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Analysis of the putative remains of a European patron saint--St. Birgitta.  


Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13(th) century (1215-1270 cal AD, 2sigma confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains. PMID:20169108

Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Göran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellström, Anna; Allen, Marie



Hue, saturation, and depth in planar images Birgitta Dresp-Langley* & Adam Reeves$  

E-print Network

support: PICS 05971 CNRS* *ICUBE, UMR 7357 CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, FRANCE $Psychology Department, Northeastern University, Boston, USA *corresponding author, e-mail: Abstract conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane


A new method to construct co-author networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new method to evaluate the importance of nodes in a given network. The proposed method is based on the PageRank algorithm. However, we have made necessary improvements to combine the importance of the node itself and that of its community status. First, we propose an improved method to better evaluate the real impact of a paper. The proposed method calibrates the real influence of a paper over time. Then we propose a scheme of evaluating the contribution of each author in a paper. We later develop a new method to combine the information of the author itself and the structure of the co-author network. We use the number of co-authorship to calculate the effective distance between two authors, and evaluate the strength of their influence to each other with the law of gravity. The strength of influence is used to build a new network of authors, which is a comprehensive topological representation of both the quality of the node and its role in network. Finally, we apply our method to the Erdos co-author community and AMiner Citation Network to identify the most influential authors.

Liu, Jie; Li, Yunpeng; Ruan, Zichan; Fu, Guangyuan; Chen, Xiaowu; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong



Issues in the design of computer support for co-authoring and commenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project to develop a “work in preparation” editor, or PREP editor, to study co-authoring and commenting relationships. As part of the project, we have identified three issues in designing computer support for co-authoring and commenting: (1) support for social interaction among co-authors and commenters; (2) support for cognitive aspects of co-authoring and external commenting; and

Christine M. Neuwirth; David S. Kaufer; Ravinder Chandhok; James H. Morris



Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2009 Total Published = 209 Articles (4 co-authored with undergraduate students and 101 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

in Proceedings = 70; Chapters in Books = 8 *denotes co-authored with graduate student(s) Page 1 of 10 **denotes Stimulating Electrodes," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings, 689

Demirel, Melik C.


Co-Authoring with Structured Annotations Qixing Zheng, Kellogg Booth, and Joanna McGrenere  

E-print Network

Co-Authoring with Structured Annotations Qixing Zheng, Kellogg Booth, and Joanna Mc Most co-authoring tools support basic annotations, such as edits and comments that are anchored as an author's summary of modifications) which gets separated from the document, often in the body of email

McGrenere, Joanna


Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Co-authors  

E-print Network

Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Co-authors: Lily M. Hoffman and Jiri Musil Great Cities Institute Prague, Tourism and the Post-industrial City Abstract Although urban tourism has been services. There are still few studies of the role of tourism in the transformation of urban political

Illinois at Chicago, University of


Socioculturally Situated Narratives as Co-Authors of Student Teachers' Learning from Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on research into the ways in which student teachers' experiential learning is mediated by socioculturally situated narrative resources. The research uses Wertsch's idea of the narrative template as a co-author of individual narratives. This idea is developed to be useful in the particular context of initial teacher…

Philpott, Carey



Profit (p)-Index: The Degree to Which Authors Profit from Co-Authors  

PubMed Central

Current metrics for estimating a scientist’s academic performance treat the author’s publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual’s own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the ‘profit (p)-index’, which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award), and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80%) and that researchers’ relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods introduced here may thus provide a more fair impression of a scientist’s autonomous academic performance. PMID:23573211

Aziz, Nasir Ahmad; Rozing, Maarten Pieter



Co-Authoring in the Classroom: Creating an Environment for Effective Collaboration. Theory & Research into Practice (TRIP) Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is in favor of the inclusion of co-authoring in writing instruction and provides theoretical and research background to support the value of this strategy, which involves more than just peer editing and small-group revision. According to the book, co-authoring builds naturally on the social emphasis of the writing process and…

Dale, Helen


Predicting Co-Author Relationship in Medical Co-Authorship Networks  

PubMed Central

Research collaborations are encouraged because a synergistic effect yielding good results often appears. However, creating and organizing a strong research group is a difficult task. One of the greatest concerns of an individual researcher is locating potential collaborators whose expertise complement his best. In this paper, we propose a method that makes link predictions in co-authorship networks, where topological features between authors such as Adamic/Adar, Common Neighbors, Jaccard's Coefficient, Preferential Attachment, Katz?, and PropFlow may be good indicators of their future collaborations. Firstly, these topological features were systematically extracted from the network. Then, supervised models were used to learn the best weights associated with different topological features in deciding co-author relationships. Finally, we tested our models on the co-authorship networks in the research field of Coronary Artery Disease and obtained encouraging accuracy (the precision, recall, F1 score and AUC were, respectively, 0.696, 0.677, 0.671 and 0.742 for Logistic Regression, and respectively, 0.697, 0.678, 0.671 and 0.743 for SVM). This suggests that our models could be used to build and manage strong research groups. PMID:24991920

Yu, Qi; Long, Chao; Lv, Yanhua; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang



Illustration: Bibliometric network visualization of organizations affiliated to KTH Royal Institute of Technology and University of Tokyo co-authored items in ISI Web of Science.  

E-print Network

of Technology and University of Tokyo co-authored items in ISI Web of Science. Bibliometric Overview-authorship .......................................................................................................................6 Method and publication properties A search was conducted in ISI Web of Science where co

Haviland, David


A generalized view of self-citation: Direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation.  


The phenomenon of self-citation can present in many different forms, including direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation. It can also pertain to the citation of single scientists, groups of scientists, journals, and institutions. This article presents some case studies of extreme self-citation practices. It also discusses the implications of different types of self-citation. Self-citation is not necessarily inappropriate by default. In fact, usually it is fully appropriate but often it is even necessary. Conversely, inappropriate self-citation practices may be highly misleading and may distort the scientific literature. Coercive induced self-citation is the most difficult to discover. Coercive Induced self-citation may happen directly from reviewers of articles, but also indirectly from reviewers of grants, scientific advisors who steer a research agenda, and leaders of funding agencies who may espouse spending disproportionately large funds in research domains that perpetuate their own self-legacy. Inappropriate self-citation can be only a surrogate marker of what might be much greater distortions of the scientific corpus towards conformity to specific opinions and biases. Inappropriate self-citations eventually affect also impact metrics. Different impact metrics vary in the extent to which they can be gamed through self-citation practices. Citation indices that are more gaming-proof are available and should be more widely used. We need more empirical studies to dissect the impact of different types of inappropriate self-citation and to examine the effectiveness of interventions to limit them. PMID:25466321

Ioannidis, John P A



CURRICULUM VITAE Birgitta Johnson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Methodist Episcopal Church," and "Church of God in Christ" in The Grove Dictionary of American Music, Second and Worship Expanding Liturgical Traditions, Theology, and Identities in an African American Megachurch. Washington," and "Reverend Clay Evans" in The Grove Dictionary of American Music, Second Edition. Oxford

Kovalev, Leonid


Publications Books authored or co-authored  

E-print Network

`Rotundifolia' at supraoptimal root-zone temperatures. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science 115 of `Rotundifolia' holly. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science 117:154-157. 6. Ruter, J. M. and N. C to Horticulture: Science and Technology. Pearson Education, Inc., Boston, MA. 660 p. (1997, 2nd edition, 660 p.; 3

Radcliffe, David


Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Matsunaga, Y.



Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

Kim, Hyun-Sook




E-print Network

+ CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK S. Garcia-Burillo, J. Martin-Pintado, A. Fuente, R. Neri 2000, A&A 355, 499 824.8+4.2 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW C. Sánchez Contreras, V. Bujarrabal, R. Neri, J. Alcolea 2000, A&A 357, 651 826. THE HOT.J. Sempere, F. Combes, L.K. Hunt, R. Neri 2000, A&A 363, 869 839. STRUCTURE AND CHE

RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)



E-print Network

CO SYSTEMS IN 4C41.17 AT z=3.8 C. De Breuck, D. Downes, R. Neri, W. van Breugel, M. Reuland, A. Omont, R. Neri, A. Eckart, D. Downes, J. Martín-Pintado, P. Planesas 2005, A&A 431, 879 1071. THE DISRUPTED OF THE COSMIC FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND J.-P. Kneib, R. Neri, I. Smail, A. Blain, K. Sheth, P. van der Werf, K

RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)



E-print Network

= 3 RADIO GALAXY B3 J2330+3927 C. de Breuck, R. Neri et al. 2003, A&A 401, 911 973. OPTICAL AND RADIO.J. Baker, L.J. Tacconi, A. Eckart, R. Neri, S. Leon, E. Schinnerer, P. Englmaier 2003, A&A 407, 485 982. Neri, C.L. Carilli, F. Walter, A. Omont, A. Beelen, C. Henkel, X. Fan, M.A. Strauss, K.M. Menten 2003

RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)



E-print Network

. Cesaroni, L. Testi, C.M. Walmsley, S. Molinari, R. Neri, D. Shepherd, J. Brand, F. Palla, Q. Zhang 2004, A. Englmaier, S. Leon, R. Neri, E. Schinnerer, L.J. Tacconi 2004, A&A 414, 857 1016. NIR OBSERVATIONS, 67 1019. A SEARCH FOR EVOLVED DUST IN HERBIG Ae STARS A. Natta, L. Testi, R. Neri, D.S. Shepherd, D

RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)


YU, Lu ( ) Write authors including co-authors, title  

E-print Network

. Hirasawa and T. Ueno, " Anal ysis of Energy Cons umpt ion of Elevator Group Super visory Control System, J. Zhou, L. Yu, J. Hu and S. Markon, "A Double-deck Elevator Group Supervis ory Control System usi-Deck Elevator Syst ems usi ng Geneti c Networ k Progra mmi ng wit h Reinforcement Learni ng", J our nal

Fernandez, Thomas


Sociobiology in Sweden from taboo to partial acceptance Birgitta S. Tullberg  

E-print Network

, this was not the case. In fact, the ease with which sociobiology was accepted differed between the scientific at the intra-scientific sector. Then, we review the cultural debate, mostly on the basis of articles and books of the Swedish post war cultural and political development. THE INTRA-SCIENTIFIC RESPONSE In the seventies when

Tullberg, Birgitta


COPEIA, 1970, NO. 3COPEIA, 1970, NO. 3 grateful to Birgitta Hansson, Naturhistoriska  

E-print Network

das localidades tipo de anfibios Brasileiros. Sao Paulo, 183 pp. FOUQUETTE,M. J. 1958. A new tree frog das localidades tipo de anfibios Brasileiros. Sao Paulo, 183 pp. FOUQUETTE,M. J. 1958. A new tree frog of hylid frogs. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 36:4-18. LE6N, J. A. 1969. The systematics of the frogs of the Hyla

Huey, Raymond B.


To Co-Author or Not to Co-Author: How to Write, Publish, and Negotiate Issues of Authorship with Undergraduate Research Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource emphasizes the value of publishing with undergraduates and may be particularly helpful to incoming faculty who are new to the process of working with students. Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

Romi L. Burks (Southwestern University;Associate Professor of Biology REV); Matthew M. Chumchal (Texas Christian University;Assistant Professor of Biology REV)



To Co-Author or Not to Co-Author: How to Write, Publish, and Negotiate Issues of Authorship with Undergraduate Research Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Matthew Chumchal (Texas Christian University;)



Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2006 Total Published = 201 articles (1 co-authored with undergraduate students and 86 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

approximate method for evaluating hypersingular integrals," Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 30 Beams," Journal of Laser Applications, 18(3):236-241 (2006). Campbell*, J.P., P.M. Lenahan, A

Demirel, Melik C.


Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2012 Total Published = 180 Articles (4 co-authored with undergraduate students and 106 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

. Lakhtakia, "On Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waves Guided by the Interface of a Metal and a Rugate Filter* and J.L. Rose, "Ultrasonic Guided Wave Vibration Formulation," Review of Progress in QNDE, 31, 225 Waveguide for Structural Health Monitoring with Leaky Surface Waves," Journal of the Korean Society

Demirel, Melik C.


SEMINARIEPROGRAM FoKult vt 2013 Fre 25 jan kl 10-12 Textseminarium Elisabeth Niklasson (leds av Birgitta  

E-print Network

SEMINARIEPROGRAM FoKult vt 2013 Fre 25 jan kl 10-12 Textseminarium Elisabeth Niklasson (leds av-12 Textseminarium Elin Engström (leds av Inga Sanner) Fre 19 april, kl 10-12 Textseminarium Niklas Haga (leds av-15 Textseminarier Robin W Böckerman & Frederik Wallerstein (leds av Mats Hallenberg) Fre 17 maj, kl 10


SEMINARIEPROGRAM FoKult vt 2013 Fre 25 jan kl 10-12 Textseminarium Elisabeth Niklasson (leds av Birgitta  

E-print Network

SEMINARIEPROGRAM FoKult vt 2013 Fre 25 jan kl 10-12 Textseminarium Elisabeth Niklasson (leds av-12 Textseminarium Elin Engström (leds av Inga Sanner) Fre 19 april, kl 10-12 Textseminarium Niklas Haga (leds av-15 Textseminarier Robert Nilsson & Frederik Wallerstein (leds av Mats Hallenberg) Fre 17 maj, kl 10


OSU Authors and Editors (published in 2011) Book Title Authors, Co-Authors & Editors Department College  

E-print Network

Michael Polanyi and his generation : origins of the social construction of science Mary Jo Nye History College Small Animals Pediatrics Michelle Kutzler Michael Peterson Animal Sciences Agricultural Sciences Michael C. Qian Food Science and Technology Agricultural Sciences Wading for Bugs: Exploring Streams

Escher, Christine



E-print Network

FOR PROFICIENCY ENRICHMENT IN CLOUD COMPUTING Shiva Prasad, B.Vijayakumar, IJARES /Volume-2/Issue-5/1023-1028, May, Volume 2, Issue 2, Apr-May, 2014 Research on Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Based on Marketing Theory, Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Wiley, Vol. 24, Issue 18, p. 2302-2327, 2012. Citations

Chronopoulos, Anthony T.


Dear co-authors, The present version was completed February 27, 2000. Xuri Yu and Sarah Zedler  

E-print Network

of California, Santa Barbara f Bermuda Biological Station for Research *Correspondence address: Ocean Physics concerning in-depth analyses. These have also helped us to strengthen the interpretations I believe. Dobecka , X. Yua , T. Gilboya , C. Bravoa , S.C. Doneyd , D.A. Siegele , and N. Nelsonf a Ocean Physics

California at Santa Barbara, University of


The Co-Authored Curriculum: High-School Teachers' Reasons for Including Students' Extra-Curricular Interests in Their Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing evidence of a gap between curricular requirements and what students actually want to know. One of the factors influencing what is taught in the classroom is teachers' attitudes towards integrating their students' interests. This study investigated what prompts high-school teachers who prepare students for national matriculation…

Hagay, Galit; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Peleg, Ran



The Role of Postgraduate Students in Co-Authoring Open Educational Resources to Promote Social Inclusion: A Case Study at the University of Cape Town  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many universities worldwide, the University of Cape Town (UCT) in South Africa has joined the open educational resources (OER) movement, making a selection of teaching and learning materials available through its OER directory, UCT OpenContent. However, persuading and then supporting busy academics to share their teaching materials as OER…

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael



inverter. He is the author or co-author of more than 300 publica-tions in his research fields including the book `Control in Power  

E-print Network

the Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. He has received and limited sources of energy on earth and international disputes over the environment, global safety

Simões, Marcelo Godoy


Books, co-authored 3 Ernst, J., M. C. Monroe, and B. Simmons. 2009. Evaluating your environmental education program. Washington DC: NAAEE.  

E-print Network

and communication strategies for a sustainable world. Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development. 138 pages, in Day, B.A., and M. C. Monroe (eds). 2000. Environmental education and communication strategies and communication strategies for a sustainable world. Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development pp 7

Hill, Jeffrey E.


S T A T EEngineeringThe Magazine of the Penn State College of Engineering Fall2002 A paper co-authored by Kenneth Brentner, associate pro-  

E-print Network

. Stanley Mumma, professor of architectural engineering, was named a distinguished lecturer by the American, and Jelena Srebric, assistant professor of architectural engineering and Pearce Development Professor, have Editors: Jane Harris Cindy Jones Photography: Lew Sheckler Greg Grieco Monika Lozinska-Lee Gene Maylock

Yener, Aylin


Commonplace Divinity: Feminine Topoi in the Rhetoric of Medieval Women Mystics  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the works of five medieval women mystics—Hildegard of Bingen, Hadewijch of Brabant, Angela of Foligno, Birgitta of Sweden, and Julian of Norwich—to argue that these writers used feminine topoi, commonplace images of women...

Cedillo, Christina



Neurolinguistic Papers: Proceedings of the Finnish Conference of Neurolinguistics (2nd, Joensuu, Finland, May 31-June 1, 1985). AFinLA Series No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of papers on neurolinguistics includes: "Communication Strategies in Aphasia" (Elisabeth Ahlsen); "Speech Planning in the Light of Stuttering" (Ann-Marie Alme); "L. S. Tsvetkova's Aphasia Rehabilitation Method and Its Applications" (Ritva Hanninen); "Semantic Aphasia and Luria's Neurolinguistic Model" (Birgitta Johnsen); "Aphasic…

Niemi, Jussi, Ed.; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi, Ed.


PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 023408 (2014) High-spectral-resolution attosecond absorption spectroscopy of autoionization in xenon  

E-print Network

of autoionization in xenon Birgitta Bernhardt,1,2,* Annelise R. Beck,1,2 Xuan Li,1 Erika R. Warrick,1,2 M. Justine; published 10 February 2014) The decay of highly excited states of xenon after absorption of extreme

Neumark, Daniel M.


Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-259, 2011 Received Agu. 10, 2010; accepted Dec. 18, 2010.  

E-print Network

Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-259, 2011 Received Agu. 10, 2010; accepted Dec. 18, 2010. Corresponding author. E-mail: © 2011 Current Zoology Is the higher rate of parental child RYING2 , Birgitta S. TULLBERG1 1 Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm

Tullberg, Birgitta


Deflective and intimidating eyespots: a comparative study of eyespot size and position in Junonia butterflies  

E-print Network

butterflies Ullasa Kodandaramaiah1,2 , Patrik Lindenfors2 & Birgitta S. Tullberg2 1 School of Biology, Indian Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden Keywords Butterflies, deflection with position and number within a phylogenetic context in a group of butterflies belonging to the genus Junonia

Lindenfors, Patrik


PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 APRIL 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1652 Quantum entanglement in photosynthetic  

E-print Network

. Birgitta Whaley1,2 Light-harvesting components of photosynthetic organisms are complex, coupled, many in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes Mohan Sarovar1,2 *, Akihito Ishizaki2,3 , Graham R. Fleming2,3 and K in multichromophoric light-harvesting complexes, and establish methods for quantification of entanglement by describing

Loss, Daniel


Proportionalism or Liberalism--Two Ideas of Social Justice  

E-print Network

Proportionalism or Liberalism--Two Ideas of Social Justice JAN TULLBERGÃ? AND BIRGITTA S. TULLBERGÃ?Ã? ABSTRACT Proportionalism' refers to the general idea that, in a well ordered society, people sharing different socio-demographic background variables such as sex, race or class should have a proportional

Tullberg, Birgitta


Available online at The effect of signal appearance and distance on detection  

E-print Network

risk in an aposematic butterfly larva (Parnassius apollo) TITTI BOHLIN, BIRGITTA S. TULLBERG & SAMI) Aposematic coloration commonly involves patterns with contrasting colours. The early larva of Parnassius coloration in photographs from a natural habitat and measuring how fast human subjects could discover

Tullberg, Birgitta


Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly  

E-print Network

Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly CHRISTER WIKLUND & BIRGITTA S 2003; final acceptance 21 December 2003; MS. number: 7774) The comma butterfly, Polygonia c as a result of high predation pressure. Although butterflies in temperate areas that start reproduction soon

Tullberg, Birgitta


Curriculum Vita Suresh Govindaraj  

E-print Network

and the Ford Explorer", (co-authored with Bikki Jaggi, Rutgers University, and Beixin Lin, Montclair State, and Stock Prices", (co-authored with Tom Dowdell and P.C.Jain, University of Pennsylvania) - Journal

Lin, Xiaodong


Harvesting the Rain, An Overview of the Rainwater Collection Systems at McKinney ISD  

E-print Network

Harvesting the Rain An Overview of the Rainwater Collection Systems at McKinney ISD Authors: Primary Author: Co-Author: Co-Author: Susan Schreppler, P.E. James M. Estes, P.E. David Dupont Vice President President...

Schreppler, S.; Estes, J. M.; Dupont, D.



The Fall of the Celtic Tiger Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis  

E-print Network

The Fall of the Celtic Tiger Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis Antoin E. Murphy (Department of the Celtic Tiger: Ireland and the Euro Debt Crisis (OUP 2013) which I co-authored with Dr. Donal Donovan a number of issues drawn from The Fall of the Celtic Tiger (OUP, 2013), which I co-authored with Dr. Donal

Paxton, Anthony T.


Page 1 of 10 Author : M Witberg  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 10 Author : M Witberg Co-Author : Y Symington / M Burger Photo's by : M Witberg and M of 10 Author : M Witberg Co-Author : Y Symington / M Burger Photo's by : M Witberg and M Burger · SARCA the funnel traps (Rough SPEC) Reptile Traps Four buckets in Y- shape, 10m fence connecting the buckets

de Villiers, Marienne


Three essays on sovereign debt and financial markets  

E-print Network

This dissertation analyzes different aspects of the actions of borrowing and repaying debts by governments in both domestic and international financial markets. In Chapter 1, which is co-authored with Guido Sandleris and ...

Alessandro, Mauro



Ecology, 00(0), 0000, pp. 000000 0000 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

ecology; simulation modeling; sustain- ability. Why are starfish like an atomic bomb? The answer, according to the co-authors of Complexity in landscape ecology, is that like the chain reaction of atomic

Turner, Monica G.


Spatial Forecast Verification Eric Gilleland  

E-print Network

Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research Co-authors: D. Ahijevych, B.G. Brown, B. Casati, and E.E. Ebert 2010 ASP Colloquium #12;Spatial Forecast Verification Methods Inter-Comparison Project (ICP) #12

Gilleland, Eric


Germany Picks Up Scent of In Solving Naples's Trash Crisis  

E-print Network

Christian Fischer, a waste-management analyst who co-authored the March report. For an industry that thrives the city's beleaguered dumps reached their limit and, like a sleeping Vesuvius, erupted in the form

Columbia University


Curriculum Vitae Benjamin G. M. Webber 2014 Dr Benjamin G. M. Webber  

E-print Network

: A dynamical ocean feedback mechanism for the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Esteem · Co-author on Keck Institute for Space Studies final report: The Sleeping Giant: Measuring Ocean Ice Interactions in Antarctica. Lead

Matthews, Adrian


Curriculum Vita John S. Schlipf  

E-print Network

of arithmetic", Model Theory and Algebra: A Memorial Tribute to Abraham Robinson, D.H. Saracino and V(3), 1991, 620-650. Co-authored with Allen Van Gelder and Kenneth Ross. 14. "Representing epistemic

Franco, John


University Seminar Series Sponsored by the Nanotechnology Graduate Program  

E-print Network

of several energy- efficient technologies. The unique 3D design of the electrode allowed much higher solid/co-author of over 70 patents, 1 book, 7 book chapters, and over 180 publications, which been cited more than 4

Fisher, Frank


Essays in cooperation and repeated games  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores cooperation when formal contracts and legal institutions are imperfect. The first chapter (co-authored with Isaiah Andrews) considers how a principal allocates business among a group of agents ...

Barron, Daniel (Daniel Vincent)



Essays in financial economics  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of three empirical essays in financial economics, examining the consequences of imperfect financial markets for households, small business and house prices. In the first chapter (co-authored with Meta ...

Severino Díaz, Felipe



High Levels of Cancer-Linked Chemical in E-Cigarette Vapor  


... study co-author James Pankow, a professor of chemistry and civil and environmental engineering at Portland State ... smoke," lead researcher David Peyton, a Portland State chemistry professor, said in the news release. Users open ...


ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition' - Duration: 12:10.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...



E-print Network

of computational photography, inverse problems in imaging and human-computer interaction. Recent inventions include received four Mitsubishi Electric Invention Awards. He is currently co-authoring a book on Computational

Zanibbi, Richard


The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...


Biology and Philosophy 14: 211233, 1999. 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

expressed in his papers on adaptation,1 and in the famous paper he co-authored with Stephen Jay Gould,2 have an evolutionary adaptation ­ and Gould and Lewontin's 1979 paper ­ which embodied an insistence on the high

Lloyd, Elisabeth



EPA Science Inventory

The compilation consists of publications and reports authored or co-authored by Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory personnel since 1955. This compilation of publications and reports relate to various aspects of analytical methodology for water, environmental monitori...


Laundry Detergent Pods Pose Poisoning Risk to Kids, Study Says  


... to kids," said report co-author Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research and ... if they bring these products into their homes," Smith added. "We're recommending that they not use ...


Essays in credit markets and development economics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 (co-authored with Ali Choudhary) exploits exogenous variation in the amount of public information available to banks about a firm to empirically evaluate the importance of adverse selection in the credit market. ...

Jain, Anil Kumar



Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.



Depression Research - The STAR*D Study - Relief in Hours?  


... of this page please turn Javascript on. The STAR*D Study New research reveals that, by working ... Southwestern Medical Center and co-authors of the STAR*D study. Photo courtesy of University of Texas ...


NSF/Tokyo Report: The Prospects of Long Term Ecological Research in East Asia  

NSF Publications Database

... the Lake Biwa Research Institute. Together, we co-authored an article on Lake Biwa. The paper, "Lake ... Biwa: the largest lake in Japan" will be published as a book chapter in Great Lakes of the World ...


Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact  

E-print Network

A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

Ausloos, Marcel



Erick Janssen 1 CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

of Amsterdam. November 1995 ­ November 1996. Research Scientist, Academic Medical Center, University Research Award, Nicole Prause (Janssen, E., Hetrick, W., co-authors), Society for Sex Therapy and Research (SSTAR), 2007. Invited Faculty, Summer School of the European Society for Sexual Medicine, Oxford

Indiana University


Erick Janssen 1 December 2010  

E-print Network

of Amsterdam. November 1995 - present. Research Scientist, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam Research Award, Nicole Prause (Janssen, E., Hetrick, W., co-authors), Society for Sex Therapy and Research (SSTAR), 2007. Invited Faculty, Summer School of the European Society for Sexual Medicine, Oxford

Indiana University


An Alternate Look at Educational Psychologist's Productivity from 1991 to 2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous investigations of the productivity of educational psychologists (Smith et al., 1998 and Smith et al., 2003) have used a points system that defines high productivity as having few co-authors and high authorship placement. Due to the increasingly collaborative nature of educational psychology research (Robinson, McKay, Katayama, & Fan,…

Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Robinson, Daniel H.




E-print Network

: DIAMOND, SILICON AND GERMANIUM By DIANE P. HICKEY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL at the University of California ­ Berkeley, provided the high-purity germanium for this study, and co-authored the germanium papers that resulted from this work. Dr. Rob Chodelka was the original industrial science advisor

Florida, University of


Learning to Teach for Justice and Equality in a Multicultural Social Reconstructionist Teacher Education Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a multicultural, social reconstructionist approach to teaching within a social studies methods course. It is co-authored by a teacher educator and a new teacher who was a student in the course. The course goals included critically analyzing texts and maps, incorporating the experiences and perspectives of women from different races, cultures, and classes in the curriculum, and

Ava L. McCall; Ann Andringa



Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia



Inspection Judgements on Urban Schools: A Case for the Defence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is co-authored by two urban school Heads in the north of England with the support of an academic partner. The article begins with the phenomenon of official judgements of urban schools, made by the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills, a semi-privatised and supposedly independent arm of government.…

Gorton, Julian; Williams, Melanie; Wrigley, Terry



Learning to Teach Inclusively: Student Teachers' Classroom Inquiries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book--co-authored by a teacher educator, a diverse group of five pre-service student teachers, and their student teaching supervisor--takes a unique, illuminating look at the experience of student teaching from the perspective of student teachers. It is premised on learning to teach as an inquiry process enriched by collaborative…

Oyler, Celia



A Bibliometric Analysis of Collaboration in the Field of Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the collaborative patterns of the information retrieval research field using co-authored articles retrieved from "Social Science Citation Index" for a period of 11 years, from 1987 to 1997. Results reveal an upward trend of collaborative research with interdisciplinary and intra-disciplinary scholarly communication. (Author/LRW)

Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert; Chowdhury, Gobinda



Page 1 of 21 Dr. Kantesh Balani  

E-print Network

. He is co-author of the book "Advanced Structural Ceramics" (Wiley, 2011), and has adapted "The Patents on Nanotechnology (Bentham), Nanomaterials and Energy (Institution of Civil Engineers), Journal and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur-208016, India Email: Ph : +91

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav


The Center for Control, Dynamical Systems, and Computation University of California at Santa Barbara  

E-print Network

& Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering at the University of Southern California. He has a PhD in Civil Engineering from Rice University and has co-authored a book on stochastic finite element methods and over 80 structure and provide information regarding the most critical components of the model form where refinement

Akhmedov, Azer


IABSE SYMPOSIUM LISBON 2005 Enhancing the Resilience of Communities against Extreme Events  

E-print Network

Engineering Research Professor, Department of Civil Engineering University at Buffalo Buffalo, NY 14261 publications as a result of this research, and has co-authored the book "Ductile Design of Steel Structures an Earthquake Engineering Perspective Michel BRUNEAU Director, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake

Bruneau, Michel


Coming out in Spain: 'Los Invisibles Published Thursday 24th February 11  

E-print Network

Coming out in Spain: 'Los Invisibles Published Thursday 24th February 11 Dr Richard Cleminson in Spain. His co-authored 'Los Invisibles': A History of Male Homosexuality in Spain, 1850 been published in Spain. "The history of this period must never be forgotten. It serves not only

Berzins, M.


Divide and Conquer: Detecting Patterns that Explain the Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alecia Ford, co-author of this article, had a problem that teachers everywhere face more and more frequently with the predominance of standardized testing--too much world history to teach in too little time. Her problem relates to how she can help her sixth-grade students develop an in-depth understanding of the Enlightenment, a period in history…

Secules, Teresa; Ford, Alecia



Antenna Engineering Handbook, edited by John L. Volakis, New York, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007, 1800 pages.  

E-print Network

, 1800 pages. $175.00, ISBN 978-0-071-47574-7 Chapter 14, "Horn Antennas," by Trevor S. Bird and Allan W horn antennas. In the fourth edition, the chapter on horn antennas is co-authored by Trevor BirdAntenna Engineering Handbook, edited by John L. Volakis, New York, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007

Collings, Iain B.


Collaboration and Article Quality in the Literature of Academic Librarianship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies suggest that co-authorship results in a higher quality article. This study looks for evidence of this in the literature of academic librarianship. Using citation counts to articles from two important journals over a ten-year period, no evidence is found to support the superiority of co-authored articles.

Hart, Richard L.



Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED  

E-print Network

Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED University. Geologists Ernesto Pecoits and Natalie Aubet found fossilized tracks in Uruguay they believe was left behind-microbiologist at the university, co-authored the study published Thursday in the journal Science. He said the fossils have been

Machel, Hans


A World of Ideas: International Survey Gives a Voice to Teachers Everywhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kristen Weatherby is a senior policy analyst at OECD in the education directorate. She runs the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and is author or co-author of publications and blog posts on TALIS and teachers. She started her career as a classroom teacher in the United States before working in education in the private sector in…

Crow, Tracy



More than Tolerance for Engineering Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described herein is a science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM) secondary lesson created by graduate engineering student Safa Herfat, with modifications by her co-authors. The lessons learned from this case study are explored through an explanation of tolerance, a description of the lesson, the results obtained, and participant…

Burrows, Andrea; Herfat, Safa; Truesdell, Pam; Miller, Richard



Perspectives on thermoelectrics: from fundamentals to device applications  

E-print Network

This review is an update of a previous review (A. J. Minnich, et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 466) published two years ago by some of the co-authors, focusing on progress made in thermoelectrics over the past two ...

Zebarjadi, M.



A Conversation with Edwin Emery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Edwin Emery, journalism professor and co-author of the widely used textbook "The Press and America," in which he discusses his book, historians and historical schools that influenced his work, and areas of journalism and mass communication history that need to be researched and expanded upon today. (GT)

Journalism History, 1980



Australia and France on Fire: An Anti-Colonial Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professor George Sefa Dei has written and taught extensively in the fields of anti-colonialism and anti-racism. His latest work on the subject is "Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance," co-edited with Arlo Kempf for Sense Publishers (2006). Dei and Kempf are also co-authoring a forthcoming volume on anti-colonial theory. Arlo…

Dei, George Sefa; Kempf, Arlo



Directed Discovery of Novel Drug Cocktails1 John H. Miller2  

E-print Network

and the BESCT Lung Cancer Program at University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. 2Carnegie Mellon Cancer Center, email: (correspond- ing co-author). 4M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, email: #12;Abstract Combinations of drugs can result in effective treatments


Richard Marconi '01 Alumnus At Florida Atlantic University  

E-print Network

for a graduate program. I am co-author of Arcadia Publishing's Images of America: West Palm Beach: 1893: Curator of Education, Historical Society of Palm Beach County and the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach an internship at the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. I was able to intern at the Society for two

Fernandez, Eduardo


Gender and Collaboration Patterns in Distance Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the associations between gender, collaboration and research methods in distance education research. Following a bibliometric approach, collaboration is operationalised through co-author relationships. The study is based on a review of 695 papers published in five prominent distance education journals between 2000 and 2008. It…

Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; von Prummer, Christine



Teaching with Folk Stories of the Hmong: An Activity Book. Learning through Folklore Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a guide for teaching students about Hmong culture while building appreciation of worldwide cultural diversity. After providing an overview of the distinct history and customs of the Hmong, co-author Dia Cha shares her experiences growing up in Laotian villages, escaping from communist soldiers, living in refugee camps in…

Cha, Dia; Livo, Norma J.


From Idea to Product--Translating Knowledge between the Lab and the Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is composed of three essays looking at innovation at Academic Medical Centers. It tries to empirically explore the problem of translating knowledge from the laboratory bench to the clinic and from the clinic to the bench. Chapter 1, co-authored with Iain Cockburn, establishes the importance of in-house complementary knowledge in…

Ali, Ayfer Habib



A. F. Ames, Village Schoolmaster. A Memoir.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet sketches the life, educational theories, and accomplishments of Albert F. Ames (1888-1931). Ames was trained as a mathematician, and served six years as a mathematics teacher in Canada before becoming superintendent of schools in Riverside, Illinois. He co-authored five mathematics textbooks with J. A. McLellan. These texts,…

Ames, Edward C.


Emily Klancher Merchant Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

Studies. New York: Springer. Co-edited with Myron P. Gutmann, Glenn D. Deane, and Kenneth M. Sylvester-1940. Regional Environmental Change. Co-authored with Kenneth M. Sylvester, Daniel G. Brown, Susan H. Leonard. Robinson, Nancy H.F. French, and

Edwards, Paul N.


Email: One Bethel Valley Road Phone: 865-574-5361 P.O. Box 2008, MS-6301  

E-print Network

from the University of Minnesota, St. Paul in plant and forest tree physiology in 1983 and 1986, and biogeochemical cycles of North American forest ecosystems. He has authored or co-authored over 150 journal articles and book chapters and has co-edited and authored a book titled North American Temperate Deciduous


A Dialogue on Reclaiming Troubled Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion is drawn from the writings of two eminent founders of strength-based approaches to troubled children and adolescents. August Aichhorn is best known for his classic book, "Wayward Youth," and Fritz Redl as co-author of "Children Who Hate". August Aichhorn and Anna Freud mentored a young educational psychologist, Fritz Redl…

Aichhorn, August; Redl, Fritz



Antonio Pascual-Leone, PhD, is a psychologist, a clinical Associate Professor, and the director of  

E-print Network

of Psychotherapy Integration, and a Distinguished Publication Award for, "Best empirical research article of 2009 of psychotherapy, with a special focus on the role of emotion, and a co-authored book on Emotion Focused Therapy study on an emotion focused treatment for domestically violent men and several papers on psychotherapy


Green Jobs and Energy Economy  

E-print Network

Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy THOUGHT LEADERSHIP SERIES Co-authors Ditlev Engel, Chief Simons Januario Vestas Wind Systems A/S Thought Leadership Series #4 Green Jobs and the Clean Energy environmental bene ts from reduced greenhouse gas emissions and signi cant, positive economic impacts. Job

Kammen, Daniel M.


