes Udry. More information These discoveries have been announced today at the international conference "Extra-solar Super-Earths" which takes place in Nantes, France, from 16 to 18 June. Two papers on these discoveries have also been submitted to the research journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. The team is composed of Michel Mayor, Stéphane Udry, Didier Queloz, Christophe

  17. Single particle chemical composition, state of mixing and shape of fresh and aged Saharan dust in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, Konrad; Emmel, Carmen; Ebert, Martin; Lieke, Kirsten; Müller-Ebert, Dörthe; Schütz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is focussed to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. During the SAMUM 2006 field campaign at Tinfou, southern Morocco, chemical and mineralogical properties of fresh desert aerosol was measured. The winter campaign of Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment II in 2008 was based in Praia, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde. This second field campaign was dedicated to the investigation of transported Saharan Mineral Dust. Ground-based and airborne measurements were performed in the winter season, where mineral dust from the Western Sahara and biomass burning aerosol from the Sahel region occurred. Samples were collected with a miniature impactor system, a sedimentation trap, a free-wing impactor, and a filter sampler. Beryllium discs as well as carbon coated nickel discs, carbon foils, and nuclepore and fiber filters were used as sampling substrates. The size-resolved particle aspect ratio and the chemical composition are determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of single particles. Mineralogical bulk composition is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. In Morocco, three size regimes are identified in the aerosol: Smaller than 500 nm in diameter, the aerosol consists of sulfates and mineral dust. Larger than 500 nm up to 50 µm, mineral dust dominates, consisting mainly of silicates, and - to a lesser extent - carbonates and quartz. Larger than 50 µm, approximately half of the particles consist of quartz. Time series of the elemental composition show a moderate temporal variability of the major compounds. Calcium-dominated particles are enhanced during advection from a prominent dust source in Northern Africa (Chott El Djerid and surroundings). More detailed results are found in Kandler et al. (2009) At Praia, Cape Verde, the boundary layer aerosol consists of a superposition of mineral dust, marine aerosol and ammonium sulfate, soot, and other sulfates as well as mixtures of these components. During low-dust periods, the aerosol is dominated by sea salt. During dust events, mineral dust dominates the particle mass (more than 90 %). Particles smaller 500 nm in diameter always show a significant abundance of ammonium sulfate. Comparing a high dust period at Cape Verde with the total data from Morocco, it is found that the atomic ratio distributions of Al/Si, K/Si and Fe/Si for the single particles are very similar for the dust component. This indicates that the dominating silicate minerals are the same. In contrast, the content of calcium rich minerals at Cape Verde is significantly lower than in Morocco which is in agreement with the source regions for the Cape Verde dust (E Mali and W Niger) derived from trajectory analysis. The sulfur content of super-micron aerosol particles at Cape Verde scales with the particle surface, indicating the presence of sulfate coatings. For the submicron particles, the sulfur content scales with particle volume, which can be attributed to the large amount of particles identified as ammonium sulfate. In contrast to findings in Japan (Zhang et al., 2006), no internal mixtures between pristine seasalt and mineral dust are present during this dust period at Cape Verde. However, for a significant number of particles a small amount of sodium and chlorine is associated with internal mixtures of dust and sulfate, what may indicate that these particles started as internal mixture of dust with a sea water droplet before taking up more sulfur from the gas phase. In general, the shape of the particles in Morocco and Cape Verde is rather similar: The distributions of the two-dimensional aspect ratio of an ellipse fitted to each particle's shape for the total aerosol show no significant differences. A median value of 1.6 is found for both locations. References Kandler, K., Schütz, L., Deutscher, C., Hofmann, H., Jäckel, S. and co-authors 2009. Tellus 61B, 32-50. Zhang, D., Iwasaka, Y., Matsuki, A., Ueno, K. and Matsuzaki, T. 2006. Atmos. Environ. 40, 1205-1215. Financial support by the Deutsche Forsch

