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Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint-St. Birgitta  

PubMed Central

Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13th century (1215–1270 cal AD, 2? confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains.

Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Goran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellstrom, Anna; Allen, Marie



Facilitating Co-Authoring: Reflections of Content and Language Lecturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a content and language project at a University of Technology (UoT) in Cape Town, South Africa, pairs of language and content lecturers, whose broad definition of integration was "the provision of linguistic access to content knowledge", co-authored ten integrated textbooks. Their intention was to assist first year learners with their…

Wright, J.



Issues in the design of computer support for co-authoring and commenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project to develop a “work in preparation” editor, or PREP editor, to study co-authoring and commenting relationships. As part of the project, we have identified three issues in designing computer support for co-authoring and commenting: (1) support for social interaction among co-authors and commenters; (2) support for cognitive aspects of co-authoring and external commenting; and

Christine M. Neuwirth; David S. Kaufer; Ravinder Chandhok; James H. Morris



Profit (p)-Index: The Degree to Which Authors Profit from Co-Authors  

PubMed Central

Current metrics for estimating a scientist’s academic performance treat the author’s publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual’s own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the ‘profit (p)-index’, which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award), and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80%) and that researchers’ relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods introduced here may thus provide a more fair impression of a scientist’s autonomous academic performance.

Aziz, Nasir Ahmad; Rozing, Maarten Pieter



Predicting Co-Author Relationship in Medical Co-Authorship Networks  

PubMed Central

Research collaborations are encouraged because a synergistic effect yielding good results often appears. However, creating and organizing a strong research group is a difficult task. One of the greatest concerns of an individual researcher is locating potential collaborators whose expertise complement his best. In this paper, we propose a method that makes link predictions in co-authorship networks, where topological features between authors such as Adamic/Adar, Common Neighbors, Jaccard's Coefficient, Preferential Attachment, Katz?, and PropFlow may be good indicators of their future collaborations. Firstly, these topological features were systematically extracted from the network. Then, supervised models were used to learn the best weights associated with different topological features in deciding co-author relationships. Finally, we tested our models on the co-authorship networks in the research field of Coronary Artery Disease and obtained encouraging accuracy (the precision, recall, F1 score and AUC were, respectively, 0.696, 0.677, 0.671 and 0.742 for Logistic Regression, and respectively, 0.697, 0.678, 0.671 and 0.743 for SVM). This suggests that our models could be used to build and manage strong research groups.

Yu, Qi; Long, Chao; Lv, Yanhua; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang



Implementation of an onto-wiki toolkit using web services to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medical ontology co-authoring and analysis.  


The ICD11 draft was launched by the WHO in order to define ICD ontology by selected experts using a wiki-like structured joint-authoring tool. The challenge of this expert-/community-based ontology co-authoring is how to manage and process the ontology objects in the wiki page. The wiki-tools in the market require lots of time and human effort to organise, process and extract the ontology content from the wiki page for review and analysis. Therefore, this article is to investigate how to apply semantic web technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ontology co-authoring and analysis. An onto-wiki toolkit that provides a set of web services is proposed for ontology creators to create, co-edit, organise, map and relate the wiki-like structured ontology objects on a wiki page for review and analysis. By using the onto-wiki toolkits, the pace of terminology standardisation, e-patient records integration, exchange and sharing can be improved. PMID:19306201

Lau, Adela S M



Gesture as Communication II: The Audience as Co-Author.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of gestures by German, Thai, and Tagalog speakers. The study shows how, by careful examination of what recipients are doing at the moment when a speaker produces a gesture, evidence can be derived as to whether the gestural component of the utterance is being attended. (19 references) (MDM)

Streeck, Jurgen



Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Matsunaga, Y.



Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

Kim, Hyun-Sook



To Co-Author or Not to Co-Author: How to Write, Publish, and Negotiate Issues of Authorship with Undergraduate Research Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Matthew Chumchal (Texas Christian University;)



Multiple narratives: How underserved urban girls engage in co-authoring life stories and scientific stories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary critics of science education have noted that girls often fail to engage in learning because they cannot "see themselves" in science. Yet theory on identity, engagement, and the appropriation of scientific discourse remains underdeveloped. Using identity as a lens, I constructed 2-two week lunchtime science sessions for 17 ethnic-minority high school girls who were failing their science classes. The units of instruction were informed by a pilot study and based on principles from literature on engagement in identity work and engagement in productive disciplinary discourse. Primary data sources included 19 hours of videotaped lunchtime sessions, 88 hours of audio-taped individual student interviews (over the course of 3--4 years), and 10 hours of audio-taped small group interviews. Secondary data sources included student journals, 48 hours of observations of science classes, teacher surveys about student participation, and academic school records. I used a case-study approach with narrative and discourse analysis. Not only were the girls individually involved in negotiating ideas about their narratives about themselves and their future selves, but collectively some of the girls productively negotiated multiple identities, appropriated scientific and epistemological discourse and learned science content. This was accomplished through the use of a hybrid discourse that blended identity talk with science talk. The use of this talk supported these girls in taking ownership for or becoming advocates for certain scientific ideas.

Thompson, Jessica Jane


The Co-Authored Curriculum: High-School Teachers' Reasons for Including Students' Extra-Curricular Interests in Their Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing evidence of a gap between curricular requirements and what students actually want to know. One of the factors influencing what is taught in the classroom is teachers' attitudes towards integrating their students' interests. This study investigated what prompts high-school teachers who prepare students for national matriculation…

Hagay, Galit; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Peleg, Ran



Seismic Imaging and Inversion: Application of Linear Theory (2012), Cambridge University Press, co-authored with Bob Stolt  

SciTech Connect

Extracting information from seismic data requires knowledge of seismic wave propagation and reflection. The commonly used method involves solving linearly for a reflectivity at every point within the Earth, but this book follows an alternative approach which invokes inverse scattering theory. By developing the theory of seismic imaging from basic principles, the authors relate the different models of seismic propagation, reflection and imaging - thus providing links to reflectivity-based imaging on the one hand and to nonlinear seismic inversion on the other. The comprehensive and physically complete linear imaging foundation developed presents new results at the leading edge of seismic processing for target location and identification. This book serves as a fundamental guide to seismic imaging principles and algorithms and their foundation in inverse scattering theory and is a valuable resource for working geoscientists, scientific programmers and theoretical physicists.

Weglein, Arthur B.; Stolt, Bob H.



The Role of Postgraduate Students in Co-Authoring Open Educational Resources to Promote Social Inclusion: A Case Study at the University of Cape Town  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many universities worldwide, the University of Cape Town (UCT) in South Africa has joined the open educational resources (OER) movement, making a selection of teaching and learning materials available through its OER directory, UCT OpenContent. However, persuading and then supporting busy academics to share their teaching materials as OER…

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael



Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In 'Grey Material: A Scandinavian View,' Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the ety...



Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

Post, David



Neurolinguistic Papers: Proceedings of the Finnish Conference of Neurolinguistics (2nd, Joensuu, Finland, May 31-June 1, 1985). AFinLA Series No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of papers on neurolinguistics includes: "Communication Strategies in Aphasia" (Elisabeth Ahlsen); "Speech Planning in the Light of Stuttering" (Ann-Marie Alme); "L. S. Tsvetkova's Aphasia Rehabilitation Method and Its Applications" (Ritva Hanninen); "Semantic Aphasia and Luria's Neurolinguistic Model" (Birgitta Johnsen); "Aphasic…

Niemi, Jussi, Ed.; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi, Ed.


Swedish Aspects on Literacy: Selected Papers from the IRA World Congress on Reading (13th, Stockholm, Sweden, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents articles that deal with literacy, both in a scientific, as well as in a practical and experiential way. Papers in the book are: "Opening Address" (Birgitta Ulvhammar); "Illiteracy: A Global Problem" (Eve Malmquist); "Swedish Cooperation with Developing Countries in the Field of Literacy" (Agneta Lind); "The International…

Ericson, Britta, Ed.


Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include reports, theses,…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).


Credit where credit's due: accounting for co-authorship in citation counts.  


I propose a new method (Pareto weights) to objectively attribute citations to co-authors. Previous methods either profess ignorance about the seniority of co-authors (egalitarian weights) or are based in an ad hoc way on the order of authors (rank weights). Pareto weights are based on the respective citation records of the co-authors. Pareto weights are proportional to the probability of observing the number of citations obtained. Assuming a Pareto distribution, such weights can be computed with a simple, closed-form equation but require a few iterations and data on a scholar, her co-authors, and her co-authors' co-authors. The use of Pareto weights is illustrated with a group of prominent economists. In this case, Pareto weights are very different from rank weights. Pareto weights are more similar to egalitarian weights but can deviate up to a quarter in either direction (for reasons that are intuitive). PMID:21957320

Tol, Richard S J



Remembering Mel Henriksen and (some of) his theorems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author selects theorems from three papers co-authored by Mel Henriksen, proves some of those, and offers some consequences and commentary. Also included are some comments, mathematical and social, on Mel Henriksen as a colleague, a co-author, and a forceful presence in the wider political and mathematical community.

W. W. Comfort



Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.



Evaluation of therapeutic riding (Sweden)/hippotherapy (United States). A single-subject experimental design study replicated in eleven patients with multiple sclerosis.  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether therapeutic riding (TR, Sweden) hippotherapy (HT, United States) may affect balance, gait, spasticity, functional strength, coordination, pain, self-rated level of muscle tension (SRLMT), activities of daily living (ADL), and health-related quality of life. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were studied in a single-subject experimental design iSSED) study, type A-B-A. The intervention comprised ten weekly TR/HT sessions of 30 minutes each. The subjects were measured a maximum of 13 times. Physical tests were: the Berg balance scale, talking a figure of eight, the timed up and go test, 10 m walking, the modified Ashworth scale, the Index of Muscle Function, the Birgitta Lindmark motor assessment, part B, and individual measurements. Self-rated measures were. the Visual Analog Scale for pain, a scale for SRLMT, the Patient-Specific Functional Scale for ADL, and the SF-36. Data were analyzed visually, semi-statistically and considering clinical significance. Results showed improvement for ten subjects in one or more of the variables, particularly balance, and some improvements were also seen in pain, muscle tension, and ADL. Changes in SF-36 were mostly positive, with an improvement in Role-Emotional seen in eight patients. Conclusively, balance and Role-Emotional were the variables most often improved, but TR/HT appeared to benefit the subjects differently. PMID:16385943

Hammer, Ann; Nilsagĺrd, Ylva; Forsberg, Anette; Pepa, Helena; Skargren, Elisabeth; Oberg, Birgitta



Retraction. "Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: validation of tissue microarray as a prerequisite for broad clinical applications (a study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium)" (J Clin Pathol 2009;62:128–38;doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.057257).  


The Journal of Clinical Pathology wishes to inform its readers of the authors' retraction of the following article for redundancy. The original article by D de Jong, W Xie, Rosenwald, M Chhanabhai, P Gaulard,W Klapper, A Lee, B Sander, C Thorns,E Campo, T Molina, A Hagenbeek,S Horning, A Lister, J Raemaekers, G Salles, R D Gascoyne and E Weller entitled "Immunohistochemical prognostic markersi n diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: validation of tissue microarray as a prerequisite for broad clinical applications (a study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium)" (J Clin Pathol 2009;62:128–38;doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.057257) published online on 15 September 2008, contained substantial overlap in text, data, and conclusions compared with a previous article with the same title published in Journal of Clinical Oncology on 1 March 2007 by Daphne de Jong, Andreas Rosenwald, Mukesh Chhanabhai, Philippe Gaulard,Wolfram Klapper, Abigail Lee, Birgitta Sander, Christoph Thorns, Elias Campo, Thierry Molina, Andrew Norton, Anton Hagenbeek, Sandra Horning, Andrew Lister, John Raemaekers, Randy D Gascoyne, Gilles Salles and Edie Weller (doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.09.4490). In addition, the authors did not cite the Journal of Clinical Oncology article in the paper published in Journal of Clinical Pathology. PMID:22930798



NSF/Tokyo Report: The Prospects of Long Term Ecological Research in East Asia  

NSF Publications Database

... the Lake Biwa Research Institute. Together, we co-authored an article on Lake Biwa. The paper, "Lake ... Biwa: the largest lake in Japan" will be published as a book chapter in Great Lakes of the World ...


ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."?ť T...


Silicon Solution Could Lead to a Truly Long-life Battery  

NSF Publications Database

... solar cell generates electricity by absorbing energy from incoming photons of light. Supported by ... for absorbing essentially all the kinetic energy of the source electrons," says co-author Nazir ...


Quick Vision Test May Help Spot Concussions on Sidelines  


... were released Wednesday by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), ahead of its annual meeting this spring. ... study co-author Dr. Steven Galleta, chair of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York ...


Dogs Can Get Jealous, Too  


... an emotion specifically tied to sexual and romantic relationships," study co-author Christine Harris, a psychology professor at UCSD, said in a university news release. "Our results challenge these ideas, showing that animals besides ourselves ...



EPA Science Inventory

The compilation consists of publications and reports authored or co-authored by Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory personnel since 1970. Environmental measurements are required to determine the quality of ambient waters and the character of waste effluents. The Envir...


Division of Earth Sciences (EAR) -- Dear Colleague Letter  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineering (GRESE), NSF 92-89, was somewhat delayed, the new rules were administered with some ... 5. Failure to include a list of recent collaborators and co-authors or failure to specifically ...


Implanted Defibrillators May Help Patients with Moderate Heart Failure  


... heart failure, according to the American College of Cardiology. Implanted defibrillators have shown a benefit in patients ... co-author Dr. Gregg Fonarow, a professor of cardiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. However, ...


'Generally Reassuring' Findings on Fertility Drugs, Women's Cancers  


... on this page, please enable JavaScript. 'Generally Reassuring' Findings on Fertility Drugs, Women's Cancers But researchers still ... ovarian and uterine cancers, new research indicates. The findings are "generally reassuring," said study co-author Dr. ...


Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging I...



Women Do Prefer Taller Guys, Study Finds  


... study co-author Michael Emerson, a professor of sociology and co-director of the Kinder Institute for ... said study author George Yancey, a professor of sociology at the University of North Texas. "The masculine ...


Can Fire Retardants Raise Risk of Children Born with Lower IQs?  


... bodies and even into wildlife through dust and soil. According to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric ... study co-author Dr. Bruce Lanphear, a health sciences professor at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, British ...


Design and Implementation of an Innovative Manufacturing Process for Aerial and Land Supply Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to design and implement a fully automated innovative manufacturing process, based on patents co-authored by the principal investigator, for the development and production of flexible cushioning systems which have been test...

E. A. Elsayed



Writing apart and designing together  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a qualitative study of collaboration in writing and presentation preparation. We highlight one important difference identified between the collaborative writing and the construction of presentations: When collaborating on documents, co-authors seldom constructed text synchronously. However, when collaborating on presentations, co-authors commonly engaged in synchronous construction of presentations. We conclude that tools supporting collaborative writing and presentation-development should provide

Andrew L. Cohen; Debra Cash; Michael J. Muller; Curtis Culberson



Studies of Computer Supported Collaborative Writing. Implications for System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses transformations in collaborative activities that a computer- supported collaborative writing system introduces into co-authors' practices, and, discusses implications for the design of collaborative tools for writing. The analysis is grounded in user studies of four different groups of co-authors writing an academic report during two different collaborative situations. Two groups collaborate face-to-face using a word processor and

Teresa Cerratto; Henrry Rodriguez



A Social Studies Teacher's Sense Making of Controversial Issues Discussions of Race in a Predominantly White, Rural High School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, the authors first explore the "sense making" of Emma, a former high school teacher (and co-author of this study), with regard to discussion of issues around race that became controversial in her social studies classroom. Her student population comprised predominantly white, rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged…

Washington, Elizabeth Yeager; Humphries, Emma K.



Teaching with Folk Stories of the Hmong: An Activity Book. Learning through Folklore Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a guide for teaching students about Hmong culture while building appreciation of worldwide cultural diversity. After providing an overview of the distinct history and customs of the Hmong, co-author Dia Cha shares her experiences growing up in Laotian villages, escaping from communist soldiers, living in refugee camps in…

Cha, Dia; Livo, Norma J.


The other author of the 1908 Plan of Chicago: Edward H. Bennett – urban designer, planner and architect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edward H. Bennett (1874–1954) was co?author, with Daniel Burnham, of the 1905 Plan for San Francisco and the 1909 Plan of Chicago. He was extensively engaged in the implementation of the Chicago plan for over 20 years, designing bridges, parks and road improvements. Although Bennett was educated as an architect, he designed few buildings. His consulting practice ranged from the

David L. A. Gordon



The Freakonomics of Tenure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ever-simmering question of whether the tenure system should be reformed lit up the blogosphere, ignited by an online essay from the (tenured) professor Steven D. Levitt, co-author of the publishing phenomenon "Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything" and the popular blog Freakonomics. When Levitt posted "Let's…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007



N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

Viadero, Debra



Special Education in High School Redesign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, co-authored by the National High School Center and the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center, identifies articles that address high school redesign as it relates to students with disabilities and special education's role in such initiatives. The articles are organized around the National High School…

National High School Center, 2011



Photoluminescence Quenching of Conjugated Macromolecules by Bipyridinium Derivatives in Aqueous Media: Charge Dependence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the February 20, 2001 issue of Langmuir is available through the American Chemistry Society (ACS) Website. The ACS is celebrating the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to one of the co-authors, Alan J. Heeger. The study dealt with quenching the photoluminescence from a water-soluble conjugated macromolecule by six bipyridinium derivatives with different charges (.html, .pdf).

Bazan, Guillermo C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Moses, Daniel.; Wang, Deli.; Wang, Jian.




Microsoft Academic Search

James Baldwin was one of the most prolific authors of school books for children at the end of the last century and the beginning of this. In addition to the Baldwin Readers (1897), he co?authored the Harper Readers (1888) and the Expressive Readers (1911). He wrote over thirty books about famous people in history and retold classical stories. His publications

Peter J. L. Fisher; Sheila Shapiro



A World of Ideas: International Survey Gives a Voice to Teachers Everywhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kristen Weatherby is a senior policy analyst at OECD in the education directorate. She runs the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and is author or co-author of publications and blog posts on TALIS and teachers. She started her career as a classroom teacher in the United States before working in education in the private sector in…

Crow, Tracy



Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia



From Collaboration to Publication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As co-authors of a recent publication in "Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research", we have received inquiries about the publication process. We will describe the process of creating an article based on team work, in our case the work of the Texas Physics Assessment Team. Many physics teachers have opportunities to participate in…

O'Connor, Jerry; Marshall, Jill



On the Nature of Policy and Administration in Higher Education: A Bibliography of Algo D. Henderson. Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-947.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliography of materials authored, co-authored, or edited by Algo D. Henderson (1932-1978) on the nature of policy and administration in higher education is presented. Topics include: general education in the community college, training university administrators, admitting black students to medical and dental schools, liberal education in the…

Quay, Richard H.


What's in a name? Ask yahoo!  

Microsoft Academic Search

A company's brand is one of its most valuable assets, one that few high tech companies -- most recently HP and Compaq -- understand how to leverage, according to Sam Hill. Hill is co-author (with Chris Lederer) of the new book, The Infinite Asset: Managing Brands to Build New Value. He is the former chief marketing officer at Booz Allen




Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper attempts to update the previous survey carried out in 1995 by one of the co-authors (Freeston) and presented at the World Geothermal Congress in Florence, Italy. For each of these updates since 1975, the recording of data has been similar, but not exactly the same. As in

John W. Lund; Derek H. Freeston



Selected Papers of Joseph T. Impellitteri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of selected papers of Joseph T. Impellitteri reprints in full, or excerpts from, 46 unpublished position and conference papers, research and program proposals, and project reports, and from 20 published articles, chapters from edited collections, bulletins and special studies which Impellitteri authored or co-authored. The papers…

Baran, Anna DeSantis; Gilli, Angelo C., Sr.



Expressive richness: a comparison of speech and text as media for revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both theory and data suggest that that richer, more informal, and more interactive media should be better suited for handling the more complex, equivocal, and emotional aspects of collaborative tasks. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an experiment in which participants were required to make either written or spoken annotations to a document to help a fictional co-author revise it.

Barbara L. Chalfonte; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut



Money and Schools. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For future principals and others enrolled in courses on School Finance, this book explains and demonstrates the relationship between money and student achievement. New to this edition: (1) Includes updated information on the ever-changing landscape of school finance; (2) Co-author Faith E. Crampton has joined the author team, applying the…

Thompson, David C.; Wood, R. Craig; Crampton, Faith E.



External Resource: Real time Geochron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is developed and maintained by John Walker, founder of Autodesk, Inc. and co-author of AutoCAD. A variety of documents, images, software for various machines, and interactive Web resources are available here. Specifically, for this interactive r



37 CFR 201.5 - Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...registration has been completed, any author or other copyright claimant of the work...the duly authorized agent of any such author, other claimant, or owner, who wishes...provided, such as the identity of a co-author or co-claimant, but was omitted...



Who's on First? Listing Authors by Relative Contribution Trumps the Alphabet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political science as a discipline lacks any convention on the order in which authors should be listed in co-authored publications. As a result, the order of authors' surnames currently provides no information to other scholars, hiring and promotion committees, and other reviewers about the relative contributions of each collaborator. This lack of…

Lake, David A.



28 CFR 17.18 - Prepublication review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information lawfully obtained at a time when the author has no employment, contract, or other...with or showing it to a publisher, co-author, or any other person who is not authorized...breach of the obligation and exposes the author to remedial action even in cases...



A Bibliometric Analysis of Collaboration in the Field of Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the collaborative patterns of the information retrieval research field using co-authored articles retrieved from "Social Science Citation Index" for a period of 11 years, from 1987 to 1997. Results reveal an upward trend of collaborative research with interdisciplinary and intra-disciplinary scholarly communication. (Author/LRW)

Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert; Chowdhury, Gobinda



Close Encounters of a Congenial Kind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a co-director's and co-author's review of and commentary on research carried out with Maurice Galton over the past decade. Its principal focus is the burden that recent education policies and ascent of a deleterious culture of performativity have inflicted on teachers' professional and domestic lives. It reports on four studies…

MacBeath, John



Deep hypertext with embedded revision control implemented in regular expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While text versioning was definitely a part of the original hypertext concept [21, 36, 44], it is rarely considered in this context today. Still, we know that revision control underlies the most exciting social co-authoring projects of the today's Internet, namely the Wikipedia and the Linux kernel. With an intention to adapt the advanced revision control technologies and practices to

Victor S. Grishchenko



Beyond English hegemony: language, migration and Appalachian schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co?authored by an academic who has worked in ESL teacher improvement programmes under the No Child Left Behind Act, an assistant director of an Appalachian school district, and a trilingual translator and teacher who works with indigenous Mexican populations, this article is narrated in the voice of the first author. The essay addresses how teachers in a Tennessee school district

Rosalind Raymond Gann; Brenda Pennington Deanb; Joaquín Márquez



Inter-organizational collaborative research networks in semiconductor lasers 1975–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the development of collaborative research networks vary? This paper investigates how research networks have developed in the same technological fields in North America, Europe, and Asia. Exploring inter-organizational co-authored papers published in the Applied Physics Letters from 1975 to 1994, we first map the collaborative research networks and demonstrate that research networks were more developed in scale and

Hiroshi Shimizu; Takashi Hirao



Spectral Theory of Sturm-Liouville Differential Operators: Proceedings of the 1984 Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop inc...

H. G. Kaper A. Zettl



Intercom, 77. Explorations in the Emergent Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of Intercom promotes an awareness of the world as a system that poses new possibilities and obligations for educators as well as policy makers. The first part includes interviews with and excerpts from the works of Denis Meadows, joint author of Limits to Growth; Mihajlo Mesarovic, co-author of Mankind at the Turning Point; Robert…

Hanvey, Robert


Primary publication in microprint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a progress report on an experiment to demonstrate practicality of such publication. Based on a study conducted since 1959 through the publication of 'Wildlife Disease', the co-authors review the original aims, accomplishments, and future of primary publication in microprint. Space and cost savings, as well as author and reader reactions, portend further developments and use of this medium.

Herman, C.M.; Davis, D.E.



The progressive integration of Canadian indigenous culture within a sport psychology bicultural research team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the sport psychology community there is a growing interest regarding how to engage in culturally sensitive (and also relevant) research. A research collaboration among Laurentian University and Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve is reflected through indigenous strategies relevant in the intended community, including negotiation and consensus building, talking circles, culturally relevant analyses, active co?authoring, and overarching considerations that support de?colonization.

Robert J. Schinke; Duke Peltier; Stephanie J. Hanrahan; Mark A. Eys; Hope Yungblut; Stephen Ritchie; Patricia Pickard; Ginette Michel



COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant



A Scientometric Profile of Social Sciences Research in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

I surveyed the social sciences journal literature for the decade period 1987-1996 looking for papers with authors, or at least one co-author giving an address from an institution in Turkey. The number of such papers had nearly tripled from 1987 to 1996. I found that the papers are scattered into 341 journals and almost one third of all papers went

Ali Uzun



Future Role of the USAF Technical Officer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the role of USAF technical officers (TOs) as envisioned by the post-World War II Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) report, Toward New Horizons, co-authored by General Henry Hap' Arnold and the renowned aerodynamicist Dr. Theodore von Kar...

M. C. Hughson



At the Schoolhouse Gate: Lessons in Intellectual Freedom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades, the co-authors of this book have worked together to build a tradition of intellectual freedom within public schools. The book describes their struggles as cultural workers, the pedagogical and legal strategies they employed, the resistance they encountered, the lessons they learned, and the impact that they have seen on…

Pipkin, Gloria; Lent, ReLeah Cossett


A Dialogue on Reclaiming Troubled Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion is drawn from the writings of two eminent founders of strength-based approaches to troubled children and adolescents. August Aichhorn is best known for his classic book, "Wayward Youth," and Fritz Redl as co-author of "Children Who Hate". August Aichhorn and Anna Freud mentored a young educational psychologist, Fritz Redl…

Aichhorn, August; Redl, Fritz



Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging Instrument for Earth Gravity Measurements. ' These two papers were presented at the conference Semiconductor Lasers, Advanced Devices and Applications, August 21 -23, 1995, Keystone Colorado.

Frederic M. Davidson; Xiaoli Sun; Christopher T. Field



Divide and Conquer: Detecting Patterns that Explain the Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alecia Ford, co-author of this article, had a problem that teachers everywhere face more and more frequently with the predominance of standardized testing--too much world history to teach in too little time. Her problem relates to how she can help her sixth-grade students develop an in-depth understanding of the Enlightenment, a period in history…

Secules, Teresa; Ford, Alecia



Discovering the staring people from social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a novel problem of staring people dis- covery from social networks, which is concerned with finding people who are not only authoritative but also sociable in the social network. We formalize this problem as an optimiza- tion programming problem. Taking the co-author network as a case study, we define three objective functions and pro- pose

Dewei Chen; Jie Tang; Juanzi Li; Lizhu Zhou



Finding People and Organizations on the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding people is essential in finding information. Librarians and information scientists have studied authority control - psychologists and sociologists social networks. In aforementioned, authors link to documents (and co-authors) creating access points to information. In latter, social paths serve as channels for rumours as well as expertise. Key problems include identification and disambiguation of individuals followed by difficulties of tracking

Jussi Kurki


Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

Pol, Milan, Ed.



USGS Oceanographer Named to IPCC Report  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Asbury (Abby) H. Sallenger has been named one of the authors of a chapter in the next IPCC report, due to be published in 2014. Sallenger has been assigned to co-author Chapter 5 of the Fifth Assessment Report, entitled Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas. This chapter will contain an international ...



Twenty Years of Tannen: An Extensive Bibliography of the Writings of Deborah F. Tannen, 1976-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unannotated bibliography features 99 listings of books and articles on, among other topics, language, linguistics, conversation, and gender, all written by the influential sociolinguist, Deborah Tannen. It also offers 10 listings of works co-authored or co-edited by Tannen. Although the bibliography focuses on written works published in…

Cullum, Linda, Comp.; And Others


Teaching in Educational Leadership Using Web 2.0 Applications: Perspectives on What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To prepare 21st Century school leaders, educational leadership professors need to learn and teach the utilization of increasingly sophisticated technologies in their courses. The co-authors, a professor and an educational specialist degree candidate, describe how the use of advanced technologies--such as Wikis, Google Docs, Wimba Classroom, and…

Shinsky, E. John; Stevens, Hans A.



Despotism, Democracy, and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Leadership and Followership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to comments made by George B. Graen and Stephen J. Guastello on the current author's article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. In the original article my co-authors and I proposed a new way of thinking about leadership, informed by evolutionary (neo-Darwinian) theory. In…

Van Vugt, Mark



Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three

Robert J. Myerson; Michael C. Garofalo; Issam El Naqa; Ross A. Abrams; Aditya Apte; Walter R. Bosch; Prajnan Das; Leonard L. Gunderson; Theodore S. Hong; J. J. John Kim; Christopher G. Willett; Lisa A. Kachnic



Reflection on the Role of Artists: A Case Study on the Hidden Visual Curriculum of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, Maria Acaso, professor in Art Education at the Universidad Complutense Madrid in Spain and a co-author of this article, conducted a comparative research project on visual configurations at different art schools in Europe and the United States. The study of hidden visual curriculum examines how knowledge and cultural/political/social…

Baker, Marissa H.; Ng-He, Carol; Lopez-Bosch, Maria Acaso



The National Mapping of Teacher Professional Learning Project: A Multi-Dimensional Space?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay focuses on the "National Mapping of Teacher Professional Learning" (2008), a report that we co-authored along with a number of other researchers on the basis of extensive surveys and interviews relating to the policies and practices of teacher professional learning in Australia. The report is an update of an earlier survey conducted by…

Doecke, Brenton; Parr, Graham



RefSponse: A Literature Evaluation System for the Professional Astrophysics Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an implementation of a semi-automated review system for the astrophysics literature. Registered users identify names under which they publish, and provide scores for individual papers of their choosing. Scores are held confidentially, and combined in a weighted average grade for each paper. The grade is divided among the co-authors as assigned credit. The credit accumulated by each user

Robert E. Rutledge



Variations in International Understandings of Employability for Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research started from the premise that (a) employability is an internationally accepted concept with a confusion of interpretations and definitions; and (b) that an insight into the variation in understanding of employability and teaching employability would benefit geography curriculum development. Consequently, the views of the co-authors

Rooney, Paul; Kneale, Pauline; Gambini, Barbara; Keiffer, Artimus; Vandrasek, Barbara; Gedye, Sharon



Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

McTighe Musil, Caryn



The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl



The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation structures…

Roebken, Heinke



Pattern for Victory: Forging and Leading Air Power at War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General Laurence S. Kuter served as both an operational planner and commander during the Second World War. As a planner, he co-authored Air War Plans Division Plan 1 (AWPD-1); the basic strategy upon which the United States Army Air Forces waged the war. ...

I. L. Cowie



Self-citations at the meso and individual levels: effects of different calculation methods.  


This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994-2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers' co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently. PMID:20234766

Costas, Rodrigo; van Leeuwen, Thed N; Bordons, María



Announcing two new features: Book review essay and books of note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural Studies of Science Education plans to publish a book review essay in approximately two issues each year. A review essay will be a scholarly review of a book from 3,500 to 5,000 words. It can be a single or co-authored review or take the form of a forum about a book. As an accompaniment to the book review essay,

Gale Seiler



Asian Wave in Travel and Tourism Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous tourism-related articles have been published by authors affiliated with Asian universities, operationalized here as the “Asian Wave,” little research effort has focused on examining such authorship. Adopting a publication counting method, this study analyzes articles published in four top tourism journals from 1999–2008 that are either Asia-focused or co-authored by researchers from Asian universities. The results reveal that

Daniel Leung; Rosanna Leung; Billy Bai; Rob Law



Parallel multipoint recording of aligned and cultured neurons on micro channel array toward cellular network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an advanced Micro Channel Array (MCA) for recording electrophysiological signals of neuronal networks\\u000a at multiple points simultaneously. The developed MCA is designed for neuronal network analysis which has been studied by the\\u000a co-authors using the Micro Electrode Arrays (MEA) system, and employs the principles of extracellular recordings. A prerequisite\\u000a for extracellular recordings with good signal-to-noise ratio is

Wataru Tonomura; Hiroyuki Moriguchi; Yasuhiko Jimbo; Satoshi Konishi



Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of

Herschel B. Snodgrass



Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK, NM23, AWD): recent regulatory advances in endocytosis, metastasis, psoriasis, insulin release, fetal erythroid lineage and heart failure; translational medicine exemplified  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guest editor (AM) provides his perspective on the most recent advances on nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK, otherwise\\u000a known as AWD or NM23) showcasing phospho-histidine biochemistry and its impact on diverse pathology when disordered. His co-author\\u000a (SO) provides state-of-the-art analyses from the European institute of Bioinformatics in an appendix to support the most recent\\u000a advances made by the NDPK community.

Anil Mehta; Sandra Orchard



Distinguishing features and potential roles of the RTO.k object model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, searching for a proper extension of the basic object model to meet the needs present in hard-real-time system development environments has become a serious research issue. The first co-author and Hermann Kopetz at the Technical University of Vienna formulated an extension of the basic object model, called the RTO.k object model, as one attempt to meet such

K. H. Kim; L. Bacellar; Yuseok Kim; D. K. Choi; S. Howell; M. Jenkins



Library And Information Science Research in Developing Countries and Eastern European Countries: A Brief Bibliometric Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a set of 21 core journals in the field of library and information science (LIS) from 1980–1999 for articles with either principal or co-authors from developing countries (DCs) and the formerly socialist Eastern European countries (EECs). We found that only 826 (7·9%) of a total of 10 400 articles published in 21 journals are from DCs or EECs.




(Quantitative structure-activity relationships in environmental toxicology)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Fourth International Workshop on QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships) in Environmental Toxicology. He was an author or co-author on one platform and two poster presentations. The subject of the workshop offers a framework for analyzing and predicting the fate of chemical pollutants in organisms and the environment. QSAR is highly relevant to the ORNL program on the physicochemical characterization of chemical pollutants for health protection.

Turner, J.E.



Implementation of the circle-and-line algorithm for 256-detector row CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we apply the circle-and-line acquisition for the 256-detector row medical CT scanner. Reconstruction is based on the exact algorithm of the FBP type suggested recently by one of the co-authors. We derived equations for the cylindrical detector, common for medical CT scanners. To minimize hardware development efforts we use ramp-based reconstruction of the circle data. The line

A. A. Zamyatin; B. Chiang; A. Katsevich; S. Nakanishi; M. D. Silver



What Do We Know about Ourselves? on the Economics of Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummarySince quite some time, economists have been aware of the fact that also the behavior of economists generates questions that need to be answered. Why, for example, do economists use an alphabetic ordering of names when they co-author an article? And what determines the success of an academic economist? Or, how does studying economics affect behavior? At the same time,

Tom Coupé



Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser



Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser


Organic compounds in hydrothermal systems on the Russian Far East: relevance to the origin of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 70th of the last century L. Mukhin with co-authors (1) explored amino acids in the hot springs and water-steam mixture from the boreholes in Kamchatka peninsula of eastern Rus-sia. According to their results, 12 amino acids of biological origination were detected in hot springs inhabited by thermophiles and hyperthermophiles. Only a single amino acid -glycine -was found in the

Vladimir Kompanichenko



My Research Life through Studies in Art Education: A Body of Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lecture is based on a dozen articles that Enid Zimmerman had published in Studies in Art Education as author and co-author from 1977 to the present as well as several articles that are in-progress. She makes an analogy of this body of research to a body of work produced by a practicing artist. She also refers to the intellectual climate in…

Zimmerman, Enid



Presidential Address: From Goldschmidt to Globalization: The Southern Model and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

I'm honored to be here sharing some thoughts with you. I've been attending SRSA meetings since 1989 where I gave my second pa- per, co-authored with Bill Heffernan, on corporate concentration in the agri-food industries. Bill's specialty is poultry, and I learned a lot about the social and economic organization of the poultry indus- try and the extension of the

Douglas H. Constance



Literacy teachers learning a new literacy: A study of the use of electronic mail in a reading education class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of electronic mail as an instructional tool in a graduate reading class where the instructor and students were non?experts in the use of computer technology. The data set consisted of all of the e?mail messages sent by the students and the instructor and the daily journals of the instructor and the student co?author. The data

Jim Anderson; Andrea Lee



BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons

O. Moeschlin; E. Grycko; C. Pohl; F. Steinert



A classification of author co-citations: Definitions and search strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term author co-citation is defined and classified according to four distinct forms: the pure first-author co-citation, the pure author co-citation, the general au- thor co-citation, and the special co-author\\/co-citation. Each form can be used to obtain one count in an author co-citation study, based on a binary counting rule, which either recognizes the co-citedness of two authors in a

Ronald Rousseau; Alesia Zuccalá



Clinical Trials Research Training Internships

The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute offers unpaid clinical trials research training internships for outstanding statistics and biostatistics students who have strong interests in both clinical trials and methodological research. Each intern selects a research project from any of the areas of active research interest of the preceptor, and works with this preceptor towards turning the project into a paper that can be published (with the intern as a co-author).


Paraeducators in Physical Education : A Training Guide to Roles and Responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edited by College at Brockport faculty member Lauren J. Lieberman.Also includes a chapter by College at Brockport faculty member Douglas Collier: Positive methods for dealing with difficult behavior, and chaopters co-authored by College at Brockport alumni Rocco Aiello: Instruction strategies; and Carin Mulawka: Assessment.Paraeducators work in virtually every school—but until now, no systematic training program has existed to teach them

Lauren J. Lieberman; Douglas Collier; Carin Mulawka; Rocco Aiello



Book Review: Mindsight: Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind, by Kenneth Ring and Sharon Cooper. Palo Alto, CA: William James Center for Consciousness Studies\\/Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 1999, 217 pp. + xix, $12.95, pb  

Microsoft Academic Search

I approached Mindsight: Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind with my usual anticipation in reading work done by Kenneth Ring, who is known to me personally and through his scholarly writing over many years of research into near-death experiences (NDEs). Together with his co-author, Sharon Cooper, he has produced another fascinating book reflecting research into apparent “mindsight” of people

Stuart W. Twemlow



Notification of Retraction: Interleukin 5 expressing allergen-specific T-lymphocytes in patients with house dust mite sensitization: analysis at a clonal level (1995) (J Mol Med 73(2):79–83  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journal of Molecular Medicine   regretfully informs its readers that the above-named publication has been cited in the Report of the Joint Investigative\\u000a Commission for the Appraisal of Allegations of Fraud in Science (August 4, 1997), presided by Dr. W. Gerok, as erroneous.\\u000a For this reason the above-named publication is, with consent of the co-authors, hereby retracted. (The Editorial Committee of

R. Bonifer; C. Neumann; S. Meuer; G. Schulze; F. Herrmann



Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and patterns of research collaboration in nanoscience and nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the recent development that scientists and engineers of many disciplines, countries, and institutions\\u000a increasingly engage in nanoscale research at breathtaking speed. By co-author analysis of over 600 papers published in “nano\\u000a journals” in 2002 and 2003, I investigate if this apparent concurrence is accompanied by new forms and degrees of multi- and\\u000a interdisciplinarity as well as

Joachim Schummer



RefSponse: A Literature Evaluation System for the Professional Astrophysics Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an implementation of a semi-automated review system for the\\u000aastrophysics literature. Registered users identify names under which they\\u000apublish, and provide scores for individual papers of their choosing. Scores are\\u000aheld confidentially, and combined in a weighted average grade for each paper.\\u000aThe grade is divided among the co-authors as assigned credit. The credit\\u000aaccumulated by each user

Robert E. Rutledge



On Being Called an Anti-Semite in Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the coordinator of a university lecture series, the author is always on the lookout for good speakers. He thought that he had found one in Stephen Walt, a political scientist at Harvard University and the co-author of an article about the influence of the pro-Israel lobby on U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. In this article, the author…

Drake, Richard



[Scientometric characteristics of the published scientific works of Prof. Konstantin Chilov].  