Green Jobs and Energy Economy  

E-print Network

Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy ThoughT Leadership series Co-authors Daniel M. Kammen Series #4 Green Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy #12;Green is the new blue... blue collar and significant, positive economic impacts. Job creation is an especially pressing issue as we confront both our

Kammen, Daniel M.


Bilingual or Immersion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of new studies is providing fresh evidence of what many researchers have been saying all along: English immersion has more political appeal than educational merit. Dr. Amy Merickel, co-author of "Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners K-12," says it is not possible given the data available to…

Hamilton, Kendra



Trying differently: A relationship-centered approach to representing clients with cognitive challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the usefulness of an innovative framework called “Relationship-Centered Lawyering” to enhancing real world legal practice. It uses the example of lawyers, particularly criminal defense lawyers, who often deal with clients with cognitive challenges. The article developed out of a series of workshops conducted jointly by the co-authors, an American law professor with a social work background, and

David M. Boulding; Susan L. Brooks



Bandura, Ross, and Ross: Observational Learning and the Bobo Doll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of their seminal article entitled, "Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models" (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), the work of Albert Bandura and his co-authors has had an immeasurable impact on the field of psychology, in general, and educational psychology, more specifically. The purpose of this report is…

Artino, Anthony R., Jr.



A Tagging Approach for Bundling Annotations Yamin Htun, Joanna McGrenere, Kellogg S. Booth  

E-print Network

and Presentation, HCI] Group and Organizational Interfaces ­ Asynchronous interaction, Computer- supported the establishment of a shared reference for discussion difficult [2]. Co-authors often copy and paste referenced support and developed a comprehensive model of annotations [8] in which each annotation has a set

McGrenere, Joanna


Testimony, U.S. Election Assistance Commission Dr. Aviel D. Rubin, Professor of Computer Science  

E-print Network

in the specialization of Computer Security. I have been researching security issues related to electronic voting since everyone to participate but failed to protect the integrity and accuracy of their vote. Luckily, security of the Information Security Institute at Johns Hopkins University. I am author or co-author of several widely used

Rubin, Avi


Special issue on Cell and Tissue Engineering in Microsystems  

E-print Network

Special issue on Cell and Tissue Engineering in Microsystems DOI: 10.1039/b707014b Eight years ago, we co-authored a review entitled `Tissue Engineering at the Microscale.' At the time, we were fresh evolve over the last few years, the land- scape has been highly dynamic--the tissue engineering `bubble

Chen, Christopher S.


Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of Practice  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of Practice January 2012 TECHNICAL EDITORS Dr. Peter Taylor, Associate Director National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State and Sustainability Group, Applied Pavement Technology) CO-AUTHORS Dr. Tom Van Dam, Principal Engineer, CTLGroup


Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* J. Hansen, M. Sato  

E-print Network

Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* J. Hansen, M. Sato NASA Goddard;Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* Jim Hansen March 11, 2009 Climate. Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture co-authors or colleagues providing data

Hansen, James E.


Publications - Implementation Science

The following selected publications have been authored or co-authored by members of the Implementation Science team. They are organized chronologically by year of publication. Most are available as Portable Document Format (PDF) files, which you can view using a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.


The Center for Control, Dynamical Systems, and Computation University of California at Santa Barbara  

E-print Network

The Center for Control, Dynamical Systems, and Computation University of California at Santa received the "Outstanding Application Paper Award" from the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) for a co-authored paper published on Automatica. He is member of the IEEE Control System Society

Akhmedov, Azer



E-print Network

time as a PhD student ­ and for being the best kind of boss I can imagine. Further I thank my colleague want to thank my advisor Heribert Vollmer for his supervision, support and joint research during my. In addition, I want to thank my other co-authors for our joint research. Also, I thank Juha Kontinen and Lauri

Vollmer, Heribert


Comments to the article by Verner et al.: Magmatic history and geophysical signature of a post-collisional intrusive center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verner and co-authors (Int J Earth Sci (2009) 98:517-532) published geological and structural model of evolution and emplacement of the Plöckenstein pluton in the border area of Austria, Germany and Czech Republic. They used data of other authors, giving no reference as to their source, for interpretations without any discussion of the already published results.

Breiter, Karel



That's Another Story: An Alternative to the "Official" Way the Urban School Story Is Told  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, co-authored by two research-active teachers with the support of their academic partner, reports on the resistance of an urban primary school in a northern city of England to the label "disadvantaged school" and various judgements that refuse to take into account its holistic work with students and families from different…

Harridge, Sarah; Stokoe, Sarah; Tan, Jon E. C.



John P. Verboncoeur Professor in Residence, Dept NE/ERL  

E-print Network

applications, accelerators, plasma thrusters, low pressure discharges for plasma processing, and high pressure), International Plasma Chemistry Society Plasma Physics Code Suite Principal author or co-author of the Berkeley- mas materials processing, high pressure discharges for plasma display panels and lamps, radiation

Wurtele, Jonathan


Alexander A. Puretzky Research Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering  

E-print Network

plasma diagnostics and studies of gas phase processes during growth of thin films and nanomaterials separation; Co-author of two books (Chemistry of Plasma: Selective Photoionization of Atoms by Laser thin film deposition, laser plasma dynamics and diagnostics, laser spectroscopy, and laser isotope

Geohegan, David B.



E-print Network

IN AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING * JACKSON S. CHAO AND STEPHEN C. GRAVES The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington an internship performed by the first co-author at The Boeing Company. The internship was conducted as part then develop an argument for a firm to use improvements in labor productivity to reduce flow times. Boeing has

Graves, Stephen C.


Producing a Documentary in the Third Grade: Reaching All Students through Movie Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details the work of third grade teacher, co-author Kim Heckart, as she engaged her students in making historical documentaries: a project that succeeded in reaching all of her third-grade students. For the last five years, Kim has required students to make historical documentaries. As her students produced these works, Kim conversed…

Fehn, Bruce; Heckart, Kimberly



Exceptional service in the national interest  

E-print Network

and computing science, algorithm and tool development, computational sciences and cognitive sciences. He also and management of corporate research and development and capabilities stewardship at Sandia National Laboratories development, sparse iterative methods and applied graph theory. There he co- authored Chaco, a graph


Ben van der Veken Honor Issue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In acclamation of Ben van der Veken, a former editor of Spectrochimica Acta, many co-authors and friends have submitted papers in his honor. He has collaborated with many scientists from the United States, Russia, England, Scotland as well as some in other countries. His research is known throughout the world.

Durig, James



Studying Research Collaboration Patterns via Co-authorship Analysis in the Field of TeL: The Case of "Educational Technology & Society" Journal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research collaboration is studied in different research areas, so as to provide useful insights on how researchers combine existing distributed scientific knowledge and transform it into new knowledge. Commonly used metrics for measuring research collaborative activity include, among others, the co-authored publications (concerned with who works…

Zervas, Panagiotis; Tsitmidelli, Asimenia; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk



Tahoe 21st Century Education Speakers Series: Author Bernie Trilling to Speak November 8 Date: November 8, 2011  

E-print Network

Tahoe 21st Century Education Speakers Series: Author Bernie Trilling to Speak November 8 Date Drive, Incline Village, Nev. 21st Century Skills; Learning for Life in our Times, co-author Trilling kicks-off with author Bernie Trilling on Tuesday, November 8th from 6:30 ­ 9:00 pm at the Tahoe Center

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


Opening Windows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beth Kanter is working hard to get the word out about how best to get the word out. Kanter is CEO of Zoetica, which provides word-of-mouth communication services to nonprofits and socially conscious companies; a decade-long blogger on the topic of social media and nonprofits; and a popular conference speaker and trainer. She is also co-author of…

Bennett, Gayle



Unleashing Deep Smarts: The Most Valuable Untapped Source of Knowledge Lies within the District's Own Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A widely applied premise in the field of business asserts that the key to an organization's success in today's changing environment is a world-class knowledge management system. The most critical value-added piece of this puzzle lies in what co-authors Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap in their book Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer…

Burbach, Harold J.; Butler, Alfred R., IV



The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl




Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper attempts to update the previous survey carried out in 1995 by one of the co-authors (Freeston) and presented at the World Geothermal Congress in Florence, Italy. For each of these updates since 1975, the recording of data has been similar, but not exactly the same. As in

John W. Lund; Derek H. Freeston



Talk presented at Joint AINC and Dev Psy Seminar 21st Feb 2011 and collaborators  

E-print Network

's two last books NB: Each has several additional co-authors. Piaget, Jean, et al., Possibility Feider from French in 1987, (Original 1981) Piaget, Jean, et al., Possibility and Necessity Vol 2 It is not widely known that shortly before he died Jean Piaget and his collaborators produced a pair of books

Sloman, Aaron


From Collaboration to Publication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As co-authors of a recent publication in "Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research", we have received inquiries about the publication process. We will describe the process of creating an article based on team work, in our case the work of the Texas Physics Assessment Team. Many physics teachers have opportunities to participate in…

O'Connor, Jerry; Marshall, Jill



Silicon nanowire boost for rechargeable batteries Online Shop Contact us Advanced  

E-print Network

Chemistry World Jobs Chemistry World RSS Customer Services q Sample Content q Online Access q Copyright World q Home q Chemistry World q News q 2007 q December Silicon nanowire boost for rechargeable, Stanford and co-author of the paper, told Chemistry World the technique would be industrially scalable 'at

Cui, Yi


Northwestern University Archives Evanston, Illinois GWENDOLEN M. CARTER, (1906-1990) PAPERS, 1915-1991  

E-print Network

at Radcliffe, where she earned an M.A. (1936) and a Ph.D. (1938), both in political science. She held Security. Major Foreign Powers, a text she co-authored with John Herz, has been through several editions and Rockefeller Foundation grants for her work, Carter served on the advisory council of the African Bureau


Exercise Physiology and the Academy: Contributions to Physiological Concepts and Biological Systems during the Commemorative Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the contributions made by Academy Fellows during the past 75 years to concepts within the body of knowledge associated with exercise physiology, a literature search was undertaken. Of the charter Fellows, Hetherington and eight others (34%) were identified. Schneider in 1933 was the first of 18 Fellows who became authors, co-authors

Tipton, Charles M.



Return of the Google Game: More Fun Ideas to Transform Students into Skilled Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens are impatient and unsophisticated online researchers who are often limited by their poor reading skills. Because they are attracted to clean and simple Web interfaces, they often turn to Google--and now Wikipedia--to help meet their research needs. The Google Game, co-authored by this author, teaches kids that there is a well-thought-out…

Watkins, Katrine



Working Papers / Documents de travail WP 2013 -Nr 34  

E-print Network

Partial Differential Equations Arising in Economics Raouf Boucekkine Carmen Camacho Giorgio Fabbri halshs arising in economics R. Boucekkine C. Camacho G. Fabbri § June 5, 2013 Abstract We review an emerging guidance have been a precious support to the three co-authors during the last decade. Giorgio Fabbri

Boyer, Edmond


2011 NBER-NSF Time Series Conference Michigan State University  

E-print Network

for Clustering Time Series. #12;2 NBER-NSF Conference Program 5. Tucker S. McElroy and Scott Holan*, University. 11. David S. Matteson* and Ruey S. Tsay, Cornell. Independent Component Analysis via Distance inflation. Thomas Trimbur, Federal Reserve Board. Co-author: Tucker McElroy. 10:00 - 10:30 Coffee Break 10


Children's Services: Partnerships for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-author of the popular titles "Booktalking Bonanza" and "The Early Literacy Kit", Betsy Diamant-Cohen brings together 18 examples of successful outreach partnerships that children's librarians and administrators can adapt to their own situations. Contributors from the U.S and Canada explain how they partnered with schools, community…

Diamant-Cohen, Betsy, Ed.



1 Biography B.Sc. 1963; University of Auckland, New Zealand,  

E-print Network

of Mathematical Physics, 13, 1435-1441 (1972) · Black holes in static vacuum space-times, (co-authors: H Muller of black holes with electromagnetic fields, Physical Re- view D,10, 458-460 (1974) · Black holes in static, 61-72 (1974) · Uniqueness of the Kerr black hole, Physical Review Letters, 34, 905-906 (1975

Bushnell, Colin J.


Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

Pol, Milan, Ed.



Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to illustrate the benefits of collaboration between scientists from psychology and computer science, namely machine learning, this book contains the following chapters, most of which are co-authored by scholars from both sides: (1) "Introduction: What Do You Mean by 'Collaborative Learning'?" (Pierre Dillenbourg); (2) "Learning Together:…

Dillenbourg, Pierre, Ed.


Reflection on the Role of Artists: A Case Study on the Hidden Visual Curriculum of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, Maria Acaso, professor in Art Education at the Universidad Complutense Madrid in Spain and a co-author of this article, conducted a comparative research project on visual configurations at different art schools in Europe and the United States. The study of hidden visual curriculum examines how knowledge and cultural/political/social…

Baker, Marissa H.; Ng-He, Carol; Lopez-Bosch, Maria Acaso



Research Ideas for the Classroom: Middle Grades Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the middle…

Owens, Douglas T., Ed.


Variations in International Understandings of Employability for Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research started from the premise that (a) employability is an internationally accepted concept with a confusion of interpretations and definitions; and (b) that an insight into the variation in understanding of employability and teaching employability would benefit geography curriculum development. Consequently, the views of the co-authors…

Rooney, Paul; Kneale, Pauline; Gambini, Barbara; Keiffer, Artimus; Vandrasek, Barbara; Gedye, Sharon



PhD Dissertation International Doctorate School in Information and  

E-print Network

), and Franco Zambonelli (Universit`a di Modena e Reggio Emilia). I am thankful to my main co-authors Raian Ali-adaptivity is gaining promi- nence as an approach to lowering software costs by reducing the need for manual system. The framework is founded upon the notions of contextual and social variability. A key ingredient of our approach


Enacting forensics in homicide investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

Robin Williams; Jason Weetman



The Contradictions of Contemporary Culture: A Tribute to Norman Jay Levitt (1943-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norman Jay Levitt was the author's good friend, collaborator, and co-author. He was--above, before, and after politics--an honest inquirer. His socio-cultural views evolved continuously. Levitt, truth-seeker and liberal, was impatient with, and a devastating critic of, the political correctness and--even worse--the philosophic triviality that…

Gross, Paul R.



Essie's Story: The Life and Legacy of a Shoshone Teacher. American Indian Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life story of Esther Burnett Horne records the memories and experiences of a Native woman born in 1909, who was both pupil and teacher in Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools. An introduction by Sally McBeth examines methodological and cultural concerns of collecting and co-authoring a life history. In Chapter 1, Essie begins with oral…

Horne, Esther Burnett; McBeth, Sally


SPECIAL FEATURE: "In Defense of Property": An Exchange Culture, Property, and Peoplehood: A  

E-print Network

SPECIAL FEATURE: "In Defense of Property": An Exchange Culture, Property, and Peoplehood: A Comment on Carpenter, Katyal, and Riley's "In Defense of Property" Michael F. Brown* First, the good news: Carpenter Law Journal published the article "In Defense of Property," co-authored by the legal scholars Kristen

Stoiciu, Mihai


Design Editorial First Author  

E-print Network

Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial First Author At one time or another, all of us have filled forms? There is a bit of a mystery here. Thus it is also with the sequence of listing authors of scientific papers with multiple co-authors. Who is the first author? For that matter, who is second or third

Papalambros, Panos


Version Date: 9/28/12 1 Instructions to Authors  

E-print Network

Version Date: 9/28/12 1 Instructions to Authors Contents: Manuscript Submission Manuscript Format health initiative in which communication or marketing played an important role. All authors must have manuscripts as the lead or corresponding author; we strongly encourage a faculty co-author or sponsor

Vertes, Akos


Author Disambiguation: A Nonparametric Topic and Co-authorship Model  

E-print Network

Author Disambiguation: A Nonparametric Topic and Co-authorship Model Andrew M. Dai School of Edinburgh Abstract A fully generative model is provided for the problem of author disambiguation. This approach infers the topics for each author and combines that with co-author information

Edinburgh, University of


AUTHOR'S REPLY by T. Prabhakar Clement Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn,  

E-print Network

AUTHOR'S REPLY by T. Prabhakar Clement Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn limit model com- plexity. I would like to first thank Maslia and his nine co-authors for contributing. With this background, in the sections below I provide my point of view on the issues/questions raised by the authors

Clement, Prabhakar

156 Impact of Climate Change on Urban Flooding  

E-print Network

Ole Mark Head of Research and Development, Danish Hydraulic Institute College of engineering, Mathe change scenarios. At present, he is responsible for drafting the new Danish climate adaptation strategy for the Danish Engineering Society and he is co-author of the Danish "Climate cook book". Dr Mark

Mumby, Peter J.


Application Results of The Mdcb-3 Model Earthquake Precursor Monitoring Instrument In Many Regions In China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MDCB-3 Type Earthquake Precursor Monitoring Instrument is used by over 40 seismology organizations in 14 provinces in China. Some have used this type of instru- ment in observation for over 11 years, some others just started; Some are using Model 1 of the instrument, some others are already using Model 4. The instrument has been used by the co-authors

M. Deng; H. K. Yang; R. Shen; X. Wu; F. X. Wang; B. C. Guo; Y. Y. Xu; Y. X. Zhao; Z. Y. Chen; K. S. Deng



Scripps Institution of Oceanography Contributions Index Scripps Institution of Oceanography published an annual compilation of reprints  

E-print Network

in the print Contributions series to determine the original citation. Optical character recognition (OCR, such that a specific citation appears under each co-author. Optical character recognition (OCR) was run against and abundances of marine plankton diatoms offshore in southern California·.·····.···.·····..···. . Allen, Winfred

Russell, Lynn


April 28, July 16, August 2, 2010 Little Boxes: The Simplest Demonstration of the Failure of Einstein's  

E-print Network

of the Franklin Institute 221, 349-382 (1936); A. Einstein, "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein of the Failure of Einstein's Attempt to Show the Incompleteness of Quantum Theory John D. Nortona To appear in American Journal of Physics. The failure of Einstein's co-authored "EPR" attempt


Eos, Vol. 71, No. 8, February 20, 1990 most of the model parameters were not di  

E-print Network

in the conduct of g r o u n d water and va dose zone investigations and monitoring. T h e Subcommittee is chaired Wil lis (with whom I co-authored a book in 1987), Dr. Leonard Becker, and Professor N. Z. Sun 412, 12201 Sun rise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 22092; tele. 703-648-6872 Donald I. Siegel, 317 Heroy

Dozier, Jeff


Condor Week 2012 -May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012 Remote Condor presented by J. M. Dost co-author I. Sfiligoi UC San Diego #12;Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 2 Overview What is "Remote Condor"? Why you may want to use it? Detailed instructions Live demo #12;Condor Week 2012 - May

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Condor Week 2012 -May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012 Remote Condor Demo presented by J. M. Dost co-author I. Sfiligoi UC San Diego #12;Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 2 Remote Condor Demo The following slides provide step by step what was seen in the live demo #12;Condor Week 2222- May

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Linda H. Peterson Home Address: Department of English 53 Edgehill Road  

E-print Network

, Harriet Martineau, and the `Little Book,'" Nineteenth Century Literature, 60 (2006), 409-50. "Personal, 1989. Co-authored with Stuart Moulthrop et al. Editions and Edited Collections: Editor. Harriet Martineau's Autobiography. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 2007. Editor. The Life of Charlotte Brontë


(Tenth international conference on conduction and breakdown in dielectric liquids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 10th International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in dielectric Liquids held in Grenoble, France, September 10--14, 1990. He chaired the opening session of the conference, presented one paper, co-authored a second paper presented at the meeting, participated in the discussions during the formal sessions, and had informal discussions with many of the participants.

Christophorou, L.G.



The Freakonomics of Tenure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ever-simmering question of whether the tenure system should be reformed lit up the blogosphere, ignited by an online essay from the (tenured) professor Steven D. Levitt, co-author of the publishing phenomenon "Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything" and the popular blog Freakonomics. When Levitt posted "Let's…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007



Transactive Memory Systems 1985–2010: An Integrative Framework of Key Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over two decades have passed since Wegner and his co-authors published the groundbreaking paper on transactive memory systems (TMS) in 1985. The concept attracted the interest of management, psychology, and communication scholars who have employed a variety of methods to examine the phenomenon. In this paper, we review 76 papers that examined transactive memory systems and summarize the findings in

Yuqing Ren; Linda Argote




Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio Baton is a sequencer system developed by co-author MVM. It allows real-time control of tempo and sound level via radio transmitters mounted in the conductor's batons. The trigger impulse for beats is generated either when one of the two batons passes through a plane at an adjustable distance from a pad or by the baton's change of direction

Johan Sundberg; Anders Friberg; Max V. Mathews; Gerald Bennett


Seeing Organizational Learning: A 'Cultural' View  

Microsoft Academic Search

What sight does a 'cultural' approach to organizational learn- ing enable? In an earlier essay my co-author and I argued that such an approach made it possible to bypass certain conceptual problems inher- ent in treating organizational learning as an attribute of individuals. In this essay I reflect on the metaphoric process that enabled that argument, which was implicitly as

Dvora Yanow


dna fingerprinting & civil liberties summer 2006 441 n her recent article, "Evidence, Belief, and Action  

E-print Network

is co-author of Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine (McGraw Hill) 6th edition. In 2005 he was awarded treatment for a particular condition. This uncertainty is widely regarded as a necessary condition therapeutic merits of a set of interventions in the abstract might coexist with a determinate treatment

Spirtes, Peter


Special Education in High School Redesign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, co-authored by the National High School Center and the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center, identifies articles that address high school redesign as it relates to students with disabilities and special education's role in such initiatives. The articles are organized around the National High School…

National High School Center, 2011



Quantitative application of hostassociated microbial source tracking markers to environmental samples. Presented by Donald M. Stoeckel, PhD  

E-print Network

are useful for presenceabsence detection of fecal contamination sources in water. However, the value of methods for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination. During his time with USGS, he co authored whether particular sources (in particular, human and ruminant) were credible major contributors of fecal


International marketing serials: a retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of selected international marketing serials, published from 1985 to 1998, is examined. Results show that the authors published in these serials tend to be affiliated with marketing departments, senior professors, male, and work with a single co-author. Articles often focus on export and import, promotion, consumer behavior, and country of origin. Empirical studies – often survey research based

Michael R. Hyman; Zhilin Yang



Volume 30,Number 19 October 17, 1984 Dr . BiUy Graham began his Vancouver crusade Friday (Oct. 12)in UBClr WarMemorial  

E-print Network

on medical ethics A woman prisoner has been admitted to your unit wiih severe malnutrition because on nursing issues, will address ethical issues in the health sciencesas this year's Marion Woodward of numerous publications and co-author of two widely . , acclaimed texts: Ethical Dilemmas and Nursing k k e

Farrell, Anthony P.


Publication Record Byrav Ramamurthy  

E-print Network

and Video (NOSSDAV). · Author/co-author of 2 books, 9 book chapters, 3 journal editorials, 3 edited been widely cited by researchers around the world. According to the ISI Web of Knowledge maintained by Thomson Reuters, 21 journal articles (indexed by ISI) authored by Dr. Ramamurthy) have been cited 284

Ramamurthy, Byrav


Quantum Effects in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy TomᚠMan?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.



[Reply to “Wasting public money?” by Judith Totman] Politically motivated request?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Judith Totman Parrish (Forum,Eos, 86(32), 9 August 2005, p. 294) asks Thomas Crowley to provide evidence that the U.S. Rep. Joe Barton's (R.-N.Y) request for information from me, and from my colleagues Michael Mann and Malcolm Hughes, was politically motivated.Among a host of items, here are some of the things Barton specifically asked for: “…all financial support you have received related to your research, including, but not limited to, all private, state, and federal assistance, grants, contracts (including subgrants or subcontracts), or other financial awards or honoraria…the location of all data archives relating to each published study for which you were an author or co-author… [a list of all] requests…you or your co-authors [have] received for data relating to the climate change studies, what was your response, and why?”

Bradley, Raymond S.



E-print Network

Please find enclosed a manuscript for consideration for publication in the International Journal of Nursing Practice. This article has not been published elsewhere. The co-author has contributed significantly to this body of work and is in agreement with the content of the manuscript. We believe the content of this manuscript should be of interest to the wide readership of your journal. We look forward to your reviewers ? comments. Yours sincerely,

Elaine Simpson; Phd Rn; Elaine Simpson; Mary Courtney



Using AVIRIS In The NASA BAA Project To Evaluate The Impact Of Natural Acid Drainage On Colorado Watersheds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Colorado Geological Survey and the co-authors of this paper were awarded one of 15 NASA Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) grants in 2001. The project focuses on the use of hyperspectral remote sensing to map acid-generating minerals that affect water quality within a watershed, and to identify the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to that drainage. A further objective is to define the most cost-effective remote sensing instrument configuration for this application.

Hauff, Phoebe L.; Coulter, David W.; Peters, Douglas C.; Sares, Matthew A.; Prosh, Eric C.; Henderson, Frederick B., III; Bird, David



Do you really mean what you actually enforced?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their works on the theoretical side of Polymer, Ligatti and his co-authors have identified a new class of enforcement mechanisms\\u000a based on the notion of edit automata that can transform sequences and enforce more than simple safety properties. We show\\u000a that there is a gap between the edit automata that one can possibly write (e.g., by Ligatti et al in

Nataliia Bielova; Fabio Massacci


Asian Wave in Travel and Tourism Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous tourism-related articles have been published by authors affiliated with Asian universities, operationalized here as the “Asian Wave,” little research effort has focused on examining such authorship. Adopting a publication counting method, this study analyzes articles published in four top tourism journals from 1999–2008 that are either Asia-focused or co-authored by researchers from Asian universities. The results reveal that

Daniel Leung; Rosanna Leung; Billy Bai; Rob Law



A ‘New Bretton Woods’: Kaldor and the Antipodean Quest for Global Full Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1949 Nicholas Kaldor co-authored a report whose recommendations, if implemented, would have revolutionized international economic policy-making. National and International Measures for Full Employment (NIFE) had been commissioned by the United Nations (UN). A capstone to efforts throughout the 1940s to transform international economic policy-making along Keynesian lines, NIFE was without precedent in the importance it accorded global effective demand

Sean Turnell; Leanne J. Ussher



Double-Level Languages and CoOperative Working  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four criteria are discussed as important conditions of successful applications in Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW). They are equality, mutual influence, new competence, and double-level language. The criteria originate in the experience of the International Co-operative Movement. They are examined and illustrated withreference to eight contemporary CSCW applications: meeting scheduling and support; bargaining; co-authoring; co-ordination; planning; design support and collaborative

Mike Robinson



On Being Called an Anti-Semite in Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the coordinator of a university lecture series, the author is always on the lookout for good speakers. He thought that he had found one in Stephen Walt, a political scientist at Harvard University and the co-author of an article about the influence of the pro-Israel lobby on U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. In this article, the author…

Drake, Richard



RETRACTED: Luminescence properties of ZnO films annealed in growth ambient and oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article has been retracted at the request of the chief editor and authors. Reason: It contains ideas, concepts and paraphrased text from other sources (e.g., Appl. Phys. Lett 79 (2001) 943-945; J. Electrochem. Soc 148 (2001) G110-G113) without clear acknowledgement of the previous references. The judgement of the Editorial Board is that the author and co-authors have plagiarized a principal conclusion of the aforementioned Appl. Phys. Lett paper.

Wang, Jinzhong; Du, Guotong; Zhang, Yuantao; Zhao, Baijun; Yang, Xiaotian; Liu, Dali



Kalman filter design for atmospheric tip/tilt, tip/tilt anisoplanatism and focus filtering on extremely large telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses Kalman filter design to correct for atmospheric tip/tilt, tip/tilt anisoplanatism and focus disturbances in laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics. Model identification, controller design and computation, command oversampling and disturbance rejection are discussed via time domain analysis and control performance evaluation. End-to-end high-fidelity sky-coverage simulations are presented by Wang and co-authors in a companion paper.

Gilles, L.; Raynaud, H. F.; Correia, C.; Wang, L.; Ellerbroek, B.; Boyer, C.; Kulcsár, C.



A study of the reaction between antimony (V) chloride and organic amine hydrochlorides  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1962 Na]or Sub)ect: Chemistry A STUDY OF THE REACTION BETMEEN ANTINONY (V) CHLORIDE AND ORGANIC ANINE HYDROCHLORIDES A Thesis by Harold Dean Bier Approved as to style and content by& (Chairm.... Isopropylammonibmhexachloroantimonate (v) INTRODUCTION A literature review indicates that comparatively few compounds have been made by reacting an amine hydrochloride with antimony (V) in concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. Weinland ' ' and co-authors have published a series...

Bier, Harold Dean



Library And Information Science Research in Developing Countries and Eastern European Countries: A Brief Bibliometric Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a set of 21 core journals in the field of library and information science (LIS) from 1980–1999 for articles with either principal or co-authors from developing countries (DCs) and the formerly socialist Eastern European countries (EECs). We found that only 826 (7·9%) of a total of 10 400 articles published in 21 journals are from DCs or EECs.




Africanna Newsletter, Fall 2010  

E-print Network

a book contract from Wiley Blackwell Publishing for a co-authored anthology en- titled, A Companion to Modern African Art. It provides 33 case studies and surveys the modern and contemporary art of Africa, begin- ning with 15th Century ivory... in Practice.” The panel featured Professor Craig Werner, a profes- sor of African American Studies at the University of Wisconsin, Adam Banks, Associate Professor of Writing, Rhetoric, and Digital Media at the University of Ken- tucky, and Cheryl...



The Concentration of African-American Poverty and the Dispersal of the Working Class: An Ethnographic Study of Three Inner-city Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost ten years there has been growing concern about the concentration of poverty among African-Americans living in the inner cities of America's metropolitan areas. Along with this concern a debate has emerged between Douglas Massey and co-authors, and William Julius Wilson as to what the root cause of this concentration is, as well as its impact on the African-American

Martín Sánchez-Jankowski



Diversification processes in an island radiation of shrews  

E-print Network

drawn much motivaton from their enthusiasm 6 and intelct. The chapters contained herein have been co-authored variously by Rafe 7 Brown, San Mr, Carl Oliveros, and Robert Tim, and mny others have provided 8 insghtful and encouraging suggestions. I... (Mindanao Stae University); Chris Conroy, Eilen Lacey, and Jim Paton (Museum of 1 Vertbrat Zoology, Unirsity of California); Nncy Sions and Drrin Lunde 2 (Amrican Museum of Natural History); Joe Cook (Museum of Southwestrn Biology); 3 Luis Ruedas...

Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron



Hoop Conjecture, Minimal Length and Black Hole Formation in the Asymptotically Safe Scenario of Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S Basu acknowledges that this paper was submitted to the IC-MSQUARE 2012 proceedings without the knowledge of, or consultation with, the co-author and apologises accordingly. In addition, this paper has been found to have substantial overlap with a previously published paper, [1], and has therefore been retracted. Reference [1] Basu S and Mattingly D 2010 Asymptotic safety, asymptotic darkness, and the hoop conjencture in the extreme UV Physical Review D 82 124017 Retraction published: 14 June 2013

Basu, Sayandeb; Mattingly, David




Microsoft Academic Search

Morton H. Halperin is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and co-author of Self-Determination in the New World Order (1992). Kristen Lomasney is a second-year master's candidate at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. As democracy spreads throughout the globe, many people are rediscovering a truth understood by the Framers

Morton H. Halperin; Kristen Lomasney



The giant impact hypothesis: past, present (and future?).  


At the request of editors, this paper offers a historical review of early work on the giant impact hypothesis, as well as comments on new data. The author hereby claims (whether believable or not) that his interest is to move towards a correct model of lunar origin, not to defend a possibly incorrect idea, just because of being a co-author of a relevant early paper. Nonetheless, the 1974 giant impact hypothesis appears still to be viable. PMID:25114315

Hartmann, William K



Tsunamis, hurricanes and neotectonics as driving mechanisms in coastal evolution (Proceedings of the Bonaire Field Symposium, March 2-6, 2006. A contribution to IGCP 495)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using field oberservations and remote sensing data from the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 impact at Banda Aceh and Lhok Nga districts (Indonesia) F.Lavigne, R.Paris, P.Wassmer, Ch.Gomez, D.Brunstein and 11 other Co-authors present a field data-based methodology to calibrate simulation codes for tsunami inundation models. The presented preliminary results are part of the French-Indonesian TSUNAMIRISQUE programme with the aim to improve

Anja Scheffers; Dieter Kelletat



Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms—583 New Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of DNA in the unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (itsC-value) varies over 600-fold between angiosperm species. Information regarding this character is used in a strikingly wide variety of plant biological fields. Moreover, recent studies have noted a significant need for more information about this important aspect of genome biodiversity. Bennett and co-authors have published four collected lists of nuclear




Publishers' Note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Withdrawal of the paper "Strain-induced ferroelectricity in KTaO3 thin films" by C. Filipi?, V. Bobnar, Z. Kutnjak, S. Glinšek, B. Kužnik, B. Mali?, M. Kosec and A. Levstik (EPL, 96 (2011) 37003) This paper has been formally withdrawn on ethical grounds because six of the co-authors listed (V. Bobnar, Z. Kutnjak, S. Glinšek, B. Kužnik, B. Mali?, M. Kosec) had no knowledge or discussion of the content of the article, nor had given permission for it to be submitted, nor had given approval for inclusion of their names as co-authors. EPL submission policy states quite clearly that: "If several persons are listed as authors, the corresponding author takes full responsibility that the co-authors agree with the submission and further processing of the manuscript." It is unfortunate that this misconduct was not detected before going to press. My thanks to the scientists named above for bringing this fact to my attention.

post="(Executive Editor">Graeme Watt,



Network Effects on Scientific Collaborations  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. Methodology/Principal Findings Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality), we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count) and formation (tie strength between authors) of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of ‘steel structure’ for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s) in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s). Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. Conclusions/Significance Authors’ network positions in co-authorship networks influence the performance (i.e., citation count) and formation (i.e., tie strength) of scientific collaborations. PMID:23469021

Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat; Rasmussen, Kim



Journey of change and back: a case study of a reconstituted social work service.  


As a result of Total Quality Management and Reengineering principles during the VA's "Journey of Change" in the mid-1990s many hospital social work departments were re-organized under umbrella-care lines. Outcome studies of this movement have focused primarily on patient services. This study focused on the service providers' (including social workers) point of view and their satisfaction with the change in service structure. Data gathering consisted of a master thesis project by one of the co-authors, an administrative in-house survey of staff satisfaction, a qualitative presentation of staff concerns, and the perspective of the administrator who took the decision. PMID:18956511

Alvelo, Jaime; Garcia, Jerika; Rosario, David



Anton in America: A Novel from German-American Life  

E-print Network

was Francis (or Franz—he used both versions of his first name) Daniel Pastorius who co-authored the first protest against African slavery in the English colonies in 1688 (for which he later was memorialized by John Greenleaf Whittier) and also wrote...-famous German business novel; it includes a Dickensian trustworthy street urchin and a Harriet-Beecher-Stowe-inspired New England spinster- reformer; and it alludes to many authors, not only Schiller and Goethe but also Shakespeare, Bacon, Boccaccio, Camôes...

Solger, Reinhold; Vanchena, Lorie A.



Revised Views of Classroom Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Classroom Assessment Project to Improve Teaching and Learning (CAPITAL), a collaborative research initiative between Stanford University and middle school science teachers in nearby school districts, examined classroom-based assessment in science. The teachers shared ideas with one another, and the university staff introduced research findings and ideas into the conversations. The CAPITAL teachers co-authoring this chapter described themselves as moving away from the role of teacher as giver of grades to teacher as conductor of learning. They increased their interactions with students during class time and better assisted students toward achieving the learning goals.

Fong, Elaine; Gilbertson, Joni; Sato, Mistilina; Schwartzfarb, Neil; Liebig, Tracey; Baker, Vicki



Simple one-dimensional lattice model for lipids in water  

E-print Network

A lattice model for binary mixture of lipids and water is introduced and investigated. The orientational degrees of freedom of the amphiphilic molecules are taken into account in the same way as in the model for oil-water-surfactant mixtures introduced earlier by Johan H\\o ye and co-authors. The ground state of the model is discussed in detail, and the mean-field stability analysis of the disordered phase is performed. The model is compared to the recently introduced lattice model for colloidal self-assembly.

Alina Ciach; Jakub P?kalski



Space application research of EMCCDs for bioluminescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of bioluminescense is widely used on the ground, while the detection of bioluminescence in space is still at the stage of detecting bright bioluminescense. With the rapid development of research in Space Life Sciences, it will be necessary to develop a detection technology to detect weak bioluminescense. Compared to other low-light detection techniques for ground, there are more advantages of EMCCDs for space application. Build a space bioluminescence imaging detection system, analysis the feasibility and capability of its will be significant. Co-Author:Xie Zongbao,Zheng Weibo

Zhang, Tao


Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.)