  18. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A. Cellino Editors), Ad-vances in Space Research, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 1-192, 2006 -7th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Toronto Sept 2005, Programme and Proceedings on line at www.ilewg.org, R. Richards et al Editors -6th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Udaipur Nov. 2004, Proceedings ( N. Bhandari Editor), Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841 -5th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Hawaii Nov 2003, Pro-ceedings ILC2005/ICEUM5 (S.M. Durst et al Editors), Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Tech-nology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004 -'The next steps in exploring deep space -A cosmic study by the IAA', W. Huntress, D. Stetson, R. Farquhar, J. Zimmerman, B. Clark, W. O'Neil, R. Bourke and B. Foing, Acta Astronautica, Vol 58, Issues 6-7, March-April 2006, p302-377 -IAA/ESA workshop on "Next Steps in Exploring Deep Space", ESTEC 22-23 sept. 2003 (B.H. Foing W. Huntress, conveners) Lunar Exploration, Planetary and Space Science, Vol 50, issue 14-15, Dec 2002 (B.H. Foing al) -ESLAB36 symposium on "Earth-like Planets and Moons", 2002, ESA-SP514, pp. 1-356, (B.H.Foing B. Battrick, editors) -'Lunar Exploration 2000', (B.H. Foing, D. Heather, Editors), Adv. Space Research Vol 30, Nr 8, 2002 -'Earth-Moon Relationships', Proceedings of the Conference held in Padova, Italy at the Ac-cademia Galileiana di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Nov. 2000, (C. Barbieri and F. Rampazzi, Editors), in Earth, Moon , Planets Vol. 85-86, Nos 1-3, pp 1-575, 2001 -4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462 (B.H. Foing M. Perry, editors) -Investing in Space: The Challenge for Europe. Long-Term Space Policy Committee, Second Report, May 1999. ESA-SP-2000 -2nd International Lunar Workshop, held at Kyoto in October 1996, Proceedings, H. Mizutani, editor, Japan Space Forum Publisher, 1997 International Lunar Workshop, 1994 May 31-June 3, Beatenberg, Switzerland. Proceedings. Ed. Balsiger, H. et al. European Space Age

  19. Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-11-01

    All JCE subscribers now have access to all areas of JCE Online. As a reader of the print Journal you may be wondering what benefits JCE Online offers you and how you can reap those benefits. Point your WWW browser at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu, login, and follow along. Keep in mind that the three benefits outlined below are those that directly benefit you as a Journal reader. JCE Online contains many other resources that will benefit you as a chemistry teacher. Find an Article, Any Article The JCE Online feature that I perceive to be most beneficial to Journal readers is the ease and speed of finding articles. Finding a particular Journal article or several related articles is quickly and conveniently accomplished by using JCE Index online. Clicking the JCE Index item in the left-hand navigation bar leads to the JCE Index search page. A vanity search for articles that I authored or co-authored (type "holmes j" into the search text field and press Enter) produces a list of the ten most recent articles. A click on one of the articles and another click on the Full Text (.pdf) button (in the page menu bar near the top of the page below the global menu bar) and I am looking at one of my articles just as it appeared in the Journal. Four clicks, nine keystrokes, and 25 seconds (your time may vary)... not bad! Searching the Journal has never been easier than using the online JCE Index. If you remember which issue of the Journal contains the article you are looking for, then that article is never more than six mouse clicks away from the JCE Online Home Page. Of course, this only applies if we have the article online; full text articles begin with the September 1996 issue. The first click is on the Past Issues item in the left-hand navigation bar. If the article is not in the current volume of the Journal (your memory is much better than mine if you remember farther back) then the next click (click two) is on the pop-up list of Journal volumes from which you select the year the article appeared. After the correct volume is selected, use your next click to select the issue by clicking (click three) on one of the issue cover thumbnails. This brings you to the issue Table of Contents where you will probably have to scroll down to find the article (click four). Click the title of the article (click five) to go to the abstract of the article. Click six on the Full Text (.pdf) button in the page menu bar finishes the job. On my computer the six clicks from the JCE Online home page to the full text of an article by Jones et al., "Preparing Preservice Chemistry Teachers for Constructivist Classrooms through Use of Authentic Activities", in the July 1997 issue took 35 seconds including the time required to start up Acrobat Reader; a lot quicker than a trip to the chemistry library and easier even than a trip to the bookshelf across the room! A pop-up list is used to select a volume of the Journal from the Past Issues page. As I mentioned above, only issues since September 1996 have full-text articles available online. Abstracts of articles online go back to July 1995. JCE Index does contain citations to all articles published in the Journal back to Volume 1, Number 1more than 25,700 citations to date. When an online search produces an article that is not available online, you will have to retrieve it the old-fashioned way with a trip to the library or bookshelf. But at least you will know exactly where to look. Supplement Your Print Version You may have noticed a W near the title of some articles, especially laboratory experiments, in the Journal Table of Contents and within the Journal. This W denotes articles that contain online supplementary materials. Such materials are provided by the authors of those articles and may include handouts, assignments, worksheets, procedures, digital