A comprehensive scientificometric study was carried out on the publications of Corresponding member Prof Dr. K. Cilov, covering 127 monographs, textbooks and papers, published within the period 1929-1957. The results obtained were mathematically--statistically processed according to the methods of statistical grouping and alternative analysis and illustrated via table method and graphic analysis. The criteria of observation concern the quantitative, type and thematic characteristic of the co-authors of Prof K. Cilov. The analysis established an evenness in the scientific and publication creative work of Prof K. Cilov during the periods of his scientific maturing, his scientific interests directed mainly to the clinical-laboratory and cardiological problems, infectious and endocrine diseases. The percentage of his publications, with he as a sole author is 69,29%, and of team publications--30,71%. The personified co-authors are 32, and non-personified ones--65, with a predomination of the inconstant collaborators, so 70,87% of the co-authors are with a duration of the collaboration to 1 year. PMID:6390965

Petkova, M



Authorship ignorance: views of researchers in French clinical settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the knowledge and behaviour of researchers regarding criteria for authorship, and the practices of ghost and gift authorship. Design: Semidirective interviews of senior clinical researchers. Setting: University hospital. Participants: Thirty-nine main investigators of clinical research programmes. Main measurements: Awareness and use of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship, and perceptions about ghost and gift authorship. Results: A total of 48 protocols submitted by 42 principal investigators between 1994 and 1996 were identified. Thirty-nine investigators were contacted; 37 (one of whom delegated a co-author) were interviewed between May 2002 and March 2003. Two co-authors of two principal investigators were also interviewed. In all, 42 studies were represented. The interviews lasted for 40–90 minutes and were conducted with openness and respect for confidentiality. The choice of names of co-authors did not follow the ICMJE recommendations. Half of the respondents stated they were aware of criteria for authorship and knew of ICMJE, but most of them did not cite any of the ICMJE criteria among those they applied in deciding authorship. Most of them disagreed with the obligation to meet the three criteria justifying co-authorship because they found these too rigid and inapplicable. Gift authorship was a common practice; 59% of the respondents had been a recipient of gift authorship. Twenty-five (64%) were aware of ghost authorship and the majority considered it questionable and blameworthy. Conclusions: The ICMJE criteria were ignored by clinicians at a university hospital. Ghost and gift authorship were frequent among them. There is a need for French guidelines for authorship to be prepared and implemented.

Pignatelli, B; Maisonneuve, H; Chapuis, F



CORRIGENDUM: Controlled positioning of a DNA molecule in an electrode setup based on self-assembly and microstructuring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to acknowledge the contribution of R Seidel, M Mertig and W Pompe to this work by adding their names as co-authors of the published article. The correct list of authors for the paper `Controlled positioning of a DNA molecule in an electrode setup based on self-assembly and microstructuring' is G Maubach1, A Csáki1, R Seidel2, M Mertig2, W Pompe2, D Born1 and W Fritzsche1 1Institute for Physical High Technology, PO Box 100239, 07702 Jena, Germany 2Max-Bergmann-Center of Biomaterials and Institute of Materials Science, Technical University Dresden, D-01169 Dresden, Germany.

Maubach, G.; Csáki, A.; Born, D.; Fritzsche, W.



Resolving Dilemmas Through Bodywork  

PubMed Central

Pamela Ellen Ferguson and Debra Persinger, co-authors and co-editors of Sand to Sky—Conversations with Teachers of Asian Medicine (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse; 2008), interview Marianne Steele in Germany on her shiatsu and massage therapy work in various forms of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The interview was conducted in a series of e-mail exchanges and telephone calls during late 2009 and early 2010 and is intended for a future German edition of Sand to Sky.

Ferguson, Pamela Ellen; Persinger, Debra; Steele, Marianne



Completing the permit to work explained.  


Two articles that featured in HEJ's April and November 2013 issues focused, respectively, on the roles and responsibilities of those operating and managing medical gas pipeline systems, and on the MGPS Permit to Work System. In this third article in a four-part 'series' by the same author, experienced medical gas systems trainer, Geoff Dillow, who also has extensive expertise in project management, developing medical gas Operational Policies, and assessing medical gas system compliance, and co-authored HTM 02-01, explains how to raise and complete The MGPS Permit to Work. PMID:24783326

Dillow, Geoff



Scientific fraud. The system defends itself.  


Nicholas Wade, co-author of the book Betrayers of the Truth, defended his views on fraud in academic science before a panel at the 1983 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Participants reacted negatively to his argument that recently-revealed episodes of cheating and plagiarism involving respectable scientists are not isolated incidents, but indicators of widespread problems in the field. Microbiologist Norman Zinder and other participants challenged Wade's statements and rejected his criticisms of peer review and other traditional checking mechanisms in science. PMID:6855889

David, P


Final Report to Jupiter Oxygen Corporation on CRADA Phase 1 Activities, January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect

In January of 2004, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed with the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation; its term extends from January 2004 to January 1, 2009. The statement of work is attached as Appendix A. Under Phase I of this agreement, ARC was to provide technical expertise to develop computer models of existing power plants relative to retrofitting with oxy-fuel combustion; help design experiments to verify models and analyze data from experiments; help produce designs at larger scales; help design a new technology oxy-fuel power plant; and co-author technical papers on this work for presentation at appropriate conferences.

Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Turner, Paul C.



Have We Hatched the Addiction Egg: Reward Deficiency Syndrome Solution System(TM)  

PubMed Central

This article co-authored by a number of scientists, ASAM physicians, clinicians, treatment center owners, geneticists, neurobiologists, psychologists, social workers, criminologists, nurses, nutritionist, and students, is dedicated to all the people who have lost loved ones in substance-abuse and “reward deficiency syndrome” related tragedies. Why are we failing at reducing the incidence of ‘Bad Behaviors’? Are we aiming at the wrong treatment targets for behavioral disorders? We are proposing a paradigm shift and calling it “Reward Deficiency Solution System” providing evidence for its adoption.

Downs, BW; Oscar-Berman, M; Waite, RL; Madigan, MA; Giordano, J; Beley, T; Jones, S; Simpatico, T; Hauser, M; Borsten, J; Marcelo, F; Braverman, ER; Lohmann, R; Dushaj, K; Helman, M; Barh, D; Schoenthaler, ST; Han, D; Blum, K



Scientific and Technical Information (STI)....what`s the status?  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed an electronic Publications and Presentations Registry designed to track Scientific and Technical Information (STI) products through PNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programmatic reviews. All information forwarded to the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) for release (e.g., public, UCNI, Export Control) is included in the database. The database contains client and programmatic information for all STI generated by PNL. This electronic format is currently one of the most comprehensive resources for PNL authored and co-authored documents on the Hanford Site.

Varley, D.A.



Geron Corporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geron Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company specializing in therapeutic and diagnostic products for age-related diseases. Geron owns several telomerase related patents. Calvin B. Harley of Geron is one of the co-authors of the Science article. Their page describes programs and products related to cellular aging and Cancer Therapeutics. There has been a recent finding regarding telomerase, a gene which affects the mechanisms controlling human cell replication. The site above provides general information on telomerase, current telomere research, and the use of telemorase in medical practice. Telomerase increases the life-span of a cell, and is thus central to both aging and cancer.



Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.) [eds.



Halliday-Resnick Plus 50  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last year marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Halliday and Resnick's classic introductory textbook ``Physics.'' I used the first edition of the the textbook as an undergraduate students, the second editions as a graduate teaching assistant, the the third edition as a newly hired assistant professor, and I became a co-author for the fourth and fifth editions. In this talk I will offer some views of how this book came to re-define the introductory physics course and how this textbook and other introductory physics texts have changed over 50 years.

Krane, Kenneth



Retraction: Wettability-gradient-driven micropump for transporting discrete liquid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a Retraction for the article 2013 J. Micromech. Microeng. 23 035036. The science reported in this article is not incorrect. This article does not include all co-authors who contributed to the work. The article incorrectly attributes work performed at the University of California to the University of Jordan, and fails to acknowledge contributions from Georgia Institute of Technology. This article does not acknowledge the sources of funding for the work and the reference list is incomplete. This article was submitted by Hamzeh K Bardaweel without the knowledge of the other authors.

Bardaweel, Hamzeh K.; Zamuruyev, Konstantin; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.



A CGRO Target of Opportunity Proposal for Flaring Blazars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray observations of the quasar 3C 279 during the reporting period were carried out and analyzed by Dr. Robert Hartman, the overall project principal investigator, in response to a target of opportunity. The PI and co-I of this grant, Drs. Alan Marscher and Svetlana Marchenko (now Svetlana Jorstad), observed with the VLBA at 43 GHz after the flare. The results and interpretation of the multiwaveband observations are reported in a paper by Hartman et al. that was recently submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, on which the PI is a co-author.

Marscher, Alan P.



Olgierd (Olek) Cecil Zienkiewicz (1921-2009): A Biographical Tribute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this tribute the authors present a personal and academic biography of O. C. Zienkiewicz.(1921-2009) who is recognized as having been one of the pioneers of the Finite Element Method. O. C. Zienkiewicz co-authored the first text book on the method which was largely responsible for the introduction of the concept to a worldwide audience. His contribution to the computational mechanics community encompasses structural, geotechnical and fluid flow analysis as well as numerous fundamental finite element developments. This paper presents these achievements within the context of his life and includes personal recollections by the authors who were his colleagues.

Roger, D.; Owen, J.; Wood, Richard D.



RETRACTED ARTICLE: The effects of each beta-glucosidase gene deletion on cellulase gene regulation in Neurospora crassa (online publication: DOI 10.1007/s10482-013- 9972-7).  


Takao Kasuga and Zhiliang Fan were listed as co-authors without their acknowledgement and would like to be removed from the authors list. This article is retracted on request of Weihua Wu due to inconsistent errors of intracellular and total beta-glucosidase activities assay and the mycelia weight measurement in this paper. These errors led to inaccurate results of total and intracellular beta-glucosidase activities, and the normalized endoglucanases and exoglucanases activities and therefore compromise the partial conclusions of this publication. PMID:24000093

Wu, Weihua; Kasuga, Takao; Nguyen, Lynn; Fan, Zhiliang



Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.


Single Molecules Studies Using Optical Trapping and Fluorescence Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological organisms must compactly store and yet efficiently read the huge amounts of genetic information contained in their DNA. In the cell nucleus, DNA is highly compact as compared to naked DNA. The primary packing unit, the nucleosome, consists of roughly two turns of DNA wrapped around a core histone octamer. The mechanical stability of nucleosomes determines the accessibility of DNA to the cellular machinery that must decode it. We will discuss our recent progress towards understanding the mechanical stability of nucleosomes using single-molecule studies. Co-author: Alla Shundrovsky, Cornell University

Wang, Michelle D.



Cover picture: biotechnology journal 6/2014.  


This Special Issue, edited by Jarka Glassey and Marcel Ottens, contains articles from the 2(nd) European Conference on Applied Biotechnology (ECAB2) in The Hague, The Netherlands, April 2013. The cover image shows a tubular photobioreactor for cultivation of microalgae. It is the most common largescale reactor type for production of high and medium algae products. The picture is provided by Clemens Posten (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany), co-author of the Review on "Biorefinery of microalgae - opportunities and constraints for different production scenarios". 10.1002/biot.201300142. PMID:24890916



Riley Guide: Employment Opportunities and Job Resources on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Riley Guide was one of the earliest Web sites dedicated to job resources. The site contains introductions and annotated pointers to resources by career field, employer type, and location. There are also sections on resume preparation, and recruiting online, as well as handouts for libraries to use with patrons wanting to use the Internet for job hunting. Margaret Riley is a columnist for the National Business Employment Weekly and is one of the co-authors of the 1996 book, The Guide to Internet Job Searching.



Final Report to the Subsurface Science Program - Impact of Measurement Instrument and Conceptual Model on Analysis of Subsurface Heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

This final report covers results of research initially focused on particle transport and then extended to study of measurement scale and scaling. Experimental, numerical, and theoretical findings were published in the areas of hydraulics in heterogeneous media, particle-chemical-microbial transport in heterogeneous media, sampling design, stochastics and wellhead protection. This work has resulted in 17 journal publications, a number of conference presentations, two Ph.D. dissertations, two Master's theses, and two manuscripts upon which undergraduate students have been co-authors.

Silliman, Stephen E.



A model coupling the liquid and gas phases for a totally wetting evaporative meniscus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An hydrodynamic model has been developed to get a complete description of an evaporative meniscus in complete wetting configuration. The coupling between the liquid and gas is explicitly taken into account. Scaling laws are derived for the different domains of the meniscus and validated by numerical simulations. Results are compared with previous models of the literature that use the electrostatic analogy proposed by Deegan and co-authors to describe the evaporative flux. We show that the different approaches differ for the description of the tip of the meniscus in the domain corresponding to the decrease of the evaporative flux but lead to the same scaling for the apparent macroscopic contact angle.

Doumenc, F.; Guerrier, B.



International Soil Reference and Information Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), which is associated with the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Berne, Switzerland, aims to "provide a better understanding of soils and to promote sustainable use of the land." The ISRIC Web site gives visitors several areas to explore, but of special note are the reports and publications link within the publications page, which contains downloadable annual and biannual reports, conference proceedings, soil briefs, technical papers, and more. These publications have been authored or co-authored by staff members, and guest researchers of ISRIC or the former International Soil Museum.



International Soil Reference and Information Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), which is associated with the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Berne, Switzerland, aims to "provide a better understanding of soils and to promote sustainable use of the land." The ISRIC Web site gives visitors several areas to explore, but of special note are the reports and publications link within the publications page, which contains downloadable annual and biannual reports, conference proceedings, soil briefs, technical papers, and more. These publications have been authored or co-authored by staff members, and guest researchers of ISRIC or the former International Soil Museum.



Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging Instrument for Earth Gravity Measurements. ' These two papers were presented at the conference Semiconductor Lasers, Advanced Devices and Applications, August 21 -23, 1995, Keystone Colorado. The manuscript is a draft in the preparation for publication, which summarizes the theory we developed on space-borne laser ranging instrument for gravity measurements.

Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.



New Insights on the Inflammatory Role of Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

When an haematophagous sand fly vector insect bites a vertebrate host, it introduces its mouthparts into the skin and lacerates blood vessels, forming a hemorrhagic pool which constitutes an intricate environment of cell interactions. In this scenario, the initial performance of host, parasite, and vector “authors” will heavily influence the course of Leishmania infection. Recent advances in vector-parasite-host interaction have elucidated “co-authors” and “new roles” not yet described. We review here the stimulatory role of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva leading to inflammation and try to connect them in an early context of Leishmania infection.

Prates, Deboraci Brito; Araujo-Santos, Theo; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Borges, Valeria Matos



Internet Research News/ ResearchBuzz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A companion site to the book Official Netscape Guide to Internet Research (2nd edition), this current awareness resource features a selection of Internet finds on a variety of topics, with a primary focus on tools for research and more efficient searching online. Updated several times a week, the site and its weekly email newsletter, ResearchBuzz, are maintained by Tara Calishain, the book's co-author. Additional resources at the site include a periodic series of articles on Internet research, Quick Tips for searching online, and an internal search engine.


An interdisciplinary cancer prevention and control training program in public health.  


Description. From 1988 through September 2001 the Cancer Prevention and Control Training Program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham has supported 52 pre- and postdoctoral trainees in Public Health disciplines, with 31% of the trainees members of minority groups (21% African Americans). Strengths of the program are director, co-director, and advisor accessibility, latitude in selecting research topics, and focus on prevention and control. Public health trainees have co-authored 135 publications and made 141 other professional contributions. The program plans to add trainees in outcomes research and a second advisor for each trainee to enhance its inherent interdisciplinarity. PMID:12092859

Waterbor, John W; Heimburger, Douglas C; Fish, Larry; Etten, Tamryn J; Brooks, C Michael



Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?  


Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample. PMID:23021894

Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D



A citation-analysis of economic research institutes.  


The citation analysis of the research output of the German economic research institutes presented here is based on publications in peer-reviewed journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index for the 2000-2009 period. The novel feature of the paper is that a count data model quantifies the determinants of citation success and simulates their citation potential. Among the determinants of the number of cites the quality of the publication outlet exhibits a strong positive effect. The same effect has the number of the published pages, but journals with size limits also yield more cites. Field journals get less citations in comparison to general journals. Controlling for journal quality, the number of co-authors of a paper has no effect, but it is positive when co-authors are located outside the own institution. We find that the potential citations predicted by our best model lead to different rankings across the institutes than current citations indicating structural change. PMID:23667276

Ketzler, Rolf; Zimmermann, Klaus F



Final Technical Report-Grant # DE-FG02-97ER45628 ?Structural Diorder in Materials?  

SciTech Connect

Since the grant was renewed in 2000 and 2003 final technical reports of the grant have been previously submitted for those years. For that reason this final technical report covers the last four years of the grant. We had an exceptionally successful and productive last four years under the support of the grant. Our progress takes three different aspects, described in more detail below: 1.1 instrumentation, infrastructure, and other research support at Sector 20 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS); 1.2 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were PI?s; and 1.3 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were co-PI?s or where Drs. Dale Brewe or Julie Cross were authors or co-authors. Drs. Brewe and Cross are the two research scientists (permanently stationed at sector 20) who are supported by the grant. They provide support to the scientific goals of the grant and more broadly provide research support for many general users at Sector 20. Finally, in section 1.4 we provide a complete list of publications resulting from funding in the grant on which at least one of Stern, Seidler, Cross, or Brewe were co-authors. Given the inclusion of operations funding in the grant, this is of course a subset of the full scientific impact of the grant.

Stern, Edward A



Comparisons of sets of electron-neutral scattering cross sections and swarm parameters in noble gases: I. Argon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes work done in the context of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) Plasma Data Exchange Project (PDEP) as discussed in the preface to this cluster issue. The purposes of this paper and its companion papers are to compare sets of cross sections for electron scattering from ground-state noble gas atoms in the energy range from thermal to about 1 keV and to comment on their applicability for plasma modelling. To these ends, we present in this paper intercomparisons of the nine independently derived sets of cross sections for electron scattering from ground-state argon atoms that have been posted in databases on the LXCat open-access website ( We show electron transport, excitation and ionization coefficients (swarm parameters) calculated using these cross section data in Boltzmann solvers and we compare calculated values with measurements. For the most part, the cross section sets have been compiled by co-authors on this paper and appendices giving details about how the various cross sections datasets were compiled have been written by the individual co-authors. Additional appendices discuss our criteria for selection of experimental data to be included in the comparisons and give a brief overview of the methods used here for solving the Boltzmann equation.

Pitchford, L. C.; Alves, L. L.; Bartschat, K.; Biagi, S. F.; Bordage, M. C.; Phelps, A. V.; Ferreira, C. M.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Morgan, W. L.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Puech, V.; Stauffer, A.; Zatsarinny, O.



New Study Documents the Dramatic Effect of Industrial Fishing across the World's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a study published in the journal _Nature_, co-authors Ramsom Myers and Boris Worm concluded that 90 percent of the world's large fishes have disappeared from the world's oceans over the past fifty years, attributing this phenomenon to industrial fishing. Utilizing data from the past 47 years, Myers and Worm looked at the precipitous decline in the populations of species such as tuna, marlin, and swordfish. The report noted that the largest population decline began when industrial fishing became increasingly ubiquitous in the early 1950s around the world. As Myers noted in a recent interview, "Humans have always been very good at killing big animals. Ten thousand years ago, with just some pointed sticks, humans managed to wipe out the wooly mammoth, saber tooth tigers, mastodons and giant vampire bats." While several individuals in the fishing industry took exception to the tone of the report, co-author Worm noted that there were potential solutions to the problem, including declaring certain fishing areas as "off-limits." Other experts have commented that it also makes sense for the fishing industry to investigate the expansion of aquaculture, along with a more strict adherence to conservation policies.The first link will take visitors to an online news article from about this recent study that contains comments from the co-authors and representatives of the fishing industry. The second link leads to the report by Myers and Worm in the most recent issue of the journal _Nature_. The third link will take visitors to a site maintained by the United Nations Division for Sustainable Development that highlights partnerships and programs developed by various countries to effectively maintain the productivity and viability of their coastlines and surrounding oceans. The fourth link leads to a nice compendium of international fishing treaties and agreements that stretches back to the 1923 Convention for the Preservation of the Halibut Treaty. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the Global Aquaculture Alliance, and contains information about ongoing projects in aquaculture around the world. The final link leads to a site devoted to providing "complete background information on every species of whale, dolphin, and porpoise," along with offering details about whale watching and the evolution of cetaceans. [KMG

Grinnell, Max


Contextual Semantic: A Context-aware Approach for Semantic Web Based Data Extraction from Scientific Articles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper explores whether the semantic context is good enough to cope with ever increasing number of available resources in different repositories including the web. Here a problem of identifying authors of scientific papers is used as an example. A set of problem still do arise in case we apply exclusively the semantic context. Fortunately contextual semantic can be used to derive more information required to separate ambiguous cases. Semantic tags, well-structured documents and available databases of articles do provide a possibility to be more context-aware. Under the context we use co-authors names, references and headers to extract key-words and identify the subject. The real complexity of the considering problem comes from the dynamical behaviour of authors as they can change the topic of the research in the next paper. As the final judge the paper proposes applying words usage patterns analysis. Final the contextual intelligence engine is described.

Kumlander, Deniss


Case stories in general practice: a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Participants Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. Results The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients’ and doctors’ perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Conclusions Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support.

Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per



Selected literature on water-resources investigations in New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey, through 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of the importance and complexity of the water resources of New Jersey today, there is a need for a current bibliography to serve as a basis for future water resources studies. This report lists about 400 book reports, map reports, and articles that deal with the water resources of New Jersey published through 1986. The publications are grouped under three major headings: (1) publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, (2) publications of State agencies prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, and (3) other publications, such as technical journals prepared by or co-authored by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Most of the publications are available for inspection at the West Trenton office of the U.S. Geologic Survey and at large public and university libraries. Ordering information is given for those publications that are for sale. (USGS)

compiled by Schaefer, F. L.



Trying differently: A relationship-centered approach to representing clients with cognitive challenges.  


This article demonstrates the usefulness of an innovative framework called "Relationship-Centered Lawyering" to enhancing real world legal practice. It uses the example of lawyers, particularly criminal defense lawyers, who often deal with clients with cognitive challenges. The article developed out of a series of workshops conducted jointly by the co-authors, an American law professor with a social work background, and a Canadian criminal defense lawyer and family mediator who is an international expert on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and other Neuro-Behavioral Disorders (FA/NB). The paper describes the relational theory Brooks developed (along with Robert Madden), along with the science of cognitive impairments, with a specific focus on FA/NB. The paper provides two illustrations of the relational framework by explaining Boulding's strategy of creating what is called the "external brain" and his techniques of relational interviewing. PMID:20888044

Boulding, David M; Brooks, Susan L



Acid-rain publications by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is an annotated bibliography of acid-rain and related air-quality publications authored or co-authored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees or that have been supported by Service funding. The bibliography covers 10 years of research from 1979 to 1989. Research projects have covered the effects of acidity on water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Specific projects have addressed important fish species such as rainbow trout, brook trout, Atlantic salmon, and striped bass. In addition to lake and stream studies, wetland and some terrestrial habitat work has also been conducted. Also included in the report is research on the ecological effects of liming surface waters and surrounding watersheds.

Villella, R.F.



Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC.  


Here we provide the updated version of the guidelines of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) on the use of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain. The update was undertaken by the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative. Previous EAPC guidelines were reviewed and compared with other currently available guidelines, and consensus recommendations were created by formal international expert panel. The content of the guidelines was defined according to several topics, each of which was assigned to collaborators who developed systematic literature reviews with a common methodology. The recommendations were developed by a writing committee that combined the evidence derived from the systematic reviews with the panellists' evaluations in a co-authored process, and were endorsed by the EAPC Board of Directors. The guidelines are presented as a list of 16 evidence-based recommendations developed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. PMID:22300860

Caraceni, Augusto; Hanks, Geoffrey; Kaasa, Stein; Bennett, Michael I; Brunelli, Cinzia; Cherny, Nathan; Dale, Ola; De Conno, Franco; Fallon, Marie; Hanna, Magdi; Haugen, Dagny Faksvĺg; Juhl, Gitte; King, Samuel; Klepstad, Pĺl; Laugsand, Eivor A; Maltoni, Marco; Mercadante, Sebastiano; Nabal, Maria; Pigni, Alessandra; Radbruch, Lukas; Reid, Colette; Sjogren, Per; Stone, Patrick C; Tassinari, Davide; Zeppetella, Giovambattista



Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  


While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management. PMID:23678657

Dillow, Geoff



Theodore millon (1928-2014).  


Theodore Millon was born on August 18, 1928. On January 29, 2014, Ted died peacefully in his sleep of congestive heart failure. Ted was a scholar and prolific writer. He penned-literally, since he never used a keyboard-and edited more than 30 books and authored or co-authored more than 100 book chapters and research articles. Ted may be most recognizable for the family of objective inventories that bear his name. His development of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory in the 1970s revolutionized personality assessment here and abroad. Over time, many new instruments were developed that targeted adolescent (MAPI, MACI), preadolescent (M-PACI), medical (MBMD), college (MCCI), and normal (MIPS) populations. Beginning in 2004, Ted funded the American Psychological Foundation's annual award, given in his name, honoring an outstanding psychologist engaged in advancing the science of personality psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25046723

Tringone, Robert; Jolosky, Theo; Strack, Stephen



Bridging the Gap Between Atomistics and Structural Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Sid Yip asked me to write a commentary for this section of the handbook, I promptly reminded him that I am a co-author of a longer article in the section on mathematical methods. I told him that my article on amorphous plasticity, written with Michael Falk and Leonid Pechenik, already is more of a departure from conventional ideas than may be appropriate for a book like this one, which should serve as a reliable reference for years into the future; and I asked whether I really ought to be given yet more space for expressing my opinions. Sid insisted that I should write the commentary anyway. So here are some remarks about one of the topics of interest in this book, the search for predictive models of deformation and failure of solids, and the role of nonequilibrium physics in this effort.

Langer, J. S.


High speed transition prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this work period was to develop, maintain and exercise state-of-the-art methods for transition prediction in supersonic flow fields. Basic state and stability codes, acquired during the last work period, were exercised and applied to calculate the properties of various flowfields. The development of a code for the prediction of transition location using a currently novel method (the PSE or Parabolized Stability Equation method), initiated during the last work period and continued during the present work period, was cancelled at mid-year for budgetary reasons. Other activities during this period included the presentation of a paper at the APS meeting in Tallahassee, Florida entitled 'Stability of Two-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers', as well as the initiation of a paper co-authored with H. Reed of the Arizona State University entitled 'Stability of Boundary Layers'.

Gasperas, Gediminis



Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists.

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.



A consensus statement for safety monitoring guidelines of treatments for major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring. Method Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content. Results Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment. Conclusion The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression.

Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Tiller, John; Schweitzer, Isaac; Hickie, Ian; Khoo, Jon Paul; Bassett, Darryl L; Lyndon, Bill; Mitchell, Philip B; Parker, Gordon; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Udina, Marc; Singh, Ajeet; Moylan, Steven; Giorlando, Francesco; Doughty, Carolyn; Davey, Christopher G; Theodoras, Michael; Berk, Michael




NSDL National Science Digital Library

DanâÂÂs Math Cast is a series of mathematics-related podcasts created and recorded by Daniel Bach, a mathematics instructor at Diablo Valley College, and co-author of the textbook Prealgebra, Mathematics for a Variable World. Each âÂÂmathcastâ show features a textbook chapter and includes challenge problems to test comprehension. The topics of each podcast vary, but some of the recent episodes covered mathematical topics such as solving trigonometric equations, 3D graphing, statistics, vectors, geometry, and exponential and log functions. âÂÂMathcastsâ are geared toward a general audience, so anyone with an interest in mathematics is encouraged to listen. Students will find this series of audio files especially useful for reviewing topics and strengthening their understanding of key concepts in mathematics.

Bach, Daniel J.



1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

Not Available




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. Its scientific missions include the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies more than two orders of magnitude beyond those produced by accelerator beams. In these lectures, we will focus on IceCube's most publicized mission, the search for the sources of cosmic rays. We will conclude with an overview of the first results obtained with the partially completed detector. These lectures are based on a review paper co-authored with Spencer Klein (arXiv:astroph.HE/1007.1247) to be published in Review of Scientific Instruments.

Halzen, Francis



People Make Places: Growing the Public Life of Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos is a public policy and advocacy think-tank based in Britain that is well-regarded for its diverse studies on such timely issues as urban governance, the public and the media, and a number of other topics. This latest report from co-authors Melissa Mean and Charlie Tims takes on the always-timely theme of how cities might create more effective public spaces in cities that will work well for a wide host of constituencies. The 41-page report is based on intensive qualitative research done in the British towns of Cardiff, Preston, and Swindon. The report has a broad agenda, as it offers a number of suggestions and policy initiatives for how effective public spaces might boost peopleâÂÂs participation in public space and âÂÂthe wider public life of their town or cityâÂÂ.



1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

Not Available



Alexander Hamilton: The Man Who Made Modern America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alexander Hamilton was not only a member of the First Continental Congress but was also a co-author of the Federalist Papers and a vital force behind the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. To honor Hamilton the New York Historical Society has created a special museum exhibit that is due to open in September 2004 at its building in New York City. The actual exhibit is complemented nicely by this online exhibit that offers a timeline of events during (and after) his life, the Hamilton Log which offers highlights from his writings, and a biographical gallery of his peers, such as DeWitt Clinton and Robert Morris. The site is rounded out by a twenty-question quiz that tests visitor's knowledge of Alexander Hamilton and his various accomplishments.


The Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics: a Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forgotten the third verse of "Eyes of the World?" Wondering just what Jerry mumbled after "Eight sided whispering hallelujah hatrack" on your copy of "The Eleven?" from Las Vegas in 1968? Or would you like to know what Robert Hunter meant by the "the transitive nightfall of diamonds?" Look no further than this site, created and maintained by David Dodd, Branch Manager of the Civic Center Branch of the Marin County Free Library, and co-author of The Grateful Dead and the Deadheads: An Annotated Bibliography. Clearly a labor of love, the site offers the full text of songs by Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow, the Dead's principal lyricists, accompanied by footnotes and possible explanations of various passages by Dodd and others. In addition, the site includes discographies, bibliographies, and thematic essays. Grateful Dead enthusiasts and tape collectors will undoubtedly enjoy this site.

Barlow, John P. (John Perry).; Garcia, Jerry, 1942-.; Hunter, Robert.


PKM2, STAT3 and HIF-1?  

PubMed Central

The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, highly expressed in tumor cells, is known to engage a feed forward loop with the glycolysis master transcription factor HIF-1?. Gao and co-authors recently showed that dimeric PKM2 localizes to the nucleus in highly proliferating cancer cells, where it regulates in vivo growth by acting as a protein kinase and directly activating STAT3. STAT3 is therefore a novel player of the PKM2/HIF-1? feedback loop, since HIF-induced PKM2 activates STAT3 that in turn induces HIF-1? expression. These findings have profound implications for understanding the complex connections between gene regulation, metabolism, survival and proliferation in cancer.

Demaria, Marco; Poli, Valeria



An Extended Observation of Blazar 3C279  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray observations of the quasar 3C 279 during the reporting period were carried out and analyzed by Dr. Robert Hartman, the overall project principal investigator. As had been hoped, a flare was observed in late January / early February 1996. The flare was detected at X-ray energies by RXTE as well (the PI of the RXTE observations was Dr. Ian McHardy of the University of Southampton, England). The PI of this grant, Dr. Alan Marscher, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 43 GHz after the flare and provided theoretical interpretation. The results and interpretation of the multiwaveband observations are reported in a paper by Wehrle et al. published in the Astrophysical Journal, on which the PI is a co-author.

Marscher, Alan P.



The sum of the parts: can we really reduce carbon emissions through individual behaviour change?  


Individuals are increasingly being urged to 'do their bit' in the fight against climate change, with governments and pro-environmentalists insisting that the collective impact of small behaviour changes will result in a meaningful reduction in global carbon emissions. The following paper considers this debate, as well as offering personal contributions from two leading environmentalists: Dr Doug McKenzie-Mohr, environmental psychologist and author of Fostering Sustainable Behavior: Community-Based Social Marketing; and Dr Tom Crompton, change strategist for WWF and co-author of Meeting Environmental Challenges: The Role of Human Identity, who argues for the role of intrinsic value systems in achieving sustainable behaviour change. As well as considering the responsibility of the individual in mitigating climate change, the paper introduces the discipline of social marketing as an effective tool for facilitating individual behaviour change, drawing on evidence from the field to recommend the key characteristics of effective behaviour change programmes. PMID:20333949

Reynolds, Lucy



CEOs for Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen a growing number of organizations, institutions, and national think tanks express an increasing concern for sustaining the competitive economic advantage of major urban areas. One such group is CEOS for Cities, which is a national bipartisan alliance of mayors, corporate executives, university presidents, and other nonprofit leaders whose primary directive is to advance the economic competitiveness of cities. The group's executive committee includes such powerful leaders as Mayor Richard M. Daley of Chicago and Paul S. Grogan, the CEO of the Boston Foundation. One of the site's best features is the Trends and Data Analysis Reports, coupled with the Best Practice reports. Many of these documents are co-authored with other like-minded institutions, such as the Brookings Institution, and delve into such topics as What the IT Revolution Means for Regional Economic Development and Leveraging Colleges and Universities for Urban Economic Revitalization: An Action Agenda.


Caffeine Appears To Be Beneficial In MalesĂÂBut Not FemalesĂÂWith Lou GehrigĂÂs Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an APS press release on a study, entitled 'Caffeine Reduces Motor Performance and Antioxidant Enzyme Capacity in the Brain of Female G93A Mice, An Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)', that was conducted by Rajini Seevaratnam1 supervised by Mazen J. Hamadeh1,2 , and co-authored by Sandeep Raha2 and Mark A. Tarnopolsky2 (1School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada). The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS;, which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting that was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.


The emerging global discourse of sexual rights.  


Since 1945, United Nations (UN) conferences and documents have promoted human rights as essential to individual liberty and international peace. It took until 1994, however, for the term "sexual rights" to first appear in a UN document. Recently, other groups have also been promoting the idea of sexual rights. The professional and scientific World Association of Sexology offered a Declaration of Sexual Rights in 1999. In 2000, The World Health Organization co-authored "Promotion of Sexual Health," including a central role for sexual rights. This emerging sexual rights discourse can be linked to the women's rights and gay and lesbian rights movements of the 1970s, and to the AIDS pandemic of the 1980s. PMID:12378845

Tiefer, Leonore



Wright Flyer Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wind tunnel test results have been published in the literature as summarized at the end of this report. As part of the education program, an introduction to engineering course module was designed and tested on 80 freshman engineering students at Old Dominion University. The five-week module required that five-person teams design, build and fly a radio-controlled airplane using only the wind tunnel data developed by the Wright brothers in 1902. That module is described in Sparks and Ash (2001). The Principal Investigator has co-authored one dozen publications resulting from this research, as listed at the end of this report. The Principal Investigator has given fourteen lectures on the Wright brother testing program and has appeared in two documentary television programs (summarized at the end of this report). Speaking invitations have continued since the completion of the project.




SciTech Connect

The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams



College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year, the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded jointly to economist Alvin E. Roth and mathematician Lloyd S. Shapley for their work on market design and matching theory, which relate to how people and companies find and select one another in everything from marriage to school choice to jobs to organ donations. Shapley first developed his ideas on analyzing resource allocation in a classic early paper co-authored with David Gale titled "College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage". Recently, the Mathematical Association of America plucked this 1962 article out of their fine archives and placed it online for the general public. Today, the article remains one of the American Mathematical Monthly's most cited works.


Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

Tiffan, Kenneth F. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)



Sudden death at the end of the Mesozoic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A paleoecological analysis of the fossil record before and after the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary indicates that the widespread extinctions and biological stresses around the boundary are best explained in terms of a sudden, significant, but short temperature rise. L. Alvarez and co-authors, having found an enrichment in iridium at the same boundary, postulated that it was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body. If this body struck the ocean, the water injected into the atmosphere may have led to a transient increase in the global surface temperature. This temperature pulse may have been primarily responsible for the effects observed in the biosphere. The pattern of extinction of higher plant species suggests that splash down occurred in the northern Pacific-Bering Sea area. ?? 1981.

Emiliani, C.; Kraus, E. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.



X-Ray Emission from Pre-Main-Sequence Stars - Testing the Solar Analogy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This LTSA award funds my research on the origin of stellar X-ray emission and the solar-stellar analogy. The focus during most of this reporting period continued to be on the reduction and analysis of data acquired with the ASCA observatory (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics). During the last few months of this reporting period, considerable time and effort was also devoted to the submission of AXAF observing proposals in preparation for the upcoming AXAF launch. During this reporting period, five papers appeared in refereed journals for which I was either author or co-author, and two additional papers have recently been submitted to ApJ. Also, three conference proceedings papers were submitted. These publications are listed in the attached bibliography.

Skinner, Stephen L.



PinBus Interface for Interoperable, Grid-Responsive Devices  

SciTech Connect

A very simple appliance interface was suggested by this author and his co-authors during Grid-Interop 2007. The approach was based on a successful collaboration between utilities, a major appliance manufacture, and the manufacturer of a load control module during the U.S. Department of Energy’s Grid Friendly Appliance project. The suggested approach was based on the assumption that demand-response objectives could be effectively communicated to and from many small electrical loads like appliances by simply agreeing on the meaning of the binary states of several shared connector pins. It was argued that this approach could pave the way for a wave of demand-response-ready appliances and greatly reduced expenses for utilities’ future demand-response programs. The approach could be supported by any of the many competing serial communication protocols and would be generally applicable to most end-use devices.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.



Comment on "Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peatbog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration" by Yamulki et al. (2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yamulki and co-authors address in their recent publication the important issue of net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from peatlands where land use conversion has taken place. In their case, they studied conversion to forestry versus peatland restoration after a first rotation of plantation forestry. They monitored soil-derived fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using chamber measurements on planted and unplanted control treatments (with or without drainage), and an unplanted plot within a restored (felled) block on former lowland raised bog. They propose that their measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at these sites suggest that the total net GHG emissions, in 100 yr carbon dioxide equivalents, of the restored peatbog would be higher than that of the peatbog with trees. We believe there are a number of issues with the measurement, calculation and comparison of these greenhouse budgets that may invalidate this conclusion.