Retraction: Wettability-gradient-driven micropump for transporting discrete liquid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a Retraction for the article 2013 J. Micromech. Microeng. 23 035036. The science reported in this article is not incorrect. This article does not include all co-authors who contributed to the work. The article incorrectly attributes work performed at the University of California to the University of Jordan, and fails to acknowledge contributions from Georgia Institute of Technology. This article does not acknowledge the sources of funding for the work and the reference list is incomplete. This article was submitted by Hamzeh K Bardaweel without the knowledge of the other authors.

Bardaweel, Hamzeh K.; Zamuruyev, Konstantin; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.



Final Report to Jupiter Oxygen Corporation on CRADA Phase 1 Activities, January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect

In January of 2004, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed with the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation; its term extends from January 2004 to January 1, 2009. The statement of work is attached as Appendix A. Under Phase I of this agreement, ARC was to provide technical expertise to develop computer models of existing power plants relative to retrofitting with oxy-fuel combustion; help design experiments to verify models and analyze data from experiments; help produce designs at larger scales; help design a new technology oxy-fuel power plant; and co-author technical papers on this work for presentation at appropriate conferences.

Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Turner, Paul C.



Resolving Dilemmas Through Bodywork  

PubMed Central

Pamela Ellen Ferguson and Debra Persinger, co-authors and co-editors of Sand to Sky—Conversations with Teachers of Asian Medicine (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse; 2008), interview Marianne Steele in Germany on her shiatsu and massage therapy work in various forms of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The interview was conducted in a series of e-mail exchanges and telephone calls during late 2009 and early 2010 and is intended for a future German edition of Sand to Sky. PMID:21589702

Ferguson, Pamela Ellen; Persinger, Debra; Steele, Marianne



Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.


Halliday-Resnick Plus 50  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last year marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Halliday and Resnick's classic introductory textbook ``Physics.'' I used the first edition of the the textbook as an undergraduate students, the second editions as a graduate teaching assistant, the the third edition as a newly hired assistant professor, and I became a co-author for the fourth and fifth editions. In this talk I will offer some views of how this book came to re-define the introductory physics course and how this textbook and other introductory physics texts have changed over 50 years.

Krane, Kenneth



Generalized derivatives and generalized convexities  

SciTech Connect

We give a survey of the contributions of the speaker and of his co-authors in the use of nonsmooth analysis for the study of generalized convexities such as quasiconvexity, pseudoconvexity, invexity. One line of though corresponds to the use of generalized directional derivatives, as in S. Komlosi. Another track consists in using a subdifferential. This could be done in an axiomatic way, but we use essentially three classical instances; the Clarke subdifferential, the contingent subdifferential and the Frechet subdifferential. For algorithmic purposes, variants of Plastra`s subdifferential can be use.

Penot, J.P.; Quang, P.H.; Sach, P.H.



Geron Corporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geron Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company specializing in therapeutic and diagnostic products for age-related diseases. Geron owns several telomerase related patents. Calvin B. Harley of Geron is one of the co-authors of the Science article. Their page describes programs and products related to cellular aging and Cancer Therapeutics. There has been a recent finding regarding telomerase, a gene which affects the mechanisms controlling human cell replication. The site above provides general information on telomerase, current telomere research, and the use of telemorase in medical practice. Telomerase increases the life-span of a cell, and is thus central to both aging and cancer.



TECOAS 0.9  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More and more persons are telecommuting everyday, and an increasing number may find it necessary to browse or comment on any number of documents interactively. This version of TECOAS provides such an opportunity to interactively browse and discuss a document, and is intended to both help with the co-authoring of papers and to provide a format in which small seminar groups can discuss various works. The website for the application also includes a helpful user's manual. TECOAS 0.9 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X or Windows 95 and above.


A novel material processing and manufacturing measurement system by using electronic datum (notice of removal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper (SPIE Paper 68251G) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 19 August 2008 upon learning that two individuals listed as additional co-authors on the manuscript had no prior knowledge of the paper, did not contribute to it, and did not consent to having their names included as co-authors. The names of these two individuals have been or will be deleted from this and all other bibliographic records as far as possible since they have no connection to this paper. Additionally, the names now associated with this publication record, Xiang-Wen Xiong and Wynn L. Bear, are actually the same individual and not two different authors. This is not sanctioned by SPIE. As stated in the SPIE Guidelines for Professional Conduct and Publishing Ethics, "SPIE considers it the professional responsibility of all authors to ensure that the authorship of submitted papers properly reflects the contributions and consent of all authors." A serious violation of these guidelines is evident in this case. It is SPIE policy to remove papers from the SPIE Digital Library where serious professional misconduct has occurred and to impose additional sanctions as appropriate.

Bear, Wynn L.; Xiong, Xiang-Wen; Roth, John T.; Schoen, Marco P.



Ultra-accuracy parallel electronic datum optical metrology system of systems (notice of removal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper (SPIE Paper 682925) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 19 August 2008 upon learning that two individuals listed as additional co-authors on the manuscript had no prior knowledge of the paper, did not contribute to it, and did not consent to having their names included as co-authors. The names of these two individuals have been or will be deleted from this and all other bibliographic records as far as possible since they have no connection to this paper. Additionally, the remaining names associated with this publication record, Xiang-Wen Xiong and Wynn L. Bear, are actually the same individual and not two different authors. This is not sanctioned by SPIE. As stated in the SPIE Guidelines for Professional Conduct and Publishing Ethics, "SPIE considers it the professional responsibility of all authors to ensure that the authorship of submitted papers properly reflects the contributions and consent of all authors." A serious violation of these guidelines is evident in this case. It is SPIE policy to remove papers from the SPIE Digital Library where serious professional misconduct has occurred and to impose additional sanctions as appropriate.

Xiong, Xiang-Wen; Bear, Wynn L.; Roth, John T.; Schoen, Marco P.



Costing considerations for maintenance and new construction coating work  

SciTech Connect

This paper updates ``Updated Protective Coating Costs, Products, and Service Life`` on protective coating costing and selection co-authored by G. H. Brevoort, M. F. MeLampy and K. R. Shields. Beginning with this edition, data collection and publication will be co-authored by K. R. Shields, M. F. MeLampy and M. P. Reina. Designed to assist the coatings engineer or specifier in identifying suitable protective coating systems for specific industrial environments, this paper provides guidelines for calculating approximate installed costs, expected coating life for each identified system, and how to determine the most cost-effective systems. The effect of maintenance sequences on long-term costs and system performance is also reviewed. New features of this paper include life-cycle and material costs for hot dip galvanizing. Included in the paper are (1) most commonly used generic systems in typical industrial environments, (2) service life for each, (3) current material costs, and (4) current field and shop painting costs. Guidelines for developing long-term life-cycle costs, and number of paintings for the expected life of the structure are included. The basic elements of economic analysis and justification, and how to prepare a Present Value Analysis are also addressed. Worksheets and examples are provided to aid the reader in the proper use of the information.

Reina, M.P.; Shields, K.R.; MeLampy, M.F. [KTA-TATOR, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)



Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images. The imaging files were shared via the Advanced Technology Consortium. A program developed by one of the co-authors (I.E.N.) used binomial maximum-likelihood estimates to generate a 95% group consensus contour. The computer-estimated consensus contours were then reviewed by the group and modified to provide a final contouring consensus atlas. Results: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer. The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusion: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail:; Garofalo, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Apte, Aditya; Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale AZ (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J.J. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)



An investigation of siderophore production by oceanic Synechococcus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacteria are significant contributors to global primary production. They can be found in warm high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions where low concentrations of iron are thought to limit primary productivity. Determining how these organisms obtain iron is critical to understanding the biogeochemical cycle of iron and its role as a determinant of marine primary production. Siderophore production has been observed in halotolerant freshwater cyanobacteria (see C.G. Trick and co-authors) and marine heterotrophic bacteria (see A. Butler, M.G. Haygood and co-authors), but to date, siderophore production in truly marine cyanobacteria has not been demonstrated. We examined the response of two marine Synechococcus species (WH7803 and WH8102) to iron stress. Axenic cultures of both Synechococcus species were grown under iron-stressed and iron-replete conditions. The supernatants of these cultures were examined using competitive ligand exchange-cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-CSV), a sensitive method of quantitative ligand detection. Observing ligand accumulation in culture is an analytical challenge due to the low cell densities and reduced growth rates of iron stressed marine cyanobacteria. Preliminary results suggest the presence of an iron-binding ligand in the iron-stressed cultures which was not present under iron-replete conditions. The amount of ligand produced by Synechococcus was approximately 1 × 10-18 mol/cell, comparable with the amount produced by marine heterotrophic bacteria (K. Barbeau, pers. comm.).

Wisniewski, R. J.; Webb, E. A.; Moffett, J. W.



Recent advances in heartworm disease.  


This compilation of articles consists of four papers presented at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) (held in New Orleans, LA, USA, on 10–14 August 2003) in a symposium session titled “ Recent Advances in Heartworm Disease,” organized and chaired by JohnW. McCall and Jorge Guerrero. The first paper(Guerrero) covered the American Heartworm Society’s most recent revision of their guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in dogs, based on new research and clinical experience, particularly in the areas of heartworm chemoprophylaxis, adulticide therapy,and serologic testing and retesting. The entire updated 2003 “Guidelines” are presented herein.One paper (McCall) reviewed the “soft-kill” adulticidal and “safety-net” (reach-back, retroactive,clinical prophylactic) activity of prolonged dosing of prophylactic doses of macrocyclic lactones,concluding that ivermectin is the most effective in this way, milbemycin oxime is the least effective,and the activity of injectable moxidectin and selamectin lies between that of ivermectin and milbemycin oxime. The two remaining papers provided an overview of the discovery, rediscovery,phylogeny, and biological association between Wolbachia endosymbionts and filarial nematodes(Genchi and co-authors) and compelling evidence that Wolbachia may play a major role in the immunopathogenesis of filarial diseases of man and animals (Kramer and co-authors). PMID:24937882

Guerrero, J; McCall, J W; Genchi, C; Bazzocchi, C; Kramer, L; Simòn, F; Martarino, M



Research Performance of Chinese Geoscientists and International Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International collaboration has become increasingly important for Chinese geoscientists to excel in their careers. Here we present bibliometric evidence that top performing geoscientists in China tend to have international collaboration experiences. In this work we define top performers as those who have published most papers in American Geophysical Union (AGU)'s journals, and international collaboration as having co-authored papers with people whose major affiliations are not in China. We selected top performers as the 50 scientists who published most papers in AGU journals in all years excluding 2011. Among the top performers 96% of them have published with foreign co-authors in AGU journals. This is a clear indication that international collaboration can be very important to enhance performance. Another indication of the importance of international collaboration is that number of citations that each paper received by internationally collaborated papers is significantly higher than that by China-affiliation-alone papers. An example is that the top 10 papers that received most citations are all international collaboration papers.

Ma, C.; Li, S.



New Study Documents the Dramatic Effect of Industrial Fishing across the World's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a study published in the journal _Nature_, co-authors Ramsom Myers and Boris Worm concluded that 90 percent of the world's large fishes have disappeared from the world's oceans over the past fifty years, attributing this phenomenon to industrial fishing. Utilizing data from the past 47 years, Myers and Worm looked at the precipitous decline in the populations of species such as tuna, marlin, and swordfish. The report noted that the largest population decline began when industrial fishing became increasingly ubiquitous in the early 1950s around the world. As Myers noted in a recent interview, "Humans have always been very good at killing big animals. Ten thousand years ago, with just some pointed sticks, humans managed to wipe out the wooly mammoth, saber tooth tigers, mastodons and giant vampire bats." While several individuals in the fishing industry took exception to the tone of the report, co-author Worm noted that there were potential solutions to the problem, including declaring certain fishing areas as "off-limits." Other experts have commented that it also makes sense for the fishing industry to investigate the expansion of aquaculture, along with a more strict adherence to conservation policies.The first link will take visitors to an online news article from about this recent study that contains comments from the co-authors and representatives of the fishing industry. The second link leads to the report by Myers and Worm in the most recent issue of the journal _Nature_. The third link will take visitors to a site maintained by the United Nations Division for Sustainable Development that highlights partnerships and programs developed by various countries to effectively maintain the productivity and viability of their coastlines and surrounding oceans. The fourth link leads to a nice compendium of international fishing treaties and agreements that stretches back to the 1923 Convention for the Preservation of the Halibut Treaty. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the Global Aquaculture Alliance, and contains information about ongoing projects in aquaculture around the world. The final link leads to a site devoted to providing "complete background information on every species of whale, dolphin, and porpoise," along with offering details about whale watching and the evolution of cetaceans. [KMG

Grinnell, Max


The Different Wavelengths of Radio Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Science covers many different avenues. This summer I attempted to work in each of the different avenues to learn the full range of subjects covered by Radio Science. I began my summer by traveling to Greece for the 3rd International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-3). I went as a co-author of the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) team paper. My first job when I returned from Greece was to update the Radio Science activities webpage. I then used Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to find radio signals in recorded Radio Science experimental data and determine frequencies and powers. I read about and ran Fortran code being used to determine wind measurements on Huygens. I formatted and revised the abstracts and data lengths for the DVD data sets. By performing these tasks, I also learned the Unix operating system as well as a small amount of shell programming.

Malecha, Jessica L.



Evidence-based of nonoperative treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  


Until now because there are many published journals with a variety of opinions so I will stratify these articles by giving weighted value on grade evaluation which depend on each institution (written author and co-authors) and external evaluate status (SCI, SCIE, impact factor) rather than the outcomes provided by each article. Consequently, before evaluating publicized papers, study quality assessment of each interesting paper should be performed by mean of gauging the quality of evidence. Reviewing these articles, a grade of medical literature was divided into the following 5 levels as level I (randomized controlled study), level II (non-randomized controlled study), level III (case-control study), level IV (case series), and level V (expert opinions). However, in present article I concluded only involved medical literatures with weighted value of level I and II evidence. PMID:25346826

Kim, Hak-Sun



Alexander Hamilton: The Man Who Made Modern America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alexander Hamilton was not only a member of the First Continental Congress but was also a co-author of the Federalist Papers and a vital force behind the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. To honor Hamilton the New York Historical Society has created a special museum exhibit that is due to open in September 2004 at its building in New York City. The actual exhibit is complemented nicely by this online exhibit that offers a timeline of events during (and after) his life, the Hamilton Log which offers highlights from his writings, and a biographical gallery of his peers, such as DeWitt Clinton and Robert Morris. The site is rounded out by a twenty-question quiz that tests visitor's knowledge of Alexander Hamilton and his various accomplishments.


College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year, the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded jointly to economist Alvin E. Roth and mathematician Lloyd S. Shapley for their work on market design and matching theory, which relate to how people and companies find and select one another in everything from marriage to school choice to jobs to organ donations. Shapley first developed his ideas on analyzing resource allocation in a classic early paper co-authored with David Gale titled "College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage". Recently, the Mathematical Association of America plucked this 1962 article out of their fine archives and placed it online for the general public. Today, the article remains one of the American Mathematical Monthly's most cited works.


Quantum Theta Functions and Gabor Frames for Modulation Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representations of the celebrated Heisenberg commutation relations in quantum mechanics (and their exponentiated versions) form the starting point for a number of basic constructions, both in mathematics and mathematical physics (geometric quantization, quantum tori, classical and quantum theta functions) and signal analysis (Gabor analysis). In this paper we will try to bridge the two communities, represented by the two co-authors: that of noncommutative geometry and that of signal analysis. After providing a brief comparative dictionary of the two languages, we will show, e.g. that the Janssen representation of Gabor frames with generalized Gaussians as Gabor atoms yields in a natural way quantum theta functions, and that the Rieffel scalar product and associativity relations underlie both the functional equations for quantum thetas and the Fundamental Identity of Gabor analysis.

Luef, Franz; Manin, Yuri I.



The analysis of PIP and BLZ latitude data and the free diurnal nutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The values of the period (0.61 years from PIP and 0.58 years from BLZ data), the amplitude (0.012 arcseconds from PIP, 0.014 arcseconds from BLZ) and the phase (300 degrees from PIP, 320 degrees from BLZ; epoch: 1900.0) of the free diurnal nutation were computed using 13 years of Punta Indio (PIP data in the Hipparcos reference frame) and 37 years of the Belgrade (BLZ data in FK5 reference frame) homogenized latitude data. Both reductions are in line with MERIT Standards, with the standard IAU 1976 precession and IAU 1980 nutation. Direct Fourier transform analysis was applied to the data, and the results presented here (compared with each other and with the others) can be used to make some remarks concerning the IAU 1980 nutation model and polar motion. Co-Author: Maria Silvina De Biasi/UNLP, Argentina.

Damljanovic, Goran; et al.


Interview: stemming vision loss with stem cells: seeing is believing.  


Professor Coffey joined the faculty at the University of Oxford in 1987 on completing his doctoral work. In 1989, he was awarded a personal Royal Society Research Fellowship, at the same time moving to the University of Sheffield to establish a new laboratory for retinal transplantation. After 14 years at the University of Sheffield, Prof. Coffey was appointed Professor in the newly built Henry Wellcome building for translational eye research at the Institute of Ophthalmology in London. Prof. Coffey has many years experience in cellular therapies as applied to retinal transplantation and was recently the principal author and co-author of two landmark papers demonstrating that grafting human cells could prevent visual loss. As Professor and head of Ocular Biology and Therapeutics, Prof. Coffey has established the London Project to Cure Blindness. This project aims to deliver a stem cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration by 2011. PMID:19580400

Coffey, Pete



Trying differently: A relationship-centered approach to representing clients with cognitive challenges.  


This article demonstrates the usefulness of an innovative framework called "Relationship-Centered Lawyering" to enhancing real world legal practice. It uses the example of lawyers, particularly criminal defense lawyers, who often deal with clients with cognitive challenges. The article developed out of a series of workshops conducted jointly by the co-authors, an American law professor with a social work background, and a Canadian criminal defense lawyer and family mediator who is an international expert on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and other Neuro-Behavioral Disorders (FA/NB). The paper describes the relational theory Brooks developed (along with Robert Madden), along with the science of cognitive impairments, with a specific focus on FA/NB. The paper provides two illustrations of the relational framework by explaining Boulding's strategy of creating what is called the "external brain" and his techniques of relational interviewing. PMID:20888044

Boulding, David M; Brooks, Susan L



‘The world is full of big bad wolves’: investigating the experimental therapeutic spaces of R.D. Laing and Aaron Esterson  

PubMed Central

In conjunction with the recent critical assessments of the life and work of R.D. Laing, this paper seeks to demonstrate what is revealed when Laing’s work on families and created spaces of mental health care are examined through a geographical lens. The paper begins with an exploration of Laing’s time at the Tavistock Clinic in London during the 1960s, and of the co-authored text with Aaron Esterson entitled, Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964). The study then seeks to demonstrate the importance Laing and his colleague placed on the time-space situatedness of patients and their worlds. Finally, an account is provided of Laing’s and Esterson’s spatial thinking in relation to their creation of both real and imagined spaces of therapeutic care. PMID:25114145



1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

Not Available



Museum of Southwestern Biology: Division of Birds-Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Division of Birds at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, this website contains a collection of downloadable publications regarding a number of bird species. The publications are all authored (or co-authored) by Robert W. Dickerman, a Research Associate Professor and Acting Curator for the Division of Birds. Professor Dickerman's articles have appeared in such publications as _Journal of Raptor Research_, _Western Birds_, _Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington_, _The Southwestern Naturalist_, and _The AUK_ between the years 1991 and 2004. Titles found at this site include "A review of the North American subspecies of the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)," "Talon-Locking in the Red-Tailed Hawk," "An Extinct Subspecies of Sharp-Tailed Grouse," and "On the Validity of Bubo virginianus occidentalis Stone," to name a few.


Caffeine Appears To Be Beneficial In MalesÂ?But Not FemalesÂ?With Lou GehrigÂ?s Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an APS press release on a study, entitled 'Caffeine Reduces Motor Performance and Antioxidant Enzyme Capacity in the Brain of Female G93A Mice, An Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)', that was conducted by Rajini Seevaratnam1 supervised by Mazen J. Hamadeh1,2 , and co-authored by Sandeep Raha2 and Mark A. Tarnopolsky2 (1School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada). The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS;, which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting that was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.



Community College Non-Science Undergraduates Observe Exoplanet Transits with 8-inch Observatory in Glendale, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the 8-inch Celestron telescopes at the Glendale Community College North Observatory in Glendale, Arizona, a group of undergraduate students, most of whom are non-science majors, observed exoplanet transits during the Fall 2014 semester. These students, members of the Glendale Community College’s Astronomy Students for Telescope Research and Outreach (A.S.T.R.O.) Club, selected targets observable with telescopes of this size and the conditions of the sky. With these observations and using concepts and skills learned in introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, the co-authors recorded detections of exoplanet transits consistent with published professional results. These results demonstrate that post-secondary institutions can teach hands-on, practical astronomy experience given equipment that is readily available and affordable, regardless of the size of the student body majoring in the physical sciences.

Gleim, Brian; Esteban, Henry; Lincoln, Connor; Price, Jason; Giroux, Elizabeth; Lentowski, Noreen; Valencia, Leslie; Morris, Bryce; Smith, Blake; Leffler, Chris; Bonilla, Matt; Watt, Sara D.



US Environmental Protection Agency Watershed Academy Web: Online Training in Watershed Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Watershed Academy offers training opportunities for ecologists, managers, and others interested in watersheds. Additionally, 20 Academy 2000 Distance Learning Modules are now available online to highlight key watershed management topics. While some modules are under construction, those currently available provide a solid backbone in many important areas such as Principles of Watershed Management, Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, Watershed Modeling, Economics of Sustainability, and Stream Corridor Restoration. Modules vary in depth (and intended audience), but all are (co)-authored by prominent scientists in the field of watershed ecology. Designed to reach a broad audience, many modules are provided in slide format (navigable by clicking on arrows) and could be supplemented with more technical readings; others are given in .pdf format. The inclusion of color photographs throughout, such as in the Ohio's Virtual Watershed Tour module, supplements the learning experience by providing illustrations and examples of important concepts.


People Make Places: Growing the Public Life of Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos is a public policy and advocacy think-tank based in Britain that is well-regarded for its diverse studies on such timely issues as urban governance, the public and the media, and a number of other topics. This latest report from co-authors Melissa Mean and Charlie Tims takes on the always-timely theme of how cities might create more effective public spaces in cities that will work well for a wide host of constituencies. The 41-page report is based on intensive qualitative research done in the British towns of Cardiff, Preston, and Swindon. The report has a broad agenda, as it offers a number of suggestions and policy initiatives for how effective public spaces might boost peopleâÂÂs participation in public space and âÂÂthe wider public life of their town or cityâÂÂ.



Pierre Curie, 1859–1906  

PubMed Central

The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background—his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years. PMID:17576470

Mould, R.F.



Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.


Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-print Network

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert



Evidence-Based of Nonoperative Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Until now because there are many published journals with a variety of opinions so I will stratify these articles by giving weighted value on grade evaluation which depend on each institution (written author and co-authors) and external evaluate status (SCI, SCIE, impact factor) rather than the outcomes provided by each article. Consequently, before evaluating publicized papers, study quality assessment of each interesting paper should be performed by mean of gauging the quality of evidence. Reviewing these articles, a grade of medical literature was divided into the following 5 levels as level I (randomized controlled study), level II (non-randomized controlled study), level III (case-control study), level IV (case series), and level V (expert opinions). However, in present article I concluded only involved medical literatures with weighted value of level I and II evidence. PMID:25346826



Obesity and what we need do about it- an interview with John Wass.  


In this podcast we talk to Professor John Wass, co-author of the 'Action on obesity: Comprehensive care for all' report, and Chair of the Working Party for Action on Obesity in the UK. In this interview Prof Wass discusses the gaps in care for obese patients in current UK healthcare services, and outlines his recommendations on what actions should be taken to tackle these issues, including how education about nutrition and obesity should be offered to the public as well as within the formal medical education system.The podcast for this interview is available at: PMID:25163891

Wass, John



Narratives, choices, alienation, and identity: learning from an elementary science teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we contemplate on teacher identity research, there is a need to place a teacher's narratives or story-lines at the center of that work. In this forum, in response to the insightful commentary from Stephen Ritchie and Maria Iñez Mafra Goulart and Eduardo Soares, I place a greater emphasis on understanding Daisy's narratives from an existing social identity framework. Narratives tell us intricate and complex actions that a teacher has taken both personally and professionally. Additionally, narratives help us see implicit nature of identity explicitly. Therefore, a greater focus has to be placed on interactions and utterances of a teacher to make sense of who they are and what they do as expressed by their own words (identity and action). Finally, I join with Ritchie and Goulart and Soares to advocate that identity research needs to include participants as co-researchers and co-authors as identities are very personal and complex to be fully understood by the outsiders (researchers).

Upadhyay, Bhaskar



Assessing the Montevideo Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

This paper gives a philosophical assessment of the Montevideo interpretation of quantum theory, advocated by Gambini, Pullin and co-authors. This interpretation has the merit of linking its proposal about how to solve the measurement problem to the search for quantum gravity: namely by suggesting that quantum gravity makes for fundamental limitations on the accuracy of clocks, which imply a type of decoherence that "collapses the wave-packet". I begin (Section 2) by sketching the topics of decoherence, and quantum clocks, on which the interpretation depends. Then I expound the interpretation, from a philosopher's perspective (Sections 3, 4 and 5). Finally, in Section 6, I argue that the interpretation, at least as developed so far, is best seen as a form of the Everett interpretation: namely with an effective or approximate branching, that is induced by environmental decoherence of the familiar kind, and by the Montevideans' "temporal decoherence".

Jeremy Butterfield




E-print Network

All the respective authors are the sole owner and responsible of published research and research papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s). For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors. COPYRIGHT Copyright©2012 IJSRP.ORG All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as described below, without the permission in writing of the Publisher. Copying of articles is not permitted except for personal and internal use, to the extent permitted by national copyright law, or under the terms of a license issued by the national Reproduction Rights Organization. All the published research can be referenced by readers/scholars/researchers in their further research with proper citation given to original authors. DISCLAIMER

Onanong Sukjai; Piyapong Asanithi; Supanee L



X-Ray Emission from Pre-Main-Sequence Stars - Testing the Solar Analogy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This LTSA award funds my research on the origin of stellar X-ray emission and the solar-stellar analogy. The focus during most of this reporting period continued to be on the reduction and analysis of data acquired with the ASCA observatory (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics). During the last few months of this reporting period, considerable time and effort was also devoted to the submission of AXAF observing proposals in preparation for the upcoming AXAF launch. During this reporting period, five papers appeared in refereed journals for which I was either author or co-author, and two additional papers have recently been submitted to ApJ. Also, three conference proceedings papers were submitted. These publications are listed in the attached bibliography.

Skinner, Stephen L.



Equipment and skills shortage in Uzbekistan.  


In this article, supplied with the help of the International Federation of Hospital Engineering (IFHE), five co-authors from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)--a German organisation that seeks to encourage and co-ordinate international cooperation in areas ranging from sustainable development to fund management, and its partner organisation, IFHE member, the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine (RRCEM) in Uzbekistan, discuss the use of medical technology in the central Asian country. They also explain how a GIZ project is helping to boost the number of skilled staff, improve quality assurance and management in procurement, logistics, and maintenance, and promote good training of medical and technical staff, across Uzbekistan. PMID:24930180

Khodjibaev, Abdukhakim M; Anvarov, Khikmat; Borisova, Elena; Schmitt, Roger; Murotova, Nigora



Concept similarity in publications precedes cross-disciplinary collaboration.  


Innovative science frequently occurs as a result of cross-disciplinary collaboration, the importance of which is reflected by recent NIH funding initiatives that promote communication and collaboration. If shared research interests between collaborators are important for the formation of collaborations,methods for identifying these shared interests across scientific domains could potentially reveal new and useful collaboration opportunities. MEDLINE represents a comprehensive database of collaborations and research interests, as reflected by article co-authors and concept content. We analyzed six years of citations using information retrieval based methods to compute articles conceptual similarity, and found that articles by basic and clinical scientists who later collaborated had significantly higher average similarity than articles by similar scientists who did not collaborate.Refinement of these methods and characterization of found conceptual overlaps could allow automated discovery of collaboration opportunities that are currently missed. PMID:18999254

Post, Andrew R; Harrison, James H



Thin helical vortex dynamics in low-viscosity liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of helical vortices description has the significant interest as from fundamental point of view as well for practice. In some sense this problem is close to the vortex ring one which attracted much more attention in last decades. The reviews on the vortex rings investigations can be found in recent papers [1,2] or in book by Akhmetov [3]. In particular, in series of papers by Kaplanskii with co-authors [4-6] there was considered the viscosity influence on the vortex ring evolution. Separate attention was paid to the low Reynolds number case and to high Reynolds number one, initial stage of viscous evolution and final one. This paper presents first attempt for research on the diffusion and dynamics of a viscous helical vortex.

Agafontseva, M. V.; Kuibin, P. A.



Acid-rain publications by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is an annotated bibliography of acid-rain and related air-quality publications authored or co-authored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees or that have been supported by Service funding. The bibliography covers 10 years of research from 1979 to 1989. Research projects have covered the effects of acidity on water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Specific projects have addressed important fish species such as rainbow trout, brook trout, Atlantic salmon, and striped bass. In addition to lake and stream studies, wetland and some terrestrial habitat work has also been conducted. Also included in the report is research on the ecological effects of liming surface waters and surrounding watersheds.

Villella, R.F.



The Initial Nine Space Settlements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.



The Central Regions of NGC 1068  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the central regions of a classic Seyfert galaxy, NGC 1068 via high-resolution images obtained with NICMOS on HST. As the closest Seyfert 2 galaxy it offers an excellent opportunity for resolving small-scale structure. In the NICMOS images the location of the nucleus is easily observed. Images in Paschen ? and [Si vi] show the structure of the galaxy at two different excitation levels. The author would like to acknowledge the large efforts by Ranga-Ram Chary, Michael Corbin, and Harland Epps who are co-authors on the work in preparation. This work is supported in part by NASA grant NAG 5-3042. This article is based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Thompson, Rodger I.


Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.



Comment on "Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peat bog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration" by Yamulki et al. (2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yamulki and co-authors address in their recent publication the important issue of net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from peatlands where land use conversion has taken place. In their case, they studied conversion to forestry versus peatland restoration after a first rotation of plantation forestry. They monitored soil-derived fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using opaque chamber measurements on planted and unplanted control treatments (with or without drainage), and an unplanted plot within a restored (felled) block on former lowland raised bog. They propose that their measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at these sites suggest that the total net GHG emissions, in 100 yr carbon dioxide equivalents, of the restored peat bog would be higher than that of the peat bog with trees. We believe there are a number of issues with the measurement, calculation and comparison of these greenhouse budgets that may invalidate this conclusion.

Artz, R. R. E.; Chapman, S. J.; Saunders, M.; Evans, C. D.; Matthews, R. B.



RETRACTED: Fast neutron interrogation system development for the detection of explosive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article has been removed at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Authors. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( Reason: this article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and authors as it contains serious errors. This proceedings paper did not fully provide readers with the whole process of the experiment because of page limitations. This short paper resulted in prejudiced texts as well as absurd figures in regard with public information of detecting explosive materials against terrorism. The authors will revise the paper after a comprehensive discussion with the co-authors before resubmitting formally an article to NIMA.

Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Tae Joo; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Em, V. T.; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Uk



X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

Pal, Main


Becoming one person: living with dissociative identity disorder.  


Dissociative identity disorder is a rare diagnosis, although people currently with a diagnosis of psychosis may in fact be experiencing what is associated with the disorder. This article is co-authored by a nurse and a person who has lived with alters (multiple personalities) for nearly all of her life. Because of the rarity of the diagnosis, there is much misunderstanding and ignorance among lay people and mental health professionals. This article therefore clarifies historical and contemporary issues surrounding this particular mental health problem both through examining the literature and through narrative of the person's experience. Special attention is given to the reality of coping with the difficulties that dissociative identity disorder create. PMID:16608473

Stickley, T; Nickeas, R



A consensus statement for safety monitoring guidelines of treatments for major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring. Method Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content. Results Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment. Conclusion The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression. PMID:21888608

Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Tiller, John; Schweitzer, Isaac; Hickie, Ian; Khoo, Jon Paul; Bassett, Darryl L; Lyndon, Bill; Mitchell, Philip B; Parker, Gordon; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Udina, Marc; Singh, Ajeet; Moylan, Steven; Giorlando, Francesco; Doughty, Carolyn; Davey, Christopher G; Theodoras, Michael; Berk, Michael



Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology: Calendar Year 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This [summary of] U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-585 contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology during 1991. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may generally be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225

Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.



Production and Validation of Isotope Production Cross Section Libraries for Neutrons and Protons to 1.7 GeV  

E-print Network

For validation and development of codes and for modeling isotope production in high power accelerators and APT Materials studies, we have produced experimental, calculated, and evaluated activation libraries for interaction of nucleons with nuclides covering about a third of all natural elements. For targets considered here, our compilation of experimental data is the most complete we are aware of, since it contains all data available on the Web, in journal papers, laboratory reports, theses, and books, as well as all data included in the large compilation by Sobolevsky with co-authors (NUCLEX) published recently by Springer-Verlag in 4 volumes. Our evaluated library was produced using all available experimental cross sections together with calculations by the CEM95, LAHET, and HMS-ALICE codes and with the European Activation File EAF-97 and LANL Update II of the ECNAF Neutron Activation Cross-Section Library.

S. G. Mashnik; A. J. Sierk; K. A. Van Riper; W. B. Wilson



Production and Validation of Isotope Production Cross Section Libraries for Neutrons and Protons to 1.7 GeV  

E-print Network

For validation and development of codes and for modeling isotope production in high power accelerators and APT Materials studies, we have produced experimental, calculated, and evaluated activation libraries for interaction of nucleons with nuclides covering about a third of all natural elements. For targets considered here, our compilation of experimental data is the most complete we are aware of, since it contains all data available on the Web, in journal papers, laboratory reports, theses, and books, as well as all data included in the large compilation by Sobolevsky with co-authors (NUCLEX) published recently by Springer-Verlag in 4 volumes. Our evaluated library was produced using all available experimental cross sections together with calculations by the CEM95, LAHET, and HMS-ALICE codes and with the European Activation File EAF-97 and LANL Update II of the ECNAF Neutron Activation Cross-Section Library.

Mashnik, S G; Van Riper, K A; Wilson, W B



Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

Tiffan, Kenneth F. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)



Coldwater fish in wadeable streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Standardizing sampling methods for fish populations across large regions is important for consistent measurement of large-scale effects of climate or geography. In addition, pooling samples creates larger sample sizes and can facilitate data sharing among scientists and land managers. Sampling freshwater fish has largely not been standardized due to the diversity of fish and habitats. USGS aquatic ecologist Jason Dunham and co-authors contributed a chapter about sampling coldwater fish in wadeable streams to a new book that details common methods, protocols, and guidelines for sampling fish across North America. Topics include three common sampling methods: electrofishing, snorkeling, and nest counts. Each method provides complementary information about different species and life stages. The information will be useful for initiating new or fine-tuning ongoing sampling programs.

Dunham, Jason B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Thurow, Russell F.; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Howell, Philip J.



IAPPP and the Pro-Am Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IAPPP (International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry) was born in June 1980 at a time when amateurs doing photoelectric photometry were few in number and working largely in isolation and without guidance or respect from professional astronomers. The IAPPP credo is "to facilitate collaborative research between amateur and professional astronomers". Included almost from the beginning were college professors (not necessarily astronomers by specialty) wishing to do meaningful research with their small campus telescopes and involving their students. Today we see a different and better world. To date, issues of the quarterly IAPPP Communications have been mailed to members/subscribers in 73 different countries and 78 IAPPP Symposia, many including technical how-to workshops, have been held in 8 different countries. A regular feature in the Communications has documented 518 scientific papers published and co-authored by amateurs in mainstream astronomical journals. More than 71 new variable stars have been discovered photoelectrically by amateurs, 42 percent of naked-eye brightness. A Special Session of the 165th AAS meeting in Tucson was dedicated to IAPPP. Amateurs, not professionals, were behind the renaissance of remote computer-controlled photometric telescopes that today are mainstream. Full-length books on photoelectric photometry have been authored or co-authored by almost as many amateurs as professionals. Photoelectric observing projects outlined in past issues of the Communications have involved not only stars (variable and otherwise) but also galaxies (including quasars and blazars), Solar System objects (the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets), occultation events, and even light pollution and atmospheric extinction. IAPPP has naturally embraced the advent of CCD photometry, inasmuch as CCD's are photoelectric devices - photons in, electrons out. Meaningful research by amateurs using the powerful technique of photoelectric photometry is no longer a potential touted by only a few professionals. It is a reality recognized by most. For more on amateur/professional collaboration, photoelectric photometry, and IAPPP, contact

Hall, D. S.