  20. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first time, the ones in between have been counted properly. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated "We need to have an accurate head count over time of all growing black holes if we ever hope to understand their habits, so to speak," co-author Richard Mushotzky of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Supermassive black holes themselves are invisible, but heated gas around them -- some of which will eventually fall into the black hole - produces copious amounts of radiation in the centers of galaxies as the black holes grow. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of Smaller Black Holes Illustrated This study relied on the deepest X-ray images ever obtained, the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, plus a key wider-area survey of an area called the "Lockman Hole". The distances to the X-ray sources were determined by optical spectroscopic follow-up at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and show the black holes range from less than a billion to 12 billion light years away. Since X-rays can penetrate the gas and dust that block optical and ultraviolet emission, the very long-exposure X-ray images are crucial to find black holes that otherwise would go unnoticed. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation Chandra found that many of the black holes smaller than about 100 million Suns are buried under large amounts of dust and gas, which prevents detection of the optical light from the heated material near the black hole. The X-rays are more energetic and are able to burrow through this dust and gas. However, the largest of the black holes show little sign of obscuration by dust or gas. In a form of weight self-control, powerful winds generated by the black hole's feeding frenzy may have cleared out the remaining dust and gas. Other aspects of black hole growth were uncovered. For example, the typical size of the galaxies undergoing supermassive black hole formation reduces with cosmic time. Such "cosmic downsizing

  1. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic "eruption" with the galaxy's environment to be very similar to that of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, which forced much of Europe to close its airports earlier this year. With Eyjafjallajokull, pockets of hot gas blasted through the surface of the lava, generating shock waves that can be seen passing through the grey smoke of the volcano. The hot gas then rises up in the atmosphere, dragging the dark ash with it. This process can be seen in a movie of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano where the shock waves propagating in the smoke are followed by the rise of dark ash clouds into the atmosphere. In the analogy with Eyjafjallajokull, the energetic particles produced in the vicinity of the black hole rise through the X-ray emitting atmosphere of the cluster, lifting up the coolest gas near the center of M87 in their wake, much like the hot volcanic gases drag up the clouds of dark ash. And just like the volcano here on Earth, shockwaves can be seen when the black hole pumps energetic particles into the cluster gas. "This analogy shows that even though astronomical phenomena can occur in exotic settings and over vast scales, the physics can be very similar to events on Earth," said co-author Aurora Simionescu also of the Kavli Institute. In M87, the plumes of cooler gas being lifted upwards contain as much mass as all of the gas contained within 12,000 light years of the center of the galaxy cluster. This shows the black hole-powered volcano is very efficient at blasting the galaxy free of the gas that would otherwise cool and form stars. "This gas could have formed hundreds of millions of stars if the black hole had not removed it from the center of the galaxy. That seems like a much worse disruption than what the airline companies on Earth had to put up with earlier this year," said Evan Million, a graduate student at Stanford University and lead-author of the other paper to be published about this deep study of M87. The eruption in M87 that lifted up the cooler gas must have occurred about 150 million years earlie

  2. Chandra Opens New Line of Investigation on Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Astronomers have detected and probed dark energy by applying a powerful, new method that uses images of galaxy clusters made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results trace the transition of the expansion of the Universe from a decelerating to an accelerating phase several billion years ago, and give intriguing clues about the nature of dark energy and the fate of the Universe. "Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics," said Steve Allen of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) at the University of Cambridge in England, and leader of the study. "As such, it is extremely important to make an independent test of its existence and properties." Abell 2029 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2029 Allen and his colleagues used Chandra to study 26 clusters of galaxies at distances corresponding to light travel times of between one and eight billion years. These data span the time when the Universe slowed from its original expansion, before speeding up again because of the repulsive effect of dark energy. "We're directly seeing that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by measuring the distances to these galaxy clusters," said Andy Fabian also of the IoA, a co-author on the study. The new Chandra results suggest that the dark energy density does not change quickly with time and may even be constant, consistent with the "cosmological constant" concept first introduced by Albert Einstein. If so, the Universe is expected to continue expanding forever, so that in many billions of years only a tiny fraction of the known galaxies will be observable. More Animations Animation of the "Big Rip" If the dark energy density is constant, more dramatic fates for the Universe would be avoided. These include the "Big Rip," where dark energy increases until galaxies, stars, planets and eventually atoms are eventually torn apart. The "Big Crunch," where the Universe eventually collapses on itself, would also be ruled out. Chandra's probe of dark energy relies on the unique ability of X-ray observations to detect and study the hot gas in galaxy clusters. From these data, the ratio of the mass of the hot gas and the mass of the dark matter in a cluster can be determined. The observed values of the gas fraction depend on the assumed distance to the cluster, which in turn depends on the curvature of space and the amount of dark energy in the universe. Galaxy Cluster Animation Galaxy Cluster Animation Because galaxy clusters are so large, they are thought to represent a fair sample of the matter content in the universe. If so, then relative amounts of hot gas and dark matter should be the same for every cluster. Using this assumption, Allen and colleagues adjusted the distance scale to determine which one fit the data best. These distances show that the expansion of the Universe was first decelerating and then began to accelerate about six billion years ago. Chandra's observations agree with supernova results including those from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which first showed dark energy's effect on the acceleration of the Universe. Chandra's results are completely independent of the supernova technique - both in wavelength and the objects observed. Such independent verification is a cornerstone of science. In this case it helps to dispel any remaining doubts that the supernova technique is flawed. "Our Chandra method has nothing to do with other techniques, so they're definitely not comparing notes, so to speak," said Robert Schmidt of University of Potsdam in Germany, another coauthor on the study. Energy Distribution of the Universe Energy Distribution of the Universe Better limits on the amount of dark energy and how it varies with time are obtained by combining the X-ray results with data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), which used observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation to discover evidence for dark energy in the very early Universe. Using the combined data, Allen and his colleagues found that dark ener