Artz, R. R. E.; Chapman, S. J.; Saunders, M.; Evans, C.; Matthews, R.



Museum of Southwestern Biology: Division of Birds-Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Division of Birds at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, this website contains a collection of downloadable publications regarding a number of bird species. The publications are all authored (or co-authored) by Robert W. Dickerman, a Research Associate Professor and Acting Curator for the Division of Birds. Professor Dickerman's articles have appeared in such publications as _Journal of Raptor Research_, _Western Birds_, _Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington_, _The Southwestern Naturalist_, and _The AUK_ between the years 1991 and 2004. Titles found at this site include "A review of the North American subspecies of the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)," "Talon-Locking in the Red-Tailed Hawk," "An Extinct Subspecies of Sharp-Tailed Grouse," and "On the Validity of Bubo virginianus occidentalis Stone," to name a few.


1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

Not Available



KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

Moore, Patrick K.



Theory of BCS-BEC Crossover in Ultracold Fermi Gases: Insights into Thermodynamical and Spectroscopic Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we summarize our theoretical understanding of the atomic Fermi superfluids with an emphasis on understanding current experiments. We compare and contrast different theoretical approaches for dealing with finite temperature, and discuss their respective implications for these trapped gases. Armed with a basic picture of the thermodynamics we turn to a variety of different measurements based on radio frequency spectroscopy, including both momentum integrated and momentum resolved experiments. As recently reviewed in arXiv 0810.1940 and 0810.1938, we show how a broad range of experimental phenomena can be accomodated within our natural extension of the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature, and briefly touch on the applicability of BCS-BEC crossover theory to the high temperature superconductors. Co-authors: Qijin Chen, Yan He and Chih-Chun Chien

Levin, Kathryn



A response to the commentary on the paper "A comprehensive modeling and vibration analysis of AFM microcantilevers subjected to nonlinear tip-sample interaction forces" by Sohrab Eslami and Nader Jalili".  


Recently we received a commentary by Passian et al. [1] on our previously published paper [2] in the Ultramicroscopy. Although the commentators, who are also our co-authors in an earlier papers in similar line (see [3,5]), claimed to discuss and better explain the concept of "virtual resonance" in [3], they went on to conclude that the experimental results and findings in [3] have been misrepresented in [2]. We have theoretically considered a general semi-empirical nonlinear interaction force consisting of different terms with which the dynamic response of the system could be very dependent. Here, we highlight these types of dependencies on the amplitude at the difference frequency. Due to the nature of this communication, we would like to limit our response to matters of fact to the authors of the commentary. PMID:23685040

Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader



Struggling with the fragility of life: a relational-narrative approach to ethics in palliative nursing.  


In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethical dilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual. PMID:16045242

Abma, Tineke A



Partners in critical care.  


Patient- and family-centred care (PFCC) concepts are increasingly cited in the critical care literature and are a welcome addition to the vernacular of the intensive care unit (ICU). The implementation and maintenance of a supportive PFCC environment is challenging, however, and usual strategies for knowledge translation using guidelines and policies, no matter how articulate, have not yet resulted in sustained practice change at the point of care delivery. In this article, co-authored by community partners, the physician director and nurse leader of one tertiary care ICU, we describe an initiative in which patient and family representatives were included in the ICU interdisciplinary team membership. After two years and now, at the conclusion of the assignment, options for community partner participation in various activities related to unit governance are shared. PMID:18416356

Hynes, Patricia; Conlon, Patrick; O'Neill, Jim; Lapinsky, Stephen



Bridging the gap between data acquisition and inference ontologies: toward ontology-based link discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridging the gap between low level ontologies used for data acquisition and high level ontologies used for inference is essential to enable the discovery of high-level links between low-level entities. This is of utmost importance in many applications, where the semantic distance between the observable evidence and the target relations is large. Examples of these applications would be detection of terrorist activity, crime analysis, and technology monitoring, among others. Currently this inference gap has been filled by expert knowledge. However, with the increase of the data and system size, it has become too costly to perform such manual inference. This paper proposes a semi-automatic system to bridge the inference gap using network correlation methods, similar to Bayesian Belief Networks, combined with hierarchical clustering, to group and organize data so that experts can observe and build the inference gap ontologies quickly and efficiently, decreasing the cost of this labor-intensive process. A simple application of this method is shown here, where the co-author collaboration structure ontology is inferred from the analysis of a collection of journal publications on the subject of anthrax. This example uncovers a co-author collaboration structures (a well defined ontology) from a scientific publication dataset (also a well defined ontology). Nevertheless, the evidence of author collaboration is poorly defined, requiring the use of evidence from keywords, citations, publication dates, and paper co-authorship. The proposed system automatically suggests candidate collaboration group patterns for evaluation by experts. Using an intuitive graphic user interface, these experts identify, confirm and refine the proposed ontologies and add them to the ontology database to be used in subsequent processes.

Goldstein, Michel L.; Morris, Steven A.; Yen, Gary G.



Long-Term Trends in foF2: A Comparison of Various Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of various authors on long-term trends in foF2, i.e. in the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and their interpretation do not reveal a consistent pattern. Therefore a joint analysis of one carefully selected data set was performed by five teams, which used different approaches to trend determination. High-quality data of station Juliusruh (54.6N, 13.4E) for noon (average from 10-14 UT) with a small number of gaps were used. The data covered the period of two solar cycles from minimum to minimum (1976-1996). Data gaps were filled in by interpolation using Juliusruh measurements at other times and measurements of neighbor stations. Juliusruh is relatively sensitive to geomagnetic activity as an almost subauroral station, which might play some role in interpretation of trend results. Various methods provide results, which differ to some extent. Even when one co-author applies various modifications of his method,the results differ. Another source of differences are various ways of removal (or at least large suppression) of effects of solar (and geomagnetic) activity. Also interpretation is not unique - co-authors consider either the long-term change in geomagnetic activity, or greenhouse effect to be predominantly responsible for trends. Nevertheless, there is some output from the joint analysis. All trends are either negative or insignificant. Data corrections with sunspot number (R), F10.7 adjusted to the Sun-Earth distance, and observed F10.7 result in somewhat different trends; the observed F10.7 appears to be the best correcting factor. The Juliusruh dip angle increased over the period 1976-1996 from 68.6 to 68.8 deg, but the possible impact of that increase is negligibly small and it would make the trend more positive. The paper will present results in more detail.

Lastovicka, J.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ulich, T.; Bremer, J.; Elias, A. G.; Ortiz de Adler, N.; Foppiano, A. J.; Jara, V.; Abarca del Rio, R.; Ovalle, E.



Long-term trends in foF2: A comparison of various methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of various authors on long-term trends in foF2, which is equivalent to the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and their interpretation do not reveal a consistent pattern. Therefore, a joint analysis of one carefully selected dataset was performed by six teams, which used different approaches to trend determination. High-quality data of station Juliusruh (54.6°N, 13.4°E) for noon (average from 10 to 14 UT) were used for the period of two solar cycles from minimum to minimum (1976 1996). Juliusruh is relatively sensitive to geomagnetic activity as an almost subauroral station, which might play some role in interpretation of trend results. Various methods provide results, which differ to some extent, even when one co-author applies different methods. Another source of differences is application of various ways of removal (or at least large suppression) of the effect of solar (and geomagnetic) activity. Nevertheless finally most teams obtained quite comparable results. Interpretation of the observed trends is not unique—co-authors consider either the long-term change in geomagnetic activity, or anthropogenic effects to be predominantly responsible for trends. There is some generally accepted output from the joint analysis. All trends are either negative or insignificant. Data corrections with sunspot number (R), F10.7 adjusted to the Sun Earth distance, observed F10.7, adjusted E10.7 and observed E10.7 result in somewhat different trends; the observed F10.7 and E10.7 appear to be the best correcting factor. The trends in foF2 are very small, of the order of -0.01 MHz/year, much smaller than the solar cycle effect and, therefore, sensitive to the solar activity correction. The Juliusruh dip angle increased very little over the period 1976 1996 and the possible impact of that increase on trends is negligibly small.

Laštovi?ka, J.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ulich, T.; Bremer, J.; Elias, A. G.; Ortiz de Adler, N.; Jara, V.; Abarca Del Rio, R.; Foppiano, A. J.; Ovalle, E.; Danilov, A. D.



Comment on "Weekly Precipitation Cycles? Lack of Evidence from United States Surface Stations"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a good deal of interest lately in whether or not rainfall varies with the day of the week in response to the weekly variations in human activity. The most likely cause of such changes in the U.S. would be from the weekly variations in pollution levels that are known to occur throughout the country. A paper on this topic will soon be published by the Journal of Geophysical Research entitled, "Midweek Increase in U.S. Summer Rain and Storm Heights Suggests Air Pollution Invigorates Rainstorms, by T. L. Bell, D. Rosenfeld, K.-M. Kim, J.-M. Yoo, M.-I. Lee, and M. Hahnenberger (referred to here as "Bell et al."). A paper by D. M. Schultz and co-authors was recently published in Geophysical Research Letters that claimed to contradict some of the results in Bell et al. The paper can be found here: . Our Comment points out that Schultz and co-authors ignored the fact that the results from satellite data obtained by Bell et al. were for a later time period than Schultz et al. examined, and that Bell et al. in fact also analyzed rainfall data for the same time period as Schultz et al. and, like them, also failed to find signs of a weekly cycle in rainfall during this time period. The contradictions claimed by Schultz et al. are non-existent. We point out some other problems with the methods and presentation by Schultz et al.

Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel



Fabric measurement along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) profile along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland, is presented in this work. Data were measured in the field by an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin climatic transition. A similar strengthening, toward an anisotropic single maximum-type fabric, has been observed in several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and can be attributed to a positive feedback between changes in ice viscosity at the climatic transition, and the impact of a shear component of stress. Centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the folding hypothesis used for a climatic reconstruction by Dahl-Jensen and co authors (2013). Comparison is made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NorthGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. The fabric profile clearly reflects the increase in shear deformation when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NorthGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NorthGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NorthGRIP. References: Dahl-Jensen, D. and 120 co-authors. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, Nature, 493, 489-493, 2013.

Montagnat, Maurine; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe; Eichler, Jan; Fujita, Shuji; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Samyn, Denis; Svensson, Anders; Weikusat, Ilka



From the guest editors.  


Carlos Castilo-Chavez is a Regents Professor, a Joaquin Bustoz Jr. Professor of Mathematical Biology, and a Distinguished Sustainability Scientist at Arizona State University. His research program is at the interface of the mathematical and natural and social sciences with emphasis on (i) the role of dynamic social landscapes on disease dispersal; (ii) the role of environmental and social structures on the dynamics of addiction and disease evolution, and (iii) Dynamics of complex systems at the interphase of ecology, epidemiology and the social sciences. Castillo-Chavez has co-authored over two hundred publications (see goggle scholar citations) that include journal articles and edited research volumes. Specifically, he co-authored a textbook in Mathematical Biology in 2001 (second edition in 2012); a volume (with Harvey Thomas Banks) on the use of mathematical models in homeland security published in SIAM's Frontiers in Applied Mathematics Series (2003); and co-edited volumes in the Series Contemporary Mathematics entitled '' Mathematical Studies on Human Disease Dynamics: Emerging Paradigms and Challenges'' (American Mathematical Society, 2006) and Mathematical and Statistical Estimation Approaches in Epidemiology (Springer-Verlag, 2009) highlighting his interests in the applications of mathematics in emerging and re-emerging diseases. Castillo-Chavez is a member of the Santa Fe Institute's external faculty, adjunct professor at Cornell University, and contributor, as a member of the Steering Committee of the '' Committee for the Review of the Evaluation Data on the Effectiveness of NSF-Supported and Commercially Generated Mathematics Curriculum Materials,'' to a 2004 NRC report. The CBMS workshop '' Mathematical Epidemiology with Applications'' lectures delivered by C. Castillo-Chavez and F. Brauer in 2011 have been published by SIAM in 2013. PMID:24245643

Chowell, Gerardo; Feng, Zhilan; Song, Baojun



Novel scanning force microscopy methods for investigation of transcription complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning force microscopy (SFM) methods were developed to investigate the structure and the dynamics of E. coli transcription complexes. The described techniques will also be applicable to the study of other protein-nucleic acid complexes. First, the deposition process of DNA molecules onto a mica surface was investigated using polymer chain statistics. Conditions were found in which DNA molecules, and also protein-DNA complexes, are able to equilibrate on the surface. These findings imply that DNA and protein-DNA complexes attain a lowest energy state on the surface, and that meaningful structural information can, therefore, be obtained from the corresponding SFM images. Using these imaging conditions, SFM was then used to investigate various transcription complexes. The structures of crucial intermediates in the transcriptional activation of RNA polymerase?sigma54 by NtrC were visualized and analyzed. Moreover, a new method was pioneered to identify the position of specific subunits in multi- protein assemblies. In this method, a specific subunit is tagged with a short piece of DNA which renders it easily recognizable in SFM images. This technique was employed to determine the positions of the two ? subunits and the ?sp/prime subunit in RNA polymerase-DNA complexes. Finally, SFM imaging in liquid was used to investigate the dynamics of the specific and non-specific interactions between RNA polymerase and DNA. Image sequences of an RNA polymerase actively transcribing a DNA template were obtained and analyzed. Image sequences of non-specific complexes were also obtained, and showed the RNA polymerase moving along the DNA in a one- dimensional random walk. The latter experiments provide some of the first direct evidence that RNA polymerase diffuses along DNA to facilitate promoter location. Chapters II, III, V and VI of this dissertation include material which has been previously published with co- authors. The co-authors are acknowledged at the beginning of each chapter to which they have contributed.

Guthold, Martin



Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym



EDITORIAL: Photonic Crystal Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of electromagnetic modes at optical frequencies in artificial dielectric structures with periodic and random variation of the refractive index, enabling control of the radiative properties of the materials and photon localization, was first proposed independently by Yablonovitch and John in 1987. It is possible to control the flow of light in the periodic dielectric structures, known as photonic crystals (PC). As light waves scatter within the photonic crystal, destructive interference cancels out light of certain wavelengths, thereby forming a photonic bandgap, similar to the energy bandgap for electron waves in a semiconductor. Photons whose energies lie within the gap cannot propagate through the periodic structure. This property can be used to make a low-loss cavity. If a point defect, such as one or more missing periods, is introduced into the periodic structure a region is obtained within which the otherwise forbidden wavelengths can be locally trapped. This property can be used to realize photonic microcavities. Similarly, a line of defects can serve as a waveguide. While the realization of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals received considerable attention initially, planar two-dimensional (2D) structures are currently favoured because of their relative ease of fabrication. 2D photonic crystal structures provide most of the functionality of 3D structures. These attributes have generated worldwide research and development of sub-?m and ?m size active and passive photonic devices such as single-mode and non- classical light sources, guided wave devices, resonant cavity detection, and components for optical communication. More recently, photonic crystal guided wave devices are being investigated for application in microfludic and biochemical sensing. Photonic crystal devices have been realized with bulk, quantum well and quantum dot active regions. The Cluster of articles in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics provides a glimpse of some of the most recent advances in the application of photonic crystals. The modelling of PC defect-mode cavities are described by Zhou et al. Ye and co-authors describe the concept and realization of a novel 3D silicon-based spiral PC. It is, in fact, the only article on 3D PCs. The design and realization of ultra-high Q heterostructure PC nanocavities are described by Song and co-authors. The concept of self-collimation of light in PCs and its applications are presented by Prather and co-workers. Experimental and numerical studies on the negative refraction related phenomenon in 2D PCs are the subject of the next article by Ozbay and co-authors. The emerging subject of slow light generation, control and propagation in PCs is presented in the next two articles by Baba and Mori and by Krauss. Finally, the progress made in the development of PC microcavity lasers and electrically injected microcavity light emitters and arrays is described, respectively, by O'Brien et al and by Chakravarty et al. It is hoped that readers will get a sense of the exciting developments and the possibilities presented by heterostructure photonic crystals and their devices from reading the articles in this Cluster.

Bhattacharya, Pallab K.



Learning to Rank Figures within a Biomedical Article  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the “bag of figures” assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as “figure ranking”. Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out-domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently.

Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong



Dynamics, flow and melt content of the Southern East Pacific Rise upper mantle from teleseismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mantle ELectromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment at the super-fast spreading Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) was designed to distinguish between passive upwelling in response to basal tractions from the lithosphere, and a more diapiric, focussed upwelling resulting from melt-enhanced buoyancy and viscosity reduction. To distinguish between these models I estimate the distribution of melt and temperature anomalies beneath the SEPR using teleseismic P and S phases recorded on the MELT seismic array. The non-linear tomographic inversion for VP, VS and anisotropy variations includes an a priori model for the mantle flow-induced seismic anisotropy, constraints on smoothness, minimum norm, coupling between VP and VS , and a grid search for the best anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements also constrain the anisotropy. The best fitting models have anisotropy with the symmetry axis horizontal or dipping shallowly to the west (<30°), and magnitudes of VP and VS anomalies approximately 3.7% and 4.7%, respectively. These translate to melt fractions no greater than .013 or temperature variations no greater than 150°C beneath the rise, using relations I estimated for this purpose. The broad distribution (>100 km) of low velocities favors models of passively driven mantle flow. The orientation of the anisotropy favors shallow return flow owing to a 32 mm/yr westward migration of the SEPR and proximity of the South Pacific Superswell. To best infer melt fraction from seismic velocity, I developed quantitative models of seismic wave propagation through upper mantle partial melts. The elastic effects are estimated with finite element representations of grain-scale laboratory-derived melt geometries. Two- and three-dimensional deformation simulations show that the shear modulus is sensitive to melt inclusion geometry and organization. The anelastic effects are modeled analytically as ellipsoidal pores connected by tubes. Melt moves through the tubes in response to variable compression of the ellipsoids from seismic excitation. The results indicate that the relaxation occurs so rapidly that, in the seismic band, little or no attenuation results. Seismic velocities are reduced by at least 3.6% and 7.9% per percent melt for P and S waves, respectively. This dissertation contains both my previously published and co-authored materials and unpublished co-authored materials.

Hammond, William Charles


Comment on "a comparison of buprenorphine + naloxone to buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes".  


In a recent article, Lund et al sought to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of various treatment regimens for opioid dependence during pregnancy.1 In their background, discussion the authors state that "In the United States buprenorphine plus naloxone [Suboxone(®)] … has been the preferred form of prescribed buprenorphine due to its reduced abuse liability relative to buprenorphine alone [Subutex(®)]." This claim is certainly consistent with the view of the firm that has manufactured and sold both products, Reckitt Benckiser. In September of 2011, the company announced that it was "… discontinuing distribution and sale of Subutex(®) tablets as we believe that mono product (product containing buprenorphine alone with no naloxone) creates a greater risk of misuse, abuse and diversion …".2 Supporting evidence for the alleged "reduced abuse liability" appears to be lacking, however, and evidence cannot be located in the two references cited by Dr. Lund and his co-authors, which in fact are silent on the subject of abuse potential.3,4 In contrast, it has been reported that the transition to buprenorphine/naloxone from the mono formulation has been associated with "… no reduction in injection risk behaviors among IDUs."5. PMID:23772177

Newman, Robert G; Gevertz, Susan G



Invited commentary: exploring the promises, intricacies, and challenges to positive youth development.  


We highlight the need for and critical importance of the program of research reported in this Special Issue. We emphasize that a focus on positive youth development is sorely overdue. The impressive project covering one decade, 42 states and 7,000 participants demonstrates critical contributors to positive youth development. The two identified themes emerging from the set of papers are that contexts and the nature of assets matter for youth. Collectively, the papers explored a variety of positive youth development relevant questions and utilized combinations of annual assessments and data sources from an extraordinary data base. The core methodological and conceptual flaw across papers was the under-representation of minorities in the data set, which limited the generalizability of findings. While the major shortcoming was acknowledged at the onset and recognized as a failing in each paper, nevertheless, merely conceding the flaw was seen as insufficient given the policy, practice, and research implications. The inadequate sampling and follow-up of youth from families which continue to face persistent social inequality and having the most to gain from a positive youth development conceptual strategy and was a major shortcoming; it prevented within group analyses. The co-authors note that although research decisions made limited the generalizability of the positive youth development research strategy for non-white American youth, the intended goals for inclusiveness are evident and, accordingly, suggest a level of hopefulness. PMID:24723050

Spencer, Margaret Beale; Spencer, Tirzah R



Strategies to successfully publish your first manuscript.  


Applying published evidence is fundamental to the practice of medicine. However, the steps needed to undertake scientific research and generate a manuscript of publishable quality are often overwhelming for junior doctors. Undertaking research and publishing these findings are complementary. Clinicians often present research at college or scientific meetings as oral or poster presentations. Yet despite this, most research is not subsequently submitted for peer review publication in a scientific journal. Reasons put forward for research not being published include lack of time, ongoing study, difficulties with co-authors and a negative study. A lack of experience in the actual process of writing and publishing is also likely to be a contributing factor. The steps required in writing a successful manuscript are multiple and clinicians often lack awareness of the specific formatting requirements for submission to a scientific journal such as JMIRO. The aim of this article is to provide information for clinicians inexperienced in writing and submitting a manuscript with the intent of achieving a publication. It is not meant to be a step-by-step recipe in doing this but a guide as to what is required. PMID:20718922

Veness, M



Milton schwebel (1914-2013).  


Milton Schwebel was born May 11, 1914, in Troy, New York, the son of Frank Schwebel and Sarah Oxenhandler Schwebel. He died October 3, 2013, in Tucson, Arizona. His 99 years were filled with love, activism, scholarship, and leadership. In educational psychology, he was a career-long proponent of educating disadvantaged children. A pioneer in peace psychology, Schwebel helped establish the field's intellectual foundation. Recognizing that politics, current events, and international affairs influenced children's mental and physical health. Over a remarkable 73-year publishing career, Schwebel's scholarly contributions included authoring, editing, or co-authoring 14 books and innumerable articles. Schwebel was always working to improve the human condition, and his scholarship was most prominent in three interwoven areas. Schwebel will long be remembered as a treasured friend and mentor who cared deeply about vulnerable people, particularly children, the underprivileged, and the disadvantaged. He enjoyed listening to diverse perspectives and was a renowned teacher, clinician, and lecturer, beloved by students and colleagues. His life serves as a beacon to all who seek to promote human well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25046718

Schwebel, David C; Schwebel, Robert; Wessells, Michael



Parallel multipoint recording of aligned and cultured neurons on micro channel array toward cellular network analysis.  


This paper describes an advanced Micro Channel Array (MCA) for recording electrophysiological signals of neuronal networks at multiple points simultaneously. The developed MCA is designed for neuronal network analysis which has been studied by the co-authors using the Micro Electrode Arrays (MEA) system, and employs the principles of extracellular recordings. A prerequisite for extracellular recordings with good signal-to-noise ratio is a tight contact between cells and electrodes. The MCA described herein has the following advantages. The electrodes integrated around individual micro channels are electrically isolated to enable parallel multipoint recording. Reliable clamping of a targeted cell through micro channels is expected to improve the cellular selectivity and the attachment between the cell and the electrode toward steady electrophysiological recordings. We cultured hippocampal neurons on the developed MCA. As a result, the spontaneous and evoked spike potentials could be recorded by sucking and clamping the cells at multiple points. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the MCA and the successful electrophysiological recordings leading to the development of an effective cellular network analysis device. PMID:20414807

Tonomura, Wataru; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Satoshi



The Effects of Aging on Researchers' Publication and Citation Patterns  

PubMed Central

The average age at which U.S. researchers receive their first grant from NIH has increased from 34.3 in 1970, to 41.7 in 2004. These data raise the crucial question of the effects of aging on the scientific productivity and impact of researchers. Drawing on a sizeable sample of 6,388 university professors in Quebec who have published at least one paper between 2000 and 2007, our results identify two turning points in the professors' careers. A first turning point is visible at age 40 years, where researchers start to rely on older literature and where their productivity increases at a slower pace—after having increased sharply since the beginning of their career. A second turning point can be seen around age 50, when researchers are the most productive whereas their average scientific impact is at its lowest. Our results also show that older professors publish fewer first-authored papers and move closer to the end of the list of co-authors. Although average scientific impact per paper decreases linearly until about age 50, the average number of papers in highly cited journals and among highly cited papers rises continuously until retirement. Our results show clearly that productivity and impact are not a simple and declining function of age and that we must take into account the collaborative aspects of scientific research. Science is a collective endeavor and, as our data shows, researchers of all ages play a significant role in its dynamic.

Gingras, Yves; Lariviere, Vincent; Macaluso, Benoit; Robitaille, Jean-Pierre



Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb ( Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon



Particle theory and cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the research supported by this contract is to further our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter as well as the role fundamental interactions play in cosmology and astrophysics. Astrophysical data, such as from high energy cosmic rays and large scale structure of the universe, are employed to constrain particle physics theories. Particle collisions at Tevatron and higher (SSC) energies are also under investigation. During the past year a systematic reanalysis of the correlation between solar activity and the solar neutrino flux was undertaken. The conclusion seems to be that the Homestake experimental data show a correlation at a significant level, supporting the hypothesis that the neutrino possesses a magnetic moment. A separate, but related, theoretical investigation of electromagnetic properties of elementary particles has led to the discovery of a class of models in which the neutrino is endowed with an appreciable magnetic moment while its remains small. Altogether members of the group have been co-authors of 28 papers during the grant year on topics ranging from fermion masses to the role of ultra-high energy hadronic interactions in cosmic ray physics.

Not Available



Accelerated and Adaptive Evolution of Yeast Sexual Adhesins  

PubMed Central

There is a recent emergence of interest in the genes involved in gametic recognition as drivers of reproductive isolation. The recent population genomic sequencing of two species of sexually primitive yeasts (Liti G, Carter DM, Moses AM, Warringer J, Parts L, James SA, Davey RP, Roberts IN, Burt A, Koufopanou V et al. [23 co-authors]. 2009. Population genomics of domestic and wild yeasts. Nature 458:337–341.) has provided data for systematic study of the roles these genes play in the early evolution of sex and speciation. Here, we discovered that among genes encoding cell surface proteins, the sexual adhesin genes have evolved significantly more rapidly than others, both within and between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative S. paradoxus. This result was supported by analyses using the PAML pairwise model, a modified McDonald–Kreitman test, and the PAML branch model. Moreover, using a combination of a new statistic of neutrality, an information theory–based measure of evolutionary variability, and functional characterization of amino acid changes, we found that a higher proportion of amino acid changes are fixed in the sexual adhesins than in other proteins and a greater proportion of the fixed amino acid changes either between the two species or the two subgroups of S. paradoxus are functionally dissimilar or radically different. These results suggest that the accelerated evolution of sexual adhesin genes may facilitate speciation, or incipient speciation, and promote sexual selection in general.

Xie, Xianfa; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Lipke, Peter N.



Sedation-risk-free colonoscopy for minimizing the burden of colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Unsedated colonoscopy is available worldwide, but is not a routine option in the United States (US). We conducted a literature review supplemented by our experience and expert commentaries to provide data to support the use of unsedated colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Medline data from 1966 to 2009 were searched to identify relevant articles on the subject. Data were summarized and co-authors provided critiques as well as accounts of unsedated colonoscopy for screening and surveillance. Diagnostic colonoscopy was initially developed as an unsedated procedure. Procedure-related discomfort led to wide adoption of sedation in the US, although unsedated colonoscopy remains the usual practice elsewhere. The increased use of colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in healthy, asymptomatic individuals suggests a reassessment of the burden of sedation in colonoscopy for screening is appropriate in the US for lowering costs and minimizing complications for patients. A water method developed to minimize discomfort has shown promise to enhance outcomes of unsedated colonoscopy. The use of scheduled, unsedated colonoscopy in the US appears to be feasible for colorectal cancer screening. Studies to assess its applicability in diverse practice settings deserve to be conducted and supported.

Leung, Felix W; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Brocchi, Emilio; Chang, Eugene B; Liao, Wei-Chih; Mizukami, Takeshi; Schapiro, Melvin; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos



Evolution of Galaxies and the Star Formation Rate in the Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A central goal of extragalactic observational astronomy is to understand how normal galaxies evolve with redshift, and particularly when galaxies formed their stars. While optical and rest-frame UV observations have begun to address these issues, the interpretation of such data is particularly challenging because of the sensitivity to dust obscuration (at optical and UV wavelengths). The absorbed light is re-radiated at IR wavelengths, hence the optimal indicators of the star formation rate (SFR) is at a rest-frame wavelength of approx. 60 microns. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission is revolutionizing the study of the global properties and evolution of galaxies. Spitzer reaches nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than previous IR space missions. This research program is to study the SFR using statistical samples of galaxies in the local universe, at intermediate redshifts, and set the stage for continuing studies up to z=5. The overall research program is divided into three main investigations: A Mid-IR Hubble Atlas and SFR estimators in the local universe, Evolution of the SFR at 0 < z < 1 using pencil beam redshift surveys, and Galaxy formation and evolution at 1 < z < 5. The first papers from Spitzer were published during the last year, including ten refereed journal papers where the PI was first or co-author.

Pahre, Michael A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)



Extended Thermodynamics: a Theory of Symmetric Hyperbolic Field Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended thermodynamics is based on a set of equations of balance which are supplemented by local and instantaneous constitutive equations so that the field equations are quasi-linear first order differential equations. If the constitutive functions are subject to the requirements of the entropy principle, one may write them in symmetric hyperbolic form by a suitable choice of fields. The kinetic theory of gases, or the moment theories based on the Boltzmann equation provide an explicit example for extended thermodynamics. The theory proves its usefulness and practicality in the successful treatment of light scattering in rarefied gases. This presentation is based upon the book [1] of which the author of this paper is a co-author. For more details about the motivation and exploitation of the basic principles the interested reader is referred to that reference. It would seem that extended thermodynamics is worthy of the attention of mathematicians. It may offer them a non-trivial field of study concerning hyperbolic equations, if ever they get tired of the Burgers equation. Physicists may prefer to appreciate the success of extended thermodynamics in light scattering and to work on the open problems concerning the modification of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory in rarefied gases as predicted by extended thermodynamics of 13, 14, and more moments.

Müller, Ingo



Profiles in Leadership: Clifton J. Latiolais, MSc, DSc  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of pharmacy services in the United States. The late Clifton J. Latiolais, MS, DSc, served as the assistant program director for the study and was a co-author of the Mirror. The late Don E. Francke, MS, DSc, was the lead author of the Mirror and the principal investigator of the federally funded study that reviewed hospital pharmacy services across the United States. The next 2 articles in Director’s Forum profile the leadership of Drs. Latiolais and Francke. This article highlights Dr. Latiolais (“Clif”) by briefly reviewing his biography and key career accomplishments, describing his leadership philosophy, and translating that philosophy to today’s health care challenges. Clif’s influence on health system pharmacy serves as an example of effective leadership. This historical perspective on Clif’s leadership, as seen through the eyes of those who knew him, provides directors of pharmacy a valuable leadership viewpoint as they develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services.

White, Sara; Godwin, Harold N.; Weber, Robert J.



Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-01ER54617 Computer Modeling of Microturbulence and Macrostability Properties of Magnetically Confined Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 We have made significant progress during the past grant period in several key areas of the UCLA and national Fusion Theory Program. This impressive body of work includes both fundamental and applied contributions to MHD and turbulence in DIII-D and Electric Tokamak plasmas, and also to Z-pinches, particularly with respect to the effect of flows on these phenomena. We have successfully carried out interpretive and predictive global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell calculations of DIII-D discharges. We have cemented our participation in the gyrokinetic PIC effort of the SciDAC Plasma Microturbulence Project through working membership in the Summit Gyrokinetic PIC Team. We have continued to teach advanced courses at UCLA pertaining to computational plasma physics and to foster interaction with students and junior researchers. We have in fact graduated 2 Ph. D. students during the past grant period. The research carried out during that time has resulted in many publications in the premier plasma physics and fusion energy sciences journals and in several invited oral communications at major conferences such as Sherwood, Transport Task Force (TTF), the annual meetings of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society, of the European Physical Society, and the 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, FEC 2002. Many of these have been authored and co-authored with experimentalists at DIII-D.

Jean-Noel Leboeuf




SciTech Connect

During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA



Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects: how large is too large?  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter closure has become an accepted alternative to surgical repair for ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). However, large ASDs (>38 mm) and defects with deficient rims are usually not offered transcatheter closure but are referred for surgical closure. Several studies have reported the feasibility of transcatheter closure in complex cases with a variety of modified implantation methods such as balloon assisted technique (BAT). AA Pillai and co-authors report the transcatheter closure of ASD ?35 mm with the BAT. However, the true significance of their study is rather in demonstrating the superiority of BAT to conventional technique and other modified implantation techniques in patients with ASD rather than feasiblity of transcatheter closure of large defect. Finally, a single dimension does not reflect the true ASD size because many defects are not round in shape but rather oval or even crescentric. Hence, future studies will need not only to demonstrate the ideal implantation method but also the appropriate 3-dimensional (3D) imaging definition of the defect in this patient population.

Trivedi, Kalyani R.



Device-guided breathing exercises for the treatment of hypertension: An overview  

PubMed Central

The American Heart Association considers device-guided breathing as a reasonable treatment modality in their statement on non-pharmacological options for lowering blood pressure. This review discusses all randomized controlled trials that have investigated the effects of device-guided breathing on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Thirteen studies were included in this review. In total, 627 patients were included, of which 365 patients were allocated to device-guided breathing. Only 6 studies used acceptable control groups: listening to music, meditative relaxation exercises, or a sham-device. Two sponsored trials showed beneficial effects of device-guided breathing, both used listening to music as a control group. The remaining 4 studies, which had no employees of the manufacturer listed as co-author, observed no beneficial effects on blood pressure. There is only 1 study that used a sham device as a control group. All other studies were to some extend methodologically flawed. Based on the studies with an acceptable methodological quality, there is no clear evidence supporting a short-term beneficial effect on blood pressure by using device-guided breathing.

van Hateren, Kornelis JJ; Landman, Gijs WD; Logtenberg, Susan JJ; Bilo, Henk JG; Kleefstra, Nanne



The Price of Paying Taxes: How Tax Preparation and Refund Loan Fees Erode the Benefits of the EITC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the first time scholars and researchers have gotten together and prepared an analytical survey on the relationship between Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) recipients and the location of tax preparation services (such as H&R Block and Jackson Hewitt) that offer e-filing and tax returns. Available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf), and co-authored by the Brookings Urban Center and the Progressive Policy Institute, this report "analyzes information on the commercial tax preparation industry and the spatial distribution of its firms." The report also contains information regarding the concentration of "fast cash" refund loan facilities within low-income communities throughout the nationâÂÂs 100 largest metropolitan areas, and provides an estimate of the total amount spent on tax preparation and loans by EITC recipients. According to the report, EITC recipients dished-out approximately $2 billion for tax preparation services and products in 1999, with more than half of all low-income families purchasing refund loans in some of the nation's largest cities and suburbs. To help decrease the amount of money spent on these types of services, the authors of the report outlined a policy agenda that would help EITC recipients maintain the full value of their return. Some of the agenda recommendations include simplifying tax credits for low-income families; broadening the availability of free and affordable tax preparation assistance and electronic filing of returns; and expanding access to low-cost bank accounts to promote direct deposit of EITC refunds.

Berube, Alan.; Burns, Megan.; Forman, Benjamin.; Kim, Anne.



Nightly variation of disorder in a Canadian nightclub  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to study nightly disorder within a single bar over an extended period, in order to analyse variations across time (n = 258 nights). Methods The security staff of a large Canadian nightclub agreed to note detailed information on every intervention in which they were involved. Bouncers wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression and incivility that occurred in the bar. Environmental characteristics (e.g. number of admissions and alcohol sales) were collected by one of the co-authors. Results “Hot nights” were observed. The number of problem events was particularly high on Tuesday nights, which had the highest number of customers admitted and higher alcohol sales. The average alcohol sale per customer was also higher during long weekends, and alcohol sales were positively related to problem events. Finally, path analyses revealed that the presence of more bouncers was a deterrent. Conclusions The level of disorder in a bar varies greatly over time. Contrary to what is often postulated, bars are not always high- or low-risk. The results strongly support responsible alcohol-serving policies and highlight the benefits of adequate surveillance.

Boivin, Remi; Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frederic; Felson, Marcus



Non-reciprocity observed by the VLF reception of NWC (19.8 kHz) over trans-equatorial east-west paths to India with reception over a non-equatorial west-east path of similar length to Dunedin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLF diurnal phase and amplitude variations from NWC (19.8kHz) received over trans-equatorial east-west VLF paths at a number of sites in India are compared with the diurnal variations of NWC received in Dunedin, New Zealand over a non-equatorial west-east path of similar length. Transequatorial non-reciprocity is evident at the Indian sites as a marked and erratic reduction in night amplitude below the daytime value and changes in the sunrise modal interference minima relative to those in New Zealand. Night amplitudes in New Zealand were relatively steady and uniformly higher than day values. In contrast, the diurnal phase shifts at all sites were consistent with middle latitude values and the slight non-reciprocity known to be present there. The diurnal phase measurements confirm measurements made by Meara (1973) that east-west transequatorial propagation does not affect the phase velocity of the dominant night mode at frequencies at and above 18.6 kHz. This result contrasts with east-west transequatorial VLF measurements at Omega frequencies below 14 kHz which show an apparent increase in average phase velocity at night. Co-authors: James Brundell, Sandip K. Chakrabarti, Sushanta Kumar Mondal, Rajesh Singh, B. Veenadhari, Morris B Cohen, C.T. More

Lynn, Kenneth; Singh, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Veenadhari, Bhasakara; More, Chandrakant; Brundell, James



A century-old leadership style revitalizes the heroic hospital.  


"Those who fail history are destined to repeat it." Emmett C. Murphy, Ph.D., an international business consultant found that the key to individual and organizational leadership is a heroic commitment to service and the reengineering of the work that it requires. Murphy, whose clients include IBM, General Motors, Johns Hopkins, Centers for Disease Control, Johnson & Johnson, and Memorial Sloan Kettering; was a consultant with Booz-Allen Hamilton and served on the faculties of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the State University of New York before founding E. C. Murphy, Ltd. His firm focuses on the application of quality improvement and work reengineering strategies for creating a patient-focused "heroic" organization. Recently, Dr. Murphy and Michael Snell co-authored an intriguing management book based on the fundamental business strategies historically found in an unlikely western figure. The The Genius of Sitting Bull (Prentice Hall, 1993), Murphy and Snell examine the leadership styles of the Sioux chief and General Custer at the peaks of their careers and used 13 heroic strategies common to Sitting Bull's management style as a metaphor for for successful leadership on the great plains of American health care and business life. PMID:10123388

Kania, A J



Integral Observations of the Reflection Component of Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data were analyzed by Dr. Fabian's student Adrian Turner and included in his thesis (completed Sept 2004). We did not detect MCG-6 using the then current software and the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy turned out to be even worse then the published BeppoSAX spectrum. We decided not to do any more work on it. We were contacted about the data in March by Thierry Courvoisier (the data were thea public) as he had a student, Simona Soidi, working on a compilation of spectra. Dr. Fabian sent them the chapter from Adrian's thesis and we provided some general comments on what they were doing on 6 objects. This has since been accepted for publication with Fabian as a co-author. A paper on the Integral AGN catalogue appeared on astro-ph a few days ago which contains an detection of MCG-6 with a very poor spectrum. We didn't detect it because the software back then required a source to be detected within something like 30 min exposure in order to work. Integral is NOT very sensitive.