From the guest editors.  


Carlos Castilo-Chavez is a Regents Professor, a Joaquin Bustoz Jr. Professor of Mathematical Biology, and a Distinguished Sustainability Scientist at Arizona State University. His research program is at the interface of the mathematical and natural and social sciences with emphasis on (i) the role of dynamic social landscapes on disease dispersal; (ii) the role of environmental and social structures on the dynamics of addiction and disease evolution, and (iii) Dynamics of complex systems at the interphase of ecology, epidemiology and the social sciences. Castillo-Chavez has co-authored over two hundred publications (see goggle scholar citations) that include journal articles and edited research volumes. Specifically, he co-authored a textbook in Mathematical Biology in 2001 (second edition in 2012); a volume (with Harvey Thomas Banks) on the use of mathematical models in homeland security published in SIAM's Frontiers in Applied Mathematics Series (2003); and co-edited volumes in the Series Contemporary Mathematics entitled '' Mathematical Studies on Human Disease Dynamics: Emerging Paradigms and Challenges'' (American Mathematical Society, 2006) and Mathematical and Statistical Estimation Approaches in Epidemiology (Springer-Verlag, 2009) highlighting his interests in the applications of mathematics in emerging and re-emerging diseases. Castillo-Chavez is a member of the Santa Fe Institute's external faculty, adjunct professor at Cornell University, and contributor, as a member of the Steering Committee of the '' Committee for the Review of the Evaluation Data on the Effectiveness of NSF-Supported and Commercially Generated Mathematics Curriculum Materials,'' to a 2004 NRC report. The CBMS workshop '' Mathematical Epidemiology with Applications'' lectures delivered by C. Castillo-Chavez and F. Brauer in 2011 have been published by SIAM in 2013. PMID:24245643

Chowell, Gerardo; Feng, Zhilan; Song, Baojun



Fabric measurement along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) profile along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland, is presented in this work. Data were measured in the field by an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin climatic transition. A similar strengthening, toward an anisotropic single maximum-type fabric, has been observed in several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and can be attributed to a positive feedback between changes in ice viscosity at the climatic transition, and the impact of a shear component of stress. Centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the folding hypothesis used for a climatic reconstruction by Dahl-Jensen and co authors (2013). Comparison is made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NorthGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. The fabric profile clearly reflects the increase in shear deformation when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NorthGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NorthGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NorthGRIP. References: Dahl-Jensen, D. and 120 co-authors. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, Nature, 493, 489-493, 2013.

Montagnat, Maurine; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe; Eichler, Jan; Fujita, Shuji; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Samyn, Denis; Svensson, Anders; Weikusat, Ilka



Improving and Evaluating Ice-Phase Precipitation Models for GPM Radar-Radiometer Algorithm Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar - GPM Microwave Imager (DPR-GMI) combined radar-radiometer precipitation algorithm will provide, in principle, the most accurate and highest resolution estimates of surface rainfall rate and precipitation vertical structure from a spaceborne observing platform. In addition to direct applications of these precipitation estimates, they will serve as a crucial reference for cross-calibrating passive microwave precipitation profile estimates from the GPM radiometer constellation. And through the microwave radiometer estimates, the combined algorithm calibration will ultimately be propagated to GPM infrared-microwave multi-satellite estimates of surface rainfall. However, in order to obtain accurate estimates of precipitation profiles from the DPR-GMI algorithm, the underlying physical parameterizations incorporated in the algorithm must be realistic and representative. One potential contributor to algorithm parameterization error is the description of the single-scattering properties of ice-phase precipitation. Studies performed by the co-authors, and those of other scientists in the remote sensing community, indicate that ice-phase precipitation particles are more accurately modeled using explicit, non-spherical particle geometries. The co-authors recently developed computationally feasible methods for simulating large and diverse sets of non-spherical, aggregate ice particles and their single-scattering properties. The bulk single-scattering properties of these particles have been incorporated into a prototype of the DPR-GMI algorithm, and applications of this prototype to airborne radar-radiometer observations from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) demonstrate greater consistency with simultaneous Ku-Ka band (13 and 35 GHz) radar and higher-frequency microwave (89-183 GHz) radiometer observations, relative to applications employing simpler particle models. Comparisons of different ice particle simulations to radar-radiometer data, and to simultaneous in situ microphysics probe data, will be presented at the;img border=0 src="images/H23H-03_B.jpg">

Olson, W. S.; Kuo, K.; Johnson, B. T.; Grecu, M.; Tian, L.; Heymsfield, A.; Munchak, S. J.



Pullback attractors in nonautonomous dynamical systems with delay: Applications to an ENSO model with seasonal forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work by two of the co-authors (MDC and MG) on random dynamical systems and their attractors has motivated us to consider also a closely related problem, namely the pullback attractors (PBAs) of deterministic dynamical systems driven by time-dependent forcing. Two obvious examples of such forcing in climate dynamics are: (i) periodic forcing by the seasonal cycle; and (ii) slow forcing by an interdecadal warming trend. We illustrate these two types of forcing in a highly idealized model for El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability, previously studied by two of the co-authors (MG and IZ). The model is governed by a delay differential equation (DDE) for sea surface temperature T in the Tropical Pacific, and it combines two key mechanisms that participate in ENSO dynamics: delayed negative feedback and seasonal forcing. We perform a theoretical and numerical study of the model in the three-dimensional space of its physically relevant parameters: strength of seasonal forcing, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and propagation period of oceanic waves across the Tropical Pacific. We report several findings that are consistent with the observed dynamics of ENSO, as well as with more detailed and realistic models: quasi-periodic behavior with the correct "period" values, phase locking, and sensitive dependence on model parameters. We demonstrate, furthermore, that the transition from smooth period-1 behavior to more realistic --- quasi-periodic or chaotic --- behavior occurs in a sequence of bifurcations similar to those observed in classical chaotic systems. We study next a multi-dimensional manifold of solutions, given by constant or piecewise constant initial histories, e.g. a constant, year-long warm (El Nino) or cold (La Nina) state. To do so, we apply the PBA concept in order to study the model dynamics in the model-parameter region where sensitivity to parameter values is high, as well as in the transition region from smooth to sensitive behavior. Computation of the model's PBAs clearly demonstrates that its dynamics --- whether periodic (smooth) or quasi-periodic (sensitive) --- occurs on a two-dimensional torus. This behavior reflects the competition between two oscillatory mechanisms: an external one due to the seasonal forcing and an internal one due to the delayed feedbacks. Such an interpretation is much harder to obtain from the complex, parameter-sensitive dynamics of the model using more traditional approaches for autonomous systems. Finally, we study the model dynamics subject to long-tem global warming scenarios and interpret the results in the context of the ongoing research on long-term climate projections.

Chekroun, Mickaël.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Ghil, Michael



New directions in management of SAPHO syndrome.  


To talk about SAPHO syndrome means to discuss its entity. It is a great honour to me as guest editor to greet you and to present to you the following scientific articles dealing with different aspects of the SAPHO syndrome. We are pleased to welcome experts in the fields of epidemiology, etiology, clinical aspects, imaging procedures and treatment modalities. Furthermore, I have been grateful to be able to invite a review board to read the articles and to support the authors with scientific remarks and interesting corrections. First, we will start with the introduction by Prof. Dr. Koehler, University of Saarland, Germany, entitled "From sternoclavicluar hyperostosis (SCCH) to SAPHO syndrome - a European story?". Afterwards, Dr. Colina, PhD, Imola, Italy, with co-authors will discuss "the latest state of the art" concerning essential clinical and radiological characteristics of the SAPHO syndrome. The following chapter by Dr. Pfoehler, PhD, University of Saarland, Germany, describes in detail the important dermatological aspects of psoriatic disease and its subentity of palmoplantar pustolosis against a etiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic background to better understand the arthro-osteo-cutaneous character of the SAPHO syndrome. In this context, Dr. Gilles, PhD, University Hospital of Paris, France, with co-authors then discuss the different hypotheses of immunology and the possible autoimmune etiology of SAPHO syndrome. Furthermore, Prof. Dr. Wollheim, University of Lund, Sweden, concludes and elucidates the genetic aspects of the disease. With the regard to different SAPHO manifestations in the childhood, I am thankful that Prof. Dr. Girschick, Pediatric Rheumatology Vivantes Center, Berlin, Germany, has contributed a scientific article dealing with "non-bacterial osteomyelitis in childhood". Last but not least, the article "Trends of SAPHO therapy: should we content?" from Dr. Rozin, PhD, Technion Haifa, Israel, focuses on the antirheumatic treatment modalities, including antibiotic treatment modalities which have been investigated in case series over the last 20 years. It was my intention that all authors touch on the genetic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of SAPHO syndrome not to cause redundancies in the presentation but to discuss the central role of these aspects from a respectively different viewpoint - with the aim of gaining a deep insight into the etiopathogenesis and clinical aspects of SAPHO syndrome. PMID:25139810

Assmann, Gunter



Learning to Rank Figures within a Biomedical Article  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the “bag of figures” assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as “figure ranking”. Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out-domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently. PMID:24625719

Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong



Essays in microeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets. This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races. Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results. We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices. We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass-merchandisers and grocery stores reduce market prices by a larger amount and over a greater distance than other types of gas stations. We demonstrate that our conclusions are not sensitive to the choice of distance metric.

Davies, Tim


Dynamics, flow and melt content of the Southern East Pacific Rise upper mantle from teleseismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mantle ELectromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment at the super-fast spreading Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) was designed to distinguish between passive upwelling in response to basal tractions from the lithosphere, and a more diapiric, focussed upwelling resulting from melt-enhanced buoyancy and viscosity reduction. To distinguish between these models I estimate the distribution of melt and temperature anomalies beneath the SEPR using teleseismic P and S phases recorded on the MELT seismic array. The non-linear tomographic inversion for VP, VS and anisotropy variations includes an a priori model for the mantle flow-induced seismic anisotropy, constraints on smoothness, minimum norm, coupling between VP and VS , and a grid search for the best anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements also constrain the anisotropy. The best fitting models have anisotropy with the symmetry axis horizontal or dipping shallowly to the west (<30°), and magnitudes of VP and VS anomalies approximately 3.7% and 4.7%, respectively. These translate to melt fractions no greater than .013 or temperature variations no greater than 150°C beneath the rise, using relations I estimated for this purpose. The broad distribution (>100 km) of low velocities favors models of passively driven mantle flow. The orientation of the anisotropy favors shallow return flow owing to a 32 mm/yr westward migration of the SEPR and proximity of the South Pacific Superswell. To best infer melt fraction from seismic velocity, I developed quantitative models of seismic wave propagation through upper mantle partial melts. The elastic effects are estimated with finite element representations of grain-scale laboratory-derived melt geometries. Two- and three-dimensional deformation simulations show that the shear modulus is sensitive to melt inclusion geometry and organization. The anelastic effects are modeled analytically as ellipsoidal pores connected by tubes. Melt moves through the tubes in response to variable compression of the ellipsoids from seismic excitation. The results indicate that the relaxation occurs so rapidly that, in the seismic band, little or no attenuation results. Seismic velocities are reduced by at least 3.6% and 7.9% per percent melt for P and S waves, respectively. This dissertation contains both my previously published and co-authored materials and unpublished co-authored materials.

Hammond, William Charles


Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To place the condition monitoring program in perspective); (11) Use of procedures for Predictive, Condition Monitoring and maintenance in general (To get consistent results); (12) Developing a scheme for predictive, condition monitoring personnel qualification and certification (To provide a career path and incentive to advance skill level and value to the company); (13) Analyst Assignment to Technologies and Related Duties (To make intelligent use of the skills of individuals assigned); (14) Condition Monitoring Analyst Selection Criteria (Key attributes for success are mentioned.); (15) Design and Modification to Support Monitoring (For old and new machinery to facilitate data acquisition); (16) Establishment of a Museum of Components and Samples Pulled from Service for Cause (For orientation and awareness training of operators and managers and exchange of information between analysts); (17) Goals (To promote a proactive program approach for machinery condition improvement).

Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.



Evolution of Galaxies and the Star Formation Rate in the Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A central goal of extragalactic observational astronomy is to understand how normal galaxies evolve with redshift, and particularly when galaxies formed their stars. While optical and rest-frame UV observations have begun to address these issues, the interpretation of such data is particularly challenging because of the sensitivity to dust obscuration (at optical and UV wavelengths). The absorbed light is re-radiated at IR wavelengths, hence the optimal indicators of the star formation rate (SFR) is at a rest-frame wavelength of approx. 60 microns. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission is revolutionizing the study of the global properties and evolution of galaxies. Spitzer reaches nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than previous IR space missions. This research program is to study the SFR using statistical samples of galaxies in the local universe, at intermediate redshifts, and set the stage for continuing studies up to z=5. The overall research program is divided into three main investigations: A Mid-IR Hubble Atlas and SFR estimators in the local universe, Evolution of the SFR at 0 < z < 1 using pencil beam redshift surveys, and Galaxy formation and evolution at 1 < z < 5. The first papers from Spitzer were published during the last year, including ten refereed journal papers where the PI was first or co-author.

Pahre, Michael A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)



Towards the determination of the equation of state of hydrogen and helium at extreme densities: Laser induced shocks on pre-compressed samples.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the equation of state of helium and hydrogen at very high density is an important problem at the frontier between condensed matter physics and plasma physics. It is also an important issue in planetary physics for understanding the formation of giant and extrasolar planets. However, the extreme densities relevant to most of the interior of Jupiter are unreachable by either static or single-shock compression techniques alone. Recently, a laser-driven shock-wave in a hydrogen sample, pre-compressed in a diamond anvil cell, has been demonstrated [1]. Consequently, the compression factors of the dynamic and static techniques can now be multiplied. We will present our current effort with the Omega laser at LLE to measure accurately the Hugoniot curves of hydrogen and helium pre-compressed up to 1.5 GPa. The metrology and error bars of the measurements will be discussed. The Hugoniot data points will be compared to published calculations, and an interesting difference in the insulator-metal transition of hydrogen and helium will be discussed. Co-authors are Stephanie Brygoo, CEA, France; Jon Eggert, Peter Celliers, Guilbert Collins, LLNL, Livermore CA 94551 USA; Ryan McWilliam, Raymond Jeanloz, University of California, CA 94720 USA; and Tom Boehly, LLE, New-York 14623 USA. [1] P. Loubeyre et al., High Pressure Research 24, 25- 31 (2004).

Loubeyre, Paul



Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)



Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb ( Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon



Modelling the Neutral Atmosphere and Plasma Environment of Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year of this contract has resulted in two publications with the P.I. and co-I Jurac as lead authors and two publications where these team members are co-authors. These papers discuss modeling work undertaken in preparation for Cassini; the goal was to summarize our current best knowledge of the ion and neutrals sources and distributions. One of the major goals of this project is to improve models of the plasma and neutral environment near Saturn. The paper "A self-consistent model of plasma and neutrals at Saturn: Neutral cloud morphology" [Jurac and Richardson, 20051 presents results on the neutral clouds near Saturn using a model which for the first times treats the ions and neutrals self-consistently. We also for the first time include a directly sputtered H source. The Voyager and HST observations are used as model constraints. The neutral source is adjusted to give a good match to the HST observations of OH. For this initial run the ion parameters from Richardson et al. are used; charge exchange with ions is a major neutral loss process. The neutral profile derived from the model is then used in a model of plasma transport and chemistry (with the plasma diffusion rate the only free parameter). This model gives new values of the ion composition which are then fed back into the neutral model. This iteration continues until the values converge.

Richardson, John D.; Jurac, S.; Johnson, R.; McGrath, M.




PubMed Central

The mapping of time structures, chronomes, constitutes an endeavor spawned by chronobiology: chronomics. This cartography in time shows signatures on the surface of the earth, cycles, also accumulating in life on the earth‘s surface. We append a glossary of these and other cycles, the names being coined in the light of approximate cycle length. These findings are transdisciplinary, in view of their broad representation and critical importance in the biosphere. Suggestions of mechanisms are derived from an analytical statistical documentation of characteristics with superposed epochs and superposed cycles and other „remove-and-replace“ approaches. These approaches use the spontaneously changing presence or absence of an environmental, cyclic or other factor for the study of any corresponding changes in the biosphere. We illustrate the indispensability of the mapping of rhythm characteristics in broader structures, chronomes, along several or all available different time scales. We present results from a cooperative cartography of about 10, about 20, and about 50-year rhythms in the context of a broad endeavor concerned with the Biosphere and the Cosmos, the BIOCOS project. The participants in this project are our co-authors worldwide, beyond Brno and Minneapolis; the studies of human blood pressure and heart rate around the clock and along the week may provide the evidence for those influences that Mendel sought in meteorology and climatology. PMID:19710947

Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Katinas, G.; Dušek, J.; Homolka, P.; Karpíšek, Z.; P. Sonkowsky, R. P.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Fišer, B.; Siegelová, J.



Competing Particle Systems and the Ghirlanda-Guerra Identities  

E-print Network

We study point processes on the real line whose configurations X can be ordered decreasingly and evolve by increments which are functions of correlated gaussian variables. The correlations are intrinsic to the points and quantified by a matrix Q={q_ij}. Quasi-stationary systems are those for which the law of (X,Q) is invariant under the evolution up to translation of X. It was conjectured by Aizenman and co-authors that the matrix Q of robustly quasi-stationary systems must exhibit a hierarchal structure. This was established recently, up to a natural decomposition of the system, whenever the set S_Q of values assumed by q_ij is finite. In this paper, we study the general case where S_Q may be infinite. Using the past increments of the evolution, we show that the law of robustly quasi-stationary systems must obey the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities, which first appear in the study of spin glass models. This provides strong evidence that the above conjecture also holds in the general case.

Louis-Pierre Arguin



Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: “Reflecting” on the Mirror, Part II  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror’s results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession’s progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421566

Weber, Robert J.; Stevenson, James G.; White, Sara J.



Healing in forgiveness: A discussion with Amanda Lindhout and Katherine Porterfield, PhD.  


In 2008, Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped by a group of extremists while traveling as a freelance journalist in Somalia. She and a colleague were held captive for more than 15 months, released only after their families paid a ransom. In this interview, Amanda discusses her experiences in captivity and her ongoing recovery from this experience with Katherine Porterfield, Ph.D. a clinical psychologist at the Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture. Specifically, Amanda describes the childhood experiences that shaped her thirst for travel and knowledge, the conditions of her kidnapping, and her experiences after she was released from captivity. Amanda outlines the techniques that she employed to survive in the early aftermath of her capture, and how these coping strategies changed as her captivity lengthened. She reflects on her transition home, her recovery process, and her experiences with mental health professionals. Amanda's insights provide an example of resilience in the face of severe, extended trauma to researchers, clinicians, and survivors alike. The article ends with an discussion of the ways that Amanda's coping strategies and recovery process are consistent with existing resilience literature. Amanda's experiences as a hostage, her astonishing struggle for physical and mental survival, and her life after being freed are documented in her book, co-authored with Sara Corbett, A House in the Sky. PMID:25317259

Porterfield, Katherine A; Lindhout, Amanda



Ap stars with variable periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars exhibit periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectroscopic variations that can be modelled adequately as a rigidly-rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures. Nevertheless, there is a small sample of diverse mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades while the shapes of their phase curves remain unchanged. Alternating period increases and decreases have been suspected in the hot CP stars CU Vir and V901 Ori, while rotation in the moderately cool star BS Cir has been decelerating. These examples bring new insight into this theoretically unpredicted phenomenon. We discuss possible causes of such behaviour, and propose that dynamic interactions between a thin, outer, magnetically-confined envelope braked by the stellar wind, and an inner faster-rotating stellar body, are able to explain the observed rotational variability. The article is dedicated to one of its co-authors - Dr. Jozef Žiž?ovský who passed away on 15 June 2013.

Mikulášek, Z.; Krti?ka, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Henry, G. W.; Paunzen, E.; Žiž?ovský, J.; Zverko, J.



Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects: how large is too large?  


Transcatheter closure has become an accepted alternative to surgical repair for ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). However, large ASDs (>38 mm) and defects with deficient rims are usually not offered transcatheter closure but are referred for surgical closure. Several studies have reported the feasibility of transcatheter closure in complex cases with a variety of modified implantation methods such as balloon assisted technique (BAT). AA Pillai and co-authors report the transcatheter closure of ASD ?35 mm with the BAT. However, the true significance of their study is rather in demonstrating the superiority of BAT to conventional technique and other modified implantation techniques in patients with ASD rather than feasiblity of transcatheter closure of large defect. Finally, a single dimension does not reflect the true ASD size because many defects are not round in shape but rather oval or even crescentric. Hence, future studies will need not only to demonstrate the ideal implantation method but also the appropriate 3-dimensional (3D) imaging definition of the defect in this patient population. PMID:25009789

Fraisse, Alain; Trivedi, Kalyani R



An analysis of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006  

E-print Network

We extracted and processed abstract data from the SFN annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001-2006, using techniques and software from natural language processing, database management, and data visualization and analysis. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. The resulting co-author graph in 2006, for example, had 39,645 nodes (with an estimated 6% error rate in our disambiguation of similar author names) and 13,979 abstracts, with an average of 1.5 abstracts per author, 4.3 authors per abstract, and 5.96 collaborators per author (including all authors on shared abstracts). Recent work in related areas has focused on reputational indices such as highly cited papers or scientists and journal impact factors, and to a lesser extent on creating visual maps of the knowledge space. In contrast, there has been relatively les...

Lin, J M; Burns, G; Allen, C B; Mitra, P P



Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications  

SciTech Connect

A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced.

Li Hui [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)



A conversation with John Sulston.  


Sir John Sulston was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2002. He won the prize for his discoveries concerning "genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death," along with his colleagues sydney Brenner and H. Robert Horvitz. Dr. Sulston was founding director of the Sanger Centre, Cambridge, England, which he headed from 1992 to 2000. From 1993 to 2000, he led the British arm of the international team selected to work on the Human Genome Project. He is co-author of the book The Common Thread: A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics, and the Human Genome, published by Joseph Henry Press in 2002.This interview was conducted on December 20, 2002, shortly after Dr. Sulston was awarded his Nobel Prize and was originally broadcast on that date on radio station WPKN-FM in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The interview was conducted by Valerie Richardson, the Managing Editor of The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.Dr. Sulston has been an outspoken advocate against letting the data from the Human Genome Project become property of commercial interests that would charge the world's scientific community for its use. Since leaving the Sanger Institute, he has worked with OxFam, the Oxford Campaign for Famine Relief. PMID:14580111

Sulston, John



Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb ( Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon



The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network  

PubMed Central

The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms. An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington (DC, USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated. PMID:24606731



An analysis of the structure and evolution of the scientific collaboration network of computer intelligence in games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Games constitute a research domain that is attracting the interest of scientists from numerous disciplines. This is particularly true from the perspective of computational intelligence. In order to examine the growing importance of this area in the gaming domain, we present an analysis of the scientific collaboration network of researchers working on computational intelligence in games (CIG). This network has been constructed from bibliographical data obtained from the Digital Bibliography & Library Project (DBLP). We have analyzed from a temporal perspective several properties of the CIG network at the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic levels, studying the large-scale structure, the growth mechanics, and collaboration patterns among other features. Overall, computational intelligence in games exhibits similarities with other collaboration networks such as for example a log-normal degree distribution and sub-linear preferential attachment for new authors. It also has distinctive features, e.g. the number of papers co-authored is exponentially distributed, the internal preferential attachment (new collaborations among existing authors) is linear, and fidelity rates (measured as the relative preference for publishing with previous collaborators) grow super-linearly. The macroscopic and mesoscopic evolution of the network indicates the field is very active and vibrant, but it is still at an early developmental stage. We have also analyzed communities and central nodes and how these are reflected in research topics, thus identifying active research subareas.

Lara-Cabrera, R.; Cotta, C.; Fernández-Leiva, A. J.



Nightly variation of disorder in a Canadian nightclub  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to study nightly disorder within a single bar over an extended period, in order to analyse variations across time (n = 258 nights). Methods The security staff of a large Canadian nightclub agreed to note detailed information on every intervention in which they were involved. Bouncers wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression and incivility that occurred in the bar. Environmental characteristics (e.g. number of admissions and alcohol sales) were collected by one of the co-authors. Results “Hot nights” were observed. The number of problem events was particularly high on Tuesday nights, which had the highest number of customers admitted and higher alcohol sales. The average alcohol sale per customer was also higher during long weekends, and alcohol sales were positively related to problem events. Finally, path analyses revealed that the presence of more bouncers was a deterrent. Conclusions The level of disorder in a bar varies greatly over time. Contrary to what is often postulated, bars are not always high- or low-risk. The results strongly support responsible alcohol-serving policies and highlight the benefits of adequate surveillance. PMID:24976790

Boivin, Rémi; Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frédéric; Felson, Marcus



Profiles in Leadership: Clifton J. Latiolais, MSc, DSc  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of pharmacy services in the United States. The late Clifton J. Latiolais, MS, DSc, served as the assistant program director for the study and was a co-author of the Mirror. The late Don E. Francke, MS, DSc, was the lead author of the Mirror and the principal investigator of the federally funded study that reviewed hospital pharmacy services across the United States. The next 2 articles in Director’s Forum profile the leadership of Drs. Latiolais and Francke. This article highlights Dr. Latiolais (“Clif”) by briefly reviewing his biography and key career accomplishments, describing his leadership philosophy, and translating that philosophy to today’s health care challenges. Clif’s influence on health system pharmacy serves as an example of effective leadership. This historical perspective on Clif’s leadership, as seen through the eyes of those who knew him, provides directors of pharmacy a valuable leadership viewpoint as they develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421540

White, Sara; Godwin, Harold N.; Weber, Robert J.



Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416

Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo



Photometric determination of traces of metals  

SciTech Connect

The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter.

Onishi, H.



Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: “Reflecting” on the Mirror, Part I  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews the profession’s progress on the first 3 goals; an article in the January 2014 issue of Hospital Pharmacy will review the final 3 goals. An understanding of the profession’s progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24474839

Weber, Robert J.; Stevenson, James; Ng, Christine; White, Sara



Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women  

PubMed Central

Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction.

Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.



Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann



SciTech Connect

The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams



Integral Observations of the Reflection Component of Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data were analyzed by Dr. Fabian's student Adrian Turner and included in his thesis (completed Sept 2004). We did not detect MCG-6 using the then current software and the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy turned out to be even worse then the published BeppoSAX spectrum. We decided not to do any more work on it. We were contacted about the data in March by Thierry Courvoisier (the data were thea public) as he had a student, Simona Soidi, working on a compilation of spectra. Dr. Fabian sent them the chapter from Adrian's thesis and we provided some general comments on what they were doing on 6 objects. This has since been accepted for publication with Fabian as a co-author. A paper on the Integral AGN catalogue appeared on astro-ph a few days ago which contains an detection of MCG-6 with a very poor spectrum. We didn't detect it because the software back then required a source to be detected within something like 30 min exposure in order to work. Integral is NOT very sensitive.

Fabian, Andrew



Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.  


The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes. PMID:25085235

Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M



Listening to Consumer Perspectives to Inform Addictions and Housing-Related Practice and Research  

PubMed Central

The study, funded by the Northwest Health Foundation of Portland, Oregon and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), was conducted as part of the HEARTH collaborative (Housing, Employment and Recovery Together for Health). HEARTH, established in 2010, is a community-academic partnership involving partners from Portland State University (PSU), Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), and Central City Concern (CCC). Using the approaches of community-based participatory research (CBPR), these diverse stakeholders collaborated to co-develop research of direct relevance to the local community and to national academic and policy communities. This study employed qualitative methods and community-based participatory research principles to solicit personal experiences with housing, employment, and recovery programs. We recruited interview participants via CCC-operated housing programs, including Alcohol and Drug Free Community Housing (ADFC), family housing, transitional housing, and non-ADFC (low barrier) housing units. The manuscript presents interview themes based on the five broad categories of interview questions: housing, employment programs, recovery programs, definitions of recovery, and definitions of success. Co-authors describe recommendations for practice and research protocol based on our findings. Our results highlight the importance of involving consumers in the development, data collection, and analysis of research, and present the unique perspectives of those who experience homelessness, recovery, and the programs designed to assist them. PMID:25580474

Farquhar, Stephanie A.; Ryder, Marianne; Henderlong, Derek; Lowe, Robert A.; Amann, Ted



Yup’ik Culture and Context in Southwest Alaska: Community Member Perspectives of Tradition, Social Change, and Prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup’ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup’ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup’ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup’ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup’ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James



Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

Roberts, Jeffrey



Life's Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

Morris, Simon Conway



Life's Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

Morris, Simon Conway



Particle theory and cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the research supported by this contract is to further our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter as well as the role fundamental interactions play in cosmology and astrophysics. Astrophysical data, such as from high energy cosmic rays and large scale structure of the universe, are employed to constrain particle physics theories. Particle collisions at Tevatron and higher (SSC) energies are also under investigation. During the past year a systematic reanalysis of the correlation between solar activity and the solar neutrino flux was undertaken. The conclusion seems to be that the Homestake experimental data show a correlation at a significant level, supporting the hypothesis that the neutrino possesses a magnetic moment. A separate, but related, theoretical investigation of electromagnetic properties of elementary particles has led to the discovery of a class of models in which the neutrino is endowed with an appreciable magnetic moment while its remains small. Altogether members of the group have been co-authors of 28 papers during the grant year on topics ranging from fermion masses to the role of ultra-high energy hadronic interactions in cosmic ray physics.

Not Available



Yup'ik culture and context in Southwest Alaska: community member perspectives of tradition, social change, and prevention.  


This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup'ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup'ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup'ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup'ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup'ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James; Rasmus, Stacy M



Resource Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

Conrad, Jon M.



Flash crashes, bursts, and black swans: parallels between financial markets and healthcare systems.  


As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 16th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, Dr Clancy, the editor of this column, and co-author, Dr West, discuss how the collapse of global financial markets in 2008 may provide valuable insight into mechanisms of complex system behavior in healthcare. Dr West, a physicist and expert in the field of complex systems and network science, is author of a chapter in the book, On the Edge: Nursing in the Age of Complexity (Lindberg C, Nash S, Linberg C. Bordertown, NJ: Plexus Press; 2008) and his most recent book, Disrupted Networks: From Physics to Climate Change (West BJ, Scafetta N. Singapore: Disrupted Networks, World Scientific Publishing; 2010). PMID:20978411

West, Bruce J; Clancy, Thomas R



Improved phylogenomic taxon sampling noticeably affects nonbilaterian relationships.  


Despite expanding data sets and advances in phylogenomic methods, deep-level metazoan relationships remain highly controversial. Recent phylogenomic analyses depart from classical concepts in recovering ctenophores as the earliest branching metazoan taxon and propose a sister-group relationship between sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Dunn CW, Hejnol A, Matus DQ, et al. (18 co-authors). 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452:745-749). Here, we argue that these results are artifacts stemming from insufficient taxon sampling and long-branch attraction (LBA). By increasing taxon sampling from previously unsampled nonbilaterians and using an identical gene set to that reported by Dunn et al., we recover monophyletic Porifera as the sister group to all other Metazoa. This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al. was due to LBA and that broad taxon sampling is of fundamental importance to metazoan phylogenomic analyses. Additionally, saturation in the Dunn et al. character set is comparatively high, possibly contributing to the poor support for some nonbilaterian nodes. PMID:20378579

Pick, K S; Philippe, H; Schreiber, F; Erpenbeck, D; Jackson, D J; Wrede, P; Wiens, M; Alié, A; Morgenstern, B; Manuel, M; Wörheide, G



E-portfolios and personalized learning: research in practice with two dyslexic learners in UK higher education.  


This paper analyses the use of an e-portfolio system in contributing to the personalized learning of two dyslexic learners at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. The rationale for this research rests at the intersection of generic findings from e-portfolio (and wider e-learning) research and the still challenging project in higher education (HE) of creating inclusive curricula. A qualitative, ethnographic approach was employed in a piece of collaborative research between academic staff and dyslexic learners. Two retrospective learner narratives were constructed and then reviewed by all co-authors in terms of the 'personalized fit' which they allowed with dyslexic thinking, learning and writing experience. The findings suggest a potential refinement of the general pedagogical claims about e-portfolio-based learning when considering dyslexic learners and thence the value of an enhanced prioritization of e-portfolio learning practices within inclusive HE curricula. The review and analysis also allow a 'critical' discussion of the practical and theoretical issues arising within this work. PMID:20865707

Hughes, Julie; Herrington, Margaret; McDonald, Tess; Rhodes, Amy



Linguistic Traces of a Scientific Fraud: The Case of Diederik Stapel  

PubMed Central

When scientists report false data, does their writing style reflect their deception? In this study, we investigated the linguistic patterns of fraudulent (N ?=? 24; 170,008 words) and genuine publications (N ?=? 25; 189,705 words) first-authored by social psychologist Diederik Stapel. The analysis revealed that Stapel's fraudulent papers contained linguistic changes in science-related discourse dimensions, including more terms pertaining to methods, investigation, and certainty than his genuine papers. His writing style also matched patterns in other deceptive language, including fewer adjectives in fraudulent publications relative to genuine publications. Using differences in language dimensions we were able to classify Stapel's publications with above chance accuracy. Beyond these discourse dimensions, Stapel included fewer co-authors when reporting fake data than genuine data, although other evidentiary claims (e.g., number of references and experiments) did not differ across the two article types. This research supports recent findings that language cues vary systematically with deception, and that deception can be revealed in fraudulent scientific discourse. PMID:25153333

Markowitz, David M.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.



Scientific discrimination and the activist scientist: L.C. Dunn and the professionalization of genetics and human genetics in the United States.  


During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L.C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary concern during the interwar and post-World War II years, his campaigns had ancillary consequences for the discipline. He contributed to the professionalization of genetics during the 1920s and 1930s and sought respectability for human genetics in the 1940s and 1950s. My article aims to elucidate the activist scientist's role in undermining scientific discrimination by exploring aspects of Dunn's scientific work and political activism from the 1920s to 1950s. Definitions are provided for scientific discrimination and activist scientist. PMID:19831201

Gormley, Melinda



[Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].  


Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

Ogata, K



Thirteen years of pair production  

SciTech Connect

This talk surveys a thirteen-year collaboration with Chris Bottcher on various aspects of strong field electrodynamics. Most of the work centers on the atomic physics associated with the peripheral collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy atoms. The earliest, beginning in about 1979, dealt with the spontaneous emission of positrons from nuclear quasimolecules and touched briefly on the formation of axions as a possible explanation of the anomalous peaks in the spectrum. This work stimulated the extensive studies of particle production from coherent fields that laid the foundations for investigations of nuclear form factors, structure functions, and production mechanisms for the Higgs and other exotic particles. Chris conjectured that the strong fields that are present in these collisions would give rise to nonperturbative effects. Thus, during this time, Chris also worked to develop basis-spline collocation methods for solving dynamical relativistic fermions in super strong fields. This was perhaps one of the best of times for Chris; on these problems alone, he co-authored fifty articles with more than twenty different collaborators.

Strayer, M.R.



A new introductory quantum mechanics curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Physics New Quantum Curriculum consists of freely available online learning and teaching materials ( for a first course in university quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. This approach immediately immerses students in inherently quantum-mechanical aspects by focusing on experiments that have no classical explanation. It allows from the start a discussion of the interpretive aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. This paper gives an overview of the resources available from the IOP website. The core text includes around 80 articles which are co-authored by leading experts, arranged in themes, and can be used flexibly to provide a range of alternative approaches. Many of the articles include interactive simulations with accompanying activities and problem sets that can be explored by students to enhance their understanding. Much of the linear algebra needed for this approach is included in the resource. Solutions to activities are available to instructors. The resources can be used in a variety of ways, from being supplemental to existing courses to forming a complete programme.

Kohnle, Antje; Bozhinova, Inna; Browne, Dan; Everitt, Mark; Fomins, Aleksejs; Kok, Pieter; Kulaitis, Gytis; Prokopas, Martynas; Raine, Derek; Swinbank, Elizabeth



Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.



Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

Sastry, S. S.