  3. 32 New Exoplanets Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    oday, at an international ESO/CAUP exoplanet conference in Porto, the team who built the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, better known as HARPS, the spectrograph for ESO's 3.6-metre telescope, reports on the incredible discovery of some 32 new exoplanets, cementing HARPS's position as the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. This result also increases the number of known low-mass planets by an impressive 30%. Over the past five years HARPS has spotted more than 75 of the roughly 400 or so exoplanets now known. "HARPS is a unique, extremely high precision instrument that is ideal for discovering alien worlds," says Stéphane Udry, who made the announcement. "We have now completed our initial five-year programme, which has succeeded well beyond our expectations." The latest batch of exoplanets announced today comprises no less than 32 new discoveries. Including these new results, data from HARPS have led to the discovery of more than 75 exoplanets in 30 different planetary systems. In particular, thanks to its amazing precision, the search for small planets, those with a mass of a few times that of the Earth - known as super-Earths and Neptune-like planets - has been given a dramatic boost. HARPS has facilitated the discovery of 24 of the 28 planets known with masses below 20 Earth masses. As with the previously detected super-Earths, most of the new low-mass candidates reside in multi-planet systems, with up to five planets per system. In 1999, ESO launched a call for opportunities to build a high resolution, extremely precise spectrograph for the ESO 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile. Michel Mayor, from the Geneva Observatory, led a consortium to build HARPS, which was installed in 2003 and was soon able to measure the back-and-forward motions of stars by detecting small changes in a star's radial velocity - as small as 3.5 km/hour, a steady walking pace. Such a precision is crucial for the discovery of exoplanets and the radial velocity method, which detects small changes in the radial velocity of a star as it wobbles slightly under the gentle gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet, has been most prolific method in the search for exoplanets. In return for building the instrument, the HARPS consortium was granted 100 observing nights per year during a five-year period to carry out one of the most ambitious systematic searches for exoplanets so far implemented worldwide by repeatedly measuring the radial velocities of hundreds of stars that may harbour planetary systems. The programme soon proved very successful. Using HARPS, Mayor's team discovered - among others - in 2004, the first super-Earth (around µ Ara; in 2006, the trio of Neptunes around HD 69830; in 2007, Gliese 581d, the first super Earth in the habitable zone of a small star (eso0722); and in 2009, the lightest exoplanet so far detected around a normal star, Gliese 581e (eso0915). More recently, they found a potentially lava-covered world, with density similar to that of the Earth's (eso0933). "These observations have given astronomers a great insight into the diversity of planetary systems and help us understand how they can form," says team member Nuno Santos. The HARPS consortium was very careful in their selection of targets, with several sub-programmes aimed at looking for planets around solar-like stars, low-mass dwarf stars, or stars with a lower metal content than the Sun. The number of exoplanets known around low-mass stars - so-called M dwarfs - has also dramatically increased, including a handful of super Earths and a few giant planets challenging planetary formation theory. "By targeting M dwarfs and harnessing the precision of HARPS we have been able to search for exoplanets in the mass and temperature regime of super-Earths, some even close to or inside the habitable zone around the star," says co-author Xavier Bonfils. The team found three candidate exoplanets around stars that are metal-deficient. Such stars are thought to be less favourable for the formation of planets, which fo

