These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint-St. Birgitta  

PubMed Central

Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13th century (1215–1270 cal AD, 2? confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains. PMID:20169108

Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Goran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellstrom, Anna; Allen, Marie

2010-01-01

2

2006: PUBLICATIONS WITH IRAM STAFF MEMBERS AS (CO-)AUTHORS  

E-print Network

2006: PUBLICATIONS WITH IRAM STAFF MEMBERS AS (CO-)AUTHORS 1123. CONTINUUM EMISSION IN NGC 1068 AND NGC 3147: INDICATIONS FOR A TURNOVER IN THE CORE SPECTRA M. Krips, A. Eckart, R. Neri, R. Schödel, S AT 86 GHz F. Herpin, A. Baudry, C. Thum, D. Morris, H. Wiesemeyer 2006, A&A 450, 667 1129. METHANOL

RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)

3

Media Co-authoring Practices in Responsive Physical Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to devising co-authoring practices of digital media in physical environments. The discussion\\u000a draws from a design case addressing media literacy, and focuses on the problem of devising new forms of authoring practices\\u000a enabled by interactive features in the environment. The design is approached as a collaborative effort to create new practices\\u000a and address both formal

Carlo Jacucci; Helen Pain; John Lee

4

Co Authors  

E-print Network

The aim of the present study was to highlight the comparative nootropic effects of Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis using two validated models of memory namely jumping box and elevated plus maze. Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis are regarded as the botanical source of Shankhpushpi along with Clitorea ternatea and Canscora decussata. Shankhpushpi, an important drug of indigenous system of medicine is known as a brain tonic, alterative and laxative. However various authors on Indian medicinal plants have different opinion about its correct botanical source. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (2 % Tween 80 suspension), standard treatment (Piracetam, 200mg/kg body weight), alcoholic extracts of Evolvulous alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis (250mg/kg body weight) respectively, one hour prior to the evaluation of behavioral parameters. The results indicate that alcoholic extracts of Evolvulous alsinoides exhibited superior nootropic activity as compared to Convolvulus pluricaulis in terms of time spent in the enclosed arm in plus maze model and the mean avoidance response on the jumping box model This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net

Preeti Kothiyal

5

Bob Muenchen, Author R for SAS and SPSS Users, Co-Author R for Stata Users  

E-print Network

Bob Muenchen, Author R for SAS and SPSS Users, Co-Author R for Stata Users muenchen of SPSS Language + package + environment for graphics and data analysis Free and open source Created Many packages can run R (SAS, SPSS, Excel...) Its object orientation "does the right thing" Its

Papautsky, Ian

6

A novel way to quantify co-author contributions Cagan H. Sekercioglu  

E-print Network

) of two scientists mean little, a substantial difference, say 50% or more, is likely to indicate . Not surprisingly, this publication was never cited, co-author numbers kept rising, and some academics now think) always sum to