Cospatial Longslit UV-Optical Spectra of Ten Galactic Planetary Nebulae with HST STIS: Description of observations, global emission-line measurements, and empirical CNO abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster describes details of HST Cycle 19 (program GO 12600), which was awarded 32 orbits of observing time with STIS to obtain the first cospatial UV-optical spectra of 10 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). The observational goal was to measure the UV emission lines of carbon and nitrogen with unprecedented S/N and wavelength and spatial resolution along the disk of each object over a wavelength range 1150-10270 Ang . The PNe were chosen such that each possessed a near-solar metallicity but the group together spanned a broad range in N/O. This poster concentrates on describing the observations, emission-line measurements integrated along the entire slit lengths, ionic abundances, and estimated total elemental abundances using empirical ionization correction factors and the ELSA code. Related posters by co-authors in this session concentrate on analyzing CNO abundances, progenitor masses and nebular properties of the best-observed targets using photoionization modeling of the global emission-line measurements [Henry et al.] or detailed analyses of spatial variations in electron temperatures, densities, and abundances along the sub arcsecond resolution slits [Miller et al. & Shaw et al.]. We gratefully acknowledge AURA/STScI for the GO 12600 program support, both observational and financial.

Dufour, R. J.; Kwitter, K. B.; Shaw, R. A.; Balick, B.; Henry, R. B. C.; Miller, T. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.



Transforming Introductory Physics for Life Scientists: Researching the consequences for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to policy documents calling for dramatic changes in pre-medical and biology education [1-3], the physics and biology education research groups at the University of Maryland are rethinking how to teach physics to life science majors. As an interdisciplinary team, we are drastically reconsidering the physics topics relevant for these courses. We are designing new in-class tasks to engage students in using physical principles to explain aspects of biological phenomena where the physical principles are of consequence to the biological systems. We will present examples of such tasks as well as preliminary data on how students engage in these tasks. Lastly, we will share some barriers encountered in pursuing meaningful interdisciplinary education.[4pt] Co-authors: Edward F. Redish and Julia Svaboda [4pt] [1] National Research Council, Bio2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (NAP, 2003).[0pt] [2] AAMC-HHMI committee, Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (AAMC, 2009).[0pt] [3] American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action (AAAS, 2009).

Turpen, Chandra



Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu



2008 Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

For the fifth year, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, invited graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, university faculty, and students entering graduate students from around the world to participate in the Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics. The institute offers participants the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-notch research laboratories while working along internationally respected mentors. Of the 38 applicants, 20 were accepted for the 8- to 10-week program. The participants came from universities as close as Seattle and Portland and as far away as Germany and Singapore. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the 20 participants were mentored by 13 scientists. These mentors help tailor the participant’s experience to the needs of that person. Further, the mentors provide guidance on experimental and theoretical techniques, research design and completion, and other aspects of scientific careers in interfacial and condensed phase chemical physics. The research conducted at the institute can result in tangible benefits for the participants. For example, many have co-authored papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, including top-rated journals such as Science. Also, they have presented their research at conferences, such as the Gordon Research Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces and the AVS national meeting. Beyond that, many of the participants have started building professional connections with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, connections that will serve them well during their careers.

Garrett, Bruce C.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Avery, Nachael B.



Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  


The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud



Basal vertebrates clarify the evolutionary history of ciliopathy-associated genes Tmem138 and Tmem216.  


Recently, Lee et al. (Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Lee JE, et al. (30 co-authors). 2012. Evolutionarily assembled cis-regulatory module at a human ciliopathy locus. Science (335:966-969.) demonstrated that mutation in either of the transmembrane protein encoding genes, TMEM138 or TMEM216, causes phenotypically indistinguishable ciliopathy. Furthermore, on the basis of the observation that their orthologs are linked in a head-to-tail configuration in other mammals and Anolis, but present on different scaffolds or chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis and zebrafish, the authors concluded that the two genes were joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the evolutionary amphibian-to-reptile transition to form a functional module. We have sequenced these gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, and found that the two genes together with a related gene (Tmem80) constitute a tandem cluster. This suggests that the two genes were already linked in the vertebrate ancestor and then rearranged independently in Xenopus and zebrafish. Analyses of the coelacanth and lamprey genomes support this hypothesis. Our study highlights the importance of basal vertebrates as critical reference genomes. PMID:22936720

Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Warren, Wesley C; Brenner, Sydney



NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach: Engaging with Scientists and Educators through the Higher Education Working Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Forums have established a Higher Education Working Group (HEWG), which has explored and surveyed the higher education landscape with regard to different subjects, such as community colleges and diversity. The HEWG is composed of representatives from each of the SMD EPO Forums, along with 'external' members who have rotated in and out, and the co-authors here constitute the present membership, chaired by Nicholas Gross. Most recently, the HEWG has worked to identify the key characteristics of higher education STEM programs that reach diverse populations. While increasing the involvement of students from diverse backgrounds in SMD EPO is a core goal for our community, engaging these students meaningfully requires a dedicated strategy using proven techniques. In reality, while most educational programs have this goal, undertaking it meaningfully is more challenging. For higher education, diversity is a long-standing issue, and the working group could have taken many different paths to explore this important topic. The HEWG has undertaken a review of programs that involve engaging undergraduates from diverse backgrounds in SMD-related research internships or hands-on STEM experiments. This information will be synthesized and documented so that future education efforts can incorporate the most valuable components. Meanwhile, the working group is exploring ways that NASA SMD can be more helpful to higher education faculty and students, and community input is solicited as part of this presentation.

Schultz, Gregory R.; Gross, Nicholas; Buxner, Sanlyn; Low, Russanne; Moldwin, Mark; Fraknoi, Andrew; Grier, Jennifer A.



Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-01ER54617 Computer Modeling of Microturbulence and Macrostability Properties of Magnetically Confined Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 We have made significant progress during the past grant period in several key areas of the UCLA and national Fusion Theory Program. This impressive body of work includes both fundamental and applied contributions to MHD and turbulence in DIII-D and Electric Tokamak plasmas, and also to Z-pinches, particularly with respect to the effect of flows on these phenomena. We have successfully carried out interpretive and predictive global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell calculations of DIII-D discharges. We have cemented our participation in the gyrokinetic PIC effort of the SciDAC Plasma Microturbulence Project through working membership in the Summit Gyrokinetic PIC Team. We have continued to teach advanced courses at UCLA pertaining to computational plasma physics and to foster interaction with students and junior researchers. We have in fact graduated 2 Ph. D. students during the past grant period. The research carried out during that time has resulted in many publications in the premier plasma physics and fusion energy sciences journals and in several invited oral communications at major conferences such as Sherwood, Transport Task Force (TTF), the annual meetings of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society, of the European Physical Society, and the 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, FEC 2002. Many of these have been authored and co-authored with experimentalists at DIII-D.

Jean-Noel Leboeuf



Theory and detection scheme of seismic EM signals transferred into the atmosphere from the oceanic and continental lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the compound structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances in the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in the lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors' detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain why Prof. Kopytenko (Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci.) and co-authors were able to estimate location of the future seismic epicenter area from their magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth's surface.

Novik, Oleg; Ershov, Sergey; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnov, Fedor; Volgin, Maxim



Development of the merchant plant  

SciTech Connect

The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ``H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ``system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ``hot bed'' for merchant plant development.

Wolfinger, R.; Gilliss, M.B.



A classical simulation of nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models in photonic lattices: reply to comment.  


We regret that such a misleading comment [Opt. Express (2013)] has been made to our paper. First Lo states in his abstract that "However, the nonlinear Rabi model has already been rigorously proven to be undefined" to later recoil and use the contradictory statement "(. . . ) regarding the BS model with the counter-rotating terms (. . . ) Lo and his co-authors have proven that the model is well defined only if the coupling stregth g is smaller than a critical value gc = ?/4". While Lo focuses on the validity of the quantum optics Hamiltonians and gives a misleading assesment of our manuscript, the focus of our paper is the method to map such a set of Hamiltonians from quantum optics to photonic lattices. Our method is valid for the given class of Hamiltonians and, indeed, precaution must be exerted on the paramater ranges where those Hamiltonians are valid and where their classical simulation is feasible. These parameter ranges have to be specified in for each particular case studied. Furthermore, we gave as example the Buck-Sukumar model including counter-rotating terms which is a valid Hamiltonian for some coupling parameters. PMID:24515185

Rodríguez-Lara, B M; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Cárdenas, Alejandro Zárate; Moya-Cessa, H M



Asynclitism: a literature review of an often forgotten clinical condition.  


Abstract Asynclitism is defined as the "oblique malpresentation of the fetal head in labor". Asynclitism is a clinical diagnosis that may be difficult to make; it may be found during vaginal examination. It is significant because it may cause failure of progress operative or cesarean delivery. We reviewed all literature for asynclitism by performing an extensive electronic search of studies from 1959 to 2013. All studies were first reviewed by a single author and discussed with co-authors. The following studies were identified: 8 book chapters, 14 studies on asynclitism alone and 10 papers on both fetal occiput posterior position and asynclitism. The fetal head in a laboring patient may be associated with some degree of asynclitism; this is seen as usual way of the fetal head to adjust to maternal pelvic diameters. However, marked asynclitism is often detected in presence of a co-existing fetal head malposition, especially the transverse and occipital posterior positions. Digital diagnosis of asynclitism is enhanced by intrapartum ultrasound with transabdominal or transperineal approach. The accurate diagnosis of asynclitism, in an objective way, may provide a better assessment of the fetal head position that will help in the correct application of vacuum and forceps, allowing the prevention of unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25283847

Malvasi, Antonio; Barbera, Antonio; Di Vagno, Giovanni; Gimovsky, Alexis; Berghella, Vincenzo; Ghi, Tullio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Tinelli, Andrea



Teaching successful medication administration today: more than just knowing your 'rights'.  


Medication administration is an important skill taught in undergraduate nursing programs. Student learning for this activity includes not only how to prepare and administer medications, but also includes interventions such as patient and family teaching. Students also are taught a series of 'rights' in order to prevent medication errors. There are many factors, both personal and system related, which contribute to medication errors in the health care environment. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for teaching students medication administration that encompass the multiple factors involved to ensure safe practice. This opinion paper is based on the authors' considerable years of teaching experience (35 years clinical setting and classroom teaching with senior students in final year of baccalaureate program for 1st author and 16 years total for co-author). Recommendations put forth by the authors are: a) leveling students' clinical experiences in administering medications to include understanding of system factors, b) structured scenarios and purposeful linking of theory to clinical courses to advance students' knowledge and skills related to medication administration as they progress through the program, 3) revisiting math skills. PMID:24857050

Fothergill Bourbonnais, Frances; Caswell, Wenda



Jim Starnes' Contributions to Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of advances in residual strength analyses methods for metallic structures that were realized under the leadership of Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr., is presented. The majority of research led by Dr. Starnes in this area was conducted in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Dr. Starnes, respectfully referred to herein as Jim, had a passion for studying complex response phenomena and dedicated a significant amount of research effort toward advancing damage tolerance and residual strength analysis methods for metallic structures. Jim's efforts were focused on understanding damage propagation in built-up fuselage structure with widespread fatigue damage, with the goal of ensuring safety in the aging international commercial transport fleet. Jim's major contributions in this research area were in identifying the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads, and geometric nonlinearity, on the response of built-up structures with damage. Analytical and experimental technical results are presented to demonstrate the breadth and rigor of the research conducted in this technical area. Technical results presented herein are drawn exclusively from papers where Jim was a co-author.

Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Harris, Charles E.



Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1990. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.



Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1992. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.



Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1993. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.



Measuring change in health-system pharmacy over 50 years: "reflecting" on the mirror, part I.  


The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews the profession's progress on the first 3 goals; an article in the January 2014 issue of Hospital Pharmacy will review the final 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24474839

Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James; Ng, Christine; White, Sara



Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: "Reflecting" on the Mirror, Part II.  


The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror's results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421566

Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James G; White, Sara J



Creating a Cadre of Junior Investigators to Address the Challenges of Cancer-Related Health Disparities: Lessons Learned from the Community Networks Program  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute’s Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005–2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (9 vs. 4 in last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (8 vs. 3 in last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP’s training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators. PMID:22528636

Felder, Tisha M.; Brandt, Heather M.; Armstead, Cheryl; Cavicchia, Philip P.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Adams, Swann A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E.; Smith, Emily R.; Daguisé, Virginie G.; Hébert, James R.



The proper scope of the principle of procreative beneficence revisited.  


The principle of procreative beneficence (PB), first suggested by Julian Savulescu, argues that: If couples (or single reproducers) have decided to have a child, and selection is possible, then they have a significant moral reason to select the child, of the possible children they could have, whose life is expected, in light of the relevant available information, to go best or at least not worse than any.of the others. (Savulescu and Kahane 2009, p. 274). While the validity of this moral principle has been widely contested, in this paper we move away from these issues and grant, for the sake of argument, that PB is a valid moral principle, and that the justification for PBprovided by Savulescu and co-authors is sound. We do this in order to explore the implications and consequences of accepting PB and show that even if we put aside questions about the validity and theoretical foundations of this principle, PB has many interesting, astonishing and highly problematic implications that have not been made explicit in the writing of Savulescu and others who support the notion of an obligation to bring to birth the best child possible (Glover, in: Justice between age groops and generations, 1992; Harris, J Med Ethics 28(3):204, 2002). We suggest that these implications should be taken into account when considering both the soundness and strength of PB. PMID:25434062

Holm, Søren; Bennett, Rebecca



Comment on "a comparison of buprenorphine + naloxone to buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes".  


In a recent article, Lund et al sought to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of various treatment regimens for opioid dependence during pregnancy.1 In their background, discussion the authors state that "In the United States buprenorphine plus naloxone [Suboxone(®)] … has been the preferred form of prescribed buprenorphine due to its reduced abuse liability relative to buprenorphine alone [Subutex(®)]." This claim is certainly consistent with the view of the firm that has manufactured and sold both products, Reckitt Benckiser. In September of 2011, the company announced that it was "… discontinuing distribution and sale of Subutex(®) tablets as we believe that mono product (product containing buprenorphine alone with no naloxone) creates a greater risk of misuse, abuse and diversion …".2 Supporting evidence for the alleged "reduced abuse liability" appears to be lacking, however, and evidence cannot be located in the two references cited by Dr. Lund and his co-authors, which in fact are silent on the subject of abuse potential.3,4 In contrast, it has been reported that the transition to buprenorphine/naloxone from the mono formulation has been associated with "… no reduction in injection risk behaviors among IDUs."5. PMID:23772177

Newman, Robert G; Gevertz, Susan G



"Novel Techniques in Non-Stationary Analysis of Rotorcraft Vibration Signitures"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research effort produced new methods to analyze the performance of linear predictors that track non-stationary processes. Specifically, prediction methods have been applied to the vibration pattern of rotorcraft drivetrains. This analysis is part or a larger rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) that can diagnose immediate failures of the subsystems, as indicated by abrupt change in the vibration signature, and prognosticate future health, by examining the vibration patterns against long-term trends. This problem is described by a earlier joint paper co-authored by members of the funding agency and the recipient institutions prior to this grant effort. Specific accomplishments under this grant include the following: (1) Definition of a framework for analysis of non-stationary time-series estimation using the coefficients of an adaptive filter. (2) Description of a novel method of combining short-term predictor error and long-term regression error to analyze the performance of a non-stationary predictor. (3) Formulation of a multi-variate probability density function that quantifies the performance of a adaptive predictor by using the short- and long-term error variables in a Gamma function distribution. and (4) Validation of the mathematical formulations with empirical data from NASA flight tests and simulated data to illustrate the utility beyond the domain of vibrating machinery.

Meng, Teresa



The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

Price, A.



Induced respiratory system modeling by high frequency chest compression using lumped system identification method.  


High frequency chest compression (HFCC) treatment systems are used to promote mucus transport and mitigate pulmonary system clearance problems to remove sputum from the airways in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Every HFCC system consists of a pump generator, one or two hoses connected to a vest, to deliver the pulsation. There are three different waveforms in use; symmetric sine, the asymmetric sine and the trapezoid waveforms. There have been few studies that compared the efficacy of a sine waveform with the HFCC pulsations. In this study we present a model of the respiratory system for a young normal subject who is one of co-authors. The input signal is the pressure applied by the vest to chest, at a frequency of 6Hz. Using the system model simulation, the effectiveness of different source waveforms is evaluated and compared by observing the waveform response associated with air flow at the mouth. Also the study demonstrated that the ideal rectangle wave produced the maximum peak air flow, and followed by the trapezoid, triangle and sine waveform. The study suggests that a pulmonary system evaluation or modeling effort for CF patient might be useful as a method to optimize frequency and waveform structure choices for HFCC therapeutic intervention. PMID:19965047

Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong Wan; O'Clock, George; Zhu, Xiaoming; Parhi, Keshab K; Warwick, Warren J



Healing in forgiveness: A discussion with Amanda Lindhout and Katherine Porterfield, PhD  

PubMed Central

In 2008, Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped by a group of extremists while traveling as a freelance journalist in Somalia. She and a colleague were held captive for more than 15 months, released only after their families paid a ransom. In this interview, Amanda discusses her experiences in captivity and her ongoing recovery from this experience with Katherine Porterfield, Ph.D. a clinical psychologist at the Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture. Specifically, Amanda describes the childhood experiences that shaped her thirst for travel and knowledge, the conditions of her kidnapping, and her experiences after she was released from captivity. Amanda outlines the techniques that she employed to survive in the early aftermath of her capture, and how these coping strategies changed as her captivity lengthened. She reflects on her transition home, her recovery process, and her experiences with mental health professionals. Amanda's insights provide an example of resilience in the face of severe, extended trauma to researchers, clinicians, and survivors alike. The article ends with an discussion of the ways that Amanda's coping strategies and recovery process are consistent with existing resilience literature. Amanda's experiences as a hostage, her astonishing struggle for physical and mental survival, and her life after being freed are documented in her book, co-authored with Sara Corbett, A House in the Sky. PMID:25317259

Porterfield, Katherine A.; Lindhout, Amanda



Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

Kniffen, Donald A.



A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).  


Dr. Robert C. Allen was a gifted educator, as well as experienced ophthalmologist, who was a close personal friend of Dr. Edlich at the University of Virginia Health System. While serving on the faculty at the University of Virginia Health System, Dr. Allen proved to be a compassionate physician, who developed close personal relationships with the residents, faculty, and his patients. Dr. Allen was invited by Dr Edlich to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. When Dr. Allen told Dr. Edlich that he had ocular melanoma in 2000, this news was a wake-up call to Dr. Edlich on the need to prevent skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Empowered by this news, Dr. Edlich was honored to co-author four articles on skin cancer prevention, as well as the latest article focusing on prevention of ocular melanoma. The Ocular Melanoma Foundation (Richmond, VA (USA)) was founded in 2003 by Dr. Robert C. Allen to increase awareness, enhance education, and provide advocacy among both patients and health care professionals regarding this rare, but potentially lethal cancer. It has a website that provides patient information, up-to-date information and enables communication/ discourse between and among patients and practitioners ( Dr. Allen died on March 24, 2005, at his home surrounded by family and loved ones. When surgeons are faced with challenging healthcare diseases, Dr. Edlich's mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, advised Dr. Edlich that he should seek the advice and guidance of skilled basic scientists, who are familiar with the problem. Dr. Wangensteen is recognized as the greatest surgical teacher during the 20th century. Consequently, Dr. Edlich enlisted the advice and guidance from the two co-authors of the next article regarding the scientific basis for the selection of sunglasses to prevent the development of cataracts, pterygia, skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Dr. Reichow is a Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact lens, you should go to the website for more information

Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B



Stellar family in crowded, violent neighbourhood proves to be surprisingly normal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have obtained one of the sharpest views ever of the Arches Cluster -- an extraordinary dense cluster of young stars near the supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way. Despite the extreme conditions astronomers were surprised to find the same proportions of low- and high-mass young stars in the cluster as are found in more tranquil locations in our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 21a/09 The Arches Cluster ESO PR Photo 21b/09 The Centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 21c/09 Around the Arches Cluster ESO PR Video 21a/09 A voyage to the heart of the Milky Way The massive Arches Cluster is a rather peculiar star cluster. It is located 25 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer), and contains about a thousand young, massive stars, less than 2.5 million years old [1]. It is an ideal laboratory to study how massive stars are born in extreme conditions as it is close to the centre of our Milky Way, where it experiences huge opposing forces from the stars, gas and the supermassive black hole that reside there. The Arches Cluster is ten times heavier than typical young star clusters scattered throughout our Milky Way and is enriched with chemical elements heavier than helium. Using the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in Chile, astronomers scrutinised the cluster in detail. Thanks to adaptive optics, astronomers can remove most of the blurring effect of the atmosphere, and so the new NACO images of the Arches Cluster are even crisper than those obtained with telescopes in space. Observing the Arches Cluster is very challenging because of the huge quantities of absorbing dust between Earth and the Galactic Centre, which visible light cannot penetrate. This is why NACO was used to observe the region in near-infrared light. The new study confirms the Arches Cluster to be the densest cluster of massive young stars known. It is about three light-years across with more than a thousand stars packed into each cubic light-year -- an extreme density a million times greater than in the Sun's neighbourhood. Astronomers studying clusters of stars have found that higher mass stars are rarer than their less massive brethren, and their relative numbers are the same everywhere, following a universal law. For many years, the Arches Cluster seemed to be a striking exception. "With the extreme conditions in the Arches Cluster, one might indeed imagine that stars won't form in the same way as in our quiet solar neighbourhood," says Pablo Espinoza, the lead author of the paper reporting the new results. "However, our new observations showed that the masses of stars in this cluster actually do follow the same universal law". In this image the astronomers could also study the brightest stars in the cluster. "The most massive star we found has a mass of about 120 times that of the Sun," says co-author Fernando Selman. "We conclude from this that if stars more massive than 130 solar masses exist, they must live for less than 2.5 million years and end their lives without exploding as supernovae, as massive stars usually do." The total mass of the cluster seems to be about 30 000 times that of the Sun, much more than was previously thought. "That we can see so much more is due to the exquisite NACO images," says co-author Jorge Melnick. Note [1] The name "Arches" does not come from the constellation the cluster is located in (Sagittarius, i.e., the Archer), but because it is located next to arched filaments detected in radio maps of the centre of the Milky Way.



Jack Dymond's Deep Insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people do not know that Jack Dymond was a major influence on several aspects of current deep-sea research. Along with Margaret Leinen and Jack, we were part of the first Alvin dive program on the Endeavour hydrothermal field in 1984. Jack was working with Rick, on a sediment-trap study of the overall carbon fluxes in the vicinity of the Endeavour hydrothermal systems in an effort to address a question that Cindy Lee had posed about the overall carbon production from hydrothermal vents. At the time we were recognizing and naming many of the 20- to 40-meter-high sulfide structures in the Endeavour field (Hulk, Grotto, Dante, Dudley, Bastille), Jack commented that it was a shame that the world could not see these magnificent edifices or watch endlessly awesome black smokers. His feeling was that some vent sites should be converted to National Parks to preserve them from invasion by enthusiastic scientists, yet he clearly had the vision that the public should be given a sense of the grandeur involved locally, as well as the vastness of the 70,000-km ridge-crest system running through every ocean. Within a year we started talking about the RIDGE Program, and Jack was an early and enthusiastic participant in the design and development of RIDGE. Jack was among the first to encourage multi-disciplinary research at the hydrothermal vent sites. Recognizing that deep currents are important to vent processes, he urged physical oceanographers to work with the chemists, biologists, and geologists and was personally responsible for Rick becoming interested in studying vents. We, the co-authors of this abstract, became close friends as a result of having been introduced to each other by Jack. Several years ago, we co-authored the first paper ever written on the possible influence of hydrothermal activity on the circulation of the Europan Ocean, a paper that we here dedicate to the memory of Jack. Finally, it was in part because of Jack's conviction that the world should know more about submarine hydrothermal systems, albeit in a manner we could not then imagine, that eventually led to developing the concept of a cabled ocean observatory. Technology evolved to allow us to design a system that would deliver considerable power and nearly inexhaustible bandwidth to major portions of the ocean basins, enabling an interactive form of oceanography that will be developed within the ORION program and that is now becoming a reality in the form of the Canadian NEPTUNE program. Within five years, these cabled systems will reach into the newly established Canadian Marine Protected area on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and will bring live-action high-definition video in stereo to anyone capable of logging onto the Internet. Jack Dymond was an inspiration to many communities, one of which was oceanography. We miss him tremendously.

Thomson, R. E.; Delaney, J. R.



Vertically resolved aerosol properties by multi-wavelength lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach based on the graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) is introduced to estimate the dependence on altitude of the aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and of the fine mode contribution (?) to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from three-wavelength lidar measurements. The graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) was applied to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) spectral extinction observations and relies on the combined analysis of the Ångstrom exponent (å) and its spectral curvature ?å. Lidar measurements at 355, 532 and 1064 nm were used in this study to retrieve the vertical profiles of å and ?å and to estimate the dependence on altitude of Rf and ?(532 nm) from the å-?å combined analysis. Lidar measurements were performed at the Department of Mathematics and Physics of the Universita' del Salento, in south-eastern Italy. Aerosol from continental Europe, the Atlantic, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea are often advected over south-eastern Italy and as a consequence, mixed advection patterns leading to aerosol properties varying with altitude are dominant. The proposed approach was applied to ten measurement days to demonstrate its feasibility in different aerosol load conditions. The selected days were characterized by AOTs spanning the 0.26-0.67, 0.15-0.39, and 0.04-0.27 range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Mean lidar ratios varied within the 31-83, 32-84, and 11-47 sr range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, for the high variability of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties. å values calculated from lidar extinction profiles at 355 and 1064 nm ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 with a mean value ± 1 standard deviation equal to 1.3 ± 0.7. ?å varied within the -0.1-1 range with mean value equal to 0.25 ± 0.43. Rf and ?(532 nm) values spanning the 0.05-0.3 ?m and the 0.3-0.99 range, respectively, were associated with the å-?å data points. Rf and ? values showed no dependence on the altitude. 60% of the data points were in the ?å-å space delimited by the ? and Rf curves varying within 0.80-0.99 and 0.05-0.15 ?m, respectively, for the dominance of fine-mode particles in driving the AOT over south-eastern Italy. Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio retrieved from lidar measurements, aerosol products from AERONET sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time, analytical back trajectories, satellite true colour images, and dust concentrations from the BSC-DREAM (Barcelona Super Computing Center-Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) model were used to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

Perrone, M. R.; De Tomasi, F.; Gobbi, G. P.



Can Sea-Ice extent from the 1960s, be determined from reprocessed Nimbus and other historic space based data?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical need in climate research is to obtain continuous high quality data records and images as far back in time as is practical. Nimbus I collected data from 8/28/1964- 9/22/1964. Nimbus II collected data from 5/15/1966-1/18/1969. Nimbus III collected data from 4/14/1969-1/22/1972. Data coverage was global with twice daily. Unfortunately it now appears the original recorded data was stored on two inch Ampex tape media which was erased along with 200,000 other tapes due to a media shortage in the 1970's. This original data contained all the timings and calibration data needed to geo-rectify the data. Fortunately NASA Goddard saved and rescued a later version of the data and this data, without the timings and calibration. This data is now available. An effort underway at the NASA Ames Research Center is the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project (LOIRP). This project has obtained the original first generation 2” Ampex analog instrumentation tapes of the approximately 1748 images taken of the Moon. In this data set two images of the Earth (August 23, 1966, and August 10, 1967) were taken with approximately 5-kilometer resolution. These 570-700 nanometer band images have astounding resolution when considering the 330,000-kilometer distance to the Earth. The LOIRP project has obtained the last surviving Ampex FR-900 tape drives. The Nimbus II and III images were also broadcast from the spacecraft and stored on the same instrumentation tape drives. An opportunity has arisen to obtain the first generation Nimbus II and III images if the duplicate tapes mentioned in the Nimbus literature can be found. An initial search was unsuccessful due the above mentioned tape reuse in the 70’s. However, further research indicates that some of the duplicate tapes may be found at other National Records Center repositories. In further research the co-authors have found other Nimbus II and III era images from the Apollo human spaceflight program. All of the Apollo earth orbiting (Apollo 7 and 9, October 19, 1968 and March 3-13 1969) as well as the Lunar Missions (Apollo 8, 10-12, 14-17) obtained high resolution, high quality visible light color and black and white images of the Earth. The co-authors are in the process of matching the timing between the Apollo images and the Nimbus images in order to provide quality data regarding the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack during this era. The value of obtaining the original Nimbus images as well as the mixed Nimbus/Apollo imagery is to provide images and data to help move back in time the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack to provide a longer term record of space based images of these regions of the Earth. Future efforts would also integrate these images with National Security spacecraft that also imaged these areas during that time period.

Gallaher, D. W.; Wingo, D. R.; Meier, W.; Epps, A.



In-situ production of organic molecules at the poles of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples returned by the Apollo missions showed no trace of organic materials. However, the poles of the Moon are utterly unlike the equatorial regions, and the LCROSS impactor detected a range of organic compounds including C2H4, CH3OH, and CH4 (Colaprete et al., 2010). These compounds may be of cometary origin, or they may have developed in situ. The lunar poles feature plausible conditions for production of organics from indigenous inorganic material and may provide an opportunity to test models of inorganic synthesis that can be applied to many surfaces in the solar system and interstellar clouds. Production of organics in situ requires the presence of the relevant elements (combinations of C, H, O, and N), sufficient mobility of elements to react with one another, and an energy source to drive reactions. Because of the low obliquity of the Moon, regions in topographic lows at the poles are permanently shaded from sunlight and measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer have confirmed the extremely cold nature of some of these regions (Paige et al., 2010). The temperatures are low enough to trap even very volatile ices such as CO, but these low temperatures can also inhibit ion mobility. However, indirect illumination by light reflected off local topographic highs as well as the bombardment of the lunar surface by meteorites create temperature variation in the top 20 cm of regolith and expose icy material to a range of depths and temperatures. In addition to the presence of organic elements and temperature cycling, an energy source is needed to break bonds and enable reactions. Possible energy sources include scattered interstellar Lyman alpha UV radiation and galactic cosmic ray protons. However, Lyman alpha is confined to the optical surface and erodes surface ice (Morgan and Shemansky, 1991), so we investigate the deeper penetrating protons in the upper few centimeters where ices are better protected from loss. Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that energetic protons can stimulate organic synthesis in simple mixtures of C, H, O, and N-bearing ices. For example, a column density on the order of 10^17 molecules/cm^2 of CH3OH was produced from an H2O + CH4 ice mixture after a proton irradiation dose of 10 eV/molecule, and rose with increasing dose (Moore and Hudson, 1998). This establishes a rough order of magnitude for the dose required in the uppermost surface to produce organics from simple ices. We use the particle transport code MCNPX to calculate proton flux from cosmic rays at the poles to determine a dose rate and use lab measurements (Moore and Hudson, 1998) to estimate the production of organics from this process over time. Colaprete, A, and 16 co-authors (2010), Detection of water in the LCROSS ejecta plume, Science, 330, 463-467. Moore, MH and RL Hudson (1998), Infrared study of ion-irradiated water-ice mixtures with hydrocarbons relevant to comets, Icarus, 135(2), 518-527. Morgan, TH and DE Shemansky (1991), Limits to the lunar atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 96(A2), 1351-1367. Paige, DA, and 26 co-authors (2010), Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's South Polar region, Science, 330, 479-482.

Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Lawrence, D. J.



Involving service users in trials: developing a standard operating procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Many funding bodies require researchers to actively involve service users in research to improve relevance, accountability and quality. Current guidance to researchers mainly discusses general principles. Formal guidance about how to involve service users operationally in the conduct of trials is lacking. We aimed to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) to support researchers to involve service users in trials and rigorous studies. Methods Researchers with experience of involving service users and service users who were contributing to trials collaborated with the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health, a registered clinical trials unit, to develop the SOP. Drafts were prepared in a Task and Finish Group, reviewed by all co-authors and amendments made. Results We articulated core principles, which defined equality of service users with all other research team members and collaborative processes underpinning the SOP, plus guidance on how to achieve these. We developed a framework for involving service users in research that defined minimum levels of collaboration plus additional consultation and decision-making opportunities. We recommended service users be involved throughout the life of a trial, including planning and development, data collection, analysis and dissemination, and listed tasks for collaboration. We listed people responsible for involving service users in studies and promoting an inclusive culture. We advocate actively involving service users as early as possible in the research process, with a minimum of two on all formal trial groups and committees. We propose that researchers protect at least 1% of their total research budget as a minimum resource to involve service users and allow enough time to facilitate active involvement. Conclusions This SOP provides guidance to researchers to involve service users successfully in developing and conducting clinical trials and creating a culture of actively involving service users in research at all stages. The UK Clinical Research Collaboration should encourage clinical trials units actively to involve service users and research funders should provide sufficient funds and time for this in research grants. PMID:23866730



The assimilation of Western medicine into a semi-nomadic healthcare system: a case study of the Indigenous Aeta Magbukún, Philippines.  


The Aeta Magbukún are a genetically and culturally distinct group of Indigenous people living in an isolated mountain forest in the municipality of Mariveles, in the province of Bataan, Philippines. This research aims to document some healthcare related information of the people, inform future decisions regarding maximising benefits of modern conveniences, and minimise negative consequences on their culture and health. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collated from a community health survey in combination with field notes from three of the co-authors while living with the Aetas. Despite major implications from rapid ecological and cultural changes, traditional ethnomedical systems continue to be revered as an essential healing practice, although they are increasingly used in conjunction with Western medicines and healthcare. At the Aeta village level, the changing socio-political influence among the kagun (traditional healer), the NGOs, and the Municipal Council in terms of healthcare provision is pivotal, as the kagun has chosen to integrate the Western medicine and healthcare services into their traditional healthcare system, without simply rejecting them. In turn, Western-style healthcare interventions have the potential to be carefully managed to integrate traditional Aeta Magbukún socio-political structures, healthcare, and cultural continuity. The cumulative influence of numerous other novel aspects to Aeta life (e.g., permanent housing, a highway through the village, literacy, cash economies, energy-dense foods, communication/entertainment devices, etc.) will place additional pressure on the traditional ethnomedical healthcare system. However, enabling the continuity of access to appropriate healthcare knowledge (both the transfer of knowledge from Western medicine to the Aeta Magbukún, and vice versa) can assist many cultures through the inherent stresses of increasingly rapid acculturation and development. PMID:24643860

Balilla, Vincent S; McHenry, Julia Anwar; McHenry, Mark P; Parkinson, Riva Marris; Banal, Danilo T



BOOK REVIEW: Tokamaks (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first edition of John Wesson's book on tokamaks, published in 1987, established itself as essential reading for researchers in the field of magnetic confinement fusion: it was an excellent introduction for students to tokamak physics and also a valuable reference work for the more experienced. The second edition, published in 1997, has been completely rewritten and substantially enlarged (680 pages compared with 300). The new edition maintains the aim of providing a simple introduction to basic tokamak physics, but also includes discussion of the substantial advances in fusion research during the past decade. The new book, like its predecessor, is well written and commendable for its clarity and accuracy. In fact many of the chapters are written by a series of co-authors bringing the benefits of a wide range of expertise but, by careful editing, Wesson has maintained a uniformity of style and presentation. The chapter headings and coverage for the most part remain the same - but are expanded considerably and brought up to date. The most substantial change is that the single concluding chapter in the first edition on `Experiments' has been replaced by three chapters: `Tokamak experiments' which deals with some of the earlier key experiments plus a selection of recent small and medium-sized devices, `Large experiments' which gives an excellent summary of the main results from the four large tokamaks - TFTR, JET, JT60/JT60U and DIII-D, and `The future' which gives a very short (possibly too short in my opinion) account of reactors and ITER. This is an excellent book, which I strongly recommend should have a place - on the desk rather than in the bookshelf - of researchers in magnetic confinement fusion.

Stott, Peter



Propagation of torsional waves within the Earth's outer core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in the Length of Day on decadal timescale arise because of changes of the geostrophic circulation within the Earth's core, which are governed by an equation of the Alfvèn wave type. This equation describes directly the transport of angular momentum ( d? (s)=4pi s3sqrt{a2-s2}? g(s)ds ) within the Earth's core (( a ) is the core radius, ( s ) is the distance to the rotation axis and ( ? g(s) ) is the geostrophic angular velocity). As the waves are propagated towards ( s=a ), geostrophic velocity is strongly amplified. In the other direction, the waves are rapidly dissipated as they encounter the Earth's inner core because of the very efficient magnetic coupling between the liquid and solid parts of the core. We investigate whether these two phenomena are associated with rapid changes in the Earth's magnetic field ({}``jerks{}''). Before his death, Steve Zatman had indeed noticed, together with Bloxham and Dumberry, that we may understand why the magnetic jerks are observed in only a subset of the magnetic observatories if they are caused by torsional waves within the Earth's core. Earlier studies have assumed that the waves are monochromatic. We have preferred to solve the propagation of torsional Alfvèn waves as an initial value problem because they are probably highly damped, as found by Zatman and his co-authors. Finally, we compare magnetic and viscous coupling at the core-mantle boundary taking into account results from a recent spin-up experiment by Brito and colleagues.