  4. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes in gaseous nebulae. In addition to his theoretical work, he also began designing astronomical instruments with ever greater resolving powers and wide-angle acceptance which he described as the "the royal way to new discoveries."1 He is well known for the Baker-Schmidt telescope and the Baker Super Schmidt meteor camera. He was also a co-author with George Z. Dimitroff of a book entitled, "Telescopes and Accessories" (1945). In 1948 he received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Louisville. With the start of World War II, the U.S. Army sought to establish an aerial reconnaissance branch and placed the project in charge of Colonel George W. Goddard. After months of searching for an optical designer, he asked for a recommendation from Dr. Mees2 of Eastman Kodak. Following the recommendations of Dr. Mees, Col. Goddard found this friendly and unassuming twenty-six year old graduate student at Harvard to be the perfect candidate. He was impressed by Dr. Baker's originality in optical design and provided him a small army research contract in early 1941 for a wide-angle camera system. Goddard's "Victory Lens" project began on 20 May 1942 when he visited Dr. Baker's office at Harvard College Observatory and described the need for a lens of f/2.5 covering a 5x5 plate to be made in huge quantities." Multiple designs were developed during the war effort. A hands-on man, Dr. Baker risked his life operating the cameras in many of the early test flights that carried the camera systems in unpressurized compartments on aircraft. He was the director of the Observatory Optical Project at Harvard University from 1943 to 1945. He began his long consulting career with the Perkin Elmer Corporation during this period. When the war ended, Harvard University decided to cease war-related projects and subsequently, Dr. Baker's lab was moved to Boston University and was eventually spun off as ITEK Corporation. However, he continued to be an associate professor and research associate at Harvard from 1946 to 1949. In 1948 he r

  5. Explained: Why many surveys of distant galaxies miss 90% of their targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    Astronomers have long known that in many surveys of the very distant Universe, a large fraction of the total intrinsic light was not being observed. Now, thanks to an extremely deep survey using two of the four giant 8.2-metre telescopes that make up ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and a unique custom-built filter, astronomers have determined that a large fraction of galaxies whose light took 10 billion years to reach us have gone undiscovered. The survey also helped uncover some of the faintest galaxies ever found at this early stage of the Universe. Astronomers frequently use the strong, characteristic "fingerprint" of light emitted by hydrogen known as the Lyman-alpha line, to probe the amount of stars formed in the very distant Universe [1]. Yet there have long been suspicions that many distant galaxies go unnoticed in these surveys. A new VLT survey demonstrates for the first time that this is exactly what is happening. Most of the Lyman-alpha light is trapped within the galaxy that emits it, and 90% of galaxies do not show up in Lyman-alpha surveys. "Astronomers always knew they were missing some fraction of the galaxies in Lyman-alpha surveys," explains Matthew Hayes, the lead author of the paper, published this week in Nature, "but for the first time we now have a measurement. The number of missed galaxies is substantial." To figure out how much of the total luminosity was missed, Hayes and his team used the FORS camera at the VLT and a custom-built narrowband filter [2] to measure this Lyman-alpha light, following the methodology of standard Lyman-alpha surveys. Then, using the new HAWK-I camera, attached to another VLT Unit Telescope, they surveyed the same area of space for light emitted at a different wavelength, also by glowing hydrogen, and known as the H-alpha line. They specifically looked at galaxies whose light has been travelling for 10 billion years (redshift 2.2 [3]), in a well-studied area of the sky, known as the GOODS-South field. "This is the first time we have observed a patch of the sky so deeply in light coming from hydrogen at these two very specific wavelengths, and this proved crucial," says team member Göran Östlin. The survey was extremely deep, and uncovered some of the faintest galaxies known at this early epoch in the life of the Universe. The astronomers could thereby conclude that traditional surveys done using Lyman-alpha only see a tiny part of the total light that is produced, since most of the Lyman-alpha photons are destroyed by interaction with the interstellar clouds of gas and dust. This effect is dramatically more significant for Lyman-alpha than for H-alpha light. As a result, many galaxies, a proportion as high as 90%, go unseen by these surveys. "If there are ten galaxies seen, there could be a hundred there," Hayes says. Different observational methods, targeting the light emitted at different wavelengths, will always lead to a view of the Universe that is only partially complete. The results of this survey issue a stark warning for cosmologists, as the strong Lyman-alpha signature becomes increasingly relied upon in examining the very first galaxies to form in the history of the Universe. "Now that we know how much light we've been missing, we can start to create far more accurate representations of the cosmos, understanding better how quickly stars have formed at different times in the life of the Universe," says co-author Miguel Mas-Hesse. The breakthrough was made possible thanks to the unique camera used. HAWK-I, which saw first light in 2007, is a state-of-the-art instrument. "There are only a few other cameras with a wider field of view than HAWK-I, and they are on telescopes less than half the size of the VLT. So only VLT/HAWK-I, really, is capable of efficiently finding galaxies this faint at these distances," says team member Daniel Schaerer. Notes [1] Lyman-alpha light corresponds to light emitted by excited hydrogen (more specifically, when the electron around the nucleus jumps from the