Fabian, Andrew



Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.



The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network.  


The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms.An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington (DC, USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated. PMID:24606731

Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Clark, Melody S; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Faith, Daniel P; Geller, Jonathan; Gilbert, Jack; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirsch, Penny R; Leong, Jo-Ann; Meyer, Chris; Obst, Matthias; Planes, Serge; Scholin, Chris; Vogler, Alfried P; Gates, Ruth D; Toonen, Rob; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Barbier, Michčle; Barker, Katherine; Bertilsson, Stefan; Bicak, Mesude; Bietz, Matthew J; Bobe, Jason; Bodrossy, Levente; Borja, Angel; Coddington, Jonathan; Fuhrman, Jed; Gerdts, Gunnar; Gillespie, Rosemary; Goodwin, Kelly; Hanson, Paul C; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoekman, David; Jansson, Janet; Jeanthon, Christian; Kao, Rebecca; Klindworth, Anna; Knight, Rob; Kottmann, Renzo; Koo, Michelle S; Kotoulas, Georgios; Lowe, Andrew J; Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Meyer, Folker; Morrison, Norman; Myrold, David D; Pafilis, Evangelos; Parker, Stephanie; Parnell, John Jacob; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Roderick, George K; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Schonrogge, Karsten; Simon, Nathalie; Valette-Silver, Nathalie J; Springer, Yuri P; Stone, Graham N; Stones-Havas, Steve; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Thibault, Kate M; Wecker, Patricia; Wichels, Antje; Wooley, John C; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Zingone, Adriana



Dirac metamaterials: Electromagnetic epsilon-near-zero metamaterials that mimic relativistic quantum particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central topic of this dissertation is how to make classical light, comprised of many photons, behave in a manner similar to massive quantum particles in potentials. This document describes how one can relate classical wave variables, such as ray paths, frequency scales, and group velocities, to variables associated with classical point particles. A novel Dirac-equation formulation of Maxwell's equations will be presented. We will explain the connection between classical optical and quantum mechanical spin-orbit coupling. We describe a variety of different optical phenomena, including spin-orbit coupling in epsilon-near-zero [ENZ] metamaterials and other optical systems, Darwin terms, and other pseudo-relativistic effects. Resulting mathematical techniques can be used to describe generic optical systems with spatially varying values of mu and epsilon. Further discussed is the importance of mode-mixing in the control of polarization states of cavity fields. Also discussed is how tensor, ENZ, optical metamaterials can be constructed that give an analog of magnetic fields for light. Finally, we will discuss challenges with solving problems with a Kerr nonlinearity in ENZ materials. Additionally described are problems involved in quantizing nonintegrable optical cavities. This study is undertaken with the goal of suggesting future research directions regarding metamaterials. This dissertation includes both previously published/unpublished and co-authored material.

Cook, Andrew K.


Bioprocess monitoring and computer control: key roots of the current PAT initiative.  


This review article has been written for the journal, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, to commemorate the 70th birthday of Daniel I.C. Wang, who served as doctoral thesis advisor to each of the co-authors, but a decade apart. Key roots of the current PAT initiative in bioprocess monitoring and control are described, focusing on the impact of Danny Wang's research as a professor at MIT. The history of computer control and monitoring in biochemical processing has been used to identify the areas that have already benefited and those that are most likely to benefit in the future from PAT applications. Past applications have included the use of indirect estimation methods for cell density, expansion of on-line/at-line and on-line/in situ measurement techniques, and development of models and expert systems for control and optimization. Future applications are likely to encompass additional novel measurement technologies, measurements for multi-scale and disposable bioreactors, real time batch release, and more efficient data utilization to achieve process validation and continuous improvement goals. Dan Wang's substantial contributions in this arena have been one key factor in steering the PAT initiative towards realistic and attainable industrial applications. PMID:16933288

Junker, B H; Wang, H Y



Electron acceleration by laser fields in a gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is an investigation of topics related to the high-energy acceleration of electrons by means of suitably shaped laser beams in an inert gaseous medium. By slowing down the phase velocity of the fields by its index of refraction, the gas allows a cumulative interaction with the electrons resulting in net acceleration and also focusing. The objectives of the work reported here were twofold: (1) to participate as a consultant in the design and analysis of demonstration experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory by STI Optronics, a Belleview, WA company, under a separate DOE funded contract; (2) to perform further analytic and design work on the laser acceleration scheme originally proposed and explore a possible extension of the method to acceleration in vacuum using the same field configuration and analogous interaction process as with a gas. This report thus comprises an account of both activities. Section 2 is an overview of the various laser acceleration methods that have been proposed, in order to provide a framework to the work reported. Section 3 contains a list of meetings attended by the Principal Investigator to present his work and interact with research community colleagues and STI staff, and a list of publications containing work he co-authored or was acknowledged for. Section 4 summarizes the work performed by STI to which he contributed. Section 5 consists of the technical reports the Principal Investigator wrote describing his independent theoretical work elaborating and extending the scope of the original project.

Fontana, J.R.



Almost famous: E. Clark Noble, the common thread in the discovery of insulin and vinblastine  

PubMed Central

CLARK NOBLE WAS ONE OF THE FIRST members of the University of Toronto insulin team and came within a coin toss of replacing Charles Best as Frederick Banting's assistant during the summer of 1921. Noble performed important early studies helping to characterize insulin's action, and he co-authored many of the original papers describing insulin. Because mass production of insulin from livestock pancreata had proved elusive throughout 1922, J.J.R. Macleod hired Noble during the summer of 1923 to help him test and develop a new method for producing commercial quantities of insulin that Macleod believed would revolutionize insulin production. However, commercial production of insulin from fish proved impractical and was dropped by 1924, as methods to produce large quantities of mammalian insulin had improved very rapidly. Noble later played a small but critical role in the most important Canadian contribution to cancer chemotherapy research: the discovery of vinca alkaloids by his brother Robert Laing Noble. Although one might expect that a physician involved in 2 of Canada's most important medical discoveries during the 20th century must be famous, such was not Clark Noble's fate. He died without so much as an obituary in CMAJ.

Wright, James R.



2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.



On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard



On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi



An atomistic approach to viral mechanical oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses are the simplest ``life'' form. These parasites reproduce by borrowing the machinery of their host cell. Many are pathogenic to plants, animals, and humans. Viruses possess an outer protein coat (capsid) that protects its genomic material that resides inside. We have developed a theoretical technique to model the very low frequency mechanical modes of the viral capsid with atomic resolution. The method uses empirical force fields and a mathematical framework borrowed from electronic structure theory for finding low energy states. The low frequency modes can be ``pinged'' with an ultra-short laser pulse and the aim of the light/vibrational coupling is to interfere with the viral life cycle. The theoretical work here is motivated by the recent work of Tsen et al. [2] who have used ultra-short pulsed laser scattering to inactivate viruses. The methodology can be applied to many systems, and the coupled mechanical oscillations of other floppy biomolecules such as a complete ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter) will also be discussed. Co-authors of this work are Dr. Eric Dykeman, Prof. K.-T. Tsen and Daryn Benson. [4pt] [1] E.C. Dykeman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 028101 (2008). [0pt] [2] K-T. Tsen et al., J. of Physics -- Cond. Mat. 19, 472201 (2007).

Sankey, Otto F.



Online reprint request: search, access, read, and update.  


Online reprint request (ORR) is the standard protocol to obtain the reprints (e-print/hard copy) using the internet (author's e-mail address) when the required literature is not available. The problem of higher cost of surface mail for the author and the reader, as well as the time taken to receive postal reprints, is overcome by ORR. This technique has its limitation in message failure, expiration of mail (e-mail decay), or journal not providing author's e-mail address. This article analyzes the available practical solution to overcome these barriers. This process facilitates the exchange of scientific information. In e-mail decay, reprint request can be sent in the following order: a) search and send to author's latest e-mail address, b) co-author's latest or affiliated institution's e-mail address, c) postal reprint request providing the requestor's e-mail address. This protocol can be practiced when library facilities or required literature is not available. Literature can be pooled and used for residency teaching programs, like group discussions, journal clubs, and e-learning exercises (teleeducation), to update the recent advances for practice and research. PMID:19052436

Kanthraj, Garehatty Rudrappa



Theory and detection scheme of seismic EM signals transferred into the atmosphere from the oceanic and continental lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the compound structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances in the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in the lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors' detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain why Prof. Kopytenko (Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci.) and co-authors were able to estimate location of the future seismic epicenter area from their magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth's surface.

Novik, Oleg; Ershov, Sergey; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnov, Fedor; Volgin, Maxim



The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network  

PubMed Central

The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms. An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington (DC, USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated.



Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect.

Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo



Unfolding our Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the stars, the planets, and other faraway objects of wonder is readily apparent, while the reason for their splendor is not. Now, there exists a source of expert advice that amateur astronomers and interested stargazers can actually understand: Unfolding Our Universe. Popular science writer and award winning author Iain Nicolson opens the world of astronomy to a wide audience. He takes readers into the heart of the Universe, clearly detailing the facts, concepts, methods, and current findings of astronomical science. This unique book strikes a perfect balance between the fundamentals of the subject and cutting-edge research. Step by step, the volume leads to a complete understanding of astronomy. Readers can access the material without referring to any mathematical principles or formulas. The well-designed text allows more ambitious readers to easily delve more deeply into key points and consult basic mathematics found within self-contained boxes. More than 100 full-color photographs beautifully and clearly illustrate all concepts. The wealth of color illustrations and very readable chapters make this book a delight for the casual reader to browse, while the clear and concise explanations will appeal to anyone with an interest in the science of astronomy. Iain Nicolson is the author or co-author of some 17 books, including The Universe (with Patrick Moore) and Heavenly Bodies. In 1995, he received the Eric Zucker Award from the Federation of Astronomical Societies (UK) for his work in popularizing the subject.

Nicolson, Iain



Stellar Astrophysics - A Tribute to Helmut A. Abt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This conference was the sixth of the Pacific Rim Stellar Conference series and was the second time that China hosted the series. One of the main purposes of this conference was held as a tribute to Dr. Helmut A. Abt, who has spent tremendous effort in promoting the research and education in astronomy and astrophysics worldwide. The series of Pacific Rim Stellar Conference started in 1985 with the concentration on binary star research. Over the years, the series has grown wider in scope. In this conference, four topics were covered: binary stars, compact stars, high energy phenomena around compact stars and solar-type stars. Though a `Pacific Rim' conference, many of the eighty strong participants were from far regions of the world. This proceedings collects fifty-two papers contributed by over one hundred authors/co-authors working in the field of stellar physics research. The contributions to this proceedings are categorized according to the expertise of the participants into the following six groups: Compact Stars and High Energy Astrophysics, Binary Star Systems, Stars, Variable Stars and Cataclysmic Variables, and Galactic Astronomy. The volume contains many updated reviews in these research areas. Link:

Cheng, K. S.; Leung, K. C.; Li, T. P.


Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  


The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Fřrde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud



Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

Sastry, S. S.



Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)



Growing Physics and Astronomy at James Madison University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

James Madison University is a public, primarily undergraduate institution with a student enrollment of over 18,000. We have a 10.8% minority population and a 60:40 female/male ratio. Drawing 29% of its students from other states, JMU serves a diverse student body. Since the mid '90's, the Department of Physics and Astronomy has grown to 110 majors. There are 15 tenured/tenure-track and 6 non-tenure-track full-time faculty in the department. Graduation rates have grown from five or fewer/year to typically 15-20/year. Eleven faculty are currently engaged in externally funded research with undergraduates. In the 2007-2008 academic year, 45 students were engaged in research. We produced a total of 89 publications and presentations that included 27 students as authors or co-authors. The growth of our department over the last decade is due to a variety of reforms. Foremost among the changes under the control of the department are the initiation of our multi-track BS and BA degree programs and a renewed focus on undergraduate research. These and other significant factors contributing to our success such as student recruiting, outreach, teaching and research integration/balance, promotion of a department culture, visibility on-and off-campus, and university support will be discussed. )

Whisnant, C. Steven



Basal Vertebrates Clarify the Evolutionary History of Ciliopathy-Associated Genes Tmem138 and Tmem216  

PubMed Central

Recently, Lee et al. (Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Lee JE, et al. (30 co-authors). 2012. Evolutionarily assembled cis-regulatory module at a human ciliopathy locus. Science (335:966–969.) demonstrated that mutation in either of the transmembrane protein encoding genes, TMEM138 or TMEM216, causes phenotypically indistinguishable ciliopathy. Furthermore, on the basis of the observation that their orthologs are linked in a head-to-tail configuration in other mammals and Anolis, but present on different scaffolds or chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis and zebrafish, the authors concluded that the two genes were joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the evolutionary amphibian-to-reptile transition to form a functional module. We have sequenced these gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, and found that the two genes together with a related gene (Tmem80) constitute a tandem cluster. This suggests that the two genes were already linked in the vertebrate ancestor and then rearranged independently in Xenopus and zebrafish. Analyses of the coelacanth and lamprey genomes support this hypothesis. Our study highlights the importance of basal vertebrates as critical reference genomes.

Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P.; Warren, Wesley C.; Brenner, Sydney



Retraction of Savine, McDaniel, Shelton, and Scullin (2012).  


Reports the retraction of "A characterization of individual differences in prospective memory monitoring using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task" by Adam C. Savine, Mark A. McDaniel, Jill Talley Shelton and Michael K. Scullin (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2012[May], Vol 141[2], 337-362). The following article from the May 2012 issue is being retracted. This retraction follows the results of an investigation into the work of Adam C. Savine, published in the Federal Register by the Office of Research Integrity on March 7, 2013. The Office of Research Integrity found that Adam C. Savine engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results to show that prospective memory is influenced by three dissociable underlying monitoring patterns, which are stable within individuals over time and are influenced by personality and cognitive differences. Data were modified to support the three category model and to show (1) that individuals fitting into each of the three categories exhibited differential patterns of prospective memory performance and ongoing task performance in Tables 1-3 and Figures 5-8; and (2) that certain cognitive and personality differences were predictive of distinct monitoring approaches within the three categories in Figure 9. His co-authors were unaware of his actions and were not involved in falsifying data. (The abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-25213-001.). PMID:23915125



The effects of downwelling radiance on MER surface spectra: the evil that atmospheres do  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it may not be surprising to some that downwelling radiation in the martian atmosphere may contribute a non-negligible fraction of the radiance for a given surface scene, others remain shocked and surprised (and often dismayed) to discover this fact; particularly with regard to mini-TES observations. Naturally, the relative amplitude of this sky ``contamination'' is often a complicated function of meteorological conditions, viewing geometry, surface properties, and (for the IR) surface temperature. Ideally, one would use a specialized observations to mimic the actual hemispherical-directional nature of the problem. Despite repeated attempts to obtain Pancam complete sky observations and mini-TES sky octants, such observations are not available in the MER observational database. As a result, one is left with the less-enviable, though certainly more computationally intensive, task of connecting point observations (radiance and derived meteorological parameters) to a hemispherical integral of downwelling radiance. Naturally, one must turn to a radiative transfer analysis, despite oft-repeated attempts to assert otherwise. In our presentation, we offer insight into the conditions under which one must worry about atmospheric removal, as well as semi-empirical approaches (based upon said radiative transfer efforts) for producing the correction factors from the available MER atmospheric observations. This work is proudly supported by the MER program through NASA/JPL Contract No. 1242889 (MJW), as well as the contracts for the co-authors.

Wolff, M.; Ghosh, A.; Arvidson, R.; Christensen, P.; Guinness, E.; Ruff, S.; Seelos, F.; Smith, M.; Athena Science



Written Discourse in Scientific Communities: A conversation with two scientists about their views of science, use of language, role of writing in doing science, and compatibility between their epistemic views and language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This autobiographical case study of two scientists involved in earlier studies documents a profile of each scientist. These profiles were used to develop semi-structured interview protocols and email surveys for each scientist. The central issues of these data collections were whether these modern, evaluativist scientists believe that the review react revise process of publishing a peer-reviewed research report simply improves the quality of the language or actually changes the science, and how their metacognitive awareness and executive control were demonstrated in their science inquiry and science writing. The scientists served both as informants and co-authors. Both scientists believed that writing and revising research reports improved the science as well as the clarity of the text; that their use of absolutist language related to their beliefs about inquiry and not about science knowledge; that addressing comments about their writing forced them to assess, monitor, and regulate their science inquiries and research reports; and that traditional forms of knowledge about nature and natural events were valuable information sources that stress description rather than physical causality

Yore, Larry D.; Florence, Marilyn K.; Pearson, Terry W.; Weaver, Andrew J.



Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.  


Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A



On advanced estimation techniques for exoplanet detection and characterization using ground-based coronagraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; G?adysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry



Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu



Textual Standardization and the DSM-5 "Common Language".  


In February 2010, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched their DSM-5 website with details about the development of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The APA invited "the general public" to review the draft diagnostic criteria and provide written comments and suggestions. This revision marks the first time the APA has solicited public review of their diagnostic manual. This article analyzes reported speech on the DSM-5 draft diagnostic criteria for the classification Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It demonstrates how textual standardization facilitates the cultural portability of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria such that a community of speakers beyond the borders of the APA come to be seen as exemplary speakers, writers, and revisers of the professional style. Furthermore, analysis shows how co-authoring practices recontextualize the "voice" and persona of putative patient reported speech on Criterion D2. As a consequence of textual standardization, spoken discourse becomes recontextualized as the product of scientific inquiry and the organization of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:24682628

Kelly, Patty A



Despotism, democracy, and the evolutionary dynamics of leadership and followership.  


Responds to comments made by George B. Graen and Stephen J. Guastello on the current author's article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. In the original article my co-authors and I proposed a new way of thinking about leadership, informed by evolutionary (neo-Darwinian) theory. In the first commentary, Graen noted that we ignored a number of recently developed psychological theories of leadership that take into account the leader-follower relationship, most notably LMX theory. LMX theory asserts that leadership effectiveness and team performance are affected by the quality of working relationships between superior and subordinates. Because the original article primarily dealt with questions about the origins of leadership--the phylogenetic and evolutionary causes--we had to be concise in our review of proximate psychological theories of leadership. In the second commentary, Guastello concurred with the importance of an evolutionary game analysis for studying leadership but disagreed with certain details of our analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19209974

Van Vugt, Mark



Cutaneous myiasis caused by Hypoderma lineatum.  


Cutaneous myiasis is a temporary parasitic infestation of the skin of domestic and wild animals and occasionally of humans by the larvae of flies. Larvae of many flies from various geographic areas can cause myiasis: in Central and South America, human cutaneous myiasis is mainly caused by the larvae of Dermatobia hominis; in Africa, by the larvae of Cordylobia anthropophaga; in the northern hemisphere (North America, Europe, Africa and Asia), by the larvae of Hypoderma spp. A case of cutaneous myiasis in a 47-year-old woman, co-author of the present report, is described. She returned to Slovenia from a three-week trip to Ladakh in Northern India. The parasite, nested in tumor-like swelling about 1-2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm high in her neck, was removed. The parasite was identified by its morphological characteristics as the larva of Hypoderma lineatum. After the removal of the larva, which was yellowish-white, oval-shaped and about 6 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, the lesion healed in two weeks without further treatment. Clinical and laboratory staff will need to be alert in the future, not only to myiasis caused by Dermatobia and Cordylobia larvae from tropical and subtropical areas but also to Hypoderma larvae from the Himalayan area from where the patient returned to Slovenia. PMID:19083166

Logar, Jernej; Marinic-Fiser, Natasa



Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann


Research and Education in Physics and Astronomy at Haverford College  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk focuses on special features of research and education in physics and astronomy at Haverford. These include: (a) The involvement of students in research for many decades, both locally and at national facilities. At least 60 students have been co-authors of scientific papers in the last 30 years, of which many contain significant new science. (b) A noteworthy Astronomy program that has produced a surprising number of active astronomers, many of whom have been recognized by national awards. (c) A physics senior seminar that helps students to make the transition from an undergraduate education to the world of graduate education or work. (d) A network of interdisciplinary interactions and concentrations that enables the physics program to appeal to students with broad interests, e.g. in biology, computer science, education, or engineering. (e) A tradition of outreach courses to students not majoring in science. (f) Curricular coordination with neighboring Bryn Mawr College. (g) Notable laboratory courses that prepare students for research and independent learning. )

Gollub, Jerry



Comparisons of sets of electron-neutral scattering cross sections and swarm parameters in noble gases: II. Helium and neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the second of a series of four reports, describing work carried in 2011 in the context of the Plasma Data Exchange Project with the Gaseous Electronics Conference, devoted to intercomparisons between different sets of electron-neutral scattering cross sections from ground-state noble gas atoms, in the energy range from thermal to about 1 keV. The present work compares cross section sets for helium and neon, determined independently, which are available on the open access LXCat website ( The cross sections are used as input data in an electron Boltzmann solver or in Monte Carlo simulations, to calculate different swarm parameters (transport parameters and rate coefficients). The calculated quantities are compared with measurements to assess the quality of the cross sections in providing data for modelling low-temperature plasmas or analysing experiments. The paper includes several appendices prepared by co-authors to the work, presenting details on how the various cross section datasets were compiled or evaluated.

Alves, L. L.; Bartschat, K.; Biagi, S. F.; Bordage, M. C.; Pitchford, L. C.; Ferreira, C. M.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Morgan, W. L.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Phelps, A. V.; Puech, V.; Zatsarinny, O.



Imagining Reproduction in Science and History  

PubMed Central

Reproduction is at the core of many aspects of human existence. It is intrinsic in our biology and in the broad social constructs in which we all reside. The introduction to this special issue is designed to reflect on some of the differences between the humanities/arts and the sciences on the subject of Reproduction now and in the past. The intellectual/cultural distance between humanists and reproductive biologists is vast, yet communication between the Two Cultures has much to offer in guiding future research, pedagogy, and social policy. The challenges to communication include differences in methodology, professional protocols, specialization, and the increasing speed with which reproductive technology advances. The solutions require a new kind of student who can learn and adapt the approaches from both sides of the disciplinary divide to create new ways of understanding how our current and future concepts of reproduction may be informed by the past. This co-authored introduction reviews the range of interests represented in the essays and represents first steps of a dialogue between a humanist and a reproductive biologist who chart some of the possibilities on what the future of the subject might hold.

Stephanson, Raymond



Ultrasonic modeling of an embedded elliptic crack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments indicate that the radiating near zone of a compressional circular transducer directly coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic solid has the following structure: there are geometrical zones where one can distinguish a plane compressional wave and toroidal waves, both compressional and shear, radiated by the transducer rim. As has been shown previously the modern diffraction theory allows to describe these explicitly. It also gives explicit asymptotic description of waves present in the transition zones. In case of a normal incidence of a plane compressional wave the explicit expressions have been obtained by Achenbach and co-authors for the fields diffracted by a penny-shaped crack. We build on the above work by applying the uniform GTD to model an oblique incidence of a plane compressional wave on an elliptical crack. We compare our asymptotic results with numerical results based on the boundary integral code as developed by Glushkovs, Krasnodar University, Russia. The asymptotic formulas form a basis of a code for high-frequency simulation of ultrasonic scattering by elliptical cracks situated in the vicinity of a compressional circular transducer, currently under development at our Center. .

Fradkin, Larissa Ju.; Zalipaev, Victor



Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

Kniffen, Donald A.



Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced.

Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping



Welfare gains from user charges for government health services.  


The World Bank's Financing health services in developing countries emphasizes demand-side issues--highlighting user fees, insurance, and the private sector as tools for strengthening the health sector. That approach is a major departure from the focus on the supply side--public sector spending, costs, management, and efficiency--that has dominated the international health finance agenda for many years. An important set of empirical papers by Paul Gertler and his co-authors coincided with the release of the policy paper. Gertler's work has questioned a policy of greater dependence on user fees by emphasizing the potential welfare costs to consumers of higher fees for medical services. Many health professionals have adopted the jargon of this new approach without understanding the underlying analysis. This article attempts to demystify the debate that has ensued by illustrating economists' idiosyncratic approach to welfare, explaining how the policy paper and Gertler differ, and suggesting alternative approaches to testing the feasibility of the policy paper's prescriptions. PMID:10119708

Griffin, D C



Analysis and numerical modeling of electrohydrodynamic instability in a three-layer stratified flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-aqueous liquid (phenol) extraction is one of many standard techniques to efficiently purify DNA directly from cells. Effective dispersion of one fluid phase in the other increases the surface area over which biological component partitioning may occur, and hence enhances DNA extraction efficiency. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability can be harnessed to achieve this goal, and has been experimentally demonstrated by one of the co-authors (JDZ). In this work, analysis and simulation are combined to investigate EHD instability in a three-layer, stratified, and immiscible microchannel flow. Such instability induces droplet formation, thereby increasing the interfacial area available for partitioning. A linear analysis is carried out with a Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method, whereas a fully nonlinear simulation is implemented using a finite volume, immersed boundary method. The results from both models compare favorably with each other. The linear analysis reveals basic instability characteristics such as kink and sausage modes, while the nonlinear simulation predicts surface deformation in the strongly nonlinear regime pertinent to droplet formation. The eventual objective is to utilize these numerical tools to determine relevant parameters for maximizing interfacial surface area for optimized DNA extraction.

Narayanan, Venkat R. T.; Li, Jianbo; Zahn, Jeffrey D.; Lin, Hao



Vertically resolved aerosol properties by multi-wavelength lidar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach based on the graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) is introduced to estimate the dependence on altitude of the aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and of the fine mode contribution (?) to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from three-wavelength lidar measurements. The graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) was applied to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) spectral extinction observations and relies on the combined analysis of the Ĺngstrom exponent (ĺ) and its spectral curvature ?ĺ. Lidar measurements at 355, 532 and 1064 nm were used in this study to retrieve the vertical profiles of ĺ and ?ĺ and to estimate the dependence on altitude of Rf and ?(532 nm) from the ĺ-?ĺ combined analysis. Lidar measurements were performed at the Department of Mathematics and Physics of the Universita' del Salento, in south-eastern Italy. Aerosol from continental Europe, the Atlantic, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea are often advected over south-eastern Italy and as a consequence, mixed advection patterns leading to aerosol properties varying with altitude are dominant. The proposed approach was applied to ten measurement days to demonstrate its feasibility in different aerosol load conditions. The selected days were characterized by AOTs spanning the 0.26-0.67, 0.15-0.39, and 0.04-0.27 range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Mean lidar ratios varied within the 31-83, 32-84, and 11-47 sr range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, for the high variability of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties. ĺ values calculated from lidar extinction profiles at 355 and 1064 nm ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 with a mean value ± 1 standard deviation equal to 1.3 ± 0.7. ?ĺ varied within the -0.1-1 range with mean value equal to 0.25 ± 0.43. Rf and ?(532 nm) values spanning the 0.05-0.3 ?m and the 0.3-0.99 range, respectively, were associated with the ĺ-?ĺ data points. Rf and ? values showed no dependence on the altitude. 60% of the data points were in the ?ĺ-ĺ space delimited by the ? and Rf curves varying within 0.80-0.99 and 0.05-0.15 ?m, respectively, for the dominance of fine-mode particles in driving the AOT over south-eastern Italy. Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio retrieved from lidar measurements, aerosol products from AERONET sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time, analytical back trajectories, satellite true colour images, and dust concentrations from the BSC-DREAM (Barcelona Super Computing Center-Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) model were used to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

Perrone, M. R.; De Tomasi, F.; Gobbi, G. P.



X-ray Emissions Detected From Elusive Cosmic Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of celestial object that has long stumped astronomers has been found to emit X-rays, thus proving a theory of how the objects form. Dr. Steven Pravdo of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and other scientists have concluded that these objects, called Herbig Haro objects, are produced by high velocity shocks. Pravdo is the lead author of a paper published in the Oct. 18 issue of the journal Nature. Herbig Haro objects are found in regions where new stars are forming. They are nebulas, or dust and gas clouds. They form when high-velocity gas emitted from young stars collides with clouds of interstellar material. The collision heats the gas in the surrounding nebula to sufficiently high temperatures to produce X-rays. Observations for the past 20 years showed no evidence of X-ray emission from these objects, which are named for astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro. Previous instruments lacked the resolution and sensitivity necessary to 'see' these X-rays. The discovery of the X-ray emissions was possible through the very powerful Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, which has been in orbit since 1999. On Oct. 8, 2000, astrophysicists used the instrument to study HH2, one of the brightest and closest Herbig Haro objects in the Orion Nebula. They determined that HH2 contains shock-heated material with a temperature of about 1 million degrees Kelvin. Pravdo and his team used three criteria to rule out the possibility that the emissions came from any other source. First, Chandra's high spatial resolution pinpointed the location of the X-rays at HH2. Second, the X-rays appeared to be covering a region bigger than a star. Third, the temperature of the X-rays was about 1 million degrees, cooler than nearby X-ray stars. One million degrees is about the temperature expected if material moving at about 300 kilometers per second (about 600,000 miles per hour) collides. At this speed, you could go from Los Angeles to San Diego and back in one second. The principal investigator of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, Dr. Gordon Garmire of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, is a co-author of the paper. Other co-authors include Drs. Yohko Tsuboi, Yoshitomo Maeda and Eric Feigelson, all from Pennsylvania State University, and Dr. John Bally from the University of Colorado, Boulder. The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: AND The Chandra X-ray Observatory is managed for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. JPL is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.



Can Sea-Ice extent from the 1960s, be determined from reprocessed Nimbus and other historic space based data?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical need in climate research is to obtain continuous high quality data records and images as far back in time as is practical. Nimbus I collected data from 8/28/1964- 9/22/1964. Nimbus II collected data from 5/15/1966-1/18/1969. Nimbus III collected data from 4/14/1969-1/22/1972. Data coverage was global with twice daily. Unfortunately it now appears the original recorded data was stored on two inch Ampex tape media which was erased along with 200,000 other tapes due to a media shortage in the 1970's. This original data contained all the timings and calibration data needed to geo-rectify the data. Fortunately NASA Goddard saved and rescued a later version of the data and this data, without the timings and calibration. This data is now available. An effort underway at the NASA Ames Research Center is the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project (LOIRP). This project has obtained the original first generation 2” Ampex analog instrumentation tapes of the approximately 1748 images taken of the Moon. In this data set two images of the Earth (August 23, 1966, and August 10, 1967) were taken with approximately 5-kilometer resolution. These 570-700 nanometer band images have astounding resolution when considering the 330,000-kilometer distance to the Earth. The LOIRP project has obtained the last surviving Ampex FR-900 tape drives. The Nimbus II and III images were also broadcast from the spacecraft and stored on the same instrumentation tape drives. An opportunity has arisen to obtain the first generation Nimbus II and III images if the duplicate tapes mentioned in the Nimbus literature can be found. An initial search was unsuccessful due the above mentioned tape reuse in the 70’s. However, further research indicates that some of the duplicate tapes may be found at other National Records Center repositories. In further research the co-authors have found other Nimbus II and III era images from the Apollo human spaceflight program. All of the Apollo earth orbiting (Apollo 7 and 9, October 19, 1968 and March 3-13 1969) as well as the Lunar Missions (Apollo 8, 10-12, 14-17) obtained high resolution, high quality visible light color and black and white images of the Earth. The co-authors are in the process of matching the timing between the Apollo images and the Nimbus images in order to provide quality data regarding the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack during this era. The value of obtaining the original Nimbus images as well as the mixed Nimbus/Apollo imagery is to provide images and data to help move back in time the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack to provide a longer term record of space based images of these regions of the Earth. Future efforts would also integrate these images with National Security spacecraft that also imaged these areas during that time period.

Gallaher, D. W.; Wingo, D. R.; Meier, W.; Epps, A.



Stellar family in crowded, violent neighbourhood proves to be surprisingly normal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have obtained one of the sharpest views ever of the Arches Cluster -- an extraordinary dense cluster of young stars near the supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way. Despite the extreme conditions astronomers were surprised to find the same proportions of low- and high-mass young stars in the cluster as are found in more tranquil locations in our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 21a/09 The Arches Cluster ESO PR Photo 21b/09 The Centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 21c/09 Around the Arches Cluster ESO PR Video 21a/09 A voyage to the heart of the Milky Way The massive Arches Cluster is a rather peculiar star cluster. It is located 25 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer), and contains about a thousand young, massive stars, less than 2.5 million years old [1]. It is an ideal laboratory to study how massive stars are born in extreme conditions as it is close to the centre of our Milky Way, where it experiences huge opposing forces from the stars, gas and the supermassive black hole that reside there. The Arches Cluster is ten times heavier than typical young star clusters scattered throughout our Milky Way and is enriched with chemical elements heavier than helium. Using the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in Chile, astronomers scrutinised the cluster in detail. Thanks to adaptive optics, astronomers can remove most of the blurring effect of the atmosphere, and so the new NACO images of the Arches Cluster are even crisper than those obtained with telescopes in space. Observing the Arches Cluster is very challenging because of the huge quantities of absorbing dust between Earth and the Galactic Centre, which visible light cannot penetrate. This is why NACO was used to observe the region in near-infrared light. The new study confirms the Arches Cluster to be the densest cluster of massive young stars known. It is about three light-years across with more than a thousand stars packed into each cubic light-year -- an extreme density a million times greater than in the Sun's neighbourhood. Astronomers studying clusters of stars have found that higher mass stars are rarer than their less massive brethren, and their relative numbers are the same everywhere, following a universal law. For many years, the Arches Cluster seemed to be a striking exception. "With the extreme conditions in the Arches Cluster, one might indeed imagine that stars won't form in the same way as in our quiet solar neighbourhood," says Pablo Espinoza, the lead author of the paper reporting the new results. "However, our new observations showed that the masses of stars in this cluster actually do follow the same universal law". In this image the astronomers could also study the brightest stars in the cluster. "The most massive star we found has a mass of about 120 times that of the Sun," says co-author Fernando Selman. "We conclude from this that if stars more massive than 130 solar masses exist, they must live for less than 2.5 million years and end their lives without exploding as supernovae, as massive stars usually do." The total mass of the cluster seems to be about 30 000 times that of the Sun, much more than was previously thought. "That we can see so much more is due to the exquisite NACO images," says co-author Jorge Melnick. Note [1] The name "Arches" does not come from the constellation the cluster is located in (Sagittarius, i.e., the Archer), but because it is located next to arched filaments detected in radio maps of the centre of the Milky Way.



Powerful New Technique to Measure Asteroids' Sizes and Shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of French and Italian astronomers have devised a new method for measuring the size and shape of asteroids that are too small or too far away for traditional techniques, increasing the number of asteroids that can be measured by a factor of several hundred. This method takes advantage of the unique capabilities of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). ESO PR Photo 04a/09 Asteroid Barbara (artist's impression) "Knowledge of the sizes and shapes of asteroids is crucial to understanding how, in the early days of our Solar System, dust and pebbles collected together to form larger bodies and how collisions and re-accumulation have since modified them," says Marco Delbo from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, who led the study. Direct imaging with adaptive optics on the largest ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile (see ESO 21/05 and 18/07), and space telescopes, or radar measurements (ESO 11/07) are the currently favoured methods of asteroid measurement. However, direct imaging, even with adaptive optics, is generally limited to the one hundred largest asteroids of the main belt, while radar measurements are mostly constrained to observations of near-Earth asteroids that experience close encounters with our planet. Delbo and his colleagues have devised a new method that uses interferometry to resolve asteroids as small as about 15 km in diameter located in the main asteroid belt, 200 million kilometres away. This is equivalent to being able to measure the size of a tennis ball a distance of a thousand kilometres. This technique will not only increase the number of objects that can be measured dramatically, but, more importantly, bring small asteroids that are physically very different from the well studied larger ones into reach. The interferometric technique combines the light from two or more telescopes. Astronomers proved their method using ESO's VLTI, combining the light of two of the VLT's 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes. "This is equivalent to having vision as sharp as that of a telescope with a diameter equal to the separation between the two VLT Unit Telescopes used, in this case, 47 metres," says co-author Sebastiano Ligori, from INAF-Torino, Italy. The researchers applied their technique to the main belt asteroid (234) Barbara, which was earlier found, by co-author Alberto Cellino, to have rather unusual properties. Although it is so far away, the VLTI observations also revealed that this object has a peculiar shape. The best fit model is composed of two bodies each the size of a major city - with diameters of 37 and 21 km - separated by at least 24 km. "The two parts appear to overlap," says Delbo, "so the object could be shaped like a gigantic peanut or, it could be two separate bodies orbiting each other." If Barbara proves to be a double asteroid, this is even more significant: by combining the diameter measurements with the parameters of the orbits, astronomers can then compute the density of these objects. "Barbara is clearly a high priority target for further observations," concludes Ligori. Having proven the validity of their new and powerful technique, the team can now start a large observing campaign to study small asteroids.



Co-authorship patterns and networks of Korean radiation oncologists  

PubMed Central

Purpose This research aimed to analyze the patterns of co-authorship network among the Korean radiation oncologists and to identify attributing factors for the formation of networks. Materials and Methods A total of 1,447 articles including contents of 'Radiation Oncology' and 'Therapeutic Radiology' were searched from the KoreaMed database. The co-authorship was assorted by the author's full name, affiliation and specialties. UCINET 6.0 was used to figure out the author's network centrality and the cluster analysis, and KeyPlayer 1.44 program was used to get a result of key player index. Sociogram was analyzed with the Netdraw 2.090. The statistical comparison was performed by a t-test and ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 with p-value < 0.05 as the significant value. Results The number of articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author was 1,025 out of 1,447. The pattern of co-authorship was classified into five groups. For articles of which the first author was a radiation oncologist, the number of single-author articles (type-A) was 81; single-institution articles (type-B) was 687; and multiple-author articles (type-C) was 257. For the articles which radiation oncologists participated in as a co-author, the number of single-institution articles (type-D) was 280 while multiple-institution articles (type-E) were 142. There were 8,895 authors from 1,366 co-authored articles, thus the average number of authors per article was 6.51. It was 5.73 for type-B, 6.44 for type-C, 7.90 for type-D, and 7.67 for type-E (p = 0.000) in the average number of authors per article. The number of authors for articles from the hospitals published more than 100 articles was 7.23 while form others was 5.94 (p = 0.005). Its number was 5.94 and 7.16 for the articles published before and after 2001 (p = 0.000). The articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author had 5.92 authors while others for 7.82 (p = 0.025). Its number was 5.57 and 7.71 for the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and others (p = 0.000), respectively. Among the analysis, a significant difference in the average number of author per article was indicated. The out-degree centrality of network among authors was 4.26% ( while in-degree centrality was 1.31% ( The three significant nodes were classified and listed as following: Choi, Eun Kyung for 1991-1995, Kim, Dae Young for 1998-2001, Park, Won and Lee, Sang Wook for 2003-2010. Choi, Eun Kyung and Kim, Dae Young appeared in two cases, and ranked as the highest degree in centrality. In the key player analysis, Choi, Eun Kyung and Lee, Sang Wook appeared in two cases, and ranked as the highest. From the cluster analysis, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul National University and Yonsei University revealed as the three large clusters when Ulsan University, Chonnam National University, and Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Science as the medium clusters. Conclusion The Korean radiation oncologist's society shows a closed network with numerous relationships among the particular clusters, and the result indicates it is different from other institutions in the pattern of co-authorship formation of the major hospitals.