Jault, D.; Legaut, G.



Real-time Science and Educational Collaboration Online from the Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Summer of 2007, scientists and students (via the web) jointly participated in research during the Ninety East Ridge Expedition (cruise KNOX06RR) . Staff organizers from Joint Oceanographic Institutions" JOI Learning and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program planned and implemented an interactive website to allow students to directly participate with scientists during the site survey aboard the R/V Roger Revelle. Dr. Will Sager and middle school teacher Rory Wilson collaborated daily during the scientific expedition with science team, ship crew and students. From the outset, students were involved and helped to guide the program; this included coming up with the website name and initial design work. Communication with students included the website, individual and group emails and video conferences with student groups. Seven secondary schools from the USA, Europe, India and Thailand participated actively in the project from June to August. Students viewed daily updates on the website, sent in answers for weekly science challenge questions, and interacted with scientists and crew. Student participants learned about navigation, geophysics and petrology, as well as ship operations and technology. Students and educators tracked the expedition's progress in a multi-media environment. Website statistics were recorded; participation began well and increased during the expedition as more people became engaged with the website. All of the crew and scientists wrote self-profiles to help students learn about the range of ocean careers; several of the scientists and graduate students on board wrote or co- authored website articles for students. During this presentation, we will explore and review the major features of the outreach program using the Sea90e website to demonstrate how this real-time interaction engages students in science learning. We will discuss the benefits of collaboration for science and education in our "classroom at sea."

Wilson, R. H.; Sager, W. W.



Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Poor maternal zinc status has been associated with foetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labour and preterm or post-term deliveries. A meta-analysis completed in 2007 showed that maternal zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth. The purposes of this analysis are to update that previous review and expand the scope of assessment to include maternal, infant and child health outcomes. Electronic searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed, randomised controlled trials where daily zinc supplementation was given for at least one trimester of pregnancy. The co-authors applied the study selection criteria, assessed trial quality and abstracted data. A total of 20 independent intervention trials involving more than 11 000 births were identified. The 20 trials took place across five continents between 1977 and 2008. Most studies assessed the zinc effect against a background of other micronutrient supplements, but five were placebo-controlled trials of zinc alone. The provided dose of supplemental zinc ranged from 5 to 50 mg/day. Only the risk of preterm birth reached statistical significance (summary relative risk 0.86 [95% confidence interval 0.75, 0.99]). There was no evidence that supplemental zinc affected any parameter of foetal growth (risk of low birth weight, birth weight, length at birth or head circumference at birth). Six of the 20 trials were graded as high quality. The evidence that maternal zinc supplementation lowers the risk of preterm birth was graded low; evidence for a positive effect on other foetal outcomes was graded as very low. The effect of zinc supplementation on preterm birth, if causal, might reflect a reduction in maternal infection, a primary cause of prematurity. While further study would be needed to explore this possibility in detail, the overall public health benefit of zinc supplementation in pregnancy appears limited. PMID:22742606

Chaffee, Benjamin W.; King, Janet C.



Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) tinder equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by the composition of Cl meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou (Meteoritics 9, 69-94, 1974, and Wasson and co-authors in subsequent papers) suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce the observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed, The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the formation of the chondrite parent bodies and the planets.

Cassen, Patrick; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)



Psychometric properties of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  


Effective management of depression is predicated upon reliable assessment. The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) is a depression severity scale with both self-rated (QIDS-SR16) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) versions. Although widely used in research, the psychometric properties of the QIDS16 have not been systematically reviewed. We performed a systematic review of studies of the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change) of the QIDS-SR16 or QIDS-C16. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CinAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Findings were summarised, bias assessed and correlations with reference standards were pooled. 37 studies (17,118 participants) were included in the review. Both versions of the QIDS16 were unidimensional. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.69 to 0.89 for the QIDS-SR16 and 0.65 to 0.87 for the QIDS-C16. The QIDS-SR16 correlated moderately to highly with several depression severity scales. Seven studies were pooled where QIDS-SR16 was correlated with the HRSD-17 (r = 0.76, CI 0.69, 0.81) in patients diagnosed with depression. Four studies examined convergent validity with the QIDS-C16. Four studies examined discriminant validity, for the QIDS-SR16 alone. Eighteen studies had at least one author who was a co-author of the original QIDS16 study. Most studies were conducted in the USA (n = 26). The QIDS-SR16 and the QIDS-C16 are unidimensional rating scales with acceptable internal consistency. To justify the use of the QIDS16 scale in clinical practice, more research is needed on convergent and discriminant validity, and in populations outside the USA. PMID:25300442

Reilly, Thomas J; MacGillivray, Steve A; Reid, Ian C; Cameron, Isobel M



Current panorama of temporomandibular disorders' field in Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2012, the recognition of the specialty of Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain completed ten years. Given this scenario, it is extremely important to track the current situation of this field of knowledge in Brazil, specifically in the area of research and training. We hope to discuss the importance of the recognition of this specialty and the inclusion of these subjects in undergraduate programs in Dentistry. Objective The objective of this study is to perform a bibliometric survey of researches regarding Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain conducted in the country, determine the number of specialization courses in Orofacial Pain and the number of specialists in the field. Methods The bibliometric survey was conducted based on the Dissertations Portal of Coordination for the Improvement of Higher education Personnel (CAPES) and on PubMed. The panorama of the field of Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular disorders in Brazil was determined by searching on the website of the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Results We found 731 theses and dissertations with Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain as the main subjects; 81 accredited/recognized Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction completed; 8 accredited/recognized Specialization Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction still in progress, and 1,064 registered specialists in Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction in the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Search in the PUBMED database yielded 576 articles published with the participation of Brazilian researchers as first authors and/or co-authors in the period from 2000 to 2013. From this amount, only 5 were published in Portuguese, while all the others were published in english. We can also notice that the number of published articles increases over time. Conclusion The number of researches related to temporomandibular disorders has increased over the last ten years, as well as the number of specialization courses and the number of specialists, which represents a major breakthrough for this field of knowledge. PMID:25025553

MACHADO, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; LIMA, Fernanda Ferruzzi; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues



Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research  

PubMed Central

Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells. PMID:23885955



[Scientific publications of Costa Rica in Science Citation Index bibliometric analysis of the period 1999-2001].  


This study analyzed the publications of authors from Costa Rican institutions that were included in the Science Citation Index (SCI) during 1999-2001. Out of the 722 references detected, distributed in 328 journals, 90.7% corresponded to original research articles. The total productivity figures showed a moderately increasing trend, both in absolute and population-adjusted terms, in concordance with previous data recorded for the period 1980-1998. The contribution of Revista de Biología Tropical to these figures corresponded to 10.0%, 8.9%, and 19.1%, for the years 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The subject distribution of articles followed a similar pattern to that described for 1980-1998, with a predominance of biomedical (33.3%) and biological (27.5%) sciences, followed by agronomical (15.5%) sciences, chemistry (13.6%), physics (5.0%), geological sciences (3.6%), and mathematics (1.5%). Citation analyses for individual publications (up to July 15, 2002) revealed that only 45.2% of the articles had been cited at least once. The ten most cited references were analyzed, varying from 26 to 114 citations. The average citation per article was 2.60, and the average number of authors per article was 2.92. In agreement with data from 1980-1998, the University of Costa Rica appeared as the institution with highest productivity of SCI publications during 1999-2001, with a contribution of 50.0%. The percentage of publications performed without the participation of foreign co-authors showed a change in its decreasing trend of 1980-1998, stabilizing near the range of 25-30% during the period 1999-2001. PMID:12947581

Lomonte, Bruno; Ainsworth, Shirley



The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Written for non-specialists, this detailed survey of dinosaur origins, diversity, and extinction is designed as a series of successive essays covering important and timely topics in dinosaur paleobiology, such as "warm-bloodedness," birds as living dinosaurs, the new, non-flying feathered dinosaurs, dinosaur functional morphology, and cladistic methods in systematics. Its explicitly phylogenetic approach to the group is that taken by dinosaur specialists. The book is not an edited compilation of the works of many individuals, but a unique, cohesive perspective on Dinosauria. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of new, specially commissioned illustrations by John Sibbick, world-famous illustrator of dinosaurs, the volume includes multi-page drawings as well as sketches and diagrams. First edition Hb (1996): 0-521-44496-9 David E. Fastovsky is Professor of Geosciences at the University of Rhode Island. Fastovsky, the author of numerous scientific publications dealing with Mesozoic vertebrate faunas and their ancient environments, is also scientific co-Editor of Geology. He has undertaken extensive fieldwork studying dinosaurs and their environments in Montana, North Dakota, Arizona, Mexico, and Mongolia. David B. Weishampel is a professor at the Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution at Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine. Weishampel is best known for discovering, researching, and naming several rare European dinosaur species. During the 1980s Weishampel gained fame for his work with American paleontologist Jack Horner and later named the famous plant-eating, egg-laying Orodromeus, Horner. Now, a decade after his pioneering studies with Horner, Weishampel is most widely known for his current work on the Romanian dinosaur fauna. He is the author and co-author of many titles, including The Dinosaur Papers, 1676-1906 (Norton, 2003); The Dinosauria, (University of California, 1990); and Dinosaurs of the East Coast, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

Fastovsky, David E.; Weishampel, David B.



Why Are Medical and Health-Related Studies Not Being Published? A Systematic Review of Reasons Given by Investigators  

PubMed Central

Objective About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. Results We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Conclusions Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low priority and fear of being rejected by journals. PMID:25335091

Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee



A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings  

PubMed Central

Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages. PMID:23594416

Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H.Y.; Cole, Donald



Edward O. Wilson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edward O. Wilson is a name synonymous with ants, sociobiology, and biodiversity. And it's a name that more often than not appears with a mile-long list of accolades trailing it. The University of Alabama offers a more personable introduction to this celebrated scientist, one of the University's most distinguished alums (1). The next site is the homepage of the Department of Entomology at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology, home to one of the "richest and most historically significant" insect collections in North America (as well as the office of Harvard Professor Emeritus Wilson). The following site from Harvard@Home features a December 2002 lecture and slide presentation given by Wilson titled "On the Relation of Science and the Humanities." The entire lecture (over an hour in length), may be viewed online (3). Likewise, the next two Web sites contain archived broadcasts of The Connection from WBUR Boston and National Public Radio, each featuring Wilson as a guest. The first is a December 2002 broadcast in which Wilson discusses issues relating to his book _The Future of Life_ (4). The next is a more recent show (July 2003) featuring _Pheidole in the New World_, a new book co-authored by Dr. Wilson (5). Listeners can get even more of E. O. Wilson in an archived broadcast of The Paula Gordon show from Atlanta, Georgia (6). Wilson's 1988 book _Biodiversity_ may be read online or printed out entirely for free from the National Academies Press (7). And Scientific American offers a lengthy excerpt from his 2002 book _The Future of Life_, mentioned above.

Sohmer, Rachel.


[Vaccines and autism: a myth to debunk?].  


Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation. He proposed the administration of the MMR vaccine as a possible. cause of the inflammatory process. The hypothesis suggested by Wakefield led to a drastic drop in vaccination coverage in the UK and to the failure to achieve adequate levels of immunization in many countries, with a consequent increase in the incidence of measles and its complications. Wakefield work stimulated a broad discussion in the scientific community and many studies conducted over the next few years contradicted the research results of the English physician. In 2004, journalist Brian Deer conducted an accurate investigation that revealed how the Wakefield research presented many not regular aspects and was performed with predominantly economic objectives. In 2010, Wakefield was expelled from the General Medical Council, while the "Lancet" retracted the paper. The scientific research conducted in recent years confirm the inconsistency of the relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. The possible association with other factors, such as autoimmune processes, hyperactivation of mast cells in the hypothalamus, use of paracetamol in genetically predisposed children are currently investigated. PMID:24316883

Battistella, Melania; Carlino, Cristiana; Dugo, Valentina; Ponzo, Patrizia; Franco, Elisabetta



Melt-processing of lunar ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to produce useful ceramics materials from lunar resources using the by products of lunar oxygen production processes. Emphasis is being placed on both fabrication of a variety of melt-processed ceramics, and on understanding the mechanical properties of these materials. Previously, glass-ceramics were formed by casting large glass monoliths and heating these to grow small crystallites. The strengths of the resulting glass-ceramics were found to vary with the inverse square root of the crystal grain size. The highest strengths (greater than 300 MPa) were obtained with the smallest crystal sizes (less than 10 microns). During the past year, the kinetics of crystallization in simulated lunar regolith were examined in an effort to optimize the microstructure and, hence, mechanical properties of glass ceramics. The use of solar energy for melt-processing of regolith was examined, and strong (greater than 630 MPa) glass fibers were successfully produced by melt-spinning in a solar furnace. A study of the mechanical properties of simulated lunar glasses was completed during the past year. As on Earth, the presence of moisture was found to weaken simulated lunar glasses, although the effects of surface flaws was shown to outweigh the effect of atmospheric moisture on the strength of lunar glasses. The effect of atmospheric moisture on the toughness was also studied. As expected, toughness was found to increase only marginally in an anhydrous atmosphere. Finally, our efforts to involve undergraduates in the research lab fluorished this past year. Four undergraduates worked on various aspects of these projects; and two of them were co-authors on papers which we published.

Fabes, B. D.; Poisl, W. H.; Allen, D.; Minitti, M.; Hawley, S.; Beck, T.



Readability Analysis of Introductory Astronomy Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, first-year students have reading deficiencies and do not have the academic discipline to read introductory textbooks. Few students have the skills needed to organize ideas elicited from texts, and even fewer seem capable of evaluating ideas and concepts as to importance. While the amount of pedagogical support has increased in introductory astronomy texts in recent years, it is worthwhile to investigate how the readability of these books has changed with time. Dukes and co-authors (1979, 1980, 1983) surveyed numerous introductory astronomy textbooks using the Flesch Readability index. For a direct comparison to Dukes' work, I have used Flesch's index to survey three groups of introductory astronomy texts. Group I samples editions from Dukes' surveys to normalize the current survey and to provide a text baseline from 25 years ago, while group II includes texts from the 1940s and 1950s and group III current texts to compare the readability of present texts with those from previous decades. At first glance, this study indicates that texts have not changed in readability over the past several decades. However, other issues arise when the results are investigated in detail. Flesch measures readability but not understandability; understandability may have changed. Reading load has increased as texts have increased in size from 478 to 605 pages, on average. While texts may have a grade 11-12 reading level, that is an average and parts of texts soar to post-graduate reading levels; the ups and downs may affect student comprehension. Readability is just one measure for analyzing texts and these other issues may be more important for judging why our students have difficulty reading introductory astronomy books.

Bruning, David H.



From actors to authors: a first account about the involvement of patients in the informed consent governance of a major Italian translational research hospital.  


From 2007 to 2009 Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, one of the major public research hospitals in Italy, has invested on a participatory action to promote a good practice of informed consent. The project focused on the improvement and innovation of informed consent considered as a participated act through the involvement of all the actors at stake. The main purpose was to improve the informative practices through the participatory innovation of institutional and organizational elements as conditions of possibility. Therefore the project has pursued the involvement of managers, healthcare professionals, patients and their associations in the institutional governance of informed consent. The involvement of citizens and patients within the whole process meant to put them in charge not just as actors or final evaluators of a good practice, but as co-authors in defining standards, tools and conditions for a good practice. Several actions were taken, including a phase of analysis which involved 20 patients from 8 Associations, a phase of innovation and education where 113 patients and citizens worked together with clinicians from 53 Units in deliberative laboratories, the institution of a multidisciplinary committee inclusive of representatives from 6 associations of patients.The project has produced different outcomes: new institutional guidelines adopted by the hospital; the renewal of consent forms and procedures as part of an explicit shared informative process; an increased implementation of institutional standards of good informative practice; the measure and communication of the outcomes of care and their bench-marking; bottom-up building of paths of validation; the creation of participatory electronic tools; an innovative education on the field for patients and clinicians. PMID:20539150

Casati, Sara; Monti, Paolo; Bonino, Ferruccio



Sino-Canadian Collaborations in Stem Cell Research: A Scientometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background International collaboration (IC) is essential for the advance of stem cell research, a field characterized by marked asymmetries in knowledge and capacity between nations. China is emerging as a global leader in the stem cell field. However, knowledge on the extent and characteristics of IC in stem cell science, particularly China’s collaboration with developed economies, is lacking. Methods and Findings We provide a scientometric analysis of the China–Canada collaboration in stem cell research, placing this in the context of other leading producers in the field. We analyze stem cell research published from 2006 to 2010 from the Scopus database, using co-authored papers as a proxy for collaboration. We examine IC levels, collaboration preferences, scientific impact, the collaborating institutions in China and Canada, areas of mutual interest, and funding sources. Our analysis shows rapid global expansion of the field with 48% increase in papers from 2006 to 2010. China now ranks second globally after the United States. China has the lowest IC rate of countries examined, while Canada has one of the highest. China–Canada collaboration is rising steadily, more than doubling during 2006–2010. China–Canada collaboration enhances impact compared to papers authored solely by China-based researchers This difference remained significant even when comparing only papers published in English. Conclusions While China is increasingly courted in IC by developed countries as a partner in stem cell research, it is clear that it has reached its status in the field largely through domestic publications. Nevertheless, IC enhances the impact of stem cell research in China, and in the field in general. This study establishes an objective baseline for comparison with future studies, setting the stage for in-depth exploration of the dynamics and genesis of IC in stem cell research. PMID:23468927

Ali-Khan, Sarah E.; Ray, Monali; McMahon, Dominique S.; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla



Visually impaired researchers get their hands on quantum chemistry: application to a computational study on the isomerization of a sterol.  


In molecular sciences, articles tend to revolve around 2D representations of 3D molecules, and sighted scientists often resort to 3D virtual reality software to study these molecules in detail. Blind and visually impaired (BVI) molecular scientists have access to a series of audio devices that can help them read the text in articles and work with computers. Reading articles published in this journal, though, is nearly impossible for them because they need to generate mental 3D images of molecules, but the article-reading software cannot do that for them. We have previously designed AsteriX, a web server that fully automatically decomposes articles, detects 2D plots of low molecular weight molecules, removes meta data and annotations from these plots, and converts them into 3D atomic coordinates. AsteriX-BVI goes one step further and converts the 3D representation into a 3D printable, haptic-enhanced format that includes Braille annotations. These Braille-annotated physical 3D models allow BVI scientists to generate a complete mental model of the molecule. AsteriX-BVI uses Molden to convert the meta data of quantum chemistry experiments into BVI friendly formats so that the entire line of scientific information that sighted people take for granted-from published articles, via printed results of computational chemistry experiments, to 3D models-is now available to BVI scientists too. The possibilities offered by AsteriX-BVI are illustrated by a project on the isomerization of a sterol, executed by the blind co-author of this article (HBW). PMID:25091066

Lounnas, Valère; Wedler, Henry B; Newman, Timothy; Schaftenaar, Gijs; Harrison, Jason G; Nepomuceno, Gabriella; Pemberton, Ryan; Tantillo, Dean J; Vriend, Gert



Doping fluctuation-driven magneto-electronic phase separation in La1-xSrxCoO3 single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doped perovskite cobaltites, in particular La1-xSrxCoO3 (LSCO), have emerged as productive systems for the study of the magneto-electronic phase separation phenomenon widely observed in complex oxide materials. It is now well established that this system phase separates into hole-rich ferromagnetic clusters embedded in a hole-poor non-ferromagnetic insulating matrix at low doping. These clusters percolate at a critical doping value near x = 0.17 leading to a crossover from short- to long-range ferromagnetic order and a simultaneous insulator-metal transition. In this work we have used multiple complementary experimental probes (e.g. small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), heat capacity, and magnetotransport) to establish that high quality single crystals actually exhibit magnetic phase separation only over a well-defined doping range, 0.04 < x < 0.22. We further show that these limits can be perfectly reproduced by simple statistical simulations where the existence of local ferromagnetism is driven solely by the inevitable local compositional fluctuations that are present at such small length scales. These length scales are defined by the mean cluster size which is determined directly by SANS. The same simulations also reproduce the doping dependence of both the observed magnetic phase fractions and SANS intensity. A remarkable consequence of this analysis is that it suggests that the magnetic phase diagram measured on macroscopic specimens is applicable even at length scales as small as 1 nm. Most importantly, it is clear from this work that models based on true electronic phase separation are not required to explain the physical properties of these cobaltites. Co-authors: C. He, S. El-Khatib, J. Wu, (UMN), J.W. Lynn (NIST), H. Zheng, J.F. Mitchell (Argonne National Lab). Work supported by DoE and NSF.

Leighton, Chris



Challenges to the Transition of IPMC Artificial Muscle Actuators to Practical Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion-exchange membrane metallic composites (IPMC), which were first reported in 1992, are one of the electroactive materials (EAP) with potential applications as artificial muscle actuators. The recent introduction of perfluorocarboxylate-gold composite with tetra-n-butylammonium and Lithium cations instead of sodium made the most significant improvement of the material electroactivity. Under less than 3 volts, IPMC with the new constituents is capable of bending beyond a complete loop. Taking into account the fact that IMPC materials do not induce a significant force, the authors are extensively seeking applications for these bending EAP. Some of the applications that were demonstrated include dust-wiper, catheter guide, miniature motor, robotic-gripper, micro-manipulator, etc. Generally, space applications are the most demanding in terms of operating conditions, robustness and durability, and the co-authors of this paper are jointly addressing the associated challenges. Specifically, a dust-wiper is being developed for the Nanorover's infrared camera window of the MUSES-CN mission. This joint NASA and the Japanese space agency mission, is scheduled to be launch from Kagoshima, Japan, in January 2002, to explore the surface of a small near-Earth asteroid. Several issues that are critical to the operation of IPMC are addressed including the operation in vacuum, low temperatures, and the effect of the electromechanical characteristic of the IPMC on its actuation capability. Highly efficient IPMC materials, mechanical modeling, unique elements and protective coating were introduced by the authors and are making a high probability the success of the IPMC actuated dust-wiper.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean; Oguro, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Harrison, Joycelyn; Smith, Joseph; Su, Ji



Is traumatic stress research global? A bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The representation of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in traumatic stress research is important to establish a global evidence base, build research capacity, and reduce the burden of unmet mental health needs around the world. Reviews of the traumatic stress literature up to 2002 showed trends toward globalization although LMIC were only marginally represented compared to high-income countries (HIC). Objective To examine the global nature of current traumatic stress research. In particular, we were interested in the extent to which traumatic stress research is: (1) conducted in LMIC, (2) conducted by LMIC researchers, and (3) accessible to them. Method Using the databases PubMed, PsychInfo, and PILOTS, we systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles on traumatic stress published in any language in the year 2012. Out of the 3,123 unique papers identified, we coded a random sample (N=1,000) for study, author, article, and journal characteristics. Results Although our sample involved research in 56 different countries, most papers (87%) involved research in HIC, with 51% of all papers describing studies in the United States. In 88% of the papers, the author team was affiliated with HIC only. Less than 5% of all author teams involved collaborations between HIC and LMIC researchers. Moreover, 45% of the articles on LMIC studies published by a HIC corresponding author did not involve any LMIC co-authors. LMIC researchers appeared to publish empirical studies in lower impact journals. Of the 1,000 articles in our sample, 32% were open access and 10% were made available via different means; over half of the papers were not accessible without subscription. Conclusions Traumatic stress research is increasingly global but still strongly dominated by HIC. Important opportunities to build capacity in LMIC appear to be missed. Implications toward more international traumatic stress research are discussed. PMID:24563730

Fodor, Kinga E.; Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Chou, Chia-Ying; Kartal, Dzenana; Leistner, Sarah; Milosavljevic, Maja; Nocon, Agnes; Soler, Laia; White, Jenifer; Yoo, Seonyoung; Alisic, Eva



Fate of Articles That Warranted Retraction Due to Ethical Concerns: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr. Boldt, that warranted retraction. Method According to the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we regarded a retraction as adequate when a retraction notice was published, linked to the retracted article, identified the title and authors of the retracted article in its heading, explained the reason and who took responsibility for the retraction, and when the retracted article was freely accessible and marked using a transparent watermark that preserved original content. Two authors extracted data independently (January 2013) and contacted editors-in-chief and publishers for clarification in cases of inadequate retraction. Results Five articles (6%) fulfilled all criteria for adequate retraction. Nine (10%) were not retracted (no retraction notice published, full text article not marked). 79 (90%) retraction notices were published, 76 (86%) were freely accessible, but only 15 (17%) were complete. 73 (83%) full text articles were marked as retracted, of which 14 (16%) had an opaque watermark hiding parts of the original content, and 11 (13%) had all original content deleted. 59 (67%) retracted articles were freely accessible. One editor-in-chief stated personal problems as a reason for incomplete retractions, eight blamed their publishers. Two publishers cited legal threats from Dr. Boldt's co-authors which prevented them from retracting articles. Conclusion Guidelines for retracting articles are incompletely followed. The role of publishers in the retraction process needs to be clarified and standards are needed on marking retracted articles. It remains unclear who should check that retractions are done properly. Legal safeguards are required to allow retraction of articles against the wishes of authors. PMID:24465744

Elia, Nadia; Wager, Elizabeth; Tramèr, Martin R.



Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).  


Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. PMID:24016121

Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O



The APECS Virtual Poster Session: a virtual platform for science communication and discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Poster Session (VPS) of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) was developed by early career scientists as an online tool for communicating and discussing science and research beyond the four walls of a conference venue. Poster sessions often are the backbone of a conference where especially early career scientists get a chance to communicate their research, discuss ideas, data, and scientific problems with their peers and senior scientists. There, they can hone their 'elevator pitch', discussion skills and presentation skills. APECS has taken the poster session one step further and created the VPS - the same idea but independent from conferences, travel, and location. All that is needed is a computer with internet access. Instead of letting their posters collect dust on the computer's hard drive, scientists can now upload them to the APECS website. There, others have the continuous opportunity to comment, give feedback and discuss the work. Currently, about 200 posters are accessible contributed by authors and co-authors from 34 countries. Since January 2010, researchers can discuss their poster with a broad international audience including fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues and collaborators, policy makers and educators during monthly conference calls via an internet platform. Recordings of the calls are available online afterwards. Calls so far have included topical sessions on e.g. marine biology, glaciology, or social sciences, and interdisciplinary calls on Arctic sciences or polar research activities in a specific country, e.g. India or Romania. They attracted audiences of scientists at all career stages and from all continents, with on average about 15 persons participating per call. Online tools like the VPS open up new ways for creating collaborations and new research ideas and sharing different methodologies for future projects, pushing aside the boundaries of countries and nations, conferences, offices, and disciplines, and provide early career scientists with easily accessible training opportunities for their communication and outreach skills, independent of their location and funding situation.

Renner, A.; Jochum, K.; Jullion, L.; Pavlov, A.; Liggett, D.; Fugmann, G.; Baeseman, J. L.; Apecs Virtual Poster Session Working Group, T.



Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.



The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.



PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

László, Gömze A.



Suppression of nonlinear frequency-sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied RF waves.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interchange instabilities excited by energetic electrons trapped by a magnetic dipole nonlinearly saturate and exhibit complex, coherent spectral characteristics and frequency sweeping [1]. Measurements of the electron flux to particle detectors combined with numerical simulations, show frequency sweeping corresponds to ``phase-space holes" that move radially inward as the mode rotation frequency rises [2]. Since low frequency interchange instabilities preserve the electron's first and second adiabatic invariants, the appropriate phase-space is the third adiabatic invariant, ?, and azimuthal angle, ?. When monochromatic RF waves are applied in the range of 100 - 1000 MHz, the saturation behavior of the interchange instability changes dramatically. For applied waves of sufficient intensity and pulse-length, coherent interchange fluctuations are suppressed and frequency sweeping is eliminated. When the RF waves are switched off, coherent frequency sweeping reappears. Self-consistent numerical simulation is used to study (1) the nonlinear development of the instability, (2) the radial mode structure of the interchange instability, and (3) the suppression of frequency sweeping. The computed global mode structure of the electrostatic potential fluctuations reproduces measurements of the interchange instability [3]. When the applied RF heating is modeled as an ``RF collisionallity", the simulation reproduces frequency chirping suppression and suggests an explanation for the observations that is consistent with Berk and co-authors [4,5]. [1] H. Warren, M. Mauel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995). [2] D. Maslovsky, M. Mauel, B. Levitt, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30 (2002). [3] B. Levitt, D. Maslovsky, M. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002). [4] H. L. Berk, B. N. Breizman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999). [5] D. Yu. Eremin, H. L. Berk, Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002).

Maslovsky, Dmitry



Fish culture: an annotated bibliography of publications of the National Fisheries Center, Leetown, 1972-1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is an annotated bibliography of the publications authored or co-authored by the staff of the National Fisheries Center - Leetown (NFC-L) from 1972 through 1980. It includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, AR; the Fish Genetics Laboratory, Beulah, WY; the Hagerman Field Station of the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Hagerman, ID; the National Fisheries Research and Development Laboratory, Marison, AL; and, the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Cortland, NY. It also includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Aquaculture Production/Demonstration Station, Fisheries Academy, Fish Genetics Station, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, and Technical Information Services, each located in Kearneysville, WV. Prior to 1977, each functioned as a separate entity within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1977, the administrative and program activities of these components were merged into the Natkonal Fisheries Center. This bibliography lists the publications issued by each of these entities both before and after becoming joined into the Center. Publications from these components prior to 1972 are documents in U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Resource Publication 120, Bibliography of Research Publications of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1928-72. Entries in this bibliography are arranged under broad subject categories, similar to those used in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sport Fishery Abstracts. Within these categories, the publications are then arranged alphabetically by author and sequentially by date of publication. They cover a wide range of scientific and technical disciplines applicable to the field of aquaculture. The annotations were submitted by each NFC-L component, and were modified to some extent for uniformity. An author index is included at the end of the bibliography.

Mann, Joyce A.; Catrow, Violet J.; McKenzie, Lora C.; Engle, Faye V.



[Rashba Olena Iakivna--a gifted scientist and science organizer].  


Professor Olena Yakivna Rashba, doctor of science in biology, was born in Kyiv, to the physician's family; graduated from the Medical-Prophylactic Faculty of the First Medical Institute (1927-1931). Since 1933 she had been working at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Ukr.SSR: first as a laborant and then as a junior and as a senior scientific worker. In 1939 O. Ya. Rashba defended a thesis for the Candidates degree in biology, and in 1951 the thesis for the Doctor's degree. From 1943 to 1945 O. Ya. Rashba was at the front as the major of Medical Service. She was awarded the Red Star Order and medals For Capture of Berlin and For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Before 1941 Olena Yakivna investigated, under the supervision of Acad. O. V. Palladin, biochemical topography of departments of the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as variations in content of protein and its metabolism products in different departments of brain during embryonal development of vertebral animals. In 1945-1951 O. Ya. Rashba began investigating peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism in the brain. The data obtained by the scientist evidence that two enzymes (amylase and maltase) function in the brain which split glycogen to glucose in hydrolytic way. Interrelation between amylolytic and phospholytic enzymatic systems was detected in these experiments. Olena Yakivna has also developed the method of obtaining nuclei from the cells of nerve tissue and studied their composition. From 1951 to 1973 O. Ya. Rashba headed the Department of Microorganisms of the Institute of Microbiology of AS of Ukr.SSR and was a co-author of the efficient drug against bacterial cancer of tomatos "Arenarin". O. Ya. Rashbe has published about 100 scientific works, 2 monographs among them; she obtained 2 author's certificates. PMID:20684238

Vynohradova, R P



In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Hopkins, Adam Justin


Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Evaluation of Research Capacity in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria carries the highest burden and diversity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa and is preparing to scale up its efforts to control/eliminate these diseases. To achieve this it will require a range of internal technical support and expertise for mapping, monitoring and evaluating, operational research and documenting its success. In order to begin to evaluate this potential in Nigeria, this study collated and analysed information for lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH), which are currently being targeted with preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings Information from 299 scientific articles published on the selected NTDs in 179 journals between January 2008 and September 2013 was extracted and systematically compiled into a geo-referenced database for analysis and mapping. The highest number of articles was from the southern geo-political zones of the country. The majority of articles focused on one specific disease, and schistosomiasis and STH were found to have the highest and most wide ranging research output. The main type of study was parasitological, and the least was biotechnological. Nigerian authors were mostly affiliated with universities, and there was a wide range of international co-authors from Africa and other regions, especially the USA and UK. The majority of articles were published in journals with no known impact factor. Conclusions/Significance The extensive database and series of maps on the research capacity within Nigeria produced in this study highlights the current potential that exists, and needs to be fully maximized for the control/elimination of NTDs in the country. This study provides an important model approach that can be applied to other low and middle income countries where NTDs are endemic, and NTD programmes require support from the expertise within their own country, as well as internationally, to help raise their profile and importance. PMID:25121582

Okorie, Patricia N.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Molyneux, David H.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.



Study Factors Influencing Ventricular Enlargement in Schizophrenia: A 20 Year Follow-Up Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

A meta-analysis was performed on studies employing the ventricular-brain ratio to compare schizophrenic subjects to that of normal controls. This was a follow-up to a similar meta-analysis published in 1992 in which study-, in addition to clinical-, factors were found to contribute significantly to the reported difference between patients with schizophrenia and controls. Seventy-two (N=72) total studies were identified from the peer reviewed literature, 39 from the original meta-analysis, and 33 additional studies published since which met strict criteria for inclusion and analysis– thus representing ~30 years of schizophrenia ventricular enlargement research. Sample characteristics from schizophrenics and controls were coded for use as predictor variables against within sample VBR values as well as for between sample VBR differences. Additionally, a number of factors concerning how the studies were conducted and reported were also coded. Obtained data was subjected to unweighted univariate as well as multiple regression analyses. In particular, results indicated significant differences between schizophrenics and controls in ventricular size but also the influence of the diagnostic criteria used to define schizophrenia on the magnitude of the reported VBR. This suggests that differing factors of the diagnostic criteria may be sensitive to ventricular enlargement and might be worthy of further examination. Interestingly, we observed an inverse relationship between VBR difference and the number of co-authors on the study. This latter finding suggests that larger research groups report smaller VBR differences and may be more conservative or exacting in their research methodology. The diagnostic criteria used for defining schizophrenia were also predictive of between group differences. Analyses weighted by sample size provided identical conclusions. The effects of study factors such as these are helpful for understanding the variation in the size of the reported differences in VBR between patients and controls as well as for understanding the evolution of research on complex clinical syndromes employing neuroimaging morphometrics. PMID:21787868

Sayo, Angelo; Jennings, Robin G.



Quantifying Selection Acting on a Complex Trait Using Allele Frequency Time Series Data  

PubMed Central

When selection is acting on a large genetically diverse population, beneficial alleles increase in frequency. This fact can be used to map quantitative trait loci by sequencing the pooled DNA from the population at consecutive time points and observing allele frequency changes. Here, we present a population genetic method to analyze time series data of allele frequencies from such an experiment. Beginning with a range of proposed evolutionary scenarios, the method measures the consistency of each with the observed frequency changes. Evolutionary theory is utilized to formulate equations of motion for the allele frequencies, following which likelihoods for having observed the sequencing data under each scenario are derived. Comparison of these likelihoods gives an insight into the prevailing dynamics of the system under study. We illustrate the method by quantifying selective effects from an experiment, in which two phenotypically different yeast strains were first crossed and then propagated under heat stress (Parts L, Cubillos FA, Warringer J, et al. [14 co-authors]. 2011. Revealing the genetic structure of a trait by sequencing a population under selection. Genome Res). From these data, we discover that about 6% of polymorphic sites evolve nonneutrally under heat stress conditions, either because of their linkage to beneficial (driver) alleles or because they are drivers themselves. We further identify 44 genomic regions containing one or more candidate driver alleles, quantify their apparent selective advantage, obtain estimates of recombination rates within the regions, and show that the dynamics of the drivers display a strong signature of selection going beyond additive models. Our approach is applicable to study adaptation in a range of systems under different evolutionary pressures. PMID:22114362

Illingworth, Christopher J.R.; Parts, Leopold; Schiffels, Stephan; Liti, Gianni; Mustonen, Ville



The active participation of German-speaking countries in conferences of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) between 2005 and 2013: A reflection of the development of medical education research?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Medical education is gaining in significance internationally. A growing interest in the field has been observed in German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, Switzerland) since the early 2000s. This interest is not, however, reflected in an increase in the number of publications on medical education of German-speaking authors in international professional journals. The following investigation examines the potential use of active participant numbers of German-speaking researchers at AMEE conferences as a means of measuring said development. Methods: The AMEE conference proceedings from the categories poster presentations, short communications, research papers and plenary presentations from the years 2005-2013 were examined for evidence of Austrian, German and Swiss participation. The abstracts were subsequently analysed in terms of content and categorised according to study design, methodology, object of study, and research topic. Results: Of the 9,446 analysed abstracts, 549 contributions show at least one first, last or co-author from Austria, Germany or Switzerland. The absolute number of contributions per conference varied between 44 in 2010 and 77 in 2013. The percentage fluctuated between 10% in 2005 and 4.1% in 2010. From the year 2010 onwards, however, participation increased continually. The research was predominantly descriptive (62.7%). Studies on fundamental questions of teaching and learning (clarification studies) were less frequent (4.0%). For the most part, quantitative methods (51.9%) were implemented in addressing subjects such as learning and teaching methods (33%), evaluation and assessment (22.4%) or curriculum development (14.4%). The study population was usually comprised of students (52.5%). Conclusions: The number of contributions from Austria, Germany and Switzerland peak at the beginning and at the end of the evaluated period of time. A continual increase in active participation since 2005 was not observed. These observations do not reflect the actual increase of interest in medical education research in German-speaking countries. PMID:25228930

Raes, Patricia; Bauer, Daniel; Schöppe, Franziska; Fischer, Martin R.