  6. VLT Detects First Superstorm on Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    Astronomers have measured a superstorm for the first time in the atmosphere of an exoplanet, the well-studied "hot Jupiter" HD209458b. The very high-precision observations of carbon monoxide gas show that it is streaming at enormous speed from the extremely hot day side to the cooler night side of the planet. The observations also allow another exciting "first" - measuring the orbital speed of the exoplanet itself, providing a direct determination of its mass. The results appear this week in the journal Nature. "HD209458b is definitely not a place for the faint-hearted. By studying the poisonous carbon monoxide gas with great accuracy we found evidence for a super wind, blowing at a speed of 5000 to 10 000 km per hour" says Ignas Snellen, who led the team of astronomers. HD209458b is an exoplanet of about 60% the mass of Jupiter orbiting a solar-like star located 150 light-years from Earth towards the constellation of Pegasus (the Winged Horse). Circling at a distance of only one twentieth the Sun-Earth distance, the planet is heated intensely by its parent star, and has a surface temperature of about 1000 degrees Celsius on the hot side. But as the planet always has the same side to its star, one side is very hot, while the other is much cooler. "On Earth, big temperature differences inevitably lead to fierce winds, and as our new measurements reveal, the situation is no different on HD209458b," says team member Simon Albrecht. HD209458b was the first exoplanet to be found transiting: every 3.5 days the planet moves in front of its host star, blocking a small portion of the starlight during a three-hour period. During such an event a tiny fraction of the starlight filters through the planet's atmosphere, leaving an imprint. A team of astronomers from the Leiden University, the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), and MIT in the United States, have used ESO's Very Large Telescope and its powerful CRIRES spectrograph to detect and analyse these faint fingerprints, observing the planet for about five hours, as it passed in front of its star. "CRIRES is the only instrument in the world that can deliver spectra that are sharp enough to determine the position of the carbon monoxide lines at a precision of 1 part in 100 000," says another team member Remco de Kok. "This high precision allows us to measure the velocity of the carbon monoxide gas for the first time using the Doppler effect." The astronomers achieved several other firsts. They directly measured the velocity of the exoplanet as it orbits its home star. "In general, the mass of an exoplanet is determined by measuring the wobble of the star and assuming a mass for the star, according to theory. Here, we have been able to measure the motion of the planet as well, and thus determine both the mass of the star and of the planet," says co-author Ernst de Mooij. Also for the first time, the astronomers measured how much carbon is present in the atmosphere of this planet. "It seems that H209458b is actually as carbon-rich as Jupiter and Saturn. This could indicate that it was formed in the same way," says Snellen. "In the future, astronomers may be able to use this type of observation to study the atmospheres of Earth-like planets, to determine whether life also exists elsewhere in the Universe." More information This research was presented in a paper that appears this week in the journal Nature: "The orbital motion, absolute mass, and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD209458b", by I. Snellen et al. The team is composed of Ignas A. G. Snellen and Ernst J. W. de Mooij, (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands), Remco J. de Kok (SRON, Utrecht, The Netherlands), and Simon Albrecht (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Fr

  7. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in C

  8. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them will look like CFBDSIR 1458+10B." Unravelling the secrets of this unique object involved exploiting the power of three different telescopes. CFBDSIR 1458+10 was first found to be a binary using the Laser Guide Star (LGS) Adaptive Optics system on the Keck II Telescope in Hawaii [3]. Liu and his colleagues then employed the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, also in Hawaii, to determine the distance to the brown dwarf duo using an infrared camera [4]. Finally the ESO VLT was used to study the object's infrared spectrum and measure its temperature. The hunt for cool objects is a very active astronomical hot topic. The Spitzer Space Telescope has recently identified tw