Choi, Jinhyun; Park, Seo Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki



The Assimilation of Western Medicine into a Semi-nomadic Healthcare System: A Case Study of the Indigenous Aeta Magbukún, Philippines.  


The Aeta Magbukún are a genetically and culturally distinct group of Indigenous people living in an isolated mountain forest in the municipality of Mariveles, in the province of Bataan, Philippines. This research aims to document some healthcare related information of the people, inform future decisions regarding maximising benefits of modern conveniences, and minimise negative consequences on their culture and health. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collated from a community health survey in combination with field notes from three of the co-authors while living with the Aetas. Despite major implications from rapid ecological and cultural changes, traditional ethnomedical systems continue to be revered as an essential healing practice, although they are increasingly used in conjunction with Western medicines and healthcare. At the Aeta village level, the changing socio-political influence among the kagun (traditional healer), the NGOs, and the Municipal Council in terms of healthcare provision is pivotal, as the kagun has chosen to integrate the Western medicine and healthcare services into their traditional healthcare system, without simply rejecting them. In turn, Western-style healthcare interventions have the potential to be carefully managed to integrate traditional Aeta Magbukún socio-political structures, healthcare, and cultural continuity. The cumulative influence of numerous other novel aspects to Aeta life (e.g., permanent housing, a highway through the village, literacy, cash economies, energy-dense foods, communication/entertainment devices, etc.) will place additional pressure on the traditional ethnomedical healthcare system. However, enabling the continuity of access to appropriate healthcare knowledge (both the transfer of knowledge from Western medicine to the Aeta Magbukún, and vice versa) can assist many cultures through the inherent stresses of increasingly rapid acculturation and development. PMID:24643860

Balilla, Vincent S; Anwar McHenry, Julia; McHenry, Mark P; Parkinson, Riva Marris; Banal, Danilo T



Capella: Structure and Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

Brickhouse, Nancy S.



PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

László, Gömze A.



Countermeasures to the US National Missile Defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.

Gronlund, Lisbeth



Feature selection methods for characterizing and classifying adaptive Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.  


The European Union's Flood Directive 2007/60/EC requires member states to produce flood risk maps for all river basins and coastal areas at risk of flooding by 2013. As a result, flood risk assessments have become an urgent challenge requiring a range of rapid and effective tools and approaches. The Sustainable Flood Retention Basin (SFRB) concept has evolved to provide a rapid assessment technique for impoundments, which have a pre-defined or potential role in flood defense and diffuse pollution control. A previous version of the SFRB survey method developed by the co-author Scholz in 2006 recommends gathering of over 40 variables to characterize an SFRB. Collecting all these variables is relatively time-consuming and more importantly, these variables are often correlated with each other. Therefore, the objective is to explore the correlation among these variables and find the most important variables to represent an SFRB. Three feature selection techniques (Information Gain, Mutual Information and Relief) were applied on the SFRB data set to identify the importance of the variables in terms of classification accuracy. Four benchmark classifiers (Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbours, C4.5 Decision Tree and Naďve Bayes) were subsequently used to verify the effectiveness of the classification with the selected variables and automatically identify the optimal number of variables. Experimental results indicate that our proposed approach provides a simple, rapid and effective framework for variable selection and SFRB classification. Only nine important variables are sufficient to accurately classify SFRB. Finally, six typical cases were studied to verify the performance of the identified nine variables on different SFRB types. The findings provide a rapid scientific tool for SFRB assessment in practice. Moreover, the generic value of this tool allows also for its wide application in other areas. PMID:21036382

Yang, Qinli; Shao, Junming; Scholz, Miklas; Plant, Claudia



How Are Academic Age, Productivity and Collaboration Related to Citing Behavior of Researchers?  

PubMed Central

References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006–2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration.

Milojevic, Stasa



[Rashba Olena Iakivna--a gifted scientist and science organizer].  


Professor Olena Yakivna Rashba, doctor of science in biology, was born in Kyiv, to the physician's family; graduated from the Medical-Prophylactic Faculty of the First Medical Institute (1927-1931). Since 1933 she had been working at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Ukr.SSR: first as a laborant and then as a junior and as a senior scientific worker. In 1939 O. Ya. Rashba defended a thesis for the Candidates degree in biology, and in 1951 the thesis for the Doctor's degree. From 1943 to 1945 O. Ya. Rashba was at the front as the major of Medical Service. She was awarded the Red Star Order and medals For Capture of Berlin and For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Before 1941 Olena Yakivna investigated, under the supervision of Acad. O. V. Palladin, biochemical topography of departments of the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as variations in content of protein and its metabolism products in different departments of brain during embryonal development of vertebral animals. In 1945-1951 O. Ya. Rashba began investigating peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism in the brain. The data obtained by the scientist evidence that two enzymes (amylase and maltase) function in the brain which split glycogen to glucose in hydrolytic way. Interrelation between amylolytic and phospholytic enzymatic systems was detected in these experiments. Olena Yakivna has also developed the method of obtaining nuclei from the cells of nerve tissue and studied their composition. From 1951 to 1973 O. Ya. Rashba headed the Department of Microorganisms of the Institute of Microbiology of AS of Ukr.SSR and was a co-author of the efficient drug against bacterial cancer of tomatos "Arenarin". O. Ya. Rashbe has published about 100 scientific works, 2 monographs among them; she obtained 2 author's certificates. PMID:20684238

Vynohradova, R P



Challenges to the Transition of IPMC Artificial Muscle Actuators to Practical Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion-exchange membrane metallic composites (IPMC), which were first reported in 1992, are one of the electroactive materials (EAP) with potential applications as artificial muscle actuators. The recent introduction of perfluorocarboxylate-gold composite with tetra-n-butylammonium and Lithium cations instead of sodium made the most significant improvement of the material electroactivity. Under less than 3 volts, IPMC with the new constituents is capable of bending beyond a complete loop. Taking into account the fact that IMPC materials do not induce a significant force, the authors are extensively seeking applications for these bending EAP. Some of the applications that were demonstrated include dust-wiper, catheter guide, miniature motor, robotic-gripper, micro-manipulator, etc. Generally, space applications are the most demanding in terms of operating conditions, robustness and durability, and the co-authors of this paper are jointly addressing the associated challenges. Specifically, a dust-wiper is being developed for the Nanorover's infrared camera window of the MUSES-CN mission. This joint NASA and the Japanese space agency mission, is scheduled to be launch from Kagoshima, Japan, in January 2002, to explore the surface of a small near-Earth asteroid. Several issues that are critical to the operation of IPMC are addressed including the operation in vacuum, low temperatures, and the effect of the electromechanical characteristic of the IPMC on its actuation capability. Highly efficient IPMC materials, mechanical modeling, unique elements and protective coating were introduced by the authors and are making a high probability the success of the IPMC actuated dust-wiper.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean; Oguro, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Harrison, Joycelyn; Smith, Joseph; Su, Ji



Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).  


Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. PMID:24016121

Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O



Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the Nation's leading killer for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Development and progression of CVD is linked to the presence of risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. It is known that cholesterol is an indicator of increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Low-density cholesterol (LDL) above 130 mg/dl high-density cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol below 35 mg/dl and total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Proper ranges of cholesterol are important in the prevention of CVD. It has been suggested that a reduction in the consumption of saturated and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial and prevents CVD. Amaranth grain contains tocotrienols and squalene compounds, which are known to affect cholesterol biosynthesis. The cholesterol precursors squalene, lanosterol and other methyl sterols, reflect cholesterol synthesis [1-3], whereas plant sterols and cholestanol, a metabolite of cholesterol, reflect the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in normal and hyperlipidemic populations [4-6]. Qureshi with co-authors [7] showed that feeding of chickens with amaranth oil decreases blood cholesterol levels, which are supported by the work of others [8]. Previously, we have shown that Amaranth oil modulates the cell membrane fluidity [9] and stabilized membranes that could be one reason as to why it is beneficial to those who consume it. It is known that in hypertension, the cell membrane is defective and hence, the movement of the Na and K ions across the cell membranes could defective that could contribute to the development of increase in blood pressure. Based on these properties of amaranth oil we hypothesize that it could be of significant benefit for patients with CVD.

Martirosyan, Danik M; Miroshnichenko, Lidia A; Kulakova, Svetlana N; Pogojeva, Ala V; Zoloedov, Vladimir I



27-day cycles in human mortality: Traute and Bernhard Düll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tribute to her parents by one co-author (NDP) is the fruit of a more than a decade-long search by the senior author (FH) for the details of the lives of Bernhard and Gertraud (''Traute'') Düll. These pioneers studied how space/terrestrial weather may differentially influence human mortality from various causes, the 27-day mortality pattern being different whether death was from cardiac or respiratory disease, or from suicide. FH is the translator of personal information about her parents provided by NDP in German. Figuratively, he also attempts to ''translate'' the Dülls' contribution in the context of the literature that had appeared before their work and after their deaths. Although the Dülls published in a then leading journal, among others (and FH had re-analyzed some of their work in a medical journal), they were unknown to academies or libraries (where FH had inquired about them). The Dülls thoroughly assembled death certificates to offer the most powerful evidence for an effect of solar activity reflected in human mortality, as did others before them. They went several steps further than their predecessors, however. They were the first to show possibly differential effects of space and/or Earth weather with respect to suicide and other deaths associated with the nervous and sensory systems vs. death from cardiac or respiratory disease as well as overall death by differences in the phase of a common 27-day cycle characterizing these mortality patterns. Furthermore, Bernhard Düll developed tests of human visual and auditory reaction time to study effects of weather and solar activity, publishing a book (his professorial dissertation) on the topic. His unpublished finding of an increased incidence of airplane crashes in association with higher solar activity was validated after his death, among others, by Tatiana Zenchenko and A. M. Merzlyi.

Halberg, F.; Düll-Pfaff, N.; Gumarova, L.; Zenchenko, T. A.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Freytag, E. M.; Freytag, J.; Cornelissen, G.



Has Large-Scale Named-Entity Network Analysis Been Resting on a Flawed Assumption?  

PubMed Central

The assumption that a name uniquely identifies an entity introduces two types of errors: splitting treats one entity as two or more (because of name variants); lumping treats multiple entities as if they were one (because of shared names). Here we investigate the extent to which splitting and lumping affect commonly-used measures of large-scale named-entity networks within two disambiguated bibliographic datasets: one for co-author names in biomedicine (PubMed, 2003–2007); the other for co-inventor names in U.S. patents (USPTO, 2003–2007). In both cases, we find that splitting has relatively little effect, whereas lumping has a dramatic effect on network measures. For example, in the biomedical co-authorship network, lumping (based on last name and both initials) drives several measures down: the global clustering coefficient by a factor of 4 (from 0.265 to 0.066); degree assortativity by a factor of ?13 (from 0.763 to 0.06); and average shortest path by a factor of 1.3 (from 5.9 to 4.5). These results can be explained in part by the fact that lumping artificially creates many intransitive relationships and high-degree vertices. This effect of lumping is much less dramatic but persists with measures that give less weight to high-degree vertices, such as the mean local clustering coefficient and log-based degree assortativity. Furthermore, the log-log distribution of collaborator counts follows a much straighter line (power law) with splitting and lumping errors than without, particularly at the low and the high counts. This suggests that part of the power law often observed for collaborator counts in science and technology reflects an artifact: name ambiguity.

Fegley, Brent D.; Torvik, Vetle I.



Spatially heterogeneous diapycnal mixing in the abyssal ocean: A comparison of two parameterizations to observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distributions of the diapycnal diffusivity predicted by two abyssal mixing schemes are compared to each other and to observational estimates based on microstructure surveys and large-scale hydrographic inversions. The parameterizations considered are the tidal mixing scheme by Jayne, St. Laurent and co-authors (JSL01) and the Roughness Diffusivity Model (RDM) by Decloedt and Luther. Comparison to microstructure surveys shows that both parameterizations are conservative in estimating the vertical extent to which bottom-intensified mixing penetrates into the stratified water column. In particular, the JSL01 exponential vertical structure function with fixed scale height decays to background values much nearer topography than observed. JSL01 and RDM yield dramatically different horizontal spatial distributions of diapycnal diffusivity, which would lead to quite different circulations in OGCMs, yet they produce similar basin-averaged diffusivity profiles. Both parameterizations are shown to yield smaller basin-mean diffusivity profiles than hydrographic inverse estimates for the major ocean basins, by factors ranging from 3 up to over an order of magnitude. The canonical 10-4 m2 s-1abyssal diffusivity is reached by the parameterizations only at depths below 3 km. Power consumption by diapycnal mixing below 1 km of depth, between roughly 32°S and 48°N, for the RDM and JSL01 parameterizations is 0.40 TW & 0.28 TW, respectively. The results presented here suggest that present-day mixing parameterizations significantly underestimate abyssal mixing. In conjunction with other recently published studies, a plausible interpretation is that parameterizing the dissipation of bottom-generated internal waves is not sufficient to approximate the global spatial distribution of diapycnal mixing in the abyssal ocean.

Decloedt, Thomas; Luther, Douglas S.



Control of New Kinetic Barriers & Design of Nanorods  

SciTech Connect

The accomplishments of this project include three elements. The first element directly relates to the focus of this project. Specifically, we have determined the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers, with and without surfactants, and two manuscripts in preparation; references refer to the list of journal publications. Further, we have discovered a characteristic length scale - the dimension of atomic islands bounded by multiple-layer surface steps. This discovery has made it possible to understand scientifically why nanorods synthesis is possible at all, will enable science-based design of nanorods, and may impact energy technology through nanomaterials design and synthesis. The second element relates to an exploration - synthesis of nanowires. This exploration is made possible through additional support of a Small Grant Exploratory Research from NSF. Through a combination of atomistic simulations, theories, and experiments, the PI and colleagues have made two contributions to the field. Specifically, they have revealed the physical reason why periodic twins develop during growth of SiC nanowires. Further, they have discovered that SiC nanowire films have an order-of-magnitude higher friction that their macroscopic counterpart, something that has never been reported before. The third elements relates to knowledge dissemination. The PI has co-edited (with Helena van Swygenhoven of PSI) an issue of MRS Bulletin, with the theme of Atomistic Simulations of Mechanics of Nanostructures, co-authored a review article in JOM, and authored a review paper in connection with a Banff workshop series co-sponsored by Canada, US, and Mexico.

Hanchen Huang



Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.  


Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO? in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO? (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 ?g, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO? alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO? attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO?. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C



Doped Cobaltites: Phase Separation, Intergranular Giant Magnetoresistance, and Glassy Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used magnetometry, transport, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to investigate magnetoelectronic phase separation in La1-xSrxCoO3. This material shows a crossover from a glassy phase at low doping to ferromagnetism (F) above x = 0.18, as well as a simultaneous transition from insulator to metal. NMR confirms magnetic phase inhomogeneity with low spin non-magnetic, glassy, and F regions coexisting spatially. SANS reveals 25 ĺ F clusters forming in a matrix of non-F insulator at low doping, eventually leading to a percolation transition to long-range F order at x > 0.18. In single crystals, this formation of isolated clusters leads to a hysteretic negative MagnetoResistance (MR) at low temperatures, which has field, temperature, and doping dependencies consistent with an intergranular Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR) effect. We argue that this system is a naturally forming analog to the artificial structures fabricated by depositing nanoscale F particles in a metallic or insulating matrix, i.e. this material displays an intergranular GMR effect without the deliberate introduction of chemical interfaces. The formation of nanoscopic F clusters also gives rise to glassy transport phenomena that are reminiscent of relaxor ferroelectrics. The transport properties show a bifurcation of field cooled and zero field cooled temperature traces, slow response to changes in magnetic fields, and, most notably, a ``waiting time'' effect that can be observed directly in the resistivity. Acknowledgements: ACS Petroleum Research Fund, UMN NSF MRSEC. Co-Authors: J. Wu, J. Lynn, C. Glinka, J. Burley, H. Zheng, J. Mitchell, W. Moulton, M. Hoch, P. Kuhns, A. Reyes, C. Perrey, N. Munoz, R. Thompson and B. Carter.

Leighton, Chris



Cratering Rates in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have constructed a self-consistent study of cratering rates in the outer solar system. Two papers were written, one on cratering asymmetries on synchronously rotating satellites and the other on the cratering rates themselves. The first addresses the well-founded expectation that the leading hemisphere of a synchronously rotating satellite should be more heavily cratered than the trailing hemisphere, and how our solar system has avoided showing much sign of this. We conclude that Ganymede has in the past rotated nonsynchronously, which may imply that it once harboured a thicker inner ocean than it does now. The other study began as an attempt to determine the age of the surface of Europa at a time when Europa was regarded as a major Exobiological target. In keeping with changing times the study expanded to the point that it now recommends cratering rates for worlds as diverse as Charon and Pluto, and includes the contributions of several invaluable co-authors, none of whom would agree with all of my conclusions. The nexus of the work is the size-frequency distribution of comets striking Jupiter (Figure). This was determined using the historically observed record of comets striking or nearly striking Jupiter; the size-frequency distributions of craters on lightly cratered surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Triton; and the size-frequncy distribution of Kuiper Belt objects. Extreme reductionists will be happy to know that the surface of Europa probably has an age of around 50 million years. Perhaps more intriguing is that Neptune's moon Triton, by origin a giant comet and by capture and orbital evolution a once fully melted giant comet, has a surface that is probably no older than Europa's.

Zahnle, Kevin



Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Poor maternal zinc status has been associated with foetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labour and preterm or post-term deliveries. A meta-analysis completed in 2007 showed that maternal zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth. The purposes of this analysis are to update that previous review and expand the scope of assessment to include maternal, infant and child health outcomes. Electronic searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed, randomised controlled trials where daily zinc supplementation was given for at least one trimester of pregnancy. The co-authors applied the study selection criteria, assessed trial quality and abstracted data. A total of 20 independent intervention trials involving more than 11 000 births were identified. The 20 trials took place across five continents between 1977 and 2008. Most studies assessed the zinc effect against a background of other micronutrient supplements, but five were placebo-controlled trials of zinc alone. The provided dose of supplemental zinc ranged from 5 to 50 mg/day. Only the risk of preterm birth reached statistical significance (summary relative risk 0.86 [95% confidence interval 0.75, 0.99]). There was no evidence that supplemental zinc affected any parameter of foetal growth (risk of low birth weight, birth weight, length at birth or head circumference at birth). Six of the 20 trials were graded as high quality. The evidence that maternal zinc supplementation lowers the risk of preterm birth was graded low; evidence for a positive effect on other foetal outcomes was graded as very low. The effect of zinc supplementation on preterm birth, if causal, might reflect a reduction in maternal infection, a primary cause of prematurity. While further study would be needed to explore this possibility in detail, the overall public health benefit of zinc supplementation in pregnancy appears limited.

Chaffee, Benjamin W.; King, Janet C.



A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings  

PubMed Central

Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H.Y.; Cole, Donald



The CloudSat Education Network: Significant Collaborative Research Between Students and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CloudSat Education Network (CEN) is the primary education and public outreach component of the CloudSat mission. Approximately 116 schools in 16 countries around the world participate in the CEN, and are recruited from schools in the GLOBE program. Students and teachers in the CEN make atmospheric observations of temperature, precipitation, and crucially, of cloud type and cloud cover amount (including photographs of cloud observations), using a modified GLOBE Atmosphere protocol as a guide for observations. CEN observations are taken coincident with CloudSat overpasses, providing coincident spaceborne- and student surface observations. This puts students and teachers participating in the CEN at the forefront of scientific research as directly contributing partners in a collaborative research endeavor. CEN participants make extensive use of the CloudSat/CEN webpage, which is the primary data entry portal for the CEN. Data collected from CEN students is analyzed by CloudSat scientists for quality control purposes, as well as for use in CloudSat-related research. The webpage also provides students with CloudSat overpass dates and times, as well as CEN-specific updates, and articles about CEN projects distributed through a quarterly newsletter. Besides the newsletter, active CEN schools receive periodic visits from CloudSat scientists, providing an opportunity for students and teachers to interact directly with the scientific community. Results from completed student research include an investigation of the effect of different amounts of cloud cover on locally-grown mushroom crops in Thailand, while CloudSat-directed research using student data includes an analysis of the CloudSat cloud classification algorithm using student-collected data as a ground-truth dataset. The results of this latter study are in the process of publication with participating students and teachers listed as co-authors.

Rogers, M. A.; Vane, D.



Interview with the expert: William E. Collins, Ph.D. Interviewed by Vicki Glaser.  


William Collins, Ph.D., received his B.S. and M.Sc. degrees in entomology from Michigan State University. He completed his Ph.D. at Rutgers University in two years, just before being inducted into the Army to serve in the Korean War. He was assigned to Fort Detrick at the Biological Warfare Research Laboratories and after three years returned to Rutgers as an extension entomologist. He accepted a position in 1959 with the U.S. Public Health Service, with which he has worked for the last 50 years. In 1963, the Public Health Service laboratory moved to Atlanta and Dr. Collins' group began working with non-human primates following the discovery that monkey malarias were transmissible to humans. Parasites from monkeys or apes isolated in Asia, South America, and Africa were sent to the laboratory in Chamblee, Georgia, where they were adapted and transmitted to laboratory-maintained primates and their life cycles described and characterized. Transmissions to human volunteers were also attempted. In 1973, the laboratory operation was transferred to the CDC, and the emphasis changed from the study of monkey malaria in monkeys to that of human malaria in monkeys. During the last 25 to 30 years, different isolates of human malaria parasites have been adapted to New World monkeys to characterize the isolates for the development and testing of drugs and vaccines. Dr. Collins' task has been to identify and choose the best combination of vector-parasite-host combinations for testing each vaccine candidate. He has co-authored more than 450 manuscripts and has been awarded the U.S. Public Health Service Superior Service Award, The Joseph A. LaPrince Medal for Malariology from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, The Distinguished Service Award of the Department of Health and Human Services, the William Watson Medal of Excellence from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Hoogstraal Medal from the American Committee of Medical Entomology. PMID:19835479

Collins, William E



Involving service users in trials: developing a standard operating procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Many funding bodies require researchers to actively involve service users in research to improve relevance, accountability and quality. Current guidance to researchers mainly discusses general principles. Formal guidance about how to involve service users operationally in the conduct of trials is lacking. We aimed to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) to support researchers to involve service users in trials and rigorous studies. Methods Researchers with experience of involving service users and service users who were contributing to trials collaborated with the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health, a registered clinical trials unit, to develop the SOP. Drafts were prepared in a Task and Finish Group, reviewed by all co-authors and amendments made. Results We articulated core principles, which defined equality of service users with all other research team members and collaborative processes underpinning the SOP, plus guidance on how to achieve these. We developed a framework for involving service users in research that defined minimum levels of collaboration plus additional consultation and decision-making opportunities. We recommended service users be involved throughout the life of a trial, including planning and development, data collection, analysis and dissemination, and listed tasks for collaboration. We listed people responsible for involving service users in studies and promoting an inclusive culture. We advocate actively involving service users as early as possible in the research process, with a minimum of two on all formal trial groups and committees. We propose that researchers protect at least 1% of their total research budget as a minimum resource to involve service users and allow enough time to facilitate active involvement. Conclusions This SOP provides guidance to researchers to involve service users successfully in developing and conducting clinical trials and creating a culture of actively involving service users in research at all stages. The UK Clinical Research Collaboration should encourage clinical trials units actively to involve service users and research funders should provide sufficient funds and time for this in research grants.



Measuring co-authorship and networking-adjusted scientific impact.  


Appraisal of the scientific impact of researchers, teams and institutions with productivity and citation metrics has major repercussions. Funding and promotion of individuals and survival of teams and institutions depend on publications and citations. In this competitive environment, the number of authors per paper is increasing and apparently some co-authors don't satisfy authorship criteria. Listing of individual contributions is still sporadic and also open to manipulation. Metrics are needed to measure the networking intensity for a single scientist or group of scientists accounting for patterns of co-authorship. Here, I define I(1) for a single scientist as the number of authors who appear in at least I(1) papers of the specific scientist. For a group of scientists or institution, I(n) is defined as the number of authors who appear in at least I(n) papers that bear the affiliation of the group or institution. I(1) depends on the number of papers authored N(p). The power exponent R of the relationship between I(1) and N(p) categorizes scientists as solitary (R>2.5), nuclear (R = 2.25-2.5), networked (R = 2-2.25), extensively networked (R = 1.75-2) or collaborators (R<1.75). R may be used to adjust for co-authorship networking the citation impact of a scientist. I(n) similarly provides a simple measure of the effective networking size to adjust the citation impact of groups or institutions. Empirical data are provided for single scientists and institutions for the proposed metrics. Cautious adoption of adjustments for co-authorship and networking in scientific appraisals may offer incentives for more accountable co-authorship behaviour in published articles. PMID:18648663

Ioannidis, John P A



Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Chinese Herbal Medicines: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.

Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai



Iranian research output in pediatrics: 1975-2007  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: By providing a picture from published articles in a field, bibliometric studies can inform policy-makers in their challenging research funding decisions. In this regard, we applied bibliometric analysis to the Iranian pediatrics articles published in PubMed indexed journals between 1975 and 2007. METHODS: We evaluated all pediatric articles that had been published from Iran in different PubMed indexed journals from 1975 to 2007. Journal data (i.e. date of publishing, journal name, impact factor of the journal, language), authors data (i.e. number of authors, international collaboration, affiliation of the corresponding author), and paper characteristics [i.e. type of article, research design, study population (neonate, infant, child, and adolescent), and specialty] were registered. RESULTS: During this period of time, 819 articles from Iran had been published in PubMed indexed journals, with a sharp increasing trend after 2002. Impact factors were up to 25.8. Paper had an international co-author in 13.7%. Regarding study population, 24.1% of studies were published on neonates, 23.6% on infants, and the remaining 66.3% of studies were performed on children and adolescents from 2 to 18 years old. Infectious disease was the most frequent area of research, followed by public health and metabolic disease. Original articles were the most frequent type (89.7%) of the published articles. Study design was cross-sectional in 51.2%, retrospective in 36.3%, and prospective in 11.6%. Clinical trials made up 4.8% of the total papers. CONCLUSIONS: Contribution of Iran in production of pediatrics science is showing a sharp increase after 2002, this pattern is in parallel with other research fields.

Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Moazen, Babak; Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Rahimzadeh, Fereshteh; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani



Melt-processing of lunar ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to produce useful ceramics materials from lunar resources using the by products of lunar oxygen production processes. Emphasis is being placed on both fabrication of a variety of melt-processed ceramics, and on understanding the mechanical properties of these materials. Previously, glass-ceramics were formed by casting large glass monoliths and heating these to grow small crystallites. The strengths of the resulting glass-ceramics were found to vary with the inverse square root of the crystal grain size. The highest strengths (greater than 300 MPa) were obtained with the smallest crystal sizes (less than 10 microns). During the past year, the kinetics of crystallization in simulated lunar regolith were examined in an effort to optimize the microstructure and, hence, mechanical properties of glass ceramics. The use of solar energy for melt-processing of regolith was examined, and strong (greater than 630 MPa) glass fibers were successfully produced by melt-spinning in a solar furnace. A study of the mechanical properties of simulated lunar glasses was completed during the past year. As on Earth, the presence of moisture was found to weaken simulated lunar glasses, although the effects of surface flaws was shown to outweigh the effect of atmospheric moisture on the strength of lunar glasses. The effect of atmospheric moisture on the toughness was also studied. As expected, toughness was found to increase only marginally in an anhydrous atmosphere. Finally, our efforts to involve undergraduates in the research lab fluorished this past year. Four undergraduates worked on various aspects of these projects; and two of them were co-authors on papers which we published.

Fabes, B. D.; Poisl, W. H.; Allen, D.; Minitti, M.; Hawley, S.; Beck, T.



A Dedicated Space Observatory For Time-domain Solar System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-variable phenomena with scales ranging from minutes to decades have led to a large fraction of recent advances in many aspects of solar system science. We present the scientific motivation for a dedicated space observatory for solar system science. This facility will ideally conduct repeated imaging and spectroscopic observations over a period of 10 years or more. It will execute a selection of long-term projects with interleaved scheduling, resulting in the acquisition of data sets with consistent calibration, long baselines, and optimized sampling intervals. A sparse aperture telescope would be an ideal configuration for the mission, trading decreased sensitivity for reduced payload mass, while preserving spatial resolution. Ultraviolet capability is essential, especially once the Hubble Space Telescope retires. Specific investigations will include volcanism and cryovolcanism (on targets including Io, Titan, Venus, Mars, and Enceladus); zonal flow, vortices, and storm evolution on the giant planets; seasonal cycles in planetary atmospheres; mutual events and orbit determination of multiple small solar system bodies; auroral activity and solar wind interactions; and cometary evolution. The mission will produce a wealth of data products--such as multi-year time-lapse movies of planetary atmospheres--with significant education and public outreach potential. Existing and planned ground- and space-based facilities are not suitable for these time-domain optimized planetary dynamics studies for numerous reasons, including: oversubscription by astrophysical users, field-of-regard limitations, sensitive detector saturation limits that preclude bright planetary targets, and limited mission duration. The abstract author list is a preliminary group of scientists who have shown interest in prior presentations on this topic; interested parties may contact the lead author by 1 September to sign the associated Planetary Science Decadal Survey white paper or by 1 October to co-author the printed DPS poster.

Wong, Michael H.; Ádámkovics, M.; Benecchi, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Clarke, J. T.; de Pater, I.; Hendrix, A. R.; Marchis, F.; McGrath, M.; Noll, K.; Rages, K. A.; Retherford, K.; Smith, E. H.; Strange, N. J.



Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have persistent symptoms at 1 week and 1 month after injury. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mTBI. Methods We performed a systematic review of all randomized clinical trials evaluating any intervention initiated in an acute setting for patients experiencing acute mTBI. All possible outcomes were included. The primary sources of identification were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials, from 1980 to August 2012. Hand searching of proceedings from five meetings related to mTBI was also performed. Study selection was conducted by two co-authors, and data abstraction was completed by a research assistant specialized in conducting systematic reviews. Study quality was evaluated using Cochrane’s Risk of Bias assessment tool. Results From a potential 15,156 studies, 1,268 abstracts were evaluated and 120 articles were read completely. Of these, 15 studies fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. One study evaluated a pharmacological intervention, two evaluated activity restriction, one evaluated head computed tomography scan versus admission, four evaluated information interventions, and seven evaluated different follow-up interventions. Use of different outcome measures limited the possibilities for analysis. However, a meta-analysis of three studies evaluating various follow-up strategies versus routine follow-up or no follow-up failed to show any effect on three outcomes at 6 to 12 months post-trauma. In addition, a meta-analysis of two studies found no effect of an information intervention on headache at 3 months post-injury. Conclusions There is a paucity of well-designed clinical studies for patients who sustain mTBI. The large variability in outcomes measured in studies limits comparison between them.



[Vaccines and autism: a myth to debunk?].  


Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation. He proposed the administration of the MMR vaccine as a possible. cause of the inflammatory process. The hypothesis suggested by Wakefield led to a drastic drop in vaccination coverage in the UK and to the failure to achieve adequate levels of immunization in many countries, with a consequent increase in the incidence of measles and its complications. Wakefield work stimulated a broad discussion in the scientific community and many studies conducted over the next few years contradicted the research results of the English physician. In 2004, journalist Brian Deer conducted an accurate investigation that revealed how the Wakefield research presented many not regular aspects and was performed with predominantly economic objectives. In 2010, Wakefield was expelled from the General Medical Council, while the "Lancet" retracted the paper. The scientific research conducted in recent years confirm the inconsistency of the relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. The possible association with other factors, such as autoimmune processes, hyperactivation of mast cells in the hypothalamus, use of paracetamol in genetically predisposed children are currently investigated. PMID:24316883

Battistella, Melania; Carlino, Cristiana; Dugo, Valentina; Ponzo, Patrizia; Franco, Elisabetta



An absolute index (Ab-index) to measure a researcher's useful contributions and productivity.  


Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author's scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index), has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s) in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index), which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute. PMID:24391941

Biswal, Akshaya Kumar



Sequential Assembly of Magnetic Prussian Blue Films with Photo-Induced Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite interest in the area of molecule-based magnets, there are few efforts to investigate magnetism in monolayers, surface layers, and other thin films based on these materials. New synthetic methods developed by our groups now permit deposition of single layer and multilayer thin films of cyanometallate molecule-based magnet systems. These monolayers and surface films are inherently anisotropic, thereby allowing magnetic characterizations that are only possible because of our method of fabrication. Two examples will be presented. The distance dependence of dipolar interactions on magnetic order is illustrated by comparing a monolayer, bilayer, and multilayers of a mixed organic/inorganic Fe^3+/Ni^2+ cyanometallate two-dimensional network. The magnetometry results demonstrate the influence of dipolar interactions at an interlayer separation of greater than 35 ĹSecondly, anisotropic response of the photoinduced magnetism in a thin film of Rb_jCo_k[Fe(CN)_6]l \\cdot nH_2O, which experiences a ferrimagnetic transition near 20 K, has been discovered. The photo-induced magnetism may result in a net increase or decrease of the total magnetization of the sample when the externally applied magnetic field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the plane of the films. The strength of this anisotropy depends on the thickness of the film and the size of the magnetic domains, and the photo-induced magnetism was effective in magnetic fields up to 27 T while at 4.7 K. This work, co-authored with D. R. Talham, was performed with J.-H. Park, F. Frye, Y.-D. Huh, E. ?ižmár, and S. Lane, and was supported, in part, by NSF DMR-0305371.

Meisel, Mark W.



Fate of Clinical Research Studies after Ethical Approval - Follow-Up of Study Protocols until Publication  

PubMed Central

Background Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. Methods We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000–2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. Results Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71%) were completed according to protocol, 128 (16%) discontinued and 42 (5%) are still ongoing; for 61 (8%) there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48–0.55). Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48%) protocols and in 205 (49%) of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81%) this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%); some in German (25; 6%) or both languages (27; 6%). The local investigators were listed as (co-)authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62%) studies. Conclusion Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are likely wasted as neither health care professionals nor patients nor policy makers can use the results when making decisions.

Blumle, Anette; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Schumacher, Martin; von Elm, Erik



The practical zealot. Interview by Joe Flower.  


In 1987, Ellen Gaucher took an unusual trip. As senior associate director of the University of Michigan's sprawling 11,000-employee Medical Center, she was invited to a conference about a movement that was rapidly growing in the word of business--total quality. The occasion was the organizational conference of the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care, led by the Harvard Community Health Plan in Boston. Gaucher was skeptical at first. Total quality seemed a great way to make better cars, light bulbs, and aluminum siding, but would it work in a service industry? More to the point, would it work in an industry as complex, as critical, as pressured, as high-tech, as human, and as intellectual as healthcare? But by the second day, she says, "I was sold that this was what we had needed for a long time." She hurried back to Michigan like a missionary trekking into cannibal country. Today, not only is the University Medical Center deep in a total quality conversion experience, so is the University itself, through its president, James J. Duderstadt. He was exposed to the idea through Gaucher: In his ex-officio position as chairman of the Medical Center's board, he had experienced her vivid and enthusiastic educational efforts. Gaucher has related her intense experiences with TQ at conferences, in articles, in the 1990 book, Transforming Healthcare Organizations (winner of the Hamilton Award given by the American College of Healthcare Executives for the best book of the year) as well as the forthcoming Total Quality in Healthcare (both co-authored with Richard Coffey). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10116129

Gaucher, E



Progression of Tokyo Guidelines and Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.  


The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download. PMID:24334691

Mayumi, Toshihiko; Someya, Kazuki; Ootubo, Hiroki; Takama, Tatsuo; Kido, Takashi; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro



WRF tests on sensitivity to PBL and LSM schemes during atmospheric transition periods: validation with BLLAST case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and properties at a certain time of the atmospheric or planetary boundary layer (PBL) has a major importance in land-atmosphere interaction and exchange processes, i.e. in pollutants concentration, humidity or different energy vertical fluxes. Transition periods at this part of the troposphere are found difficult to properly interpret, as far as among all the processes taking place at that timing, it is not clearly stated the predominance of just one of them; moreover, a drastic change in the motion scales present in the lower atmosphere is sometimes produced. Atmospheric global models fail at representing transitional events in the PBL, mainly because of sub-grid scale phenomena. These micrometeorological processes require to be better simulated. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model offers a considerable amount of physical options and parameterizations, including different PBL and land surface model (LSM) schemes. This fact justifies a model experiment to evaluate its behavior and try to understand the differences in model performance for transition periods in the atmosphere, specifically when it moves on from a convective to a stratified stable structure at its lower region. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulent (BLLAST) project organized and conducted a field campaign [1] during summer 2011 in Lannemezan (France), getting together a wide amount of meteorological instrumentation. The available extensive experimental dataset from that campaign offers an excellent opportunity for model validation. Results of WRF sensitivity tests are presented, comparing simulations among themselves and validating them with the observational data. Different atmospheric variables involved in the late afternoon and evening transition processes are considered, both at surface (i.e. energy balance) and at higher levels (thermodynamic vertical structure), in order to obtain a wider view of the problem. [1] Lothon, M. and co-authors (2012): The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment. Paper 14B.1, 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and turbulence, Boston, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 12 pp.

Sastre, Mariano; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio



BOOK REVIEW: Tokamaks (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first edition of John Wesson's book on tokamaks, published in 1987, established itself as essential reading for researchers in the field of magnetic confinement fusion: it was an excellent introduction for students to tokamak physics and also a valuable reference work for the more experienced. The second edition, published in 1997, has been completely rewritten and substantially enlarged (680 pages compared with 300). The new edition maintains the aim of providing a simple introduction to basic tokamak physics, but also includes discussion of the substantial advances in fusion research during the past decade. The new book, like its predecessor, is well written and commendable for its clarity and accuracy. In fact many of the chapters are written by a series of co-authors bringing the benefits of a wide range of expertise but, by careful editing, Wesson has maintained a uniformity of style and presentation. The chapter headings and coverage for the most part remain the same - but are expanded considerably and brought up to date. The most substantial change is that the single concluding chapter in the first edition on `Experiments' has been replaced by three chapters: `Tokamak experiments' which deals with some of the earlier key experiments plus a selection of recent small and medium-sized devices, `Large experiments' which gives an excellent summary of the main results from the four large tokamaks - TFTR, JET, JT60/JT60U and DIII-D, and `The future' which gives a very short (possibly too short in my opinion) account of reactors and ITER. This is an excellent book, which I strongly recommend should have a place - on the desk rather than in the bookshelf - of researchers in magnetic confinement fusion.