Bibliography of NASA-related publications on wind turbine technology 1973-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major program of research and development projects on wind turbines for generating electricity was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most of these projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. One other large-scale wind turbine project was sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI). The peak years for wind energy work at Lewis were 1979-80, when almost 100 engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel were involved. From 1988 their conclusion in 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. Wind energy activities at NASA can be divided into two broad categories which are closely related and often overlapping: (1) Designing, building, and testing a series of 12 large-scale, experimental, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT's); and (2) conducting supporting research and technology (SR&T) projects. The purpose of this bibliography is to assist those active in the field of wind energy in locating the technical information they need on wind power planning, wind loads, turbine design and analysis, fabrication and installation, laboratory and field testing, and operations and maintenance. This bibliography contains approximately 620 citations of publications by over 520 authors and co-authors. Sources are: (1) NASA reports authored by government grantee, and contractor personnel, (2) papers presented by attendees at NASA-sponsored workshops and conferences, (3) papers presented by NASA personnel at outside workshops and conferences, and (4) outside publications related to research performed at NASA/ DOE wind turbine sites.

Spera, David A.



New directions for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.  


We study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing layer, presenting simulations in agreement with experimental data. This problem is an idealized subproblem of important scientific and engineering problems, such as gravitationally induced mixing in oceanography and performance assessment for inertial confinement fusion. Engineering codes commonly achieve correct simulations through the calibration of adjustable parameters. In this sense, they are interpolative and not predictive. As computational science moves from the interpolative to the predictive and reduces the reliance on experiment, the quality of decision making improves. The diagnosis of errors in a multi-parameter, multi-physics setting is daunting, so we address this issue in the proposed idealized setting. The validation tests presented are thus a test for engineering codes, when used for complex problems containing RT features. The RT growth rate, characterized by a dimensionless but non-universal parameter ?, describes the outer edge of the mixing zone. Increasingly accurate front tracking/large eddy simulations reveal the non-universality of the growth rate and agreement with experimental data. Increased mesh resolution allows reduction in the role of key subgrid models. We study the effect of long-wavelength perturbations on the mixing growth rate. A self-similar power law for the initial perturbation amplitudes is here inferred from experimental data. We show a maximum ±5% effect on the growth rate. Large (factors of 2) effects, as predicted in some models and many simulations, are inconsistent with the experimental data of Youngs and co-authors. The inconsistency of the model lies in the treatment of the dynamics of bubbles, which are the shortest-wavelength modes for this problem. An alternative theory for this shortest wavelength, based on the bubble merger model, was previously shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:24146006

Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Kaman, Tulin; Lim, Hyunkyung



Capella: Structure and Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

Brickhouse, Nancy S.



Substance use disorders in Arab countries: research activity and bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use disorders, which include substance abuse and substance dependence, are present in all regions of the world including Middle Eastern Arab countries. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly used tool for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research productivity in the field of substance use disorders in Arab countries using bibliometric indicators. Methodology Original or review research articles authored or co-authored by investigators from Arab countries about substance use disorders during the period 1900 – 2013 were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, contribution of each Arab country, names of journals, citations, and types of abused substances. Results Four hundred and thirteen documents in substance use disorders were retrieved. Annual research productivity was low but showed a significant increase in the last few years. In terms of quantity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (83 documents) ranked first in research about substance use disorders while Lebanon (17.4 documents per million) ranked first in terms of number of documents published per million inhabitants. Retrieved documents were found in different journal titles and categories, mostly in Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal. Authors from USA appeared in 117 documents published by investigators from Arab countries. Citation analysis of retrieved documents showed that the average citation per document was 10.76 and the h - index was 35. The majority of retrieved documents were about tobacco and smoking (175 documents) field while alcohol consumption and abuse research was the least with 69 documents. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that research in this field was largely neglected in the past. However, recent research interest was observed. Research output on tobacco and smoking was relatively high compared to other substances of abuse like illicit drugs and medicinal agents. Governmental funding for academics and mental health graduate programs to do research in the field of substance use disorders is highly recommended. PMID:25148888



Generalized critical points analysis of acetylene vibrational dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical tools of nonlinear dynamics are used to study the highly excited vibrations of small molecules. For effective Hamiltonians with one polyad number (approximate constant of motion), previously developed methods locate new anharmonic modes using the critical points in the reduced classical phase space. Theoretical arguments are given for generalizing the method to more than one polyad number. As the simplest classical invariant structure, critical points of the reduced phase space are solved analytically without relying on either integrating trajectories or visual inspection. These critical points, especially those that are linearly stable, are expected to indicate regions with the same type of classical dynamics as well as quantum modes of vibration. The pure bending Hamiltonian of acetylene (C2H2) is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of critical points analysis. Four families of critical points are born in distinct bifurcations, each corresponding to a novel anharmonic mode. These modes are visualized with custom computer-generated animations. Their origin and nature are qualitatively explained through separate consideration of DD-I and ? resonance alone. Quantum survival probability verifies that the Local and Counter Rotator modes are the stable modes of vibration at high excitation. The same analysis is extended for the first time to the acetylene stretch-bend system, which has never been analyzed classically with all the resonance couplings. Preliminary results are obtained for the polyad series containing the C-H stretch overtones. The local C-H stretch critical points family, induced by the stretch-stretch (K11/33) resonance, is located and shown to bifurcate into at least 4 new families when the stretch-bend resonances are included. The new families indicate that the mixing between the stretch and bend may result in novel vibrational modes. This dissertation includes my previously co-authored materials.

Ding, Xinli


27-day cycles in human mortality: Traute and Bernhard Düll  

PubMed Central

This tribute to her parents by one co-author (NDP) is the fruit of a more than a decade-long search by the senior author (FH) for the details of the lives of Bernhard and Gertraud (“Traute”) Düll. These pioneers studied how space/terrestrial weather may differentially influence human mortality from various causes, the 27-day mortality pattern being different whether death was from cardiac or respiratory disease, or from suicide. FH is the translator of personal information about her parents provided by NDP in German. Figuratively, he also attempts to “translate” the Dülls’ contribution in the context of the literature that had appeared before their work and after their deaths. Although the Dülls published in a then leading journal, among others (and FH had re-analyzed some of their work in a medical journal), they were unknown to academies or libraries (where FH had inquired about them). The Dülls thoroughly assembled death certificates to offer the most powerful evidence for an effect of solar activity reflected in human mortality, as did others before them. They went several steps further than their predecessors, however. They were the first to show possibly differential effects of space and/or Earth weather with respect to suicide and other deaths associated with the nervous and sensory systems vs. death from cardiac or respiratory disease as well as overall death by differences in the phase of a common 27-day cycle characterizing these mortality patterns. Furthermore, Bernhard Düll developed tests of human visual and auditory reaction time to study effects of weather and solar activity, publishing a book (his professorial dissertation) on the topic. His unpublished finding of an increased incidence of airplane crashes in association with higher solar activity was validated after his death, among others, by Tatiana Zenchenko and A. M. Merzlyi. PMID:24224144

Halberg, F.; Düll-Pfaff, N.; Gumarova, L.; Zenchenko, T. A.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Freytag, E. M.; Freytag, J.; Cornelissen, G.



Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the Nation's leading killer for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Development and progression of CVD is linked to the presence of risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. It is known that cholesterol is an indicator of increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Low-density cholesterol (LDL) above 130 mg/dl high-density cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol below 35 mg/dl and total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Proper ranges of cholesterol are important in the prevention of CVD. It has been suggested that a reduction in the consumption of saturated and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial and prevents CVD. Amaranth grain contains tocotrienols and squalene compounds, which are known to affect cholesterol biosynthesis. The cholesterol precursors squalene, lanosterol and other methyl sterols, reflect cholesterol synthesis [1-3], whereas plant sterols and cholestanol, a metabolite of cholesterol, reflect the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in normal and hyperlipidemic populations [4-6]. Qureshi with co-authors [7] showed that feeding of chickens with amaranth oil decreases blood cholesterol levels, which are supported by the work of others [8]. Previously, we have shown that Amaranth oil modulates the cell membrane fluidity [9] and stabilized membranes that could be one reason as to why it is beneficial to those who consume it. It is known that in hypertension, the cell membrane is defective and hence, the movement of the Na and K ions across the cell membranes could defective that could contribute to the development of increase in blood pressure. Based on these properties of amaranth oil we hypothesize that it could be of significant benefit for patients with CVD. PMID:17207282

Martirosyan, Danik M; Miroshnichenko, Lidia A; Kulakova, Svetlana N; Pogojeva, Ala V; Zoloedov, Vladimir I



How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar - an unusual type of neutron star - was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole? To reach their conclusions, the astronomers looked in detail at the extraordinary star cluster Westerlund 1 [1], located 16 000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar). From previous studies (eso0510), the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn). "If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results. Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event. A magnetar (eso0831) is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field - a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth, which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun. As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that exploded and left a magnetar remnant must have had a shorter life than the surviving stars in the cluster. "Because the lifespan of a star is directly linked to its mass - the heavier a star, the shorter its life - if we can measure the mass of any one surviving star, we know for sure that the shorter-lived star that became the magnetar must have been even more massive," says co-author and team leader Simon Clark. "This is of great significance since there is no accepted theory for how such extremely magnetic objects are formed." The astronomers therefore studied the stars that belong to the eclipsing double system W13 in Westerlund 1 using the fact that, in such a system, masses can be directly determined from the motions of the stars. By comparison with these stars, they found that the star that became the magnetar must have been at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. This proves for the first time that magnetars can evolve from stars so massive we would normally expect them to form black holes. The previous assumption was that stars with initial masses between about 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes. "These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead," says co-author Ignacio Negueruela. "Such huge mass losses before the explosion present great challenges to current theories of stellar evolution." "This therefore raises the thorny question of just how massive a star has to be to collapse to form a black hole if stars over 40 times as heavy as our Sun cannot manage this feat," concludes co-author Norbert Langer. The formation mechanism preferred by the astronomers postulates that the star that became the magnetar - the progenitor - was born with a stellar companion. As both stars evolved they would begin to interact, with energy derived from their orbital motion expended in ejecting the requisite huge quantities of mass from t



Chandra Finds Evidence for Stellar Cannibalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence that a star has recently engulfed a companion star or a giant planet has been found using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The likely existence of such a "cannibal" star provides new insight into how stars and the planets around them may interact as they age. The star in question, known as BP Piscium (BP Psc), appears to be a more evolved version of our Sun, but with a dusty and gaseous disk surrounding it. A pair of jets several light years long blasting out of the system in opposite directions has also been seen in optical data. While the disk and jets are characteristics of a very young star, several clues -- including the new results from Chandra -- suggest that BP Psc is not what it originally appeared to be. Instead, astronomers have suggested that BP Psc is an old star in its so-called red giant phase. And, rather than being hallmarks of its youth, the disk and jets are, in fact, remnants of a recent and catastrophic interaction whereby a nearby star or giant planet was consumed by BP Psc. When stars like the Sun begin to run out of nuclear fuel, they expand and shed their outer layers. Our Sun, for example, is expected to swell so that it nearly reaches or possibly engulfs Earth, as it becomes a red giant star. "It appears that BP Psc represents a star-eat-star Universe, or maybe a star-eat-planet one," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology, who led the Chandra study. "Either way, it just shows it's not always friendly out there." Several pieces of information have led astronomers to rethink how old BP Psc might be. First, BP Psc is not located near any star-forming cloud, and there are no other known young stars in its immediate vicinity. Secondly, in common with most elderly stars, its atmosphere contains only a small amount of lithium. Thirdly, its surface gravity appears to be too weak for a young star and instead matches up with one of an old red giant. Chandra adds to this story. Young, low-mass stars are brighter than most other stars in X-rays, and so X-ray observations can be used as a sign of how old a star may be. Chandra does detect X-rays from BP Psc, but at a rate that is too low to be from a young star. Instead, the X-ray emission rate measured for BP Psc is consistent with that of rapidly rotating giant stars. The spectrum of the X-ray emission -- that is how the amount of X-rays changes with wavelength -- is consistent with flares occurring on the surface of the star, or with interactions between the star and the disk surrounding it. The magnetic activity of the star itself might be generated by a dynamo caused by its rapid rotation. This rapid rotation can be caused by the engulfment process. "It seems that BP Psc has been energized by its meal," said co-author Rodolfo (Rudy) Montez Jr., also from the Rochester Institute of Technology. The star's surface is obscured throughout the visible and near-infrared bands, so the Chandra observation represents the first detection at any wavelength of BP Psc itself. "BP Psc shows us that stars like our Sun may live quietly for billions of years," said co-author David Rodriguez from UCLA, "but when they go, they just might take a star or planet or two with them." Although any close-in planets were presumably devastated when BP Psc turned into a giant star, a second round of planet formation might be occurring in the surrounding disk, hundreds of millions of years after the first round. A new paper using observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope has reported possible evidence for a giant planet in the disk surrounding BP Psc. This might be a newly formed planet or one that was part of the original planetary system. "Exactly how stars might engulf other stars or planets is a hot topic in astrophysics today," said Kastner. "We have many important details that we still need to work out, so objects like BP Psc are really exciting to find." These results appeared in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other co-authors on the study were Nicolas Grosso



University of New Mexico-Los Alamos National Laboratory Program in Volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNM-LANL Program in Volcanology was a vision of Wolf Elston in the late 1980s. Finally established in mid-1992, the program takes advantage of the extensive volcanic record preserved in northern New Mexico, and of the unique expertise and exceptional research facilities existing at the two institutions. Courses are directed toward upper division and graduate level students. The Los Alamos participants are adjunct professors and they take an active role in creating courses, advising thesis candidates, and providing research support. The curriculum is flexible but has a core upper division class in Physical Volcanology. Other classes offered in various years have included Volcanology and Human Affairs; Magmatic and Geothermal Systems; Tectonics and Magma Generation; Volcanoes of North America; Instrumentation for Volcanology; and Advanced Igneous Petrology. Perhaps the most renowned class in the program is the Volcanology Summer Field Course offered in even numbered years. This 3.5-week class is based in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, which contains the famous Valles caldera (1.2 Ma to 50 ka). All types of calc-alkaline to alkalic domes, flows, tuffs, and intrusions, plus derivative sediments, mineralized zones, and thermal fluids are available for instructional purposes. Students are required to complete nine rigorous field exercises starting with basic instruction in pyroclastic fall, flow, and surge, then progressing towards hydrothermally altered, intracaldera resurgent dome and moat deposits in an active hot spring and fumarole system. The class is open to graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and private sector employees with special needs. Enrollment is competitive with limited financial support and limited space for 17 students. Evening lectures, study time, lodging, and meals are provided at the UNM-owned Young's Ranch built in the 1920s, nestled in a canyon flanked by orange cliffs of Bandelier Tuff. About 120 students from 12 countries have taken this class. Former students have pursued advanced degrees in the Geosciences and taken jobs with academia, research laboratories, volcanology observatories and/or the private sector. Although a degree in Volcanology is not granted, the program has supported and/or contributed to the degrees and theses of many UNM and non-UNM students. In some circumstances, thesis research can be conducted at Los Alamos while enrolled at UNM. For more information contact any of the co-authors listed above.

Goff, F.; Fischer, T.; Baldridge, W.; Wohletz, K.; Smith, G.; Heiken, G.; Valentine, G.; Elston, W.



Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

Malony, Allen D.



A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

Bourqui, Michel



The Ultraviolet Albedo of Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large set of ultraviolet images of Ganymede have been acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope over the last 15 years. These images have been used almost exclusively to study Ganymede’s stunning auroral emissions (Feldman et al. 2000; Eviatar et al. 2001; McGrath et al. 2004; Saur et al. 2011; McGrath et al. 2013), and even the most basic information about Ganymede’s UV albedo has yet to be gleaned from these data. We will present a first-cut analysis of both disk-averaged and spatially-resolved UV albedos of Ganymede, with focus on the spatially-resolved Lyman-alpha albedo, which has never been considered previously for this satellite. Ganymede's visibly bright regions are known to be rich in water ice, while the visibly dark regions seem to be more carbonaceous (Carlson et al., 1996). At Lyman-alpha, these two species should also have very different albedo values. References Carlson, R. and 39 co-authors, Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: Results from Galileo’s initial orbit, Science, 274, 385-388, 1996. Eviatar, A., D. F. Strobel, B. C. Wolven, P. D. Feldman, M. A. McGrath, and D. J. Williams, Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J, 555, 1013-1019, 2001. Feldman, P. D., M. A. McGrath, D. F. Strobel, H. W. Moos, K. D. Retherford, and B. C. Wolven, HST/STIS imaging of ultraviolet aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J, 535, 1085-1090, 2000. McGrath M. A., Lellouch E., Strobel D. F., Feldman P. D., Johnson R. E., Satellite Atmospheres, Chapter 19 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon, Cambridge University Press, 2004. McGrath M. A., Jia, Xianzhe; Retherford, Kurt; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim, Aurora on Ganymede, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgra.50122, 2013. Saur, J., S. Duling, S., L. Roth, P. D. Feldman, D. F. Strobel, K. D. Retherford, M. A. McGrath, A. Wennmacher, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2011, abstract #SM23D-08, 2011.

McGrath, Melissa; Hendrix, A.



EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

Mostowski, Jan



Basaltic lava flow surface morphology: Genesis, evolution and impact on flow dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emplacement of basaltic lava flows is impacted by a number of interdependent parameters. For the purposes of predictive modeling and hazard assessment, it is necessary to obtain ranges for these parameters and to understand how they are dependent on each other. This dissertation includes several studies to infer lava flow emplacement parameters and their relationships to one another from the surface morphology preserved on solidified flows. Surface morphology maps of a number of Kilauean lava flows reveal a characteristic lava flow facies evolution that results in a sigmoidal surface morphology evolution with distance. I find that differences in the length scale of the transition relate to the eruption temperature and effusion rate of the lava for the transition onset, and interaction with local topography and resulting enhanced thermal efficiency for the transition length. In addition to examining the flow-scale surface morphology transition, I use a corn syrup-rice suspension to investigate the transition at the local-scale. I find several distinct styles of deformation including clumping, shear zones, and detachment whose onsets follow an inverse relationship between particle concentration and shear rate. Each style of deformation shows progressively enhanced shear localization and any or all of these processes may be responsible for the transition from pahoehoe- to `a`a-type deformation. Lava flow surfaces can also impact flow dynamics, with progressively thickening crusts providing increased resistance to flow as illustrated qualitatively by experiments using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 wax. I conduct a series of experiments to characterize the mechanical properties of solidified PEG and find that its strength is 104 times stronger than predicted from flow simulations, suggesting that a sub-surface visco-elastic layer, rather than the solidified crust, provides the primary resistance to PEG, and by analog, lava flows. Finally, I develop a computational code to identify alignments of volcanic vents, which act as an indicator of the tectonic stress field at the time of emplacement. The code includes several filtering criteria to limit the detection of spurious alignments. I apply the code to a data set of Pacific Northwest vents and find a slight progressive clockwise rotation of the Cascade trend and westward impingement of the Brothers trend over the last 1 Ma. This dissertation includes published, co-authored materials.

Soule, Samuel Adam


Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997  

SciTech Connect

The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also provide a short summary of the quarterly activities within Nova laser operations, Beamlet laser operations, and National Ignition Facility laser design. LLNL's ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet (LLNL), OMEGA (University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics), Nike (Naval Research Laboratory), and Trident (Los Alamos National Laboratory) laser facilities. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (Z) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories. General Atomics, Inc., develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. Many of the ICF Annual Report articles are co-authored with our colleagues from these other ICF institutions.

Correll, D



Complexity in scalable computing.  

SciTech Connect

The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra-node multithreading, non-blocking inter-node message passing, and a dedicated communications thread to facilitate concurrent communications and computations. On a quantum chemistry problem, they spawn multiple computation threads and communication threads on each node and use one-sided communications between nodes to minimize wait times. They reduce software complexity by evolving a multi-threaded factory pattern in C++ from a working, message-passing program in C.

Rouson, Damian W. I.



Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE). Therefore, we confirm that SMOS is a very valuable source of data, which is going to be used on regional studies related to the climate in Poland. 1. Collow, T.W., A. Robock, J. B. Basara, and B. G. Illston (2012), Evaluation of SMOS retrievals of soil moisture over the central United States with currently available in situ observations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09113, doi:10.1029/2011JD017095. 2. Bircher, S., Skou, N., Jensen, K. H.,. Walker, J. P and Rasmussen L. (2012), A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1445-1463, doi:10.5194/hess-16-1445-2012

Usowicz, Jerzy; ?ukowski, Mateusz; S?omi?ski, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogus?aw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech



Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others, and are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to be accessed from EGI resources to enable future research activities by this HUC. The international climate community for IPCC has created the Earth System Grid (ESG) to store and share climate data. There is a need to interface ESG with EGI for climate studies - parametric, regional and impact aspects. Critical points concern the interoperability of security mechanism between both "organisations", data protection policy, data transfer, data storage and data caching. Presenter: Horst Schwichtenberg Co-Authors: Monique Petitdidier (IPSL), Andre Gemünd (SCAI), Wim Som de Cerff (KNMI), Michael Schnell (SCAI)

Schwichtenberg, H.



Canada's Neglected Tropical Disease Research Network: Who's in the Core—Who's on the Periphery?  

PubMed Central

Background This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD) research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. Methodology Multiple methods were used to conduct this study, including: (1) a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2) a country-level “core-periphery” network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3) a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network (“k-core measure”) and the quantity and quality of research produced. Principal Findings Over the past sixty years (1950–2010), Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n?=?4,145) have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom) and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran). Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. Conclusion/Significance The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the NTD research they generate; there is opportunity to leverage existing research collaborations and help advance regions and NTD areas that are currently under-developed. PMID:24340113

Phillips, Kaye; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Pennefather, Peter; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla; Wong, Joseph



Low frequency electromagnetic signals in the atmosphere caused by geodynamics and solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the composed structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) forcing on the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in a lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors’ detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain effect of location of the future seismic epicenter area (obtained by Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. from Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci. and co-authors) as the result of the magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. We believe that the biosphere effects of forcing on the atmosphere may not be ignored. We formulate the result of our measurements with the system of micro-voltmeters: low-frequency EM disturbances of the atmosphere caused by solar activity (namely, geomagnetic storms with the geomagnetic index values K = 5 and K = 6), are decreasing temporarily the coherence of oscillations of the electric potentials of different points on the surface of a head, i.e. the coherence of the human brain EM processes. We are grateful to Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. and participants of the scientific seminars and conferences in IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute, Russian Acad. Sci., for discussions and researchers of the IZMIRAN observatory for data about the K index dynamics.

Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor


Will Titan lose its veil?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil. If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

Dimitrov, V.



In The News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient climate change meant Antarctica was once covered with palm trees trees 'grew on Antarctica' near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch would Shackleton have tweeted? States Antarctic Program images by Anthony Powell to an article published in Nature on the first of August, East Antarctica once supported near-tropical ecosystems, with winter temperatures "warmer than 10 C [50 F]." Of course, this wasn't recent by human standards - the Eocene epoch during which these temperatures were the norm occurred about 55 to 48 million years ago. However, this finding may provide insight into how Earth's climate responds to variable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, it allows us to imagine a world very different from the one we know: one in which palm trees flourished at latitudes that today reach summer highs of about 8 C and sink to lows of -50 C.The first link takes visitors to a blog entry outlining some of the article's discoveries, including detailed descriptions of the ecosystem. The second leads to an article featuring an interview with one of the study's co-authors that describes both the procedures and findings. Interested parties may want to read the original Nature article itself, accessible via the third link. Bringing us into the modern era, the fourth link leads to an article reflecting on the complicated relationship between the outside world and those overwintering in Antarctica. The fifth allows visitors to explore facts and figures about the United States presence in Antarctica, featuring some great webcam feeds. Finally, the last link leads to a magnificent collection of images and videos of the now-frozen continent.

Grinnell, Max



Seasonal dynamic of water on the surface of Mars during MY27 and M28 apheleon and pre-aphelion seasons based on the OMEGA/Mars-Express data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OMEGA is a mapping spectrometer of the visible and near-infrared ranges. The instrument began its scientific phase on Mars orbit since January 2005 and it is till providing data. The instrument has 3 spectral ranges and we take into account two of them: 0.3-1 and 1-2.5 µm. In this study we focus on changes in the surface composition and structures concerned with global water redistribution during martian year - ices, water vapour, frost, as well as rocks and soils, which possess bound and adsorbed water. We have compared two aphelion seasons, the MY41 and M42 aphelion campaigns, that resulted in global mapping of Mars. Data treatment procedure involved atmospheric corrections, including correction of minor instrumental effects such as pixel-to-pixel nonlinearity and digital noise, and elimination of CO2 and water vapor absorption, based on the European Mars Climate Model,. For mapping of water ice, frosts and water bearing minerals we use features in the 1-2.5 µm spectral range. Spectral imaging data have been treated to retrieve maps of spectral indices related to surface water ice, based on 1.03, 1.2 and 1.5 bands, with the relationships between three H2 O ice features implying the estimate of ice grain size. We used model for BRF calculation (Mishchenko et al,1999) to infer possible water ice grain size variations. So, we studied the evolution of icy polar cap during spring and summer for 2 years. Bound water has been estimated based on the 1.93 feature. The zonal distribution of water ice and bound water around the North pole, frost microphysical structure and its seasonal variations suggest the strong contribution of stationary and quasistationary planetary atmospheric waves residing in the circumpolar vortex, to the water cycle during the aphelion season. Also we analyzed the latitudinal global redistribution of bound water. The results are consistent with simulations of the Mars water cycle we carried out with help of the GFDL General Circulation model. Changing phase and leading zonal wavenumber of the circumpolar traveling wave occurring at Ls=97° and 120° results in enhanced transport of bulk water out of the North polar cap within several narrow corridors. A portion of advected water is brought back by the Hadley cell circulation producing fresh, fine-grained frost deposits. Bound water is also evolved into the atmospheric water cycle, revealing more inertial behavior and more zonally asymmetric distribution. The contribution of Russian co-authors has been supported by RFFI grant # N 06-02-16920` a

Evdokimova, Nadezda; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Rodin, Alexander V.; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Bibring, Jean-Pierre


Topics in supersymmetry breaking and gauge/gravity dualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This design-based study was the first empirical investigation of a new model of learning and instruction called Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI). In KCI, students are engaged as a learning community as they work on scaffolded inquiry activities that target specific science learning objectives. Although community-oriented approaches have been successful at the elementary level, there has been relatively little uptake of such methods at the secondary school level -- particularly in science. The pedagogical framework of KCI addresses the challenges of community models by blending established inquiry based approaches with community-oriented pedagogy. This dissertation tested the validity of KCI by designing, implementing, and empirically evaluating a curriculum based on the KCI model. This was achieved through curriculum trials involving two separate cohorts of grade-ten biology students (n = 102; n = 112). The first implementation consisted of a two-week physiology lesson that engaged students in co-authoring wiki artifacts about human system diseases, which students then used as a resource for solving medical case studies. The second implementation, an eight-week lesson on Canada's biodiversity, was a deeper application of the model, and focused on students' collaborative processes during the construction of their wiki-based knowledge repository. In both cases, the curriculum was evaluated according to its design, enactment, and learning outputs, as evidenced by students' knowledge artifacts and performance on the final exam. Technology scaffolds ensured that students focused on the physiology and biodiversity science curriculum expectations. Analyses of the data revealed that KCI engaged students in collaborative learning processes that were characteristic of a knowledge community. Additionally, final exam scores demonstrated increased learning performance when compared to those from previous years where students did not participate in KCI. The findings from this research provide the first empirical support for KCI, and demonstrate its potential for engaging secondary science students in the kinds of collaborative inquiry processes of authentic knowledge communities. This dissertation provides insight into the conditions necessary for such engagement, and contributes design recommendations for blending knowledge community and inquiry in secondary school science curriculum.

Peters, Vanessa Lynn


Response to ?A Madden-Julian Oscillation Event Realistically Simulated by a Global Cloud-Resolving Model?  

SciTech Connect

I agree with the authors that forecasting the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in a high resolution global model is important for numerous reasons, including improved weather forecast skill beyond 10 days, and resolving small scale features embedded in the MJO that coarse resolution ({approx}100-300km horizontal grid spacing) climate models do not (e.g., tropical cyclones). Unfortunately, the authors promote the (incorrect) overall impression that coarse resolution climate models cannot simulate the MJO by (a) only discussing aspects of works that indicate the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and (b) by promoting the use of higher resolution models, and the use of embedded two-dimensional cloud resolving models embedded in coarse resolution climate models as the principal methods for realistically representing the MJO because of the difficulty of coarse resolution models 'to estimate the vertical redistribution of heat and moisture by unresolved convective clouds'. Regarding items (a) and (b), I have co-authored two of the works cited by Miura et al. that bemoan the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and indeed simulating the MJO in coarse resolution climate models is a grand challenge. However, I would like to draw to their attention to work that has demonstrated that two different coarse resolution climate models, using conventional parameterizations of convection and clouds, can represent the MJO with high fidelity. In the later study, where more complete model diagnostics were available, important aspects of the MJO that were realistically represented included the relationship between convection and low-level moisture convergence, surface fluxes, the vertical structure of winds and divergence, and important air-sea interactions. Additionally, regarding item (b), convection is certainly of central importance in representing the MJO, but it is the interaction of convection (parameterized or otherwise) with other aspects of the model physics that is important. Thus, it is the implementation of the full physics package that is relevant, not simply the manner in which convection is represented. The issue at hand is to determine what aspects of the physics present in the high resolution (and embedded 2-dimensional cloud resolving model) simulations are essential for incorporation into coarse resolution climate model parameterizations in order for them to adequately represent the MJO. In the foreseeable future, models used for climate and climate change studies will continue to require convective parameterization in order to produce simulations that span decadal to centennial time scales to estimate the impact of anthropogenic influences on the statistics of weather variability and extremes. As such, intercomparison across different classes of modeling is essential to better understand the physics relevant to the climate system.

Sperber, K R



Final Report for Phase I Northern California CO2 Reduction Project  

SciTech Connect

On June 8, 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory released a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA 0000015) with the title, Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO{sub 2} Use. C6 Resources (C6), an affiliate of Shell Oil Company, responded with a proposal for Technology Area 1: Large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects from industrial sources. As DOE Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) Contractors, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL) proposed to collaborate with C6 and perform technical tasks, which C6 included in the C6 proposal, titled the Northern California CO{sub 2} Reduction Project. The proposal was accepted for Phase I funding and C6 received DOE Award DEFE0002042. LLNL and LBNL each received Phase I funding of $200,000, directly from DOE. The essential task of Phase I was to prepare a proposal for Phase II, which would be a five-year, detailed technical proposal, budget, and schedule for a complete carbon capture, transportation, and geologic storage project, with the objective of starting the injection of 1 million tons per year of industrial CO2 by the end of FY2015. LLNL and LBNL developed technical proposals (and DOE Field Work Proposals [FWPs]) for many aspects of the geologic testing and CO{sub 2} monitoring that were included in the C6 Phase II proposal, which C6 submitted by the deadline of April 16, 2010. This document is the Final Report for LLNL's Phase I efforts and is presented in two parts. Part 1 is the complete text of the technical proposal provided to C6 by LLNL and LBNL for inclusion in the C6 Phase II proposal. Because of space limitations, however, C6 may not have included all of this information in their proposal. In addition to developing the proposal presented below, LLNL's Bill Foxall and Laura Chiarmonte, in collaboration with LBNL, undertook preliminary technical work evaluating the potential for induced seismicity in Solano County. Part 2 presents technical work preformed during Phase I in the development of a preliminary Certification Framework: Leakage Risk Assessment for CO{sub 2} Injection at the Montezuma Hills Site, Solano County, California, co-authored by LLNL and LBNL collaborators.

Wagoner, J



Laudation Laudation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the opening session of the 2014 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, I was pleased to present the 2013 and 2014 Nuclear Fusion journal prizes. The IAEA's monthly journal, Nuclear Fusion, has been publishing preeminent research in controlled thermonuclear fusion for over 50 years. In 2006, we inaugurated an annual journal prize to recognise outstanding contributions. This prize is presented to the lead author of the paper judged by the journal's Board of Editors to have made the greatest scientific contribution in the two years following its publication. The 2013 prize was awarded to Dennis Whyte, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the 2010 paper: 'I-mode: an H-mode energy confinement regime with L-mode particle transport in Alcator C-Mod' [1] This ground breaking paper, presenting results from Alcator C-Mod, enhances our understanding of the formation of energy transport barriers and temperature pedestals, without particle barriers, through the I-mode regime. The discovery of a stationary ELM-free improved confinement regime with no impurity accumulation in a metallic high field tokamak, like ITER, has implications that will stimulate much future research. The 2014 prize was awarded to Philip Snyder, General Atomics, USA, for the 2011 paper: 'A first-principles predictive model of the pedestal height and width: development, testing and ITER optimization with the EPED model' [2]. Pedestal height will have a dramatic impact on overall fusion performance in next-step devices. This exceptional paper presents a compelling model for the edge pedestal width and height based on coupling peeling-ballooning theory for stability and kinetic ballooning transport theory. Comparison is made to experimental observations across a range of devices and convincing agreement is demonstrated. This model, therefore, has the potential to significantly focus the predictions of performance in future devices. I congratulate the prize winners and their co-authors and thank the Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors for their deliberations. References [1] Whyte D.G. et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 105005 [2] Snyder P. et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 103016

Bychkov, A.



Challenges from new lunar data: ILEWG report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent lunar missions including Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1, Selene Kaguya, Chang'E 1 , Chandrayaan-1 have been producing new data in large volumes. We shall discuss the challenges in data calibration and intercalibration, integration, the defin ition of an accurate coordinate systems and geodesic grid, incorporation of latest altimetry and gravimetry data. LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and subsequent missions will go even futher in data volume and diversity of instruments. We shall discuss the upcoming challenges in data archiving, management and interpretative tools, to merge orbital remote sensing with surface data from landers and rovers for the various elements of ILEWG lunar robotic village. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Data and Outreach Relevant ILEWG Reference documents: -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-Space Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at -7th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Toronto Sept 2005, Programme and Proceedings on line at, R. Richards et al Editors -6th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Udaipur Nov. 2004, Proceedings ( N. Bhandari Editor), Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841 -5th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Hawaii Nov 2003, Pro-ceedings ILC2005/ICEUM5 (S.M. Durst et al Editors), Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Tech-nology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004 -4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462 (B.H. Foing M. Perry, editors)

Foing, Bernard H.


X-ray scatter tomography using coded apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work proposes and studies a new field of x-ray tomography which combines the principles of scatter imaging and coded apertures, termed "coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging" (CAXSI). Conventional x-ray tomography reconstructs an object's electron density distribution by measuring a set of line integrals known as the x-ray transform, based physically on the attenuation of incident rays. More recently, scatter imaging has emerged as an alternative to attenuation imaging by measuring radiation from coherent and incoherent scattering. The information-rich scatter signal may be used to infer density as well as molecular structure throughout a volume. Some scatter modalities use collimators at the source and detector, resulting in long scan times due to the low efficiency of scattering mechanisms combined with a high degree of spatial filtering. CAXSI comes to the rescue by employing coded apertures. Coded apertures transmit a larger fraction of the scattered rays than collimators while also imposing structure to the scatter signal. In a coded aperture system each detector is sensitive to multiple ray paths, producing multiplexed measurements. The coding problem is then to design an aperture which enables de-multiplexing to reconstruct the desired physical properties and spatial distribution of the target. In this work, a number of CAXSI systems are proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated. One-dimensional "pencil" beams, two-dimensional "fan" beams, and three-dimensional "cone" beams are considered for the illumination. Pencil beam and fan beam CAXSI systems are demonstrated experimentally. The utility of energy-integrating (scintillation) detectors and energy-sensitive (photon counting) detectors are evaluated theoretically, and new coded aperture designs are presented for each beam geometry. Physical models are developed for each coded aperture system, from which resolution metrics are derived. Systems employing different combinations of beam geometry, coded apertures, and detectors are analyzed by constructing linear measurement operators and comparing their singular value decompositions. Since x-ray measurements are typically dominated by photon "shot" noise, iterative algorithms based on Poisson statistics are used to perform the reconstructions. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

MacCabe, Kenneth P.


Rtop - an R package for interpolation along the stream network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical methods have a long tradition within analysis of data that can be conceptualized as simple point data, such as soil properties, or for regular blocks, such as mining data. However, these methods have been used to a limited extent for estimation along stream networks. A few exceptions are given by (Gottschalk 1993, Sauquet et al. 2000, Gottschalk et al. 2006, Skøien et al. 2006), and an overview by Laaha and Blöschl (2011). Interpolation of runoff characteristics are more complicated than the traditional random variables estimated by geostatistical methods, as the measurements have a more complicated support, and many catchments are nested. Skøien et al. (2006) presented the model Top-kriging which takes these effects into account for interpolation of stream flow characteristics (exemplified by the 100 year flood). The method has here been implemented as a package in the open source statistical environment R (R Development Core Team 2011). Taking advantage of the existing methods in R for working with spatial objects, and the extensive possibilities for visualizing the result, this makes it considerably easier to apply the method on new data sets, in comparison to earlier implementation of the method. In addition to user feedback, the package has also been tested by colleagues whose only responsibility has been to search for bugs, inconsistencies and shortcomings of the documentation. The last part is often the part that gets the least attention in small open source projects, and we have solved this by acknowledging their effects as co-authors. The model will soon be uploaded to CRAN, but is in the meantime also available from R-forge and can be installed by: > install.packages("rtop", repos="") Gottschalk, L., 1993. Interpolation of runoff applying objective methods. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics, 7, 269-281. Gottschalk, L., Krasovskaia, I., Leblois, E. & Sauquet, E., 2006. Mapping mean and variance of runoff in a river basin. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 469-484. Laaha, G. & Blöschl, G. 2011. Geostatistics on river networks - a reviewed. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria. R Development Core Team, 2011. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, ISBN 3-900051-07-0. Sauquet, E., Gottschalk, L. & Leblois, E., 2000. Mapping average annual runoff: A hierarchical approach applying a stochastic interpolation scheme. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 45 (6), 799-815. Skøien, J.O., Merz, R. & Blöschl, G., 2006. Top-kriging - geostatistics on stream networks. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 277-287.

Skøien, J. O.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Blöschl, G.; Pebesma, E.; Parajka, J.; Viglione, A.



Homicide or suicide: the killing of suicidal persons by law enforcement officers.  


This paper presents 15 deaths of suicidal persons in Oregon and Florida who, by their behavior, sufficiently provoked law enforcement officers into killing them. Four deaths were certified as suicide, one as undetermined and ten as homicide. All of the deaths are individually described in detail and their case characteristics are presented in a table. The method of study is a descriptive analysis of the case characteristics, including 21 variables which are determined to be relevant to the classification of death. The variables were grouped into six categories: (a) personal information; (b) criminal behavior during the fatal incident; (c) dangerous behavior during the fatal incident; (d) toxicological data; (e) mental illness information; and (f) certification data. From the analysis, reasons for the opinions on manner of death classification are presented. All incidents were perceived as life-threatening to law officers, family members, or hostages. All victims were male except one, and all were Caucasian except two. All victims resisted arrest and verbally threatened homicide during the fatal incident. Two-thirds of the victims took hostages. All victims possessed an apparent handgun or other weapon (knife, iron bar). All victims posed their weapon and threatened others during the incident, 60% of victims actually used the weapon with apparent intent to inflict damage to others. 40% of victims were intoxicated with alcohol but other drug-involvement was uncommon. Seven of 15 had previous suicide attempts, 40% had medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and 60% had reasonable historical evidence of psychiatric diagnoses, most commonly depression or substance abuse. One of the co-authors presents the case for some of the deaths to be certified as suicides, whereas two present the case for all to be certified as homicide. A brief discussion of psychiatric issues is also presented concerning individuals who use others to commit suicide and who may engage in dangerous and/or criminal behavior to do so. A major conclusion is that there is lack of a unified opinion on death certification procedures for individuals who have provoked law enforcement officers to kill them. For such cases, it is recommended that professional organizations of medical examiners/coroners develop guidelines to promote consistency in death certification practices including manner of death classification and selection of death certificate wording so that "police-assisted suicide" may be appropriately reported and studied. PMID:9456524

Wilson, E F; Davis, J H; Bloom, J D; Batten, P J; Kamara, S G



Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.



The First Paleomagnetic Polar Wander Path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of 1952, having completed my work on the Cambridge astatic magnetometer, I was motivated to embark on a "Preliminary Paleomagnetic Survey of Rocks from the British Isles" by exciting results obtained by two fellow research students:- Jan Hospers' proposal of the axial dipole hypothesis and Ted Irving's discovery of strongly oblique Pre-Cambrian paleomagnetic directions, substantiated by the oblique Triassic directions obtained by John Clegg's group. Geologists advised me to collect from palaeontologically well dated rock formations. But these turned out to be very weakly magnetized and thereafter I concentrated on purple and dark red coloured rock formations. By the end of July 1954 I had compiled a table of nine Period-mean paleomagnetic directions spanning the last 600 Myr. I passed a copy to Keith Runcorn to include in a talk (co-authors Creer and Irving) scheduled for the August 1954 Rome Assembly of IAGA. Meanwhile, background reading took me to Gutenberg's "Internal Constitution of the Earth (1951)" where I came across (Fig 12) paths of the north pole proposed by Kreichgauer (1902) and by Koppen and Wegener (1924). This prompted me to calculate a paleomagnetic polar wander path. I presented this at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held at Oxford on September 8th. An artist's representation of it was published in Time Magazine of September 24th 1954 where the accompanying text records that I stressed that similar work on other continents would be necessary to distinguish whether the continents had drifted independently or whether the sole mechanism had been polar wander. On my return to Cambridge, Maurice Hill informally suggested that I should indicate precision, so for each pole I calculated semi-major and minor axes of the ellipse of confidence corresponding to the radius of confidence of each mean direction. These were shown in my Ph.D. thesis, where also I calculated a paleomagnetic pole for John Graham's North American Silurian Rose Hill Formation and argued tentatively that it's location, somewhat to the east of the British Silurian pole, is qualitatively consistent withWegnerian drift.

Creer, K. M.



Particle kinetic simulation of high altitude hypervelocity flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this grant period, the focus has been on enhancement and application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) particle method for computing hypersonic flows of re-entry vehicles. Enhancement efforts dealt with modeling gas-gas interactions for thermal non-equilibrium relaxation processes and gas-surface interactions for prediction of vehicle surface temperatures. Both are important for application to problems of engineering interest. The code was employed in a parametric study to improve future applications, and in simulations of aeropass maneuvers in support of the Magellan mission. Detailed comparisons between continuum models for internal energy relaxation and DSMC models reveals that several discrepancies exist. These include definitions of relaxation parameters and the methodologies for implementing them in DSMC codes. These issues were clarified and all differences were rectified in a paper (Appendix A) submitted to Physics of Fluids A, featuring several key figures in the DSMC community as co-authors and B. Haas as first author. This material will be presented at the Fluid Dynamics meeting of the American Physical Society on November 21, 1993. The aerodynamics of space vehicles in highly rarefied flows are very sensitive to the vehicle surface temperatures. Rather than require prescribed temperature estimates for spacecraft as is typically done in DSMC methods, a new technique was developed which couples the dynamic surface heat transfer characteristics into the DSMC flow simulation code to compute surface temperatures directly. This model, when applied to thin planar bodies such as solar panels, was described in AIAA Paper No. 93-2765 (Appendix B) and was presented at the Thermophysics Conference in July 1993. The paper has been submitted to the Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. Application of the DSMC method to problems of practical interest requires a trade off between solution accuracy and computational expense and limitations. A parametric study was performed and reported in AIAA Paper No. 93-2806 (Appendix C) which assessed the accuracy penalties associated with simulations of varying grid resolution and flow domain size. The paper was also presented at the Thermophysics Conference and will be submitted to the journal shortly. Finally, the DSMC code was employed to assess the pitch, yaw, and roll aerodynamics of the Magellan spacecraft during entry into the Venus atmosphere at off-design attitudes. This work was in support of the Magellan aerobraking maneuver of May 25-Aug. 3, 1993. Furthermore, analysis of the roll characteristics of the configuration with canted solar panels was performed in support of the proposed 'Windmill' experiment. Results were reported in AIAA Paper No. 93-3676 (Appendix D) presented at the Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference in August 1993, and were submitted to Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Haas, Brian L.



Study of Multi-Scale Cloud Processes Over the Tropical Western Pacific Using Cloud-Resolving Models Constrained by Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect

Clouds in the tropical western Pacific are an integral part of the large scale environment. An improved understanding of the multi-scale structure of clouds and their interactions with the environment is critical to the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations, understanding the consequences of model biases, and providing a context for interpreting the observational data collected over the ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Three-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs) are powerful tools for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations. However, a significant challenge in using CRMs in the TWP is that the region lacks conventional data, so large uncertainty exists in defining the large-scale environment for clouds. This project links several aspects of the ARM program, from measurements to providing improved analyses, and from cloud-resolving modeling to climate-scale modeling and parameterization development, with the overall objective to improve the representations of clouds in climate models and to simulate and quantify resolved cloud effects on the large-scale environment. Our objectives will be achieved through a series of tasks focusing on the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ARM data. Our approach includes: -- Perform assimilation of COSMIC GPS radio occultation and other satellites products using the WRF Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation system to represent the tropical large-scale environment at 36 km grid resolution. This high-resolution analysis can be used by the community to derive forcing products for single-column models or cloud-resolving models. -- Perform cloud-resolving simulations using WRF and its nesting capabilities, driven by the improved regional analysis and evaluate the simulations against ARM datasets such as from TWP-ICE to optimize the microphysics parameters for this region. A cirrus study (Mace and co-authors) already exists for TWP-ICE using satellite and ground-based observations. -- Perform numerical experiments using WRF to investigate how convection over tropical islands in the Maritime Continent interacts with large-scale circulation and affects convection in nearby regions. -- Evaluate and apply WRF as a testbed for GCM cloud parameterizations, utilizing the ability of WRF to run on multiple scales (from cloud resolving to global) to isolate resolution and physics issues from dynamical and model framework issues. Key products will be disseminated to the ARM and larger community through distribution of data archives, including model outputs from the data assimilation products and cloud resolving simulations, and publications.

Dudhia, Jimy



Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a- ? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ? clinoenstatite and w ürtzite ? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO · nAl 2O 3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to field structural geologists to test whether interactions of these types occur in nature, and to theoreticians to reach a deeper understanding of the complex relations between phase transformations, the local state of stress and associated deformation and deformation rates.

Kirby, Stephen H.; Stern, Laura A.



The decrease of dopamine D?/D? receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB? cannabinoid receptors in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary autoradiographic study with the selective dopamine D?/D? antagonist [³H]raclopride and the novel CB? inverse agonist [¹²?I]SD7015.  


Cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB?Rs) modulate synaptic neurotransmission by participating in retrograde signaling in the adult brain. Increasing evidence suggests that cannabinoids through CB?Rs play an important role in the regulation of motor activities in the striatum. In the present study, we used human brain samples to examine the relationship between CB?R and dopamine receptor density in case of Parkinson's disease (PD). Post mortem putamen, nucleus caudatus and medial frontal gyrus samples obtained from PD patients were used for CB?R and dopamine D?/D? receptor autoradiography. [¹²?I]SD7015, a novel selective CB?R inverse agonist, developed by a number of the present co-authors, and [³H]raclopride, a dopamine D?/D? antagonist, were used as radioligands. Our results demonstrate unchanged CB?R density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus of deceased PD patients, treated with levodopa (L-DOPA). At the same time dopamine D?/D? receptors displayed significantly decreased density levels in case of PD putamen (control: 47.97 ± 10.00 fmol/g, PD: 3.73 ± 0.07 fmol/g (mean ± SEM), p<0.05) and nucleus caudatus (control: 30.26 ± 2.48 fmol/g, PD: 12.84 ± 5.49 fmol/g, p<0.0005) samples. In contrast to the putamen and the nucleus caudatus, in the medial frontal gyrus neither receptor densities were affected. Our data suggest the presence of an unaltered CB?R population even in late stages of levodopa treated PD. This further supports the presence of an intact CB?R population which, in line with the conclusion of earlier publications, may be utilized as a pharmacological target in the treatment of PD. Furthermore we found discrepancy between a maintained CB?R population and a decreased dopamine D?/D? receptor population in PD striatum. The precise explanation of this conundrum requires further studies with simultaneous examination of the central cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems in PD using higher sample size. PMID:22421165

Farkas, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Jia, Zhisheng; Harkany, Tibor; Palkovits, Miklós; Donohou, Sean R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Máthé, Domokos; Csiba, László; Gulyás, Balázs



The decrease of dopamine D2/D3 receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in Parkinson’s disease: A preliminary autoradiographic study with the selective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist [3H]raclopride and the novel CB1 inverse agonist [125I]SD7015  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) modulate synaptic neurotransmission by participating in retrograde signaling in the adult brain. Increasing evidence suggests that cannabinoids through CB1Rs play an important role in the regulation of motor activities in the striatum. In the present study, we used human brain samples to examine the relationship between CB1R and dopamine receptor density in case of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Post mortem putamen, nucleus caudatus and medial frontal gyrus samples obtained from PD patients were used for CB1R and dopamine D2/D3 receptor autoradiography. [125I]SD7015, a novel selective CB1R inverse agonist, developed by a number of the present co-authors, and [3H]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 antagonist, were used as radioligands. Our results demonstrate unchanged CB1R density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus of deceased PD patients, treated with levodopa (l-DOPA). At the same time dopamine D2/D3 receptors displayed significantly decreased density levels in case of PD putamen (control: 47.97 ± 10.00 fmol/g, PD: 3.73 ± 0.07 fmol/g (mean ± SEM), p < 0.05) and nucleus caudatus (control: 30.26 ± 2.48 fmol/g, PD: 12.84 ± 5.49 fmol/g, p < 0.0005) samples. In contrast to the putamen and the nucleus caudatus, in the medial frontal gyrus neither receptor densities were affected. Our data suggest the presence of an unaltered CB1R population even in late stages of levodopa treated PD. This further supports the presence of an intact CB1R population which, in line with the conclusion of earlier publications, may be utilized as a pharmacological target in the treatment of PD. Furthermore we found discrepancy between a maintained CB1R population and a decreased dopamine D2/D3 receptor population in PD striatum. The precise explanation of this conundrum requires further studies with simultaneous examination of the central cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems in PD using higher sample size. PMID:22421165

Farkas, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Jia, Zhisheng; Harkany, Tibor; Palkovits, Miklés; Donohou, Sean R.; Pike, Victor W.; Halldin, Christer; Máthé, Domokos; Csiba, Laszló; Gulyás, Balázs



Recent Neutron Studies of the Iron-based Magnetic Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of recent neutron scattering investigations at the NCNR of the crystal structures, magnetic structures, and spin dynamics of the iron-based ROFe(As,P) (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd), (Ba,Sr,Ca)Fe2As2, and Fe1-x(Se-Te) superconductors [1]. All the undoped materials exhibit universal behavior, where a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition occurs between ˜140-220 K, at or below which the systems order antiferromagnetically. The magnetic structure within the a-b plane consists of chains of parallel Fe spins that are coupled antiferromagnetically in the orthogonal direction, with an ordered moment typically less than 1 ?B. Hence these are itinerant electron magnets, with a spin structure that is consistent with Fermi-surface nesting. The exchange interactions are strong, with spin-wave bandwidths ˜200 meV. The rare-earth moments order antiferromagnetically at low T like ``conventional'' magnetic-superconductors, while the crystal field excitations can be employed to study the properties of the superconducting state. With doping in CeFeAsO1-xFx, LaFeAsO1-xFx, and SrFe2-yNiyAs2 [2] the structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed in favor of superconductivity. The application of pressure in CaFe2As2 transforms the system from a magnetically ordered orthorhombic material to a ``collapsed'' non-magnetic tetragonal system. In the superconducting doping regime, well defined spin correlations and a clear magnetic resonance in the magnetic excitation spectrum that tracks the superconducting order parameter are observed, reminiscent of the cuprate superconductors [3]. The overall results clearly indicate that the magnetic properties are a key element in these iron-based superconductors. Further information and references can be found at [4pt] [1] For a recent neutron review see J. W. Lynn and P. Dai, Physica C 469, 469 (2009). [0pt] [2] N. Kumar, et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 144524 (2009). [0pt] [3] S. Li, et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 174527 (2009). [4pt] It is a pleasure to acknowledge my collaborators at the NCNR and the many collaborators with the following groups: P. Dai (U. Tennessee/ORNL), N. L. Wang (Beijing), R. J. Cava (Princeton U.), A. Goldman (Ames Lab), W. Bao (LANL), S. Dhar (TIFR), J. P. Paglione (U. Maryland). Please see [1] for a complete list of co-authors.

Lynn, Jeffrey



Four Big-Telescope Planetary Astronomers of the 1920's at Mount Wilson, Yerkes, and Lick Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to current mythology, many professional astronomers tried to do planetary research before World War II, as Ronald Doel and I have previously emphasized. Their difficulty was that once the known planets had been studied with the biggest and best telescopes, spectrographs, and radiometers there was little more they could do until some new instrumental development came along, and these were rare in those years. Two astronomers who observed planets in the 1920's were Frank Ross, of the Yerkes Observatory faculty, with the Mount Wilson 60- and 100-inch telescopes, and William H. Wright, at Lick, with its 36-inch Crossley reflector, which he considered a big telescope. Both were keenly interested in photographic emulsions (Ross had been a research physicist at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory), and when fast new panchromatic films and plates became available in the 1920's they quickly applied them to photographing the planets. Robert J. Trumpler, also at Lick, used its 36-inch refractor in a combination of photographic (in the yellow and red spectral regions) and visual observing to map and describe Martian surface features. All three of them began planetary observing at the close opposition of Mars in 1924; they were all mainline scientists who ultimately were elected to the National Academy of Sciences. All three of them were doing descriptive work, seeing what was there, and none of them had any theoretical ideas to check or disprove. Francis G. Pease, more of a telescope designer and engineer at Mount Wilson, also used its 60- and 100-inch reflectors, chiefly to take photographs of the planets for illustrations in books and magazines. They all used fine-grain photographic plates, but seeing was a problem they could not overcome. Examples of their planetary photographs, papers, and letters will be posted. Ross and Trumpler dropped out of planetary astronomy after 1928, but Wright and Pease continued in it for many years. An interesting sidelight is that Gerard P. Kuiper, as a young postdoc at Lick, co-authored his first planetary paper in English with Wright (on Mars).

Osterbrock, D. E.



Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.  


RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the algorithms' precision, bias, and resolution. While large differences exist between methods when considering the technical performance experiments, most methods perform relatively well on the biomarker data. The data and the analysis results per method are made available to serve as benchmark for further development and evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods ( PMID:22975077

Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a highly idealized model for El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability, previously studied by two of the co-authors. The model is governed by a delay differential equation for sea surface temperature T in the Tropical Pacific, and it combines two key mechanisms that participate in ENSO dynamics: delayed negative feedback and seasonal forcing. We perform a theoretical and numerical study of the model in the three-dimensional space of its physically relevant parameters: strength of seasonal forcing, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and propagation period of oceanic waves across the Tropical Pacific. Phase locking of model solutions to the periodic forcing is prevalent: the local maxima and minima of the solutions tend to occur at the same position within the seasonal cycle. Such phase locking is a key feature of the observed El Nino (warm) and La Nina (cold) events. The phasing of the extrema within the seasonal cycle depends sensitively on model parameters when forcing is weak. We also study co-existence of multiple solutions for fixed model parameters and describe the basins of attraction of the stable solutions within a one-dimensional manifold of constant initial model histories. We study next a two-dimensional manifold of solutions, given by initial histories that are piecewise constant, with a jump from T = a to T = 0 that occurs at time t = -b. To do so, we apply the concept of pullback attractor (PBA) in order to study the model dynamics in the model-parameter region where sensitivity to parameter values is high. Computation of the model's PBAs clearly demonstrates that its dynamics --- whether periodic or quasi-periodic --- occurs on a two-dimensional torus, within the three-dimensional space generated by the "product" of the two-dimensional manifold parameterized by (a,b) with the model variable T. This behavior reflects the competition between two oscillatory mechanisms: an external one due to the seasonal forsing and an internal one due to the delayed feedbacks. Such an interpretation is much harder to obtain from the complex, parameter-sensitive dynamics of the model using more traditional, theoretical and numerical, approaches.

Chekroun, M. D.; Zaliapin, I.; Ghil, M.



Visualisation of Palaeomagnetic Databases: Progress and Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of Palaeomagnetic Databases (GPMDB, TRANS, SECVR, SECVRL, PALIN, MAGST) created and developed by Michael McElhinny and his co-authors in nineties are used by researchers all over the world. Their user-riendly interfaces make it unnecessary for users to learn about details of the Microsoft Access software. The next step in the development of these databases lies in the visualisation of data and in the integration of the palaeomagnetic data with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). One of the most popular GIS software among Earth scientists is ArcView. Due to the relative simplicity of the structure of the GPMDB and other databases it quite easy to integrate palaeomagnetic data into GIS. It is just necessary to prepare a database file in DBASE format (using the export option of the Microsoft Access, for example) and then to create a subsequent graphic theme (layer) in ArcView. The wide variety of ArcView options enable the use of graduated colours, labels, and different symbols to emphasise ages, palaeomagnetic directions, or other data features. Palaeomagnetic data may be combined with the geological, tectonic, and other maps using a variety of spherical projections. Palaeomagnetic data may be easily integrated into other GIS-oriented databases, such as geochronological databases. In addition to all traditional services, such as queries, ArcView and supplementary Avenue scripts and Visual Basic programs provide many new possibilities. For example, it is very easy now to choose data from a particular polygon (e.g. craton, terrane, orogenic belt etc.). Users of the new visual database also can instantly create a stereoplot for any selected data subset and to calculate mean directions and palaeopoles. It is also possible to display palaeopoles for the selected group of data and to reconstruct a palaeoposition of the continental block using these poles, or Euler pole of rotation. There are obvious advantages of using the visual database. For example, if there are some errors in the geographical position of some data, in many cases it is easy to find them. It is much easier now to test tectonic hypotheses. For instance, it is possible to compare data from two adjacent terranes to decide the time of their collision. Visual versions of magnetostratigraphy, secular variations and other palaeomagnetic databases will have similar advantages. Working version of visual GPMDB is available from the author by request.

Pisarevsky, S. A.



Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex rheological medium to the application of a far-field stress imposed by plate motions. The forward models were used both to gain insight into the range of strain transients to be expected under different assumed mechanical conditions and to develop representations for strain fields that allow GPS, borehole, and other strain data to be combined in a self-consistent, yet well-determined, manner. The models also provided a basis for hypothesis testing, by which data from a strain transient well characterized by GPS and borehole observations were utilized to distinguish among competing candidates for the causative physical mechanism and the governing physical characteristics. During the three years of this project, continued to a fourth year through a no-cost extension of the grant, we published 14 papers and presented or co-authored 37 papers at national scientific meetings.

Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)



Are grammatical representations useful for learning from biological sequence data?--a case study.  


This paper investigates whether Chomsky-like grammar representations are useful for learning cost-effective, comprehensible predictors of members of biological sequence families. The Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) Bayesian approach to learning from positive examples is used to generate a grammar for recognising a class of proteins known as human neuropeptide precursors (NPPs). Collectively, five of the co-authors of this paper, have extensive expertise on NPPs and general bioinformatics methods. Their motivation for generating a NPP grammar was that none of the existing bioinformatics methods could provide sufficient cost-savings during the search for new NPPs. Prior to this project experienced specialists at SmithKline Beecham had tried for many months to hand-code such a grammar but without success. Our best predictor makes the search for novel NPPs more than 100 times more efficient than randomly selecting proteins for synthesis and testing them for biological activity. As far as these authors are aware, this is both the first biological grammar learnt using ILP and the first real-world scientific application of the ILP Bayesian approach to learning from positive examples. A group of features is derived from this grammar. Other groups of features of NPPs are derived using other learning strategies. Amalgams of these groups are formed. A recognition model is generated for each amalgam using C4.5 and C4.5rules and its performance is measured using both predictive accuracy and a new cost function, Relative Advantage (RA). The highest RA was achieved by a model which includes grammar-derived features. This RA is significantly higher than the best RA achieved without the use of the grammar-derived features. Predictive accuracy is not a good measure of performance for this domain because it does not discriminate well between NPP recognition models: despite covering varying numbers of (the rare) positives, all the models are awarded a similar (high) score by predictive accuracy because they all exclude most of the abundant negatives. PMID:11694180

Muggleton, S H; Bryant, C H; Srinivasan, A; Whittaker, A; Topp, S; Rawlings, C



Satellite Altimetry, Software, Fracture Zones and Seamounts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William F. Haxby was one of the pioneers in using satellite altimetry to characterize the ocean floor. His early work culminated in the release of his famous 1987 "Gravity map of the World's Oceans" which was based on the 3-month long Seasat mission. This map revolutionized our knowledge of seafloor tectonic fabric and spawned numerous seagoing expeditions to map in further detail the many features, such as the Louisville and Foundation seamount chains, which Bill had imaged from the comfort of his office chair in the early 1980s. It was truly inspiring to experience him programming his computer to do all kinds of tasks. His unique expertise greatly influenced how many of us approach not just science but all undertakings that can conceivably be automated on a computer. For instance, Bill's mapping tools inspired GMT (Wessel and Smith, 1991); the early version even borrowed a few low-level projection routines translated to C from his Fortran library. Bill would go on to become a master of Java programming, developing such items as the GeoMapApp tool. Because of the great spacing between Seasat profiles, Bill developed gridding software that could be made aware of lineated features and thus produce grids that retained the continuity of such features across the data gaps. One benefit of this approach was the complete and improved mapping of linear features such as fracture zones and the subtle gravity undulations that now bears his name. Bill dedicated much of his work to study and characterize the large-offset Pacific fracture zones and with co-authors made long-lasting contributions to the understanding of their evolution, including the importance of thermal stresses. On the other hand, the track spacing made studies of seamounts more challenging, as many seamounts would fit entirely within the diamond-shaped data gaps. Nevertheless, Bill identified several large seamounts in the southern oceans that were unknown at the time. Data from the Geosat and ERS missions would later simplify seamount detection considerably by providing much denser coverage. This talk will review our knowledge of the global seamount distribution and present new results using the improved retracked data from Sandwell and Smith.

Wessel, P.; Kim, S.



Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o



NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The cooling in the Cas A



A Molecular Thermometer for the Distant Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made use of ESO's Very Large Telescope to detect for the first time in the ultraviolet the carbon monoxide molecule in a galaxy located almost 11 billion light-years away, a feat that had remained elusive for 25 years. This detection allows them to obtain the most precise measurement of the cosmic temperature at such a remote epoch. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 13a/08 Finding well-hidden galaxies The team of astronomers [1] aimed the UVES spectrograph on ESO's VLT for more than 8 hours at a well-hidden galaxy whose light has taken almost 11 billion years to reach us, that is about 80% of the age of the Universe. The only way this galaxy can be seen is through the imprint its interstellar gas leaves on the spectrum of an even more remote quasar [2]. "Quasars are here only used as a beacon in the very distant Universe. Interstellar clouds of gas in galaxies, located between the quasars and us on the same line of sight, absorb parts of the light emitted by the quasars. The resulting spectrum consequently presents dark 'valleys' that can be attributed to well-known elements and possibly molecules," explains Raghunathan Srianand (Pune, India), who led the team making the observations. Thanks to the power of the VLT and a very careful selection of the target - the target was selected among about ten thousands quasars - the team was able to discover the presence of normal and deuterated molecular hydrogen (H2, HD) and carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the interstellar medium of this remote galaxy. "This is the first time that these three molecules have been detected in absorption in front of a quasar, a detection that has remained elusive for more than a quarter century," says Cédric Ledoux (ESO), member of the team. The same team had already broken the record for the most distant detection of molecular hydrogen in a galaxy that we see as it was when the Universe was less than 1.5 billion years old (see ESO 16/06). The interstellar gas is the reservoir from which stars form and, as such, is an important component of galaxies. Furthermore, because the formation and the state of molecules are very sensitive to the physical conditions of the gas, which in turn depend on the rate at which stars are formed, the detailed study of the chemistry of the interstellar medium is an important tool to understand how galaxies form. Based on their observations, the astronomers showed that the physical conditions prevailing in the interstellar gas in this remote galaxy are similar to what is seen in our Galaxy, the Milky Way. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 13b/08 Discovering the CO molecule in a remote galaxy But most importantly, the team was able to measure with the best ever precision the temperature of the cosmic background radiation in the remote Universe [3]. "Unlike other methods, measuring the temperature of the cosmic background using the CO molecule involves very few assumptions," declares co-author Pasquier Noterdaeme. If the Universe was formed in a 'Big Bang', as most astrophysicists infer, the glow of this primeval fireball should have been warmer in the past. This is exactly what is found by the new measurements. "Given the current measured temperature of 2.725 K, one would expect that the temperature 11 billion years ago was about 9.3 K," says co-author Patrick Petitjean. "Our unique set of VLT observations allows us to deduce a temperature of 9.15 K, plus or minus 0.7 K, in excellent agreement with the theory." "We believe our analysis pioneers interstellar chemistry studies at high redshift and demonstrates that it is possible, together with the detection of other molecules such as HD or CH, to use interstellar chemistry to tackle important cosmological issues," adds Srianand. The results described here have been presented in a Letter to the Editor in Astronomy and Astrophysics ("First detection of CO in a high-redshift damped Lyman-alpha system", by R. Srianand et al.).



Watching a 'New Star' Make the Universe Dusty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, and its remarkable acuity, astronomers were able for the first time to witness the appearance of a shell of dusty gas around a star that had just erupted, and follow its evolution for more than 100 days. This provides the astronomers with a new way to estimate the distance of this object and obtain invaluable information on the operating mode of stellar vampires, dense stars that suck material from a companion. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 22/08 Dust shells around a nova Although novae were first thought to be new stars appearing in the sky, hence their Latin name, they are now understood as signaling the brightening of a small, dense star. Novae occur in double star systems comprising a white dwarf - the end product of a solar-like star - and, generally, a low-mass normal star - a red dwarf. The two stars are so close together that the red dwarf cannot hold itself together and loses mass to its companion. Occasionally, the shell of matter that has fallen onto the ingesting star becomes unstable, leading to a thermonuclear explosion which makes the system brighter. Nova Scorpii 2007a (or V1280 Scorpii), was discovered by Japanese amateur astronomers on 4 February 2007 towards the constellation Scorpius ("the Scorpion"). For a few days, it became brighter and brighter, reaching its maximum on 17 February, to become one of the brightest novae of the last 35 years. At that time, it was easily visible with the unaided eye. Eleven days after reaching its maximum, astronomers witnessed the formation of dust around the object. Dust was present for more than 200 days, as the nova only slowly emerged from the smoke between October and November 2007. During these 200 days, the erupting source was screened out efficiently, becoming more than 10,000 times dimmer in the visual. An unprecedented high spatial resolution monitoring of the dust formation event was carried out with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), extending over more than 5 months following the discovery. The astronomers first used the AMBER near-infrared instrument, then, as the nova continued to produce dust at a high rate, they moved to using the MIDI mid-infrared instrument, that is more sensitive to the radiation of the hot dust. Similarly, as the nova became fainter, the astronomers switched from the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes to their larger brethren, the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes. With the interferometry mode, the resolution obtained is equivalent to using a telescope with a size between 35 and 71 metres (the distance between the 2 telescopes used). The first observations, secured 23 days after the discovery, showed that the source was very compact, less than 1 thousandth of an arcsecond (1 milli-arcsecond or mas), which is a size comparable to viewing one grain of sand from about 100 kilometres away. A few days later, after the detection of the major dust formation event, the source measured 13 mas. "It is most likely that the latter size corresponds to the diameter of the dust shell in expansion, while the size previously measured was an upper limit of the erupting source," explains lead author Olivier Chesneau. Over the following months the dusty shell expanded regularly, at a rate close to 2 million km/h. "This is the first time that the dust shell of a nova is spatially resolved and its evolution traced starting from the onset of its formation up to the point that it becomes too diluted to be seen", says co-author Dipankar Banerjee, from India. The measurement of the angular expansion rate, together with the knowledge of the expansion velocity, enables the astronomer to derive the distance of the object, in this case about 5500 light-years. "This is a new and promising technique for providing distances of close novae. This was made possible because the state of the art facility of the VLTI, both in terms of infrastructure and management of the observations, allows one to schedule such observations," says co-author Markus Wittkowski from ESO. Moreover, the q



FOREWORD: Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Eklund grew up in Southern California and attended the University of California at Berkeley, majoring in physics. After working for one year at the Lockheed Missile and Space Company in Sunnyvale, California, he left to pursue graduate studies at Purdue University. There he carried out PhD research in strongly correlated electron and phonon systems under the supervision of J M Honig and L L van Zandt. Peter joined the group of Millie and Gene Dresselhaus at MIT in 1974 as a Postdoctoral Fellow after one year as an instructor at the University of Kentucky. At MIT, he continued work on strongly correlated systems in collaboration with Professor David Adler (who had an adjoining office), but for the most part he got excited about sp2 carbon systems and graphite intercalation compounds, a new research direction which the Dresselhaus group had started one year before Peter's arrival at MIT. Over the next 35 years Peter, Millie and Gene co-authored over 50 research articles, several review articles, and a big nine-hundred-and-fifty page book. In 1974, they saw graphite intercalation compounds as a long-neglected research direction of great promise. They studied these new materials together over the next 16 years, focusing on their optical spectroscopy. Their pioneering vibrational spectroscopy studies provided a means to characterize the fundamental properties of carbon materials. Optical spectroscopy became a centerpiece in the research portfolios of all three, both when they were together at MIT and after Peter left for the University of Kentucky in 1977 to start his independent career as an Assistant Professor of Physics. Peter became a full Professor at Kentucky in 1986. He continued to work with Millie and Gene and also acquired an ever-expanding network of students, postdocs and collaborators. As each new carbon nanostructure emerged—graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and most recently graphene—Peter was at the cutting edge, leading the charge forward. His work on fullerenes, starting around 1988, culminated in a book co-authored with Millie and Gene in 1996, The Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes [1]. Through careful sample handling and analysis, his group at Kentucky discovered the mechanism of photo-polymerization in fullerenes. In 2000, Peter co-edited the research monograph Fullerene Polymers and Fullerene Polymer Composites with A M Rao, a former student [2]. His group at Kentucky also performed the first definitive Raman study of the phonons responsible for superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene compounds. Peter was awarded the prestigious University of Kentucky Research Professorship for his contributions to graduate education and research discoveries in carbon materials. In the summer of 1991, Peter held early discussions with his two long-time collaborators on the possibility of carbon nanotubes. These discussions inspired a talk by Millie at a fullerene workshop the next day concerning the possible existence of single-walled carbon nanotubes [3]. The first papers by Iijima on the synthesis of multiwalled nanotubes appeared soon thereafter [4]. In 1994, Peter measured an early Raman spectrum on a sample containing just 1% of single-walled tubes. On the basis of this early work, he convinced Rick Smalley to provide him with a proper sample of single-walled carbon nanotubes in 1996; this is the sample on which the highly cited single-walled carbon nanotube Raman spectrum was taken [5]. Carbon nanotubes then became a central focus of the Eklund group. Peter, Millie and Gene worked together on many aspects of carbon nanotubes, including the study of infrared-active modes, Raman active modes, Raman spectra for single-walled nanotubes, and the differences in the Raman spectra of semiconducting and metallic tubes. In 2009 they combined efforts to investigate phonons in graphene. Peter was also an entrepreneur. He started a company, CarboLex, to make and sell nanotubes in large quantities, thereby giving industrial support to advancing fundamental science. He co-found

Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Gene F.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Sofo, Jorge O.



Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the harsh treatment galaxies suffer in clusters



Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 199