Stott, Peter



High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory



JPL/Student Independent Research Internship (SIRI): Research and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of NASA's Strategic goals is the education and retention of students in math and science, and providing outreach experiences to all levels of the public (formal and informal). At JPL, an innovative program, SIRI, was initiated in 2003 with the following goals: 1. Provide local college students, with strong support from their faculty advisors, hands-on experience in scientific research and engineering while they are still forming their higher-education and career plans. 2. JPL and NASA education office interests in providing more help to college students in preparing for careers in science and engineering. Following its initial pilot program with eight students from two local community colleges, the SIRI program branched out in two directions: (1) providing research opportunities to students from a wider range of colleges and (2) research apprenticeship or RA program, so eligible students could continue their research after completing their semester. With support of their JPL mentors, students derived educational and technical benefits. Currently, the SIRI Program includes eight local 2-year and 4-year colleges; serves approximately 25-30 students per year. To date, nearly 50% of interns become apprentices to their JPL mentors. The SIRI program is currently complementary to many undergraduate internship programs as the SIRI interns participate during school year for credit. The RA students are empowered to attend scientific meetings; co-author peer-reviewed papers; continue their research through fellowships, and mentor other students. The success of the SIRI program stems both from the contributions of the students to their mentors’ efforts and JPL's outreach efforts to afford exposure and research experience to students in all fields of science to develop the next generation of scientists. Specific examples of SIRI projects will be showcased.

Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Alvidrez, R. F.; Kahn, R. A.; Whitney, W.



Current panorama of temporomandibular disorders' field in Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2012, the recognition of the specialty of Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain completed ten years. Given this scenario, it is extremely important to track the current situation of this field of knowledge in Brazil, specifically in the area of research and training. We hope to discuss the importance of the recognition of this specialty and the inclusion of these subjects in undergraduate programs in Dentistry. Objective The objective of this study is to perform a bibliometric survey of researches regarding Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain conducted in the country, determine the number of specialization courses in Orofacial Pain and the number of specialists in the field. Methods The bibliometric survey was conducted based on the Dissertations Portal of Coordination for the Improvement of Higher education Personnel (CAPES) and on PubMed. The panorama of the field of Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular disorders in Brazil was determined by searching on the website of the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Results We found 731 theses and dissertations with Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain as the main subjects; 81 accredited/recognized Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction completed; 8 accredited/recognized Specialization Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction still in progress, and 1,064 registered specialists in Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction in the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Search in the PUBMED database yielded 576 articles published with the participation of Brazilian researchers as first authors and/or co-authors in the period from 2000 to 2013. From this amount, only 5 were published in Portuguese, while all the others were published in english. We can also notice that the number of published articles increases over time. Conclusion The number of researches related to temporomandibular disorders has increased over the last ten years, as well as the number of specialization courses and the number of specialists, which represents a major breakthrough for this field of knowledge.

MACHADO, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; LIMA, Fernanda Ferruzzi; CONTI, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues



New directions for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.  


We study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing layer, presenting simulations in agreement with experimental data. This problem is an idealized subproblem of important scientific and engineering problems, such as gravitationally induced mixing in oceanography and performance assessment for inertial confinement fusion. Engineering codes commonly achieve correct simulations through the calibration of adjustable parameters. In this sense, they are interpolative and not predictive. As computational science moves from the interpolative to the predictive and reduces the reliance on experiment, the quality of decision making improves. The diagnosis of errors in a multi-parameter, multi-physics setting is daunting, so we address this issue in the proposed idealized setting. The validation tests presented are thus a test for engineering codes, when used for complex problems containing RT features. The RT growth rate, characterized by a dimensionless but non-universal parameter ?, describes the outer edge of the mixing zone. Increasingly accurate front tracking/large eddy simulations reveal the non-universality of the growth rate and agreement with experimental data. Increased mesh resolution allows reduction in the role of key subgrid models. We study the effect of long-wavelength perturbations on the mixing growth rate. A self-similar power law for the initial perturbation amplitudes is here inferred from experimental data. We show a maximum ±5% effect on the growth rate. Large (factors of 2) effects, as predicted in some models and many simulations, are inconsistent with the experimental data of Youngs and co-authors. The inconsistency of the model lies in the treatment of the dynamics of bubbles, which are the shortest-wavelength modes for this problem. An alternative theory for this shortest wavelength, based on the bubble merger model, was previously shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:24146006

Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Kaman, Tulin; Lim, Hyunkyung



Sino-Canadian Collaborations in Stem Cell Research: A Scientometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background International collaboration (IC) is essential for the advance of stem cell research, a field characterized by marked asymmetries in knowledge and capacity between nations. China is emerging as a global leader in the stem cell field. However, knowledge on the extent and characteristics of IC in stem cell science, particularly China’s collaboration with developed economies, is lacking. Methods and Findings We provide a scientometric analysis of the China–Canada collaboration in stem cell research, placing this in the context of other leading producers in the field. We analyze stem cell research published from 2006 to 2010 from the Scopus database, using co-authored papers as a proxy for collaboration. We examine IC levels, collaboration preferences, scientific impact, the collaborating institutions in China and Canada, areas of mutual interest, and funding sources. Our analysis shows rapid global expansion of the field with 48% increase in papers from 2006 to 2010. China now ranks second globally after the United States. China has the lowest IC rate of countries examined, while Canada has one of the highest. China–Canada collaboration is rising steadily, more than doubling during 2006–2010. China–Canada collaboration enhances impact compared to papers authored solely by China-based researchers This difference remained significant even when comparing only papers published in English. Conclusions While China is increasingly courted in IC by developed countries as a partner in stem cell research, it is clear that it has reached its status in the field largely through domestic publications. Nevertheless, IC enhances the impact of stem cell research in China, and in the field in general. This study establishes an objective baseline for comparison with future studies, setting the stage for in-depth exploration of the dynamics and genesis of IC in stem cell research.

Ali-Khan, Sarah E.; Ray, Monali; McMahon, Dominique S.; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla



High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)  


Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)



Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research  

PubMed Central

Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells.



Scenarios of physics beyond the standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation discusses three topics on scenarios beyond the Standard Model. Topic one is the effects from a fourth generation of quarks and leptons on electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. The Standard Model is incapable of electroweak baryogenesis due to an insufficiently strong enough electroweak phase transition (EWPT) as well as insufficient CP violation. We show that the presence of heavy fourth generation fermions solves the first problem but requires additional bosons to be included to stabilize the electroweak vacuum. Introducing supersymmetric partners of the heavy fermions, we find that the EWPT can be made strong enough and new sources of CP violation are present. Topic two relates to the lepton avor problem in supersymmetry. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the off-diagonal elements in the slepton mass matrix must be suppressed at the 10-3 level to avoid experimental bounds from lepton avor changing processes. This dissertation shows that an enlarged R-parity can alleviate the lepton avor problem. An analysis of all sensitive parameters was performed in the mass range below 1 TeV, and we find that slepton maximal mixing is possible without violating bounds from the lepton avor changing processes: mu ? egamma; mu ? e conversion, and mu ? 3e. Topic three is the collider phenomenology of quirky dark matter. In this model, quirks are particles that are gauged under the electroweak group, as well as a dark" color SU(2) group. The hadronization scale of this color group is well below the quirk masses. As a result, the dark color strings never break. Quirk and anti-quirk pairs can be produced at the LHC. Once produced, they immediately form a bound state of high angular momentum. The quirk pair rapidly shed angular momentum by emitting soft radiation before they annihilate into observable signals. This dissertation presents the decay branching ratios of quirkonia where quirks obtain their masses through electroweak symmetry breaking. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Fok, Ricky


Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) tinder equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by the composition of Cl meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou (Meteoritics 9, 69-94, 1974, and Wasson and co-authors in subsequent papers) suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce the observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed, The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the formation of the chondrite parent bodies and the planets.

Cassen, Patrick; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)



Edward O. Wilson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edward O. Wilson is a name synonymous with ants, sociobiology, and biodiversity. And it's a name that more often than not appears with a mile-long list of accolades trailing it. The University of Alabama offers a more personable introduction to this celebrated scientist, one of the University's most distinguished alums (1). The next site is the homepage of the Department of Entomology at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology, home to one of the "richest and most historically significant" insect collections in North America (as well as the office of Harvard Professor Emeritus Wilson). The following site from Harvard@Home features a December 2002 lecture and slide presentation given by Wilson titled "On the Relation of Science and the Humanities." The entire lecture (over an hour in length), may be viewed online (3). Likewise, the next two Web sites contain archived broadcasts of The Connection from WBUR Boston and National Public Radio, each featuring Wilson as a guest. The first is a December 2002 broadcast in which Wilson discusses issues relating to his book _The Future of Life_ (4). The next is a more recent show (July 2003) featuring _Pheidole in the New World_, a new book co-authored by Dr. Wilson (5). Listeners can get even more of E. O. Wilson in an archived broadcast of The Paula Gordon show from Atlanta, Georgia (6). Wilson's 1988 book _Biodiversity_ may be read online or printed out entirely for free from the National Academies Press (7). And Scientific American offers a lengthy excerpt from his 2002 book _The Future of Life_, mentioned above.

Sohmer, Rachel.


Searching for the Massive Stars Associated with Methanol Maser Rings (T-ReCS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time we know much less about how massive stars form compared to low mass stars. The main question is if massive stars are simply a scaled-up version of disk accretion as seen in low-mass stars. However concrete and convincing evidence for the existence of these disks around high mass stars remains elusive. One unique property of massive stars in their formative years is the presence of methanol maser emission. These masers are thought to exist in and trace either circumstellar disks around massive stars or their outflows, but there still is not enough proof for either scenario. An exciting new morphological class of methanol masers has been discovered by the co-authors of this proposal: the methanol maser ring. The methanol masers for these sources are in ring-like distributions on the sky and are on average 0.3" in diameter ( 1500AU at the typical distances to the sources). The nature of these methanol rings is unknown. They may be tracing a circumstellar disks or torii, or they may be in shocks propagating through the conical outflow cavity structures near the stars. We therefore propose to use Gemini's high resolution NIR AO and MIR imaging to pinpoint the location of the embedded massive young stars with respect to the position of the maser rings. Furthermore we will explore the nature of the circumstellar material in the near-stellar environment to see if we can resolve out disk or outflow structures. This set of maser ring sources provide a promisingly unique sample which may shed light onto the main question at the very heart of massive star formation.

De Buizer, James; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian; van Langevelde, Huib



The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Written for non-specialists, this detailed survey of dinosaur origins, diversity, and extinction is designed as a series of successive essays covering important and timely topics in dinosaur paleobiology, such as "warm-bloodedness," birds as living dinosaurs, the new, non-flying feathered dinosaurs, dinosaur functional morphology, and cladistic methods in systematics. Its explicitly phylogenetic approach to the group is that taken by dinosaur specialists. The book is not an edited compilation of the works of many individuals, but a unique, cohesive perspective on Dinosauria. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of new, specially commissioned illustrations by John Sibbick, world-famous illustrator of dinosaurs, the volume includes multi-page drawings as well as sketches and diagrams. First edition Hb (1996): 0-521-44496-9 David E. Fastovsky is Professor of Geosciences at the University of Rhode Island. Fastovsky, the author of numerous scientific publications dealing with Mesozoic vertebrate faunas and their ancient environments, is also scientific co-Editor of Geology. He has undertaken extensive fieldwork studying dinosaurs and their environments in Montana, North Dakota, Arizona, Mexico, and Mongolia. David B. Weishampel is a professor at the Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution at Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine. Weishampel is best known for discovering, researching, and naming several rare European dinosaur species. During the 1980s Weishampel gained fame for his work with American paleontologist Jack Horner and later named the famous plant-eating, egg-laying Orodromeus, Horner. Now, a decade after his pioneering studies with Horner, Weishampel is most widely known for his current work on the Romanian dinosaur fauna. He is the author and co-author of many titles, including The Dinosaur Papers, 1676-1906 (Norton, 2003); The Dinosauria, (University of California, 1990); and Dinosaurs of the East Coast, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

Fastovsky, David E.; Weishampel, David B.



Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystal structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites - Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites) [5].

Xiang Wei



The debates about satellite MSU data and climate models: the role of `simple' empiricism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-running debates concerning the satellite-based MSU readings of tropospheric temperature trends, especially those in the tropics, involved, among other things, the treatment of radiosonde data as basic or foundational. John Christy, Roy Spencer, and co-authors frequently appealed to the radiosonde data as an independent source of confirming evidence for their interpretation of the satellite raw data, the UAH dataset. This type of ‘simple’ empiricism clashed with the approach used by other data analysts and modelers to the radiosonde datasets, which can be best characterized as ‘complex’ empiricism. While a straightforward and simple approach to the radiosonde data, wherein the data are seen as transparently reflecting the atmospheric temperature and temperature trends, may be appropriate for some uses, the majority of data analysts and modelers in this debate found such data to be embedded in too many assumptions and with too much uncertainty to be treated in a plain or simple way. Their complex empiricist approach emphasized that the radiosonde data were highly dependent on the choice of station, time of day, and condition and details of the instrument, among other factors. Thus, the radiosonde datasets could not be taken as straightforwardly representing the ‘real’ temperature trends, and thereby could not serve as an authoritative independent test for confirming the satellite temperature trends. The complex empiricist approach, under which theory, models, and data are all used in concert to produce scientific outcomes, resulted in an appeal to, and the development of, alternate means of independently testing the satellite datasets, as well as a drive to uncover and remove the remaining biases in both the radiosonde and satellite datasets. This approach was essential to the resolution of this long-standing debate in climate science.

Lloyd, E. A.



High Performance Solution Processable TFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-based electronic devices offer the potential to significantly impact the functionality and pervasiveness of large-area electronics. We report on soluble acene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) where the microstructure of as-cast films can be precisely controlled via interfacial chemistry. Chemically tailoring the source/drain contact interface is a novel route to self-patterning of soluble small molecule organic semiconductors and enables the growth of highly ordered regions along opposing contact edges which extend into the transistor channel. The unique film forming properties of soluble fluorinated anthradithiophenes allows us to fabricate high performance OTFTs, OTFT circuits, and to deterministically study the influence of the film microstructure on the electrical characteristics of devices. Most recently we have grown single crystals of soluble fluorinated anthradithiophenes by vapor transport method allowing us to probe deeper into their intrinsic properties and determine the potential and limitations of this promising family of oligomers for use in organic-based electronic devices. Co-Authors: O. D. Jurchescu^1,4, B. H. Hamadani^1, S. K. Park^4, D. A. Mourey^4, S. Subramanian^5, A. J. Moad^2, R. J. Kline^3, L. C. Teague^2, J. G. Kushmerick^2, L. J. Richter^2, T. N. Jackson^4, and J. E. Anthony^5 ^1Semiconductor Electronics Division, ^2Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, ^3Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 ^4Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 ^5Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055

Gundlach, David



Fish culture: an annotated bibliography of publications of the National Fisheries Center, Leetown, 1972-1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is an annotated bibliography of the publications authored or co-authored by the staff of the National Fisheries Center - Leetown (NFC-L) from 1972 through 1980. It includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, AR; the Fish Genetics Laboratory, Beulah, WY; the Hagerman Field Station of the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Hagerman, ID; the National Fisheries Research and Development Laboratory, Marison, AL; and, the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Cortland, NY. It also includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Aquaculture Production/Demonstration Station, Fisheries Academy, Fish Genetics Station, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, and Technical Information Services, each located in Kearneysville, WV. Prior to 1977, each functioned as a separate entity within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1977, the administrative and program activities of these components were merged into the Natkonal Fisheries Center. This bibliography lists the publications issued by each of these entities both before and after becoming joined into the Center. Publications from these components prior to 1972 are documents in U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Resource Publication 120, Bibliography of Research Publications of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1928-72. Entries in this bibliography are arranged under broad subject categories, similar to those used in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sport Fishery Abstracts. Within these categories, the publications are then arranged alphabetically by author and sequentially by date of publication. They cover a wide range of scientific and technical disciplines applicable to the field of aquaculture. The annotations were submitted by each NFC-L component, and were modified to some extent for uniformity. An author index is included at the end of the bibliography.

Mann, Joyce A.; Catrow, Violet J.; McKenzie, Lora C.; Engle, Faye V.



Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work of Dr Todd Evans, another significant mentor of mine, as winner of this prestigious award? Then, it happened. The paper covers several key topics related to high beta tokamak physics. For me, the greatest satisfaction in receiving this award is because it was the first Nuclear Fusion Award to recognize research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) located at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The achievement of record stability parameters in a mega-Ampere class spherical torus (ST) device reported in the paper represents a multi-year effort, contributed to by the entire research team. Research to maintain such plasmas for an indefinite period continues today. Understanding RWM stabilization physics is crucial for this goal, and leveraging the high beta ST operating space uniquely tests theory for application to future STs and to tokamaks in general, including advanced operational scenarios of ITER. For instance, the RWM was found to have significant amplitude in components with the toroidal mode number greater than unity. This has important implications for general active RWM control. Evidence that the RWM passive stabilization physics and marginal stability criterion are indeed more complex than originally thought was shown in this paper. Present work shows the greater complexity has a direct impact on how we should extrapolate RWM stabilization to future devices. The paper also reported the qualitative observation of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), followed by a companion paper by our group in 2006 reporting the quantitative observation of this effect and comparison to theory. The physics of this interesting and important phenomenon was introduced to me by Professor J. Callen (who has given an overview talk at this conference including this subject) and Professor Kerchung Shaing of the University of Wisconsin, to whom I am quite indebted. The paper also reported the first measurement of resonant field amplification at high beta in the NSTX, following work of the Columbia University group at DIII-D during that period. My greatest hope

Sabbagh, Steven Anthony



GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have unmasked hundreds of black holes hiding deep inside dusty galaxies billions of light-years away Normal Galaxies Normal Galaxies The massive, growing black holes, discovered by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes, represent a large fraction of a long-sought missing population. Their discovery implies there are hundreds of millions of additional black holes growing in our young universe, more than doubling the total amount known at that distance. "Active, supermassive black holes are everywhere in the early universe," said Mark Dickinson of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "We had seen the tip of the iceberg before in our search for these objects. Now, we can see the iceberg itself." Dickinson is a co-author of two new papers appearing in the Nov. 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Emanuele Daddi of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France led the research. The findings are also the first direct evidence that most, if not all, massive galaxies in the distant universe spend their youths building monstrous black holes at their cores. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. "We knew from other studies from about 30 years ago that there must be more quasars in the universe, but we didn't know where to find them until now," said Daddi. Daddi and his team initially set out to study 1,000 dusty, massive galaxies that are busy making stars, and were thought to lack quasars. The galaxies are about the same mass as our own spiral Milky Way galaxy, but irregular in shape. At 9 to 11 billion light-years away, they exist at a time when the universe was in its infancy, between 2.5 and 4.5 billion years old. When the astronomers peered more closely at the galaxies with Spitzer's infrared eyes, they noticed that about 200 of the galaxies gave off an unusual amount of infrared light. X-ray data from Chandra, and a technique called "stacking," revealed the galaxies were in fact hiding plump quasars inside. The scientists now think that the quasars heat the dust in their surrounding doughnut clouds, releasing the excess infrared light. "We found most of the population of hidden quasars in the early universe," said Daddi. Previously, only the rarest and most energetic of these hidden black holes had been seen at this early epoch. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. The newfound quasars are helping answer fundamental questions about how massive galaxies evolve. For instance, astronomers have learned that most massive galaxies steadily build up their stars and black holes simultaneously until they get too big and their black holes suppress star formation. The observations also suggest that collisions between galaxies might not play as large a role in galaxy evolution as previously believed. "Theorists thought that mergers between galaxies were required to initiate this quasar activity, but we now see that quasars can be active in unharrassed galaxies," said co-author David Alexander of Durham University, United Kingdom. "It's as if we were blind-folded studying the elephant before, and we weren't sure what kind of animal we had," added co-author David Elbaz of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. "Now, we can see the elephant



How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar - an unusual type of neutron star - was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole? To reach their conclusions, the astronomers looked in detail at the extraordinary star cluster Westerlund 1 [1], located 16 000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar). From previous studies (eso0510), the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn). "If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results. Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event. A magnetar (eso0831) is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field - a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth, which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun. As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that exploded and left a magnetar remnant must have had a shorter life than the surviving stars in the cluster. "Because the lifespan of a star is directly linked to its mass - the heavier a star, the shorter its life - if we can measure the mass of any one surviving star, we know for sure that the shorter-lived star that became the magnetar must have been even more massive," says co-author and team leader Simon Clark. "This is of great significance since there is no accepted theory for how such extremely magnetic objects are formed." The astronomers therefore studied the stars that belong to the eclipsing double system W13 in Westerlund 1 using the fact that, in such a system, masses can be directly determined from the motions of the stars. By comparison with these stars, they found that the star that became the magnetar must have been at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. This proves for the first time that magnetars can evolve from stars so massive we would normally expect them to form black holes. The previous assumption was that stars with initial masses between about 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes. "These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead," says co-author Ignacio Negueruela. "Such huge mass losses before the explosion present great challenges to current theories of stellar evolution." "This therefore raises the thorny question of just how massive a star has to be to collapse to form a black hole if stars over 40 times as heavy as our Sun cannot manage this feat," concludes co-author Norbert Langer. The formation mechanism preferred by the astronomers postulates that the star that became the magnetar - the progenitor - was born with a stellar companion. As both stars evolved they would begin to interact, with energy derived from their orbital motion expended in ejecting the requisite huge quantities of mass from t



Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The search for the source of the solar wind has been like the hunt for the source of the Nile," said Dr. Don Hassler of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado, lead author of the paper in Science. "For 30 years, scientists have observed high-speed solar wind coming from regions in the solar atmosphere with open magnetic field lines, called coronal holes. However, only recently, with the observations from SOHO, have we been able to measure the detailed structure of this source region". The solar wind comes in two varieties : high-speed and low-speed. The low-speed solar wind moves at "only" 1.5 million kilometres per hour, while the high-speed wind is even faster, moving at speeds as high as 3 million kilometres per hour. As it flows past Earth, the solar wind changes the shape and structure of the Earth's magnetic field. In the past, the solar wind didn't affect us directly, but as we become increasingly dependent on advanced technology, we become more susceptible to its effects. Researchers are learning that variations in the solar wind flow can cause dramatic changes in the shape of the Earth's magnetic field, which can damage satellites and disrupt communications and electrical power systems. The nature and origin of the solar wind is one of the main mysteries ESA's solar observatory SOHO was designed to solve. It has long been thought that the solar wind flows from coronal holes; what is new is the discovery that these outflows are concentrated in specific patches at the edges of the honeycomb-shaped magnetic fields. Just below the surface of the Sun there are large convection cells, and each cell has a magnetic field associated with it. "If one thinks of these cells as paving stones in a patio, then the solar wind is breaking through like grass around the edges, concentrated in the corners where the paving stones meet", said Dr. Helen Mason, University of Cambridge, England, and co-author of the paper to appear in Science. "However, at speeds ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the ultraviolet light emitt



Eight-dimensional methodology for innovative thinking about the case and ethics of the Mount Graham, Large Binocular Telescope project.  


This paper introduces the Eight Dimensional Methodology for Innovative Thinking (the Eight Dimensional Methodology), for innovative problem solving, as a unified approach to case analysis that builds on comprehensive problem solving knowledge from industry, business, marketing, math, science, engineering, technology, arts, and daily life. It is designed to stimulate innovation by quickly generating unique "out of the box" unexpected and high quality solutions. It gives new insights and thinking strategies to solve everyday problems faced in the workplace, by helping decision makers to see otherwise obscure alternatives and solutions. Daniel Raviv, the engineer who developed the Eight Dimensional Methodology, and paper co-author, technology ethicist Rosalyn Berne, suggest that this tool can be especially useful in identifying solutions and alternatives for particular problems of engineering, and for the ethical challenges which arise with them. First, the Eight Dimensional Methodology helps to elucidate how what may appear to be a basic engineering problem also has ethical dimensions. In addition, it offers to the engineer a methodology for penetrating and seeing new dimensions of those problems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the Eight Dimensional Methodology as an analytical tool for thinking about ethical challenges to engineering, the paper presents the case of the construction of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mount Graham in Arizona. Analysis of the case offers to decision makers the use of the Eight Dimensional Methodology in considering alternative solutions for how they can proceed in their goals of exploring space. It then follows that same process through the second stage of exploring the ethics of each of those different solutions. The LBT project pools resources from an international partnership of universities and research institutes for the construction and maintenance of a highly sophisticated, powerful new telescope. It will soon mark the erection of the world's largest and most powerful optical telescope, designed to see fine detail otherwise visible only from space. It also represents a controversial engineering project that is being undertaken on land considered to be sacred by the local, native Apache people. As presented, the case features the University of Virginia, and its challenges in consideration of whether and how to join the LBT project consortium. PMID:15152849

Berne, Rosalyn W; Raviv, Daniel



University of New Mexico-Los Alamos National Laboratory Program in Volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNM-LANL Program in Volcanology was a vision of Wolf Elston in the late 1980s. Finally established in mid-1992, the program takes advantage of the extensive volcanic record preserved in northern New Mexico, and of the unique expertise and exceptional research facilities existing at the two institutions. Courses are directed toward upper division and graduate level students. The Los Alamos participants are adjunct professors and they take an active role in creating courses, advising thesis candidates, and providing research support. The curriculum is flexible but has a core upper division class in Physical Volcanology. Other classes offered in various years have included Volcanology and Human Affairs; Magmatic and Geothermal Systems; Tectonics and Magma Generation; Volcanoes of North America; Instrumentation for Volcanology; and Advanced Igneous Petrology. Perhaps the most renowned class in the program is the Volcanology Summer Field Course offered in even numbered years. This 3.5-week class is based in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, which contains the famous Valles caldera (1.2 Ma to 50 ka). All types of calc-alkaline to alkalic domes, flows, tuffs, and intrusions, plus derivative sediments, mineralized zones, and thermal fluids are available for instructional purposes. Students are required to complete nine rigorous field exercises starting with basic instruction in pyroclastic fall, flow, and surge, then progressing towards hydrothermally altered, intracaldera resurgent dome and moat deposits in an active hot spring and fumarole system. The class is open to graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and private sector employees with special needs. Enrollment is competitive with limited financial support and limited space for 17 students. Evening lectures, study time, lodging, and meals are provided at the UNM-owned Young's Ranch built in the 1920s, nestled in a canyon flanked by orange cliffs of Bandelier Tuff. About 120 students from 12 countries have taken this class. Former students have pursued advanced degrees in the Geosciences and taken jobs with academia, research laboratories, volcanology observatories and/or the private sector. Although a degree in Volcanology is not granted, the program has supported and/or contributed to the degrees and theses of many UNM and non-UNM students. In some circumstances, thesis research can be conducted at Los Alamos while enrolled at UNM. For more information contact any of the co-authors listed above.

Goff, F.; Fischer, T.; Baldridge, W.; Wohletz, K.; Smith, G.; Heiken, G.; Valentine, G.; Elston, W.



Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training new schools in Maple Watch protocols. The program also includes assessment of educational philosophy as we consider how to discuss climate change with K-12 students. Maple Watch teachers are learning how to discuss the death of a tree, extirpation of a species, and human connections with nature.

Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.



EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

Mostowski, Jan



Canada's Neglected Tropical Disease Research Network: Who's in the Core--Who's on the Periphery?  

PubMed Central

Background This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD) research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. Methodology Multiple methods were used to conduct this study, including: (1) a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2) a country-level “core-periphery” network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3) a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network (“k-core measure”) and the quantity and quality of research produced. Principal Findings Over the past sixty years (1950–2010), Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n?=?4,145) have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom) and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran). Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. Conclusion/Significance The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the NTD research they generate; there is opportunity to leverage existing research collaborations and help advance regions and NTD areas that are currently under-developed.

Phillips, Kaye; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Pennefather, Peter; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla; Wong, Joseph



The building up of the black hole mass -stellar mass relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the growth of SMBHs relative to the stellar content of their host galaxy predicted under the assumption of BH accretion triggered by galaxy encounters occurring during their merging histories. The latter are described through Monte Carlo realizations, and are con-nected to gas processes, star formation and BH accretion using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework. This allows us to connect the star formation process in the host galaxies to the growth of Supermassive Black Holes. We show that, within this framework, the ratio ? ? (MBH /M? )(z)/(MBH /M? )(z = 0) between the Black Hole mass and the galactic stellar mass (normalized to the local value) depends on both BH mass and red-shift. While the average value and the spread of ?(z) increase with z, such an effect is larger for massive BHs, reaching values ? ? 5 for massive Black Holes (M ? 109 M ) at z 4, in agreement with recent observations of high-redshift QSOs; this is due to the the effectiveness of interactions in triggering BH accretion in high-density environments (where massive haloes form) at high redshifts. To test such a model against observations, we worked out specific pre-dictions for sub-samples of the simulated galaxies corresponding to the different observational samples for which measurements of ? have been obtained. We found that for Broad Line AGNs at intermediate redshifts 1 z 2 values of ? ? 2 are expected, with a mild trend toward larger value for increasing BH mass. Instead, when we select from our Monte Carlo simulations only extremely gas rich, rapidly star forming galaxies at the epoch of peak in the cosmic star formation (2 ? z ? 3), we find low values 0.3 ? ? ? 1.5, consistent with recent observational findings on samples of sub-mm galaxies; in the framework of our model, these objects end up at z = 0 in low-to-intermediate mass BHs (M ? 109 M ), and they do not represent typical paths leading to local massive galaxies. The latter have formed preferentially through paths (in the M? - MBH plane) passing above the local M? - MBH relation. We discuss how the global picture emerging from the model is consistent with a downsizing scenario, where massive BHs accrete a larger fraction of their final mass at high redshifts z ? 4 Co-Authors: Nicola Menci, Roberto Maiolino, Fabrizio Fiore, Andrea Merloni

Lamastra, Alessandra


Frantic activity revealed in dusty stellar factories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to the Very Large Telescope's acute and powerful near-infrared eye, astronomers have uncovered a host of new young, massive and dusty stellar nurseries in nearby galaxy NGC 253. The centre of this galaxy appears to harbour a twin of our own Milky Way's supermassive black hole. ESO PR Photo 02a/09 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Astronomers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) used NACO, a sharp-eyed adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the fine detail in NGC 253, one of the brightest and dustiest spiral galaxies in the sky. Adaptive Optics (AO) corrects for the blurring effect introduced by the Earth's atmosphere. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it smears out the images. With AO in action the telescope can produce images that are as sharp as is theoretically possible, as if the telescope were in space. NACO revealed features in the galaxy that were only 11 light-years across. "Our observations provide us with so much spatially resolved detail that we can, for the first time, compare them with the finest radio maps for this galaxy -- maps that have existed for more than a decade," says Juan Antonio Fernández-Ontiveros, the lead author of the paper reporting the results [1]. Astronomers identified 37 distinct bright regions, a threefold increase on previous results, packed into a tiny region at the core of the galaxy, comprising just one percent of the galaxy's total size. The astronomers combined their NACO images with data from another VLT instrument, VISIR, as well as with images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and radio observations made by the Very Large Array and the Very Large Baseline Interferometer. Combining these observations, taken in different wavelength regimes, provided a clue to the nature of these regions. "We now think that these are probably very active nurseries that contain many stars bursting from their dusty cocoons," says Jose Antonio Acosta-Pulido, a member of the team. NGC 253 is known as a starburst galaxy, after its very intense star formation activity. Each bright region could contain as many as one hundred thousand young, massive stars. This comprehensive set of data also leads astronomers to conclude that the centre of NGC 253 hosts a scaled-up version of Sagittarius A*, the bright radio source that lies at the core of the Milky Way and which we know harbours a massive black hole (see ESO 46/08). "We have thus discovered what could be a twin of our Galaxy's Centre," says co-author Almudena Prieto.



Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications  

SciTech Connect

Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800?C) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is also affiliated with the University of Tennessee as an adjunct professor. He is a co-author of more than 200 publications. His research interests include porous materials and their functionalization, new ionic liquids for chemical separation and materials synthesis, sol-gel synthesis and molecular imprinting of inorganic materials, and catalysis by nanomaterials especially gold nanocatalysts.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL



A Science-Driven Photojournalistic Documentation of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. The intended outcomes of the work - the photographs, reportage and publications - are based on the principles of scientific accuracy, a journalistic approach, strong photographic skills, long-term observations, science literacy, education, documentation for policy makers and inspiration to others. During the course of this project the team of photojournalist and public health toxicologist visited, interviewed and/or had correspondence with more than 150 scientists in the field on every continent. Hundreds more have influenced and informed the work. World View of Global Warming has tested the idea that climate change can be more easily understood by the public and government officials through photographs which accurately and engagingly depict the locations and the scientists involved in research, communities responding to impacts of climate change and innovations for mitigation. Use of the photographs by scientists to further their own work and outreach was an immediate and continuing result, including use in journals, reports, textbooks and conferences. This presentation will demonstrate the many uses of photography in climate change communications and discuss how scientists and educators can more effectively interact with the public and media and artists. The website for this project was established in 2002 and now has more than 100 pages of photographs and information. It is strictly non-commercial and documented. Wide and repeated publication indicates the value of the project's climate communication: Exhibition at the Boston Museum of Science (2013), the National Academy of Sciences and the American Assn. for the Advancement of Science and other venues; extended use by the United Nations, UNFCCC, World Meteorological Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President; two original books (one for middle schools with a co-author); publication in hundreds of magazines, textbooks and public interest websites; use during university, government and civic seminars and scientific meetings; and distribution among and use by Congressional offices. Most recently the project inspired films about youth involvement in citizen science and climate change education; and co-developed Apps for the iPad and iPhone which graphically show climate-driven changes in repeat photographs and maps. Financial support for this work has come principally from publication fees and grants from small foundations and individuals (via Blue Earth Alliance of Seattle).

Braasch, G.; Rothlein, J. E.



Use of Generics--A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuoliene, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Ines; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.



Will Titan lose its veil?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil. If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

Dimitrov, V.



Quantitative assessment of current and future risks related rainfall in processing tomato in the Guadiana river basin (SW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of risk coverages in the insurance policies for processing tomato, mainly related to rainfall events, has resulted in an important increase in claims. This suggests that damages related to extreme or ill-timed showers have been underestimated in previous years. An estimation of damages related to rainfall in the last thirty years and the impact of climate change in the risk related to rainfall in processing tomato crops in the Guadiana river basin (SW Spain) were studied through a risk index. First, the risk index was defined with temperature and relative humidity thresholds related to different damage magnitudes. Then, this index was applied to current climate and to future climate scenarios in nine weather stations representative of the studied area to determine the trends in losses related to extreme or inopportune rainfall events. Thresholds of temperature and relative humidity were obtained from cross-checking agricultural insurance records and meteorological data from local weather stations (REDAREX, To consider longer time series, the reanalysis database ERA-INTERIM (Dee et al., 2011) was used. Simulated climate was obtained from the European Project ENSEMBLES ( Trends in climatic risk were analysed by applying the risk index to three sets of data defining current climate (1980-2010), mid-future climate (2010-2040) and long-term future climate (2040-2070). An algorithm to choose the surrounding cell that minimizes the temperature and precipitation climatic biases and maximizes seasonal correlation when comparing ENSEMBLES regional climate model simulations and observed climate was applied before index calculation. The results show the trends in frequency and magnitude of the risk of suffering damages related to rainfall events. The methodology decreased the uncertainty on risk levels. Results contribute to detect the periods during the growing season with larger risk of damage in order to provide information to assist research on risk management practices and to support insurance policy makers to extend guaranties and to adapt the insurance conditions and costs to real crop risks. This research is being financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02), MINECO, Spain Keywords: climate change, risk, rainfall, processing tomato. References Dee, D. P., with 35 co-authors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 553-597.

Castańeda-Vera, Alba; Garrido, Alberto; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Inés Mínguez, M.



Dynamics and imaging of subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convergent plate boundaries evolve through the dynamic interaction between subducting oceanic lithosphere, overriding lithosphere, and adjacent flow of the convective mantle. These lithospheric plates contain remarkable heterogeneity in thickness, strength, and observable seismic character. I investigate the role of variable thickness of continental lithosphere with respect to mantle flow dynamics and develop a relationship of this subduction configuration with the construction of the Andes Mountains. By inclusion of this geodynamic model into the Andean Orogeny, numerous irreconcilable observations in the Eocene and Oligocene can be related with a comprehensive tectonic model. Lithospheric heterogeneity can be imaged with the inversion of seismic travel time data. I develop an analysis of a potential source of non-unique modeling of seismic velocity structure and then develop a case study of a currently subducting oceanic lithosphere using an iterative ray tracing approach. First, I consider the impact of the assumption of isotropic wave propagation implicit in a common methodology of data inversion. First-order structure is shown to be well resolved, but higher-order structure can be significantly different in regions of observed high-amplitude or null SKS splitting observations. The southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate is imaged by traditional methods and an iterative ray tracing approach. The inclusion of ray tracing allows modeling of a more realistic velocity model by minimizing the error in source to receiver sensitivity. Compared to the standard imaging procedure, the resolved structure with this updated method contains smaller, more confined anomalies that represent the subducted oceanic lithosphere. Velocity perturbation amplitudes generally are decreased for slow structure and increase for fast structures. These changes in velocity structure provide an explanation for the decreased root mean square residual of the data that remain after inversion. I find that the high amplitude fast velocity of the Juan de Fuca is a robust feature and the currently subducting slab does not penetrate the mantle transition zone. I attribute the locus of very fast Juan de Fuca sub-continental lithosphere to be related to deformation of the plate prior to and during subduction. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

O'Driscoll, Leland


Critical Components of a Successful Undergraduate Research Experience in the Geosciences for Minority Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past five years, the New York City College of Technology has administered a successful National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. The program provides rich, substantive, academic and life-transformative STEM educational experiences for students who would otherwise not pursue STEM education altogether or would not pursue STEM education through to the graduate school level. The REU Scholars are provided with an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST). Candidates for the program are recruited from the City University of New York's twenty-three separate campuses. These students engage in a research experience that spans the summer and the fall and spring semesters. Eighty-four percent (84%) of the program participants are underrepresented minorities in STEM, and they are involved in a plethora of undergraduate research best practice activities that include: training courses in MATLAB programming, Geographic Information Systems, and Remote Sensing; workshops in Research Ethics, Scientific Writing, and Oral and Poster Research Presentations; national, regional, and local conference presentations; graduate school support; and geoscience exposure events at national laboratories, agencies, and research facilities. To enhance their success in the program, the REU Scholars are also provided with a comprehensive series of safety nets that include a multi-tiered mentoring design specifically to address critical issues faced by this diverse population. Since the inception of the REU program in 2008, a total of 61 undergraduate students have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. All the REU Scholars conducted individual satellite and ground-based remote sensing research projects that ranged from the study of hurricanes to atmospheric water vapor distribution to spectral analysis of soil moisture. Of the 61 REU Scholars, 18.0% (11) are in graduate school in the STEM disciplines, 16.5% (10) have graduated and are in the STEM workforce, and 65.5% (40) continue to pursue their STEM degrees. All of the REU Scholars have made oral and poster presentations at local, region, and/or national conferences. Five of them have won first place recognition for their research, and three students will be co-authors for three peer-reviewed publications and two book chapters. (This program is supported by NSF REU grant #1062934.)

Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Chukuigwe, C.



Electromagnetic information theory and subspace-based signal processing applications in imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the dissertation investigates the information-theoretic characterization, via Shannon's information capacity, of wave radiation and wireless propagation systems. Specifically, this part of the dissertation derives, from the fundamental physical point of view of Maxwell's equations describing electromagnetic fields, the Shannon information capacity of space-time wireless channels formed by electromagnetic sources and receivers in a known background medium. The theory is developed first for the case of sources working at a fixed frequency and is expanded later to the more general case of temporally bandlimited systems. In the bandlimited case we consider separately the two cases of time-limited and essentially bandlimited systems and of purely bandlimited systems. The developments take into account the physical radiated power constraint in addition to a constraint in the source L2 norm. Based on such radiated power and current L2 norm constraints we derive the Shannon information capacity of canonical wireless and antenna systems in free space, for a given additive Gaussian noise level, as well as an associated number of degrees of freedom resulting from such capacity calculations. The derived results also illustrate, from a new information-theoretic point of view, the transition from near to far fields. The second part of the dissertation describes a novel technique for the shape reconstruction of extended scatterers from the measurement of the scattering or response matrix based on prior work co-authored by the present author. These previous results are shown to be related to the concepts of angles and distances between subspaces and are used to propose new imaging and shape reconstruction approaches of the support of a unknown extended scatterer assuming the exact scattering theory. Initially we present a modification of the conventional MUSIC imaging approach that avoids the need to determine the numerical rank of the scattering matrix. Then we consider a different problem where given a grid we try to determine whether each of the points of the grid is inside the support of the scatterer or not. In this last application we consider two approaches: one based on the modified MUSIC imaging and the other based on the level set method.

Gruber, Fred K.


EDITORIAL: The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JET Task Force Heating is proud to present this special issue. It is the result of hard and dedicated work by everybody participating in the Task Force over the last four years and gives an overview of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the period 2008-2010 with radio frequency heating of JET fusion plasmas. Topics studied and reported in this issue are: investigations into the operation of lower hybrid heating accompanied by new modeling results; new experimental results and insights into the physics of various ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating scenarios; progress in studies of intrinsic and ion cyclotron wave-induced plasma rotation and flows; a summary of the developments over the last years in designing an ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRH) system that can cope with the presence of fast load variations in the edge, as e.g. caused by pellets or edge localized modes (ELMs) during H-Mode operation; an overview of the results obtained with the ITER-like antenna operating in H-Mode with a packed array of straps and power densities close to those of the projected ITER ICRH antenna; and, finally, a summary of the results obtained in applying ion cyclotron waves for wall conditioning of the tokamak. This issue would not have been possible without the strong motivation and efforts (sometimes truly heroic) of all colleagues of the JET Task Force Heating. A sincere word of thanks, therefore, to all authors and co-authors involved in the experiments, analysis and compilation of the papers. It was a special privilege to work with all of them during the past very intense years. Thanks also to all other European and non-European scientists who contributed to the JET scientific programme, the operations team of JET and the colleagues of the Close Support Unit in Culham. Thanks also to the editors, Editorial Board and referees of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, together with the publishing staff of IOPP, who have not only supported but also contributed very substantially to this initiative. Without their dedication this issue would not have been possible in its present form. A special word of thanks to Marie-Line Mayoral and Joelle Mailloux for their precious help and very active support in running the JET Task Force Heating over the last years. Without Joelle and Marie-Line itwould have been a much more daunting task to prepare JET operations, monitor progress during the experiments and edit the papers that are compiled here.

Ongena, Jef



Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM  

PubMed Central

A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, “Mongolism” was changed to Down’s syndrome; “Australia” antigen to HBsAg; “Mexican” Swine flu to H1N1; “GRID” (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-?-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. “Geographical” and “racial” names giving must be replaced by “scientific” names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all authors, especially the lead author, to the final draft of a paper and include this in their guidelines for paper submissions.

Singh, Ajai R.



Consequences and potential problems of operating room outbursts and temper tantrums by surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background: Anecdotal tales of colorful temper tantrums and outbursts by surgeons directed at operating room nurses and at times other health care providers, like residents and fellows, are part of the history of surgery and include not only verbal abuse but also instrument throwing and real harassment. Our Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Nancy Epstein, has made the literature review of “Are there truly any risks and consequences when spine surgeons mistreat their predominantly female OR nursing staff/colleagues, and what can we do about it?,” an assigned topic for members of the editorial board as part of a new category entitled Ethical Note for our journal. This is a topic long overdue and I chose to research it. Methods: There is no medical literature to review dealing with nurse abuse. To research this topic, one has to involve business, industry, educational institutions, compliance standards and practices, and existing state and federal laws. I asked Dr. Rosanne Wille to co-author this paper since, as the former Dean of Nursing and then Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at a major higher educational institution, she had personal experience with compliance regulations and both sexual harassment and employment discrimination complaints, to make this review meaningful. Results: A review of the existing business practices and both state and federal laws strongly suggests that although there has not been any specific legal complaint that is part of the public record, any surgeon who chooses to act out his or her frustration and nervous energy demands by abusing co-workers on the health care team, and in this case specifically operating room personnel, is taking a chance of making legal history with financial outcomes which only an actual trial can predict or determine. Even more serious outcomes of an out-of-control temper tantrum and disruptive behavior can terminate, after multiple hearings and appeals, in adverse decisions affecting hospital privileges. Conclusions: Surgeons who abuse other health care workers are in violation of institutional bylaws and compliance regulations and create a hostile environment at work which adversely affects efficient productivity and violates specific State and Federal laws which prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

Jacobs, George B.; Wille, Rosanne L.



The South African National Collection of Fungi: celebrating a centenary 1905-2005  

PubMed Central

The international acronym PREM denotes the South African National Collection of Fungi, which houses approximately 60 000 specimens. The collection includes material from outside South Africa and contains representatives of all the major groups of fungi excluding the yeasts and pathogens of larger animals and man. The name PREM was derived from the city in which the collection is situated, Pretoria (PRE), and the M defines the collection as being mycological. The background information and historical facts presented in this paper are based on an unpublished manuscript, prepared by the co-author and then head of the collection A.P. Baxter, for the 90th celebration of PREM. The collection was established in 1905, when South Africa was still a British colony. The vision and hard work of the earlier scientists associated with it paved the way for the establishment of a number of present-day national research bodies. One of these, the Plant Protection Research Institute, is currently the custodian of the collection. Over time activities at PREM were influenced by socio-economic and political events, and most recently, the South African government's commitment to international biodiversity initiatives. Although the basic goals and needs to maintain PREM remained intact throughout, various phases in terms of research focus can be recognised over the past century. In the early days the emphasis was on collecting and recording of fungi, then pioneering research was done on mycotoxins and later there was an increased demand for public-good services and innovation. Since the 1980's sophisticated molecular techniques have aided in the discovery of true phylogenetic relationships of fungi, a fundamental field of systematics, that was previously impossible to explore by any other means. Against these advances, the value of reference collections is often questioned. New technologies should, however, not be pursued in isolation from other relevant factors. Improvement of agricultural practices, knowledge sharing and the protection and conservation of biota will always be important. Even so, the success and future of natural history collections depends on continued support from governing bodies, appreciation for our biological heritage and on inputs from the scientific community.

Rong, Isabella H.; Baxter, Alice P.



Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vigorous convective activity in the western U.S. mantle has long been inferred from the region's widespread intra-plate crustal deformation, volcanism, and high elevations, but the specific form of convective activity and the degree and nature of lithospheric involvement have been strongly debated. I design a seismic travel-time tomography method and implement it with seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array and complementary arrays to constrain three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the western U.S. Tomographic images of variations in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and the ratio of shear to compressional velocity in the western U.S. mantle to a depth of 1000 km are produced. Using these results I investigate mantle physical properties, Cenozoic subduction history, and the influence of small-scale lithospheric convection on regional tectonic and magmatic activity, with particular focus on southern California and the Pacific Northwest. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material. Chapter II presents a travel-time tomography method I designed and first implemented with data from southern California and the surrounding southwestern U.S. The resulting images provide a new level of constraint on upper mantle seismic anomalies beneath the Transverse Ranges, southern Great Valley, Salton Trough, and southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Chapter III presents tomographic images of the western U.S. mantle, identifies upper mantle volumes where partial melt is probable, and discusses implications of the apparently widespread occurrence of gravitational instabilities of continental lithsophere and the complex geometry and buoyancy of subducted ocean lithosphere imaged beneath the western U.S. In Chapter IV, tomography images are used in conjunction with geologic constraints on major transitions in crustal deformation and magmatism to construct a model for Pacific Northwest evolution since the Cretaceous. Accretion in the Pacific Northwest at 55-50 Ma is suggested to stimulate roll-back of the flat subducting Farallon slab. This change in convergent margin structure is further suggested to drive the short-lived Challis magmatic trend and trigger the southward propagating Eocene-Oligocene transition from the Laramide orogeny to widespread crustal extension and ignimbrite magmatism.

Schmandt, Brandon


Mitochondrial dynamics and optical conformation changes in DsRed as studied by Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel experiments that probe the dynamics of intracellular species, including the center-of-mass displacements and internal conformational transitions of biological macromolecules, have the potential to reveal the complex biochemical mechanisms operating within the cell. This work presents the implementation and development of Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy (FICS), a phase-selective approach to fluorescence spectroscopy that measures the collective coordinate fluctuations of fluorescently labeled microscopic particles. In FICS experiments, a spatially modulated optical grating excites a fluorescently labeled sample. Phase-synchronous detection of the fluorescence, with respect to the phase of the exciting optical grating, can be used to monitor the fluctuations of partially averaged spatial coordinates. These data are then analyzed by two-point and four-point time correlation functions to provide a statistically meaningful understanding of the dynamics under observation. FICS represents a unique route to elevate signal levels, while acquiring detailed information about molecular coordinate trajectories. Mitochondria of mammalian cells are known to associate with cytoskeletal proteins, and their motions are affected by the stability of microtubules and microfilaments. Within the cell it is possible to fluorescently label the mitochondria and study its dynamic behavior with FICS. The dynamics of S. cerevisiae yeast mitochondria are characterized at four discrete length scales (ranging from 0.6--1.19 mum) and provide detailed information about the influence of specific cytoskeletal elements. Using the microtubule and microfilament destabilizing agents, Nocodazole and Latrunculin A, it is determined that microfilaments are required for normal yeast mitochondrial motion while microtubules have no effect. Experiments with specific actin mutants revealed that actin is responsible for enhanced mobility on length scales greater than 0.6 mum. The versatility of FICS expands when individual molecules are labeled with fluorescent chromophores. In recent experiments on the tetrameric fluorescent protein DsRed, polarization-modulated FICS (PM-FICS) is demonstrated to separate conformational dynamics from molecular translational dynamics. The optical switching pathways of DsRed, a tetrameric complex of fluorescent protein subunits, are examined. An analysis of PM-FICS coordinate trajectories, in terms of 2D spectra and joint probability distributions, provides detailed information about the transition pathways between distinct dipole-coupled DsRed conformations. This dissertation includes co-authored and previously published material.

Senning, Eric Nicolas


In The News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient climate change meant Antarctica was once covered with palm trees trees 'grew on Antarctica' near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch would Shackleton have tweeted? States Antarctic Program images by Anthony Powell to an article published in Nature on the first of August, East Antarctica once supported near-tropical ecosystems, with winter temperatures "warmer than 10 C [50 F]." Of course, this wasn't recent by human standards - the Eocene epoch during which these temperatures were the norm occurred about 55 to 48 million years ago. However, this finding may provide insight into how Earth's climate responds to variable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, it allows us to imagine a world very different from the one we know: one in which palm trees flourished at latitudes that today reach summer highs of about 8 C and sink to lows of -50 C.The first link takes visitors to a blog entry outlining some of the article's discoveries, including detailed descriptions of the ecosystem. The second leads to an article featuring an interview with one of the study's co-authors that describes both the procedures and findings. Interested parties may want to read the original Nature article itself, accessible via the third link. Bringing us into the modern era, the fourth link leads to an article reflecting on the complicated relationship between the outside world and those overwintering in Antarctica. The fifth allows visitors to explore facts and figures about the United States presence in Antarctica, featuring some great webcam feeds. Finally, the last link leads to a magnificent collection of images and videos of the now-frozen continent.

Grinnell, Max



Comparative biomass structure and estimated carbon flow in food webs in the deep Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A budget of the standing stocks and cycling of organic carbon associated with the sea floor has been generated for seven sites across a 3-km depth gradient in the NE Gulf of Mexico, based on a series of reports by co-authors on specific biotic groups or processes. The standing stocks measured at each site were bacteria, Foraminifera, metazoan meiofauna, macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna, and demersal fishes. Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) by the sediment-dwelling organisms was measured at each site using a remotely deployed benthic lander, profiles of oxygen concentration in the sediment pore water of recovered cores and ship-board core incubations. The long-term incorporation and burial of organic carbon into the sediments has been estimated using profiles of a combination of stable and radiocarbon isotopes. The total stock estimates, carbon burial, and the SCOC allowed estimates of living and detrital carbon residence time within the sediments, illustrating that the total biota turns over on time scales of months on the upper continental slope but this is extended to years on the abyssal plain at 3.6 km depth. The detrital carbon turnover is many times longer, however, over the same depths. A composite carbon budget illustrates that total carbon biomass and associated fluxes declined precipitously with increasing depth. Imbalances in the carbon budgets suggest that organic detritus is exported from the upper continental slope to greater depths offshore. The respiration of each individual "size" or functional group within the community has been estimated from allometric models, supplemented by direct measurements in the laboratory. The respiration and standing stocks were incorporated into budgets of carbon flow through and between the different size groups in hypothetical food webs. The decline in stocks and respiration with depth were more abrupt in the larger forms (fishes and megafauna), resulting in an increase in the relative predominance of smaller sizes (bacteria and meiofauna) at depth. Rates and stocks in the deep northern GoM appeared to be comparable to other continental margins where similar comparisons have been made.

Rowe, Gilbert T.; Wei, Chihlin; Nunnally, Clifton; Haedrich, Richard; Montagna, Paul; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Bernhard, Joan M.; Wicksten, Mary; Ammons, Archie; Briones, Elva Escobar; Soliman, Yousra; Deming, Jody W.



Towards well-defined gold nanomaterials via diafiltration and aptamer mediated synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles have garnered recent attention due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent properties. Routine access to well-defined gold nanoparticle samples in terms of core diameter, shape, peripheral functionality and purity is required in order to carry out fundamental studies of their properties and to utilize these properties in future applications. For this reason, the development of methods for preparing well-defined gold nanoparticle samples remains an area of active research in materials science. In this dissertation, two methods, diafiltration and aptamer mediated synthesis, are explored as possible routes towards well-defined gold nanoparticle samples. It is shown that diafiltration has considerable potential for the efficient and convenient purification and size separation of water-soluble nanoparticles. The suitability of diafiltration for (i) the purification of water-soluble gold nanoparticles, (ii) the separation of a bimodal distribution of nanoparticles into fractions, (iii) the fractionation of a polydisperse sample and (iv) the isolation of [rimers from monomers and aggregates is studied. NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that diafiltration produces highly pure nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that diafiltration offers the ability to separate nanoparticles of disparate core size, including linked nanoparticles. These results demonstrate the applicability of diafiltration for the rapid and green preparation of high-purity gold nanoparticle samples and the size separation of heterogeneous nanoparticle samples. In the second half of the dissertation, the identification of materials specific aptamers and their use to synthesize shaped gold nanoparticles is explored. The use of in vitro selection for identifying materials specific peptide and oligonucleotide aptamers is reviewed, outlining the specific requirements of in vitro selection for materials and the ways in which the field can be advanced. A promising new technique, in vitro selection on surfaces (ISOS), is developed and the discovery using ISOS of RNA aptamers that bind to evaporated gold is discussed. Analysis of the isolated gold binding RNA aptamers indicates that they are highly structured with single-stranded polyadenosine binding motifs. These aptamers, and similarly isolated peptide aptamers, are briefly explored for their ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles. This dissertation contains both previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Sweeney, Scott Francis


The First Paleomagnetic Polar Wander Path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of 1952, having completed my work on the Cambridge astatic magnetometer, I was motivated to embark on a "Preliminary Paleomagnetic Survey of Rocks from the British Isles" by exciting results obtained by two fellow research students:- Jan Hospers' proposal of the axial dipole hypothesis and Ted Irving's discovery of strongly oblique Pre-Cambrian paleomagnetic directions, substantiated by the oblique Triassic directions obtained by John Clegg's group. Geologists advised me to collect from palaeontologically well dated rock formations. But these turned out to be very weakly magnetized and thereafter I concentrated on purple and dark red coloured rock formations. By the end of July 1954 I had compiled a table of nine Period-mean paleomagnetic directions spanning the last 600 Myr. I passed a copy to Keith Runcorn to include in a talk (co-authors Creer and Irving) scheduled for the August 1954 Rome Assembly of IAGA. Meanwhile, background reading took me to Gutenberg's "Internal Constitution of the Earth (1951)" where I came across (Fig 12) paths of the north pole proposed by Kreichgauer (1902) and by Koppen and Wegener (1924). This prompted me to calculate a paleomagnetic polar wander path. I presented this at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held at Oxford on September 8th. An artist's representation of it was published in Time Magazine of September 24th 1954 where the accompanying text records that I stressed that similar work on other continents would be necessary to distinguish whether the continents had drifted independently or whether the sole mechanism had been polar wander. On my return to Cambridge, Maurice Hill informally suggested that I should indicate precision, so for each pole I calculated semi-major and minor axes of the ellipse of confidence corresponding to the radius of confidence of each mean direction. These were shown in my Ph.D. thesis, where also I calculated a paleomagnetic pole for John Graham's North American Silurian Rose Hill Formation and argued tentatively that it's location, somewhat to the east of the British Silurian pole, is qualitatively consistent withWegnerian drift.

Creer, K. M.



A systematic review of cluster randomised trials in residential facilities for older people suggests how to improve quality  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reviews of cluster randomised trials have been critical of the quality of the trials reviewed, but none has explored determinants of the quality of these trials in a specific field over an extended period of time. Recent work suggests that correct conduct and reporting of these trials may require more than published guidelines. In this review, our aim was to assess the quality of cluster randomised trials conducted in residential facilities for older people, and to determine whether (1) statistician involvement in the trial and (2) strength of journal endorsement of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement influence quality. Methods We systematically identified trials randomising residential facilities for older people, or parts thereof, without language restrictions, up to the end of 2010, using National Library of Medicine (Medline) via PubMed and hand-searching. We based quality assessment criteria largely on the extended CONSORT statement for cluster randomised trials. We assessed statistician involvement based on statistician co-authorship, and strength of journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement from journal websites. Results 73 trials met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 (27%) reported accounting for clustering in sample size calculations and 54 (74%) in the analyses. In 29 trials (40%), methods used to identify/recruit participants were judged by us to have potentially caused bias or reporting was unclear to reach a conclusion. Some elements of quality improved over time but this appeared not to be related to the publication of the extended CONSORT statement for these trials. Trials with statistician/epidemiologist co-authors were more likely to account for clustering in sample size calculations (unadjusted odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 26.0) and analyses (unadjusted OR 3.2, 1.2 to 8.5). Journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement was not associated with trial quality. Conclusions Despite international attempts to improve methods in cluster randomised trials, important quality limitations remain amongst these trials in residential facilities. Statistician involvement on trial teams may be more effective in promoting quality than further journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement. Funding bodies and journals should promote statistician involvement and co-authorship in addition to adherence to CONSORT guidelines.



Juan de Fuca Plate Ridge-to-Trench Experiment: initial results from active source seismic imaging of the Juan de Fuca plate and Cascadia fore-arc (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active source seismic data were acquired during the Juan de Fuca Ridge-to-Trench experiment (June-July 2012) to characterize the evolution and structure of the Juan de Fuca plate from formation at the ridge, through evolution in the plate interior, to subduction at the Cascadia trench. The survey provides plate-scale images of the sediments, crust, and shallowest mantle along two ridge-perpendicular transects, one extending from Axial seamount to the Oregon margin near Hydrate Ridge and the other from near Endeavour segment to Grays Harbor offshore Washington. In addition, a 450 km long trench-parallel line ~10 km seaward of the Cascadia deformation front was acquired to characterize variations in plate structure along the margin. Coincident long-streamer (8 km) multi-channel seismic (MCS) and wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data were collected along each transect. Using these data, our current investigations focus on the properties of the thick sediment blanket covering the Juan de Fuca plate and evidence for fluid flow at the deformation front, crustal structure within the plate interior and near the deformation front, and tracking the downgoing plate beneath the margin. Highlights include the discovery of numerous pockmarks on the seafloor providing evidence of active fluid flow up to 60 km west of the deformation front. Along the Oregon transect, a bright decollement horizon is imaged at ~1sec twtt above basement whereas at the Washington margin, protothrusts of the deformation front reach to the top of the oceanic crust. Variations in sediment properties are documented within the margin-parallel transect with changes in the stratigraphic level of decollement. While crustal thickness is quite uniform along the margin (~ 6 km), variations in crustal reflectivity and in shallowest mantle velocities are observed over ~30-50 km length scales that could be related to structural variations in the Cascadia subduction zone. Further landward, the top of the downgoing plate is imaged intermittently beneath the Oregon margin to within ~30 km of the coast. Patches of shallower bright reflectivity possibly related to the seaward edge of the Siletzia terrane are also imaged. A piggyback 3D onshore/offshore tomography experiment indicates considerable along-strike structural variation along this segment of the subduction zone. West of the deformation front, crustal-scale faults transect the downgoing plate along the Oregon transect. Seismic layer 2A is well imaged for most of this transect but disappears within 15 km of the deformation front, possibly linked to enhanced alteration or deformation associated with plate bending. An overview of these results will be presented here with details provided in companion presentations of the co-authors at this meeting.

Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Han, S.; Gibson, J. C.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Horning, G.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Abers, G. A.; Trehu, A. M.



SIOExplorer: Overview, Initial Results and Next Steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data, documents and images from 795 expeditions by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) since 1903 are becoming web-accessible for both education and research through the new SIOExplorer project (, which is a collection in the overall NSF-funded National Science Digital Library ( The collaborative effort includes researchers at SIO, computer scientists from the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), and archivists and librarians from the UCSD Library. The co-authors of this paper tested a shipboard prototype during a Floating Digital Library Workshop from New Zealand to Samoa on R/V Melville in March, 2002. General purpose tools have been developed to automate collection development, manage metadata, and geographically search the library, as discussed in other presentations in this session. In the initial year of operation, the biggest challenge has been wrestling with the volume and variability of data and documents. Shipboard sensors, data volumes, and organizational structures have evolved greatly over the decades, particularly with 244 multibeam expeditions since 1982. Considerable success came after introducing the concept of a Canonical Cruise Data Structure (CCDS) with nine basic categories that seem to capture the essential characteristics of data practices since the 1960's. Automatic software pulls data into the CCDS from diverse source directories and media, guided by a template with rules for priority and filenames. Almost all metadata are harvested automatically into simple "metadata interchange format" (.mif) files, one for each "arbitrary digital object" (ADO) in the CCDS. The metadata are placed in an Oracle database, and the associated data are managed by the SDSC Storage Resource Broker on various disk and automatic tape silo systems. The system is extensible to various domains and data types, including geochemistry, image archives, multibeam bathymetry, reports and publications. A Java Metadata Object Browser and Editor (MOBE) expands or hides the complexity for each domain, as needed. A prototype interactive CruiseViewer with both Java and html approaches will be demonstrated. As the second year of the project begins, greater emphasis will be placed on search and display tools. At-risk data on shipboard magnetic tapes will be migrated to RAID systems and tape silos. Public outreach will begin at the Birch Aquarium and other locations. A workshop will be held at Scripps in September 2003, coinciding with the hosting of the Oceans 2003 meeting and the 100th Anniversary of SIO. These efforts are supported by the NSF NSDL and ITR programs and by SIO institutional funds.

Miller, S. P.; Helly, J. J.; Africa, M.; Peckman, U.; Day, D.; Clark, D.



Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others, and are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to be accessed from EGI resources to enable future research activities by this HUC. The international climate community for IPCC has created the Earth System Grid (ESG) to store and share climate data. There is a need to interface ESG with EGI for climate studies - parametric, regional and impact aspects. Critical points concern the interoperability of security mechanism between both "organisations", data protection policy, data transfer, data storage and data caching. Presenter: Horst Schwichtenberg Co-Authors: Monique Petitdidier (IPSL), Andre Gemünd (SCAI), Wim Som de Cerff (KNMI), Michael Schnell (SCAI)

Schwichtenberg, H.



Utilizing platforms for the observation of chemical transformations to surface-bound noble metal nanoparticles in environmentally relevant conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products because of their unique, size-dependent properties. Although these properties are commercially appealing, data are lacking regarding the fate and reactivity of nanoparticles once incorporated into materials. This information gap prevents accurate assessment of hazards that these materials potentially present to consumers and the environment. To address this concern, new research is needed to investigate the reactivity and transformations of nanoparticles. This dissertation describes the use of an electron transparent characterization platform to observe nanoparticle transformations. Nanoparticles were tethered to the surface of an analysis platform, exposed to a variety of conditions, and evaluated for reactivity and response. The characterization of silver nanoparticles revealed the generation of new daughter nanoparticles on surfaces in ambient humid conditions. Our observations showed that the transport of material is highly dependent on relative humidity and that pH equilibria drives the deposition of new particles and degradation. We discovered, by applying these findings to macro-silver objects, that bulk silver generates new nanoparticles on surfaces. This illuminated the possibility of other, yet undiscovered, naturally occurring nanoparticles. In the second model system, 1.5 nm gold nanoparticles were tethered by a robust metal oxide bond from the terminal group of the stabilizing ligand. This strategy facilitated precise control over thiol ligand removal using a dilute ozone oxidation. Tracking particle oxidation over time allowed us to gain unprecedented control over core exposure, size maintenance, and surface tethering. This platform was also utilized as a proof-of-concept for direct observation of transformations in complex media. Ligand and core transformations were monitored in a variety of biologically relevant conditions using tethered nanoparticles. Morphological and chemical transformations were characterized and correlated to results from solution monitoring. The use of a platform based approach to evaluating the reactivity of nanoparticles in the environment holds promise for evaluations of nanoparticles and their transformation products. The demonstration of monitoring reactivity in systems equilibria, carefully controlled transformations, or complex media shows the versatility of this strategy. Only through the use of this analysis platform was the direct observation of nanoparticle transformations possible. This dissertation includes previously published, unpublished, and co-authored materials.

Glover, Richard David


Geoethical Audit of Himalayan Stratigraphy: A Current Insight from India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus of this presentation is to illustrate how learned societies and an eminent academy fellow can unfortunately become a pressure group. It is a very unfair and unbecoming even perhaps more than HIMALAYAN HOAX perpetrated by V. J. Gupta two decades back for over 25 years where he fooled journals, funding agencies and about 120 co-authors. Unless corrected, our learned societies and academies may continue degenerate even more. If this can happen today in the biggest democracy of the world with rule of law and freedom of press, what may happen in other set ups across our planet. The ill conceived and highly misleading book HIMALAYAN FOSSIL FRAUD recently published from PSI, Lucknow University, gives some vital but also unfortunately partial, selective and falsified historical and scientific perspectives of the Himalayan Hoax. This book is a standing testimony of a geoethical failure of individuals and of a learned society who published it without checking facts. Lot of personal testimonies and experiences can be added by the presenter. Some INSA Fellows are today like a cooperative society for cover ups and dirty politicking. The nexus within INSA Fellows to mutually protect each other and gratify at public cost is transparent but ignored for fear and power of their huge clout. Mistakes are allowed in science but science ethics does not allow silence once a fraud is known. If one is such a celebrated VIP like Ashok Sahni and D. M. Banerjee highly rewarded and awarded by so many, it becomes mandatory to maintain highest ethical standards and appear to be doing so. Our eminent INSA Fellows and learned society PSI are making themselves look like a mafia. This is neither ethics nor science. It is pure reckless money making and petty politicking by big guns to save their own skin. Very unfortunate indeed for Lucknow University, Lucknow where PSI is based and the retired teachers manning it are staying put for a life time endlessly getting self elected. Ever lowering ethical standards in learned societies of India and Indian National Science Academy stand exposed thanks to this historic revisit.

Deep Ahluwalia, Arun



Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE). Therefore, we confirm that SMOS is a very valuable source of data, which is going to be used on regional studies related to the climate in Poland. 1. Collow, T.W., A. Robock, J. B. Basara, and B. G. Illston (2012), Evaluation of SMOS retrievals of soil moisture over the central United States with currently available in situ observations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09113, doi:10.1029/2011JD017095. 2. Bircher, S., Skou, N., Jensen, K. H.,. Walker, J. P and Rasmussen L. (2012), A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1445-1463, doi:10.5194/hess-16-1445-2012

Usowicz, Jerzy; ?ukowski, Mateusz; S?omi?ski, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogus?aw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech



Validation of ELPIS baseline scenarios using ECA&D observed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local-scale daily climate scenarios are required for assessment of impacts of climate change (Semenov & Stratonovitch 2010). These scenarios incorporate changes in climatic variability as well as extreme events which are particularly important when used in conjunctions with process-based non-linear impact models (Semenov & Shewry 2011). ELPIS is a dataset of climate scenarios for Europe, which is based on the LARS-WG weather generator and future projections from the CMIP3 and EU-ENSEMBLES multi-model ensembles (Semenov et al. 2010). In ELPIS, the site parameters for climatic variables were estimated by LARS-WG from observed daily weather interpolated over 25 km grid in Europe obtained from the European Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS). The objective of this paper was to compare ELPIS baseline scenarios (1980-2010) with observed daily weather available from the ECA&D archive (Klein Tank & co-authors 2002). We selected approximately 300 sites from the ECA&D archive, where daily precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature and sunshine hours were available for the period of 1980-2010. Several statistical tests were used to compare monthly means and distributions of climatic variables from observed ECA&D dataset and generated from ELPIS. We also used a statistical test to detect a potential bias in ELPIS-generated baseline data. About 20% of selected sites had more than 100 meters difference in altitude compared to the grid altitude from the CGMS dataset. Differences in site-grid altitudes can explain most of the significant results in the K-S tests for distribution of daily temperature and in t-test for temperature monthly means, because of well-known negative correlation between temperature and elevation. For daily precipitation, the K-S test showed little differences between generated and observed data for each month; however, more sensitive t-test for monthly mean precipitation showed significant results for the sites where grid-site altitudes were substantially different. Approximately 30% of sites showed small positive or negative bias in monthly radiation, which cannot be explained by differences in altitudes, but more likely can be attributed to limitation of a relationship used to convert sunshine hours in to radiation (Rietveld 1978). We conclude that, considering limitation above, ELPIS climate scenarios can be used for impact assessment studies in Europe with confidence. We acknowledge the data providers in the ECA&D project. Rothamsted Research receives strategic funding from the BBSRC.

Semenov, M. A.; Pilkington-Bennett, S.



Four Big-Telescope Planetary Astronomers of the 1920's at Mount Wilson, Yerkes, and Lick Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to current mythology, many professional astronomers tried to do planetary research before World War II, as Ronald Doel and I have previously emphasized. Their difficulty was that once the known planets had been studied with the biggest and best telescopes, spectrographs, and radiometers there was little more they could do until some new instrumental development came along, and these were rare in those years. Two astronomers who observed planets in the 1920's were Frank Ross, of the Yerkes Observatory faculty, with the Mount Wilson 60- and 100-inch telescopes, and William H. Wright, at Lick, with its 36-inch Crossley reflector, which he considered a big telescope. Both were keenly interested in photographic emulsions (Ross had been a research physicist at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory), and when fast new panchromatic films and plates became available in the 1920's they quickly applied them to photographing the planets. Robert J. Trumpler, also at Lick, used its 36-inch refractor in a combination of photographic (in the yellow and red spectral regions) and visual observing to map and describe Martian surface features. All three of them began planetary observing at the close opposition of Mars in 1924; they were all mainline scientists who ultimately were elected to the National Academy of Sciences. All three of them were doing descriptive work, seeing what was there, and none of them had any theoretical ideas to check or disprove. Francis G. Pease, more of a telescope designer and engineer at Mount Wilson, also used its 60- and 100-inch reflectors, chiefly to take photographs of the planets for illustrations in books and magazines. They all used fine-grain photographic plates, but seeing was a problem they could not overcome. Examples of their planetary photographs, papers, and letters will be posted. Ross and Trumpler dropped out of planetary astronomy after 1928, but Wright and Pease continued in it for many years. An interesting sidelight is that Gerard P. Kuiper, as a young postdoc at Lick, co-authored his first planetary paper in English with Wright (on Mars).

Osterbrock, D. E.





"Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition in the Developing Metanephric Kidney: Gene Expression Study by Differential Display," by Sergei Y. Plisov, Sergey V. Ivanov, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Lee F. Dove, Tatiana M. Plisova, Kathleen G. Higinbotham, Irina Karavanova, Michael Lerman, and Alan O. Perantoni The above article originally appeared in Volume 27, Number 1, the May 2000 issue, of genesis on pp. 22-31. The wrong affiliations were listed for two of the co-authors: Sergey V. Ivanov is affiliated with Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick, Laboratory of Immunobiology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland. Michael Lerman is affiliated with Laboratory of Immunobiology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland. On page 24, left column, under "In situ mRNA Hybridization" in the "Results" section, the sentence, "To verify the results of DD and to determine in which cells of the developing kidney the differentially displayed genes were expressed we applied mRNA hybridization (ISH)," should read: "To verify the results of DD and to determine in which cells of the developing kidney the differentially displayed genes were expressed we applied in situ mRNA hybridization (ISH)." On page 27, the legend for Figure 2, should read: "In situ RNA hybridization with thin sections of 19 dpc fetal kidney. Labeled antisense RNA was in vitro transcribed from cloned cDNA fragments obtained after differential display." On page 30, right column, under "In situ Hybridization" in the "Methods" section, the sentence, "To generate sense or antisense probes, 5 &mgr;g of plasmids with cloned cDNA fragments were linearized either with NcoI or SpeI (Promega) restriction enzymes and transcribed with T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase in the presence of alpha-35S-dCTP," should read: "To generate sense or antisense probes, 5 &mgr;g of plasmids with cloned cDNA fragments were linearized either with NcoI or SpeI (Promega) restriction enzymes and transcribed with T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase in the presence of alpha-35S-CTP." The authors regret these errors. PMID:10951506



Synthesis of ternary Chevrel phases using elemental modulated reactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional high temperature solid state synthetic route has significant limitations in producing new compounds. The high temperatures and long reaction times are needed to overcome the large diffusion distances and slow diffusion rates experienced in these reactions. Products are limited to only thermodynamically stable phases in a given system. Metastable phases are nearly impossible to obtain. There is an obvious need for a solid state synthetic route which can produce single phase metastable compounds. This study explores elemental modulated reactants as a technique to meet this demand. Studies of elemental modulated reactants focusing on nucleation control and metastable compound formation are reported in this dissertation. Systems studied include the binary Mo/Se and W/Se systems and the ternary Mo/Se/M systems, where M = Ni, Sn, Zn, In, and Cu. In the Mo/Se system, direct nucleation of the Chevrel phase, Mo 6Se8, from an amorphous intermediate was attempted. Of the samples made, none directly nucleated Mo6Se8. Instead, MoSe2 and an unknown compound were found to form. The unknown molybdenum rich compound was determined to have a stoichiometry of Mo3Se, and have the A15 crystal structure. A series of Mo-Se-M samples were prepared to extend the results of the binary system. The goal was to suppress the nucleation of MoSe2 and directly nucleate the ternary Chevrel phase MxMo6Se 8. When M = Ni or Sn, nucleation of the diselenide was not at all or only slightly suppressed. When M = Zn, the diselenide and the Chevrel phase nucleated at roughly the same temperature. When M = In or Cu, nucleation of the diselenide was suppressed so that the Chevrel phase nucleated first. In a final study, elemental modulated reactants were compared and contrasted to codeposited reactants. This comparison was conducted in the Mo-Se and W-Se binary systems. In general, the codeposited samples nucleated upon deposition and the product did not have a preferred orientation. The modulated samples were, in general, amorphous after deposition and crystallized with strong 001 texture. This dissertation includes my previously published co-authored materials.

Schneidmiller, Robert John


Response to ?A Madden-Julian Oscillation Event Realistically Simulated by a Global Cloud-Resolving Model?  

SciTech Connect

I agree with the authors that forecasting the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in a high resolution global model is important for numerous reasons, including improved weather forecast skill beyond 10 days, and resolving small scale features embedded in the MJO that coarse resolution ({approx}100-300km horizontal grid spacing) climate models do not (e.g., tropical cyclones). Unfortunately, the authors promote the (incorrect) overall impression that coarse resolution climate models cannot simulate the MJO by (a) only discussing aspects of works that indicate the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and (b) by promoting the use of higher resolution models, and the use of embedded two-dimensional cloud resolving models embedded in coarse resolution climate models as the principal methods for realistically representing the MJO because of the difficulty of coarse resolution models 'to estimate the vertical redistribution of heat and moisture by unresolved convective clouds'. Regarding items (a) and (b), I have co-authored two of the works cited by Miura et al. that bemoan the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and indeed simulating the MJO in coarse resolution climate models is a grand challenge. However, I would like to draw to their attention to work that has demonstrated that two different coarse resolution climate models, using conventional parameterizations of convection and clouds, can represent the MJO with high fidelity. In the later study, where more complete model diagnostics were available, important aspects of the MJO that were realistically represented included the relationship between convection and low-level moisture convergence, surface fluxes, the vertical structure of winds and divergence, and important air-sea interactions. Additionally, regarding item (b), convection is certainly of central importance in representing the MJO, but it is the interaction of convection (parameterized or otherwise) with other aspects of the model physics that is important. Thus, it is the implementation of the full physics package that is relevant, not simply the manner in which convection is represented. The issue at hand is to determine what aspects of the physics present in the high resolution (and embedded 2-dimensional cloud resolving model) simulations are essential for incorporation into coarse resolution climate model parameterizations in order for them to adequately represent the MJO. In the foreseeable future, models used for climate and climate change studies will continue to require convective parameterization in order to produce simulations that span decadal to centennial time scales to estimate the impact of anthropogenic influences on the statistics of weather variability and extremes. As such, intercomparison across different classes of modeling is essential to better understand the physics relevant to the climate system.

Sperber, K R



Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irčne Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardičs, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon



Particle kinetic simulation of high altitude hypervelocity flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this grant period, the focus has been on enhancement and application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) particle method for computing hypersonic flows of re-entry vehicles. Enhancement efforts dealt with modeling gas-gas interactions for thermal non-equilibrium relaxation processes and gas-surface interactions for prediction of vehicle surface temperatures. Both are important for application to problems of engineering interest. The code was employed in a parametric study to improve future applications, and in simulations of aeropass maneuvers in support of the Magellan mission. Detailed comparisons between continuum models for internal energy relaxation and DSMC models reveals that several discrepancies exist. These include definitions of relaxation parameters and the methodologies for implementing them in DSMC codes. These issues were clarified and all differences were rectified in a paper (Appendix A) submitted to Physics of Fluids A, featuring several key figures in the DSMC community as co-authors and B. Haas as first author. This material will be presented at the Fluid Dynamics meeting of the American Physical Society on November 21, 1993. The aerodynamics of space vehicles in highly rarefied flows are very sensitive to the vehicle surface temperatures. Rather than require prescribed temperature estimates for spacecraft as is typically done in DSMC methods, a new technique was developed which couples the dynamic surface heat transfer characteristics into the DSMC flow simulation code to compute surface temperatures directly. This model, when applied to thin planar bodies such as solar panels, was described in AIAA Paper No. 93-2765 (Appendix B) and was presented at the Thermophysics Conference in July 1993. The paper has been submitted to the Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. Application of the DSMC method to problems of practical interest requires a trade off between solution accuracy and computational expense and limitations. A parametric study was performed and reported in AIAA Paper No. 93-2806 (Appendix C) which assessed the accuracy penalties associated with simulations of varying grid resolution and flow domain size. The paper was also presented at the Thermophysics Conference and will be submitted to the journal shortly. Finally, the DSMC code was employed to assess the pitch, yaw, and roll aerodynamics of the Magellan spacecraft during entry into the Venus atmosphere at off-design attitudes. This work was in support of the Magellan aerobraking maneuver of May 25-Aug. 3, 1993. Furthermore, analysis of the roll characteristics of the configuration with canted solar panels was performed in support of the proposed 'Windmill' experiment. Results were reported in AIAA Paper No. 93-3676 (Appendix D) presented at the Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference in August 1993, and were submitted to Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Haas, Brian L.



Synthesis and characterization of tridecameric Group 13 hydroxide clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the research area of Group 13 hydroxide clusters, progress is often hampered by difficult and inefficient synthetic procedures. This has greatly limited the numerous potential applications of Group 13 hydroxide compounds, many of which require large amounts of material. Most relevant to this dissertation is their application as precursors for high quality amorphous metal oxide thin films. Addressing this issue, this dissertation presents a series of Group 13 containing hydroxide compounds of general formula [M13(mu 3-OH)6(mu-OH)18(H2O)24](NO 3)15 which are generated through an efficient, scalable synthetic procedure. Throughout this dissertation, the compounds are generally referred to by their metal content, i.e. [Ga13(mu3-OH) 6(mu-OH)18(H2O)24](NO3) 15 is designated as Ga13. Chapter I reviews the literature of inorganic and ligand-supported Group 13 hydroxide compounds with the aim of identifying common structural trends in metal composition and coordinating ligands. This summary is limited to clusters of aluminum, gallium, and indium. Chapter II describes in detail the synthesis and characterization of one such cluster, Al13. Following this in Chapter III is the description of the first heterometallic Group 13 hydroxide compound, Ga7In 6, which along with Ga13 was used as a precursor material for metal oxide thin films in collaboration with Professor Doug Keszler at Oregon State University. Chapter IV describes a series of six Ga/In compounds, as well as two Al/In compounds. Included in this chapter is an analysis of the heat-induced decomposition properties of the Ga/In clusters. Understanding such thermal decomposition is particularly relevant for the use of these compounds as precursor materials, as an annealing step is used to condense the films. Chapter V addresses the potential for post-synthetic modification of the compounds through metal and ligand exchange reactions, an area that also addresses the issue of solution stability of the structures Chapter VI describes the synthesis and characterization of related Group 13 compounds, including two infinite chain structures and additional heterometallic compounds. Lastly, Chapter VII concludes this dissertation and discusses potential areas of future research. This dissertation includes co-authored material and previously published results.

Mensinger, Zachary Lee


SMART-1 New Results from 2009-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present highlights and new SMART-1 results published or obtained in 2009-2010 that are relevant for lunar science and future exploration, in relation with subsequent missions and future landers. SMART-1 is the first of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology [1,2,3]. Its prime objective has been achieved to demonstrate Solar Electric missions (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The SMART-1 spacecraft was launched in 2003, as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger, and reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. New SMART-1 lunar science and exploration results since 2009 include: - Multiangular photometry of Mare regions allowing to model scattering in planetary regoliths - The study of specific regions at different phase angles allowed to detect variations in regolith roughness - Lunar North and South polar maps and repeated high resolution images have been obtained, giving a monitoring of illumination to study potential sites relevant for future exploration. This permitted to identify SMART-1 peaks of quasi-eternal light and to derive their topography. - The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E 1, the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the LCROSS impact, and to prepare subsequent landers and future human activities and lunar bases. References: [1] Foing, B. et al (2001) Earth Moon Planets, 85, 523 . [2] Racca, G.D. et al. (2002) Earth Moon Planets, 85, 379. [3] Racca, G.D. et al. (2002) PSS, 50, 1323. [4] Grande, M. et al. (2003) PSS, 51, 427. [5] Dunkin, S. et al. (2003) PSS, 51, 435. [6] Huovelin, J. et al. (2002) PSS, 50, 1345. [7] Shkuratov, Y. et al (2003) JGRE 108, E4, 1. [8] Foing, B.H. et al (2003) Adv. Space Res., 31, 2323. [9] Grande, M. et al (2007) PSS 55, 494. [10] Pinet, P. et al (2005) PSS, 53, 1309. [11] Josset J.L. et al (2006) Adv Space Res, 37, 14. [12] Foing B.H. et al (2006) Adv Space Res, 37, 6. Co-authors: B.H. Foing, B. Grieger, D. Koschny, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, V. Kaydash, Y. Shkuratov, K. Muinonen, U. Mall, A. Nathues, B. Kellett, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, P. Cerroni, M.C. de Sanctis, M.A. Barucci, S. Erard, D. Despan, V. Shevchenko, S. Peters, A. Borst, F. Bexkens, M. Almeida, D. Frew, J.Volp, D. Heather, SMART1 Science Technology Working Team, ESTEC/SRE-S, postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, NL, Europe

Foing, Bernard



Introducing a New Concept Inventory on Climate Change to Support Undergraduate Instruction, Teacher Education, Education Research, and Project Evaluation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Concept Inventory on Climate Change (CICC) is a new research-based, multiple-choice 'test' that provides a powerful new assessment tool for undergraduate instructors, teacher educators, education researchers, and project evaluators. This presentation will describe the features and the development process of the (CICC). This includes insights about how the development team (co-authors) integrated and augmented their multi-disciplinary expertise. The CICC has been developed in the context of a popular introductory undergraduate weather and climate course at a southeastern research university (N~400-500 per semester). The CICC is not a test for a grade, but is intended to be a useful measure of how well a given teaching and learning experience has succeeded in improving understanding about climate change and related climate concepts. The science content addressed by the CICC is rooted in the national consensus document, 'Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science'. The CICC has been designed to support undergraduate instruction, and may be valuable in comparable contexts that teach about climate change. CICC results can help to inform decisions about the effectiveness of teaching strategies by 1) flagging conceptual issues (PRE-instruction); and 2) detecting conceptual change (POST-instruction). Specific CICC items and their answer choices are informed by the research literature on common misunderstandings about climate and climate change. Each CICC item is rated on a 3-tier scale of the cognitive sophistication the item is calling for, and there is a balance among all three tiers across the full instrument. The CICC development process has involved data-driven changes to successive versions. Data sources have included item statistics from the administration of progressively evolved versions of the CICC in the weather and climate course, group interviews with students, and expert review by climate scientists, educators, and project evaluators based primarily in the US and Canada. The development team provided an exceptionally well integrated, multi-disciplinary expertise in climate science, climate education, education research, and psychometrics. The valuable integration of the team's expertise was driven by: 1) the prior interdisciplinary inclinations of key team members, which made it natural to openly inquire and learn across boundaries of expertise; and 2) the willingness of key team members to become respectful teachers of essential knowledge to other team members. These qualities, in combination with reviewer contributions, have brought the leading edges of natural and social science research together to produce the CICC. This work has been partially supported by a NASA award to the Georgia State University Research Foundation (NNX09AL69G).

Morrow, C. A.; Monsaas, J.; Katzenberger, J.; Afolabi, C. Y.



The electrical properties of ionically functionalized polyacetylenes and their interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of polyacetylene ionomers are reported with the purpose of understanding the fundamental mixed ionic-electronic conducting properties of these materials and using this knowledge to understand the electrical properties of interfaces between undoped and doped polymers. The polymers used within this thesis were poly[(2-cyclooctatetraenylethyl)trimethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate] (PC) and poly(tetramethylammonium 2-cyclooctatetraenylethanesulfonate) (PA). Both polymers were insulators when undoped and became conductive upon electrochemical doping. PC could be n-doped and p-doped, while PA could only be p-doped. A macromolecular electrolyte, (tetrabutylammonium polystyrenesulfonate), was used to make the internally compensated forms of n-doped PC and p-doped PA without the incorporation of small ions, as well as prevent the oxidation of PC and prevent the overoxidation of PA. When doped, the current-voltage behavior of each polymer was found to depend on the environment of the polymer and the ion polarization at the electrode interfaces. The steady-state electrical properties of the undoped polymers were also found to depend on the effects of ion polarization. However, due to the different free ion densities, the electrical properties of each material were very dissimilar. In PC, at low applied bias, the electrical properties were dominated by unipolar hole transport, while for bias greater than 1.5 V, substantial doping at the electrode interfaces occurred promoting bipolar carrier injection and increasing the film's conductivity. In P A, the hole transport was determined by the different free ion density and potential profiles for bias less than and greater than 0.7 V. Using proposed models, the carrier and ion mobilities were calculated for each material. Using the knowledge gathered from the study of the individual materials and the techniques developed within this thesis, interfaces were fabricated between the two undoped polymers, between p-doped PA and undoped PC, between n-doped PC and undoped PA, and, finally, between p-doped PA and n -doped PC. The conjugated polymer pn junction is the first known of its kind. All of the interfaces were investigated using current-voltage measurements and various chemical analysis techniques. Various models were used to describe the different observed electrical behavior of each interface. This dissertation contains both my previously published and my co-authored materials.

Cheng, Calvin H. W.


A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

Bourqui, Michel



Geophysical and hydrogeologic investigations of two primary alluvial aquifers embedded in the southern San Andreas fault system: San Bernardino basin and upper Coachella Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of alluvial aquifer basins in southern California is centered on observations of differential surface displacement and the search for the mechanisms of deformation. The San Bernardino basin and the Upper Coachella Valley aquifers are bound by range fronts and fault segments of the southern San Andreas fault system. I have worked to quantify long-term compaction in these groundwater dependent population centers with a unique synthesis of data and methodologies using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and groundwater data. My dissertation contributes to the understanding of alluvial aquifer heterogeneity and partitioning. I model hydrogeologic and tectonic interpretations of deformation where decades of overdraft conditions and ongoing aquifer development contribute to extreme rapid subsidence. I develop the Hydrogeologic InSAR Integration (HII) method for the characterization of surface deformation in aquifer basins. The method allows for the separation of superimposed hydraulic and/or tectonic processes in operation. This formalization of InSAR and groundwater level integration provides opportunities for application in other aquifer basins where overdraft conditions may be causing permanent loss of aquifer storage capacity through compaction. Sixteen years of SAR data for the Upper Coachella Valley exhibit rapid vertical surface displacement (? 48mm/a) in sharply bound areas of the western basin margin. Using well driller logs, I categorize a generalized facies analysis of the western basin margin, describing heterogeneity of the aquifer. This allowed for assessment of the relationships between observed surface deformation and sub-surface material properties. Providing the setting and context for the hydrogeologic evolution of California's primary aquifers, the mature San Andreas transform fault is studied extensively by a broad range of geoscientists. I present a compilation of observations of creep, line integrals across the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary, and strain tensor volumes for comparison to the Working Group 2007 (UCERF 2) seismicity-based deformation model. I find that the moment accumulation across the plate boundary is consistent with the deformation model, suggesting fault displacement observations within the plate boundary zone accurately capture the strain across the plate boundary. This dissertation includes co-authored materials previously published, and also includes unpublished work currently under revisions for submission to a technical journal.

Wisely, Beth Ann


Challenges from new lunar data: ILEWG report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent lunar missions including Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1, Selene Kaguya, Chang'E 1 , Chandrayaan-1 have been producing new data in large volumes. We shall discuss the challenges in data calibration and intercalibration, integration, the defin ition of an accurate coordinate systems and geodesic grid, incorporation of latest altimetry and gravimetry data. LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and subsequent missions will go even futher in data volume and diversity of instruments. We shall discuss the upcoming challenges in data archiving, management and interpretative tools, to merge orbital remote sensing with surface data from landers and rovers for the various elements of ILEWG lunar robotic village. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Data and Outreach Relevant ILEWG Reference documents: -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-Space Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at -7th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Toronto Sept 2005, Programme and Proceedings on line at, R. Richards et al Editors -6th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Udaipur Nov. 2004, Proceedings ( N. Bhandari Editor), Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841 -5th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Hawaii Nov 2003, Pro-ceedings ILC2005/ICEUM5 (S.M. Durst et al Editors), Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Tech-nology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004 -4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462 (B.H. Foing M. Perry, editors)

Foing, Bernard H.


Selective preparation of nickel silicides and nickel germanides from multilayer reactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the application of a multilayer-based synthetic technique to the phase selective preparation of nickel silicides and nickel germanides. This preparative technique employs modulated elemental multilayers with ultrathin repeating subunits as initial reactants. Complete interdiffusion is effected with moderate annealing, producing an amorphous intermediate state prior to nucleation of a crystalline phase. This technique enables the direct preparation of a variety of nickel silicide and nickel germanide phases without the formation of unwanted crystalline intermediates. The success of this preparative strategy requires that the repeating subunit of the multilayer reactant be below some critical thickness, such that complete mixing precedes first phase formation. The variation in the product of equiatomic nickel-silicon multilayer reactions near the critical thickness is investigated. Using x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), two reaction mechanisms intermediate between conventional interfacial reaction and the sub-critical thickness reaction are identified. By varying multilayer composition while maintaining the repeating subunit below the critical thickness, the selective formation of Ni31 Si12, delta-Ni2Si, theta-Ni2Si, NiSi, and NiSi2 is demonstrated. Of particular note is the preparation of theta-Ni2Si, which forms in conditions under which it is metastable with respect to a low temperature phase. Comparison with first phase nucleation in non-layered amorphous precursors suggests that the multilayer preparative method has a high propensity towards homogeneous phase formation. The application of this synthetic strategy to nickel germanides enables the preparation of a number of high temperature nickel germanides at temperatures below 200°C. This preparative technique favors the formation of NiAs-type nickel germanides, suggesting that the ordering in the amorphous phase may closely reflect the NiAs structure. Preliminary results on the preparation of ternary nickel-silicon-germanium compounds are discussed. The critical length scales in silicon-germanium multilayers are determined. The preparation of NiAs-type compounds of the form NiSi 1-xGex is reported. This dissertation includes my previously published and co-authored materials.

Jensen, Jacob Michael


The effect of geometry and surface morphology on the optical properties of metal-dielectric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effect of geometry and surface morphology on the optical properties of metal-dielectric systems. Using both analytical and numerical modeling, we study how surface curvature affects the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along a metal-dielectric interface. We provide an intuitive explanation for how the curvature causes the phase front to distort, causing the SPPs to radiate their energy away from the metal-dielectric interface. We quantify the propagation efficiency as functions of the radius of curvature, and show that it depends nonmonotonically on the bend radius. We also show how the surface morphology influences the transmittance and the reflectance of light from disordered metal-dielectric nanocomposite films. The films consist of semicontinuous silver films of various surface coverage that are chemically deposited onto glass substrates. They exhibit a large and broadband reflection asymmetry in the visible spectral range. In order to investigate how the surface morphology affects the asymmetry, we anneal the samples at various temperatures to induce changes in the morphology, and observe changes in the reflection spectra. Our study indicates that the surface roughness and the metal surface coverage are the key geometric parameters affecting the reflection spectra, and reveals that the large asymmetry is due to the different surface roughness light encounters when incident from different side of the film. Additionally, we analyze how thin metal and dielectric layers affect the optical properties of metal-dielectric systems. Using the concept of dispersion engineering, we show that a metal-dielectric-metal microsphere---a metal sphere coated with a thin dielectric shell, followed by a metal shell---support a band of surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) with nearly identical frequencies. A large number of modes belonging to this band can be excited simultaneously by a plane wave, and hence enhancing the absorption cross-section. We also find that the enhanced absorption is accompanied by a plasmon assisted transparency due to an avoided crossing of dominant SPR bands. We demonstrate numerically that both the enhanced absorption and the plasmon assisted transparency are tunable over the entire visible range. We also present an experimental study of light scattering from silica spheres coated with thin semicontinuous silver shells, and attempt to describe their optical response using a modified scaling theory. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored materials.

Hasegawa, Keisuke


Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have found the most powerful eruption seen in the Universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A supermassive black hole generated this eruption by growing at a remarkable rate. This discovery shows the enormous appetite of large black holes, and the profound impact they have on their surroundings. The huge eruption is seen in a Chandra image of the hot, X-ray emitting gas of a galaxy cluster called MS 0735.6+7421. Two vast cavities extend away from the supermassive black hole in the cluster's central galaxy. The eruption - which has lasted for 100 million years and is still going - has generated the energy equivalent to hundreds of millions of gamma-ray bursts. Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole This event was caused by gravitational energy release as enormous amounts of matter fell toward a black hole. Most of the matter was swallowed, but some of it was violently ejected before being captured by the black hole. "I was stunned to find that a mass of about 300 million Suns was swallowed," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens, lead author of the study that appears in the January 6, 2005 issue of Nature. "This is almost as massive as the supermassive black hole that swallowed it." Astronomers are not sure where such large amounts of matter came from. One theory is that gas from the host galaxy catastrophically cooled and was then swallowed by the black hole. Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 The energy released shows that the black hole in MS 0735 has grown very dramatically during this eruption. Previous studies suggest that other large black holes have grown very little in the recent past, and that only smaller black holes are still growing quickly. "This new result is as surprising as it is exciting", said co-author Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics. "This black hole is feasting when it should be fasting." Radio emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville,



Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 1997, and he became the in-house expert on the workings of this complex instrument, in particular on the details of the time-tag mode. In time, he became familiar with all the on-board instruments and oversaw the approval of the instrument commanding before the weekly HST command loads were distributed to the Goddard Space Flight Center for uploading to the te

MacConnell, D. Jack



Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after it has died," said co-author Scott Chapman, also of Cambridge University. "This means we don't have to catch the black holes in the act to witness the big impact they have." This is the first X-ray ghost ever seen after the demise of radio-bright jets. Astronomers have observed extensive X-ray emission with a similar origin, but only from galaxies with radio emission on large scales, signifying continued eruptions. In HDF 130, only a point source is detected in radio images, coinciding with the massive elliptical galaxy seen in its optical image. This radio source indicates the presence of a growing supermassive black hole. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs "This result hints that the X-ray sky should be littered with such ghosts," said co-author Caitlin Casey, also of Cambridge, "especially if black hole eruptions are as common as we think they are in the early Universe." The power contained in the black hole eruption was likely to be considerable, equivalent to about a billion supernovas. The energy is dumped into the surroundings and transports and heats the gas. "Even after the ghost disappears, most of the energy from the black hole's eruption remains", said Fabian. "Because they're so powerful, these eruptions can have profound effects lasting for billions of years." The details of Chandra's data of HDF 130 helped secure its true nature. For example, in X-rays, HDF 130 has a cigar-like shape that extends for some 2.2 million light years. The linear shape of the X-ray source is consistent with the shape of radio jets and not with that of a galaxy cluster, which is expected to be circular. The energy distribution of the X-rays is also consistent with the interpretation of an X-ray ghost. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandr



Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o



FOREWORD: Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Eklund grew up in Southern California and attended the University of California at Berkeley, majoring in physics. After working for one year at the Lockheed Missile and Space Company in Sunnyvale, California, he left to pursue graduate studies at Purdue University. There he carried out PhD research in strongly correlated electron and phonon systems under the supervision of J M Honig and L L van Zandt. Peter joined the group of Millie and Gene Dresselhaus at MIT in 1974 as a Postdoctoral Fellow after one year as an instructor at the University of Kentucky. At MIT, he continued work on strongly correlated systems in collaboration with Professor David Adler (who had an adjoining office), but for the most part he got excited about sp2 carbon systems and graphite intercalation compounds, a new research direction which the Dresselhaus group had started one year before Peter's arrival at MIT. Over the next 35 years Peter, Millie and Gene co-authored over 50 research articles, several review articles, and a big nine-hundred-and-fifty page book. In 1974, they saw graphite intercalation compounds as a long-neglected research direction of great promise. They studied these new materials together over the next 16 years, focusing on their optical spectroscopy. Their pioneering vibrational spectroscopy studies provided a means to characterize the fundamental properties of carbon materials. Optical spectroscopy became a centerpiece in the research portfolios of all three, both when they were together at MIT and after Peter left for the University of Kentucky in 1977 to start his independent career as an Assistant Professor of Physics. Peter became a full Professor at Kentucky in 1986. He continued to work with Millie and Gene and also acquired an ever-expanding network of students, postdocs and collaborators. As each new carbon nanostructure emerged—graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and most recently graphene—Peter was at the cutting edge, leading the charge forward. His work on fullerenes, starting around 1988, culminated in a book co-authored with Millie and Gene in 1996, The Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes [1]. Through careful sample handling and analysis, his group at Kentucky discovered the mechanism of photo-polymerization in fullerenes. In 2000, Peter co-edited the research monograph Fullerene Polymers and Fullerene Polymer Composites with A M Rao, a former student [2]. His group at Kentucky also performed the first definitive Raman study of the phonons responsible for superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene compounds. Peter was awarded the prestigious University of Kentucky Research Professorship for his contributions to graduate education and research discoveries in carbon materials. In the summer of 1991, Peter held early discussions with his two long-time collaborators on the possibility of carbon nanotubes. These discussions inspired a talk by Millie at a fullerene workshop the next day concerning the possible existence of single-walled carbon nanotubes [3]. The first papers by Iijima on the synthesis of multiwalled nanotubes appeared soon thereafter [4]. In 1994, Peter measured an early Raman spectrum on a sample containing just 1% of single-walled tubes. On the basis of this early work, he convinced Rick Smalley to provide him with a proper sample of single-walled carbon nanotubes in 1996; this is the sample on which the highly cited single-walled carbon nanotube Raman spectrum was taken [5]. Carbon nanotubes then became a central focus of the Eklund group. Peter, Millie and Gene worked together on many aspects of carbon nanotubes, including the study of infrared-active modes, Raman active modes, Raman spectra for single-walled nanotubes, and the differences in the Raman spectra of semiconducting and metallic tubes. In 2009 they combined efforts to investigate phonons in graphene. Peter was also an entrepreneur. He started a company, CarboLex, to make and sell nanotubes in large quantities, thereby giving industrial support to advancing fundamental science. He co-found

Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Gene F.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Sofo, Jorge O.



Watching a 'New Star' Make the Universe Dusty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, and its remarkable acuity, astronomers were able for the first time to witness the appearance of a shell of dusty gas around a star that had just erupted, and follow its evolution for more than 100 days. This provides the astronomers with a new way to estimate the distance of this object and obtain invaluable information on the operating mode of stellar vampires, dense stars that suck material from a companion. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 22/08 Dust shells around a nova Although novae were first thought to be new stars appearing in the sky, hence their Latin name, they are now understood as signaling the brightening of a small, dense star. Novae occur in double star systems comprising a white dwarf - the end product of a solar-like star - and, generally, a low-mass normal star - a red dwarf. The two stars are so close together that the red dwarf cannot hold itself together and loses mass to its companion. Occasionally, the shell of matter that has fallen onto the ingesting star becomes unstable, leading to a thermonuclear explosion which makes the system brighter. Nova Scorpii 2007a (or V1280 Scorpii), was discovered by Japanese amateur astronomers on 4 February 2007 towards the constellation Scorpius ("the Scorpion"). For a few days, it became brighter and brighter, reaching its maximum on 17 February, to become one of the brightest novae of the last 35 years. At that time, it was easily visible with the unaided eye. Eleven days after reaching its maximum, astronomers witnessed the formation of dust around the object. Dust was present for more than 200 days, as the nova only slowly emerged from the smoke between October and November 2007. During these 200 days, the erupting source was screened out efficiently, becoming more than 10,000 times dimmer in the visual. An unprecedented high spatial resolution monitoring of the dust formation event was carried out with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), extending over more than 5 months following the discovery. The astronomers first used the AMBER near-infrared instrument, then, as the nova continued to produce dust at a high rate, they moved to using the MIDI mid-infrared instrument, that is more sensitive to the radiation of the hot dust. Similarly, as the nova became fainter, the astronomers switched from the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes to their larger brethren, the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes. With the interferometry mode, the resolution obtained is equivalent to using a telescope with a size between 35 and 71 metres (the distance between the 2 telescopes used). The first observations, secured 23 days after the discovery, showed that the source was very compact, less than 1 thousandth of an arcsecond (1 milli-arcsecond or mas), which is a size comparable to viewing one grain of sand from about 100 kilometres away. A few days later, after the detection of the major dust formation event, the source measured 13 mas. "It is most likely that the latter size corresponds to the diameter of the dust shell in expansion, while the size previously measured was an upper limit of the erupting source," explains lead author Olivier Chesneau. Over the following months the dusty shell expanded regularly, at a rate close to 2 million km/h. "This is the first time that the dust shell of a nova is spatially resolved and its evolution traced starting from the onset of its formation up to the point that it becomes too diluted to be seen", says co-author Dipankar Banerjee, from India. The measurement of the angular expansion rate, together with the knowledge of the expansion velocity, enables the astronomer to derive the distance of the object, in this case about 5500 light-years. "This is a new and promising technique for providing distances of close novae. This was made possible because the state of the art facility of the VLTI, both in terms of infrastructure and management of the observations, allows one to schedule such observations," says co-author Markus Wittkowski from ESO. Moreover, the q



NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The cooling in the Cas A



All In The Family: Chandra Finds Evidence That Massive Stars Are More Like The Sun Than Previously Believed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that massive stars may be much more like the Sun than previously thought. Astronomers determined that magnetic loop structures, similar to those on the Sun, may exist on the surface of so-called O-type stars, some of the most luminous stars in the universe. "This result is quite surprising," says Wayne Waldron of Emergent Information Technologies, Inc., and co-author of a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This bucks conventional wisdom to find that these stars may really resemble our Sun." Zeta Orionis Press Image and Caption Using Chandra's High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) in conjunction with a CCD X-ray camera, astronomers observed the star Zeta Orionis (one of the three belt stars in the constellation of Orion) and found strong X-ray line emission from ions of iron, oxygen, and other elements. The high-resolution X-ray spectrum enabled astronomers to determine that the X-ray emitting gas has a density 1000 times larger than predicted by current models, an amount comparable to the atmospheric density just above the surface of the star. For many years, solar astronomers have derived densities of X-ray producing plasmas on the Sun using emission lines of ions like helium, those with just two bound electrons remaining. Chandra allows this approach to be used for other stars and it has detected X-rays from silicon ions that have been stripped of 12 of their usual complement of 14 electrons. This ion is an especially useful diagnostic of plasma densities in the extremely ultraviolet-bright environment surrounding O-stars. Following the discovery of X-ray emission from O-class stars some 20 years ago, astronomers assumed that the X-rays were created in a hot corona near the star, similar to the Sun's corona. Those models were then abandoned in favor of the currently preferred explanation: the X-ray radiation is created by energetic shocks in the stellar winds (steady streams of matter ejected from many stars, including the Sun). However, these new Chandra spectral data reveal a much higher density for the hot, X-ray producing gas than predicted if such shock models were correct. The Chandra observations also contradict current understanding since the team of researchers found no evidence of expansion in the emission lines - a fundamental prediction for shock models. According to Waldron and co-author Joseph Cassinelli of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, their observations are best explained if the high density X-ray emission comes from confined structures of very hot plasma, similar to the magnetic loops found on the Sun. [For recent results on the Sun's magnetic loops, see the NASA HQ press release, "Fountains of Fire Illuminate Solar Mystery," issued September 26, 2000.] A challenge for scientists will be to explain how these magnetic loops are generated and maintained. Although O-type stars have inner convection zones in their core, they are believed to lack outer convection zones, an ingredient scientists considered necessary to create such hot and energetic plasmas confined in magnetic loops. Convection zones are regions where most of the energy is transported by fluid motions from hotter regions to cooler ones. Without these zones being located near the stellar surface, astronomers are currently unable to explain how such high-densities knots of X-rays could exist. O-type stars, often found in groups of similar stars known as "OB associations," are massive objects, which are typically 10 or more times the Sun's mass. These stars are known to have relatively short life spans, since they burn their nuclear fuel much faster than smaller stars. The star Waldron and Cassinelli observed with Chandra, Zeta Orionis, is classified as an O "supergiant," which is 30 times larger, 30 times more massive, and radiates one hundred thousand times more energy than the Sun. The binary system of Zeta Orionis can be seen with the unaided eye from both Hemispheres for much of the year. Viewing



Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing values with increases in the electric field magnitude above 3 kV/m. An extreme value analysis showed that VAHIRR values less than or equal to 10 dBZ-km showed that the probability of having an electric field magnitude larger than 3 kV/m was less than one in ten thousand. VAHIRR also was found to be sensitive at indicating anvil clouds that posed a threat of initiating a lightning flash. This project seeks to use VAHIRR to analyze its utility as a lightning cessation tool, particularly dealing with the threat posed by detached anvils. The results from this project will serve as a baseline effectiveness of radar ]based lightning cessation algorithms. This baseline will be used in the second, and concurrent work by the co ]author fs who are developing a lightning cessation algorithm based on dual ]polarimetric radar data. Ultimately, an accurate method for identifying lightning cessation can save money on lost manpower time as well as greatly improve lightning safety.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.



Three essays on environmental and natural resource economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doctoral dissertation is composed of three chapters on the governance of water and electricity infrastructure in China. All three chapters focus on the nexus of economy, environment, and energy. The first chapter studies the relationship of decentralization policies and the provision of public goods in the context of urban water services in China. Different degree of externalities of the public goods may affect the efficacy of decentralization policies. Using a comprehensive 2004 dataset for all the 661 cities, I measure how the clean water supply coverage rate and the wastewater treatment rate respond to these policies respectively. Results show that cities respond positively in their piped water supply coverage but not as well in their wastewater treatment, whereas they both respond positively to the mandatory information disclosure policy. The efficacy of decentralization policy is indeed compromised when externalities exist beyond the jurisdiction as suggested by the case of wastewater. Information disclosure policy, a motivational tool tied to the promotion of local officials, is shown to provide strong incentives for water services irrespective of their externalities. Private sector participation lowers the amount of government grant in the water sector but increases the tariff charged to customers. The second chapter of the dissertation examines whether competition reduces cost in the restructuring of the Chinese power sector. Although competition may reduce cost through technological innovation and advancement and diversification of ownership, higher transaction cost and price control may hinder its effectiveness. In this chapter, I describe the various restructuring programs over the years that affect the power plants. Then, I evaluate their impacts on the cost efficiency, measured by the factor demand of the power plants - labor, energy and materials. Using an industrial dataset from 1997 to 2004 of energy consuming coal power plants from the National Statistics Bureau, I first estimate the factor demand equations following the model developed in Fabrizio et al. (2007) to compare with the results from similar studies in the United States. Further, I model the cost structure of Chinese power plants using a more flexible translog specification. The results from these two models confirm the validity of the assumptions made based on the industry characteristics. The power plants located in the South reduced their labor demand after the Southern Grid separated from the National Grid in 2002. The third chapter examines how the unreliability of inputs affects productivity. Specifically, it studies how Chinese industrial enterprises respond to the unreliability of electric power. Since 2002, electricity blackouts have been hampering the industrial customers in China. Using a survey dataset of the National Statistics Bureau on eleven industries across the nation from 1999 to 2004 and an electricity dataset compiled from Electricity Yearbooks, my co-authors and I estimate the cost of power unreliability by quantifying the factor-neutral and the factor-biased productivity effects. Incorporating unreliability proxies into a flexible translog cost function and the value share equations, we estimate the whole system using seemingly unrelated regressions (SUREG) with cross equation constraints. We also calculate the marginal effect of factor unreliability on cost and on carbon emissions based on these estimates.

Wang, Qiong (Juliana)


Obituary: Geoffrey R. Burbidge (1925-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoffrey R. Burbidge, one of the principal architects of 20th century astrophysics, died in La Jolla, California on January 26, 2010. Together with his wife and life-long collaborator, Margaret Burbidge and several leading astrophysicists, he originated ideas that remain at the core of current astrophysical research. He was, of course, co-author of B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, & Hoyle 1957), one of the most influential scientific papers ever written, which explained how elements heavier than helium are synthesized in the interiors of stars. Geoff Burbidge's research interests spanned a wide range of topics. He was the first to estimate the colossal energetics of extragalactic radio sources. Together with Margaret and Kevin Prendergast he initiated the first systematic program to measure the masses of galaxies from their rotation curves. He published research that effectively began the field of "active galactic nuclei," and he made the fundamental suggestion that galactic X-ray sources were powered by viscous transport of energy in accretion disks surrounding neutron stars or black holes in binary star systems. After the discovery of quasars in 1963, he wrote influential papers on gravitational collapse as their energy source and an excellent book summarizing research on this subject. During the latter part of his career Geoff Burbidge became known as the "great contrarian" who remained skeptical about the cosmological origin of quasar redshifts and rejected the big bang theory. He was author of 355 publications. Geoff was born in 1925 September in Chipping Norton Oxfordshire, where he grew up and developed a lifelong passion for tennis. He attended the yearly matches at Wimbledon with his father, a ritual he maintained for most of his life. In 1946 he got his undergraduate degree in physics at the University of Bristol. After graduating he was assigned for eighteen months to a government ballistics laboratory in London where he became an expert in testing penetration bombs and other types of demolition devices, and where he decided to pursue a graduate career in physics. In 1947 he began studying theoretical physics with H. Massey at University College London and received his PhD in physics in 1950 with a thesis concerning capture of muons by atoms. During his stay in London, Geoff 's interest in astronomy was sparked upon meeting his future wife, Margaret Peachey, who was the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory; they married in 1948. Margaret was working on spectral variations in Be stars, and Geoff collaborated with her by participating in her observing runs and in performing theoretical analysis, beginning a unique and famous scientific partnership that lasted over 60 years. After Geoff obtained his PhD, he and Margaret went to the U.S. in 1951, he to Harvard and she to Yerkes Observatory. Between 1951 and 1957 the Burbidges held research appointments at Cambridge University, Carnegie Observatories, and Caltech. Between 1957 and 1962 Geoff and Margaret held faculty positions at the University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin. Between 1959 and 1969, Geoff, Margaret, and their Yerkes colleague Kevin Prendergast carried out the first comprehensive investigation of galaxy masses. Geoff Burbidge, along with Margaret, joined the faculty of the University of California, San Diego in 1962, where, except for short stints back in the U.K. and his directorship of Kitt Peak National Observatory, he stayed until he passed away. Burbidge's research focused on quasars after their discovery in 1963. He participated in the discovery of quasar absorption lines in 1966, which led to much fruitful research concerning the foreground absorbing gas. Burbidge also contributed in many other ways to the astronomical community. He was editor of Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (i.e., ARAA) from 1973 to 2004. The editorial committees regarded him as an excellent editor who kept his scientific prejudices out of the discussions and who was mainly responsible for the superb r

Wolfe, Arthur



Involving Undergraduates and K-14 Teachers in Research: Measuring and Modeling Crustal Deformation in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from the NSF OEDG, we initiated a project to: (1) involve undergraduate students and K-14 teachers to research in geology, and (2) use GPS to monitor deformation across the plate boundary zone in southern California, and to model partitioning on specific faults that account for that deformation in the upper crust. Starting in July 2002, we collected campaign-style GPS data twice a year from 13 sites along a line across the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults near CSUSB. Our field crews have included 43 students and teachers in our three campaigns to date. These include 30 undergraduate and 3 graduate students, 1 middle school and 8 high school teachers, and 1 community college professor. We are also modeling site velocities from the SCEC Crustal Deformation Velocity Map. Our preliminary results are presented in session ED14 at this meeting. Our most recent campaign (June 2003) was expanded to include workshops. As before, the field crews got one day of hands-on training in setup and operation of the geodetic-quality receivers and antennae. In addition, we held a one-day workshop before the campaign on the active tectonics of southern California, elastic rebound theory, and the scientific goals of the project. After the campaign another one-day workshop was held to plot GPS position results from previous campaigns for a station crew members had occupied during the campaign, and to estimate a velocity for that station. Participants also tried modeling SCEC site velocity data from a transect across the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Elsinore faults. Four of the co-authors on this abstract were campaign participants, and have continued to work with faculty on processing our data and on modeling SCEC data. Students (geology and other majors) felt that participation in the campaign stimulated their interest in geology, and that their participation was a worthwhile experience. Most students are interested in participating in upcoming campaigns, and would recommend the program to other students. The ethnicities of the students include: African American (including Jamaican-American) 3; Hispanic 11; Native American 1; Pacific Islander 1; Asian 1; White 16. Over half of the teachers felt that their participation in the project would very much help them to inspire students to become interested in the Earth Sciences, and all said they would recommend this program to other teachers. All of the teachers felt that their participation was a worthwhile experience, and most would like to participate again. The ethnicities of the teachers include: African American 1; Hispanic 1; Asian 1; White 7. These teachers come from schools in which 20-90% of the students are from ethnic groups that are under-represented in the geosciences. The GPS campaigns and workshops successfully involved students and teachers in active research. Almost all of the participants had a positive experience. One-dimensional modeling of geodetic data from transects across the plate boundary allows students to see how well a particular model fits the data, thus providing a good introduction to the modeling process. One student is learning to use Simplex to conduct further modeling. Another student is using Auto-GIPSY to process our GPS data. The K-14 teacher involvement is forging closer ties with their schools and their students, which we anticipate will help unveil geology as a potential career.

Fryxell, J. E.; Hams, J.; Barley, M.; Hobart, K.; Ramirez, J.; McGill, S.; Lyzenga, G.



The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also performed. A Kipp and Zonen system for monitoring direct and diffuse broadband radiative fluxes will also be in operation soon, as well as an ICOS/RAMCES CO2 and CH4 monitoring instrument. Through this unprecedented effort and with the support from ChArMEx, ADEME, and CORSiCA programs (, this observatory represents so far the most achieved French atmospheric station having the best set of instruments for measuring in-situ reactive gases and aerosols. It stands out as the station of not one laboratory but of a large number (see list of co-authors). It provides "real time" information useful to the local air quality network (Qualitair Corse, concerning EU regulated parameters (O3, PMx). This station aims providing quality controlled climatically relevant gas/aerosol database following the recommendations of the EU-FP7 ACTRIS infrastructure, EMEP and WMO-GAW programs. Atmospheric datasets are currently available at the MISTRALS database ( and soon at the ACTRIS & GAW databases. After a brief presentation of the Cape Corsica Station (location, climatology, instrumental settings ...), we present here the first months of aerosols properties (optical / chemical / particle size) obtained at this station. Acknowledgements: the station is mainly supported by ADEME, CNRS-INSU, CEA, CTC, EMD, FEDER, and Météo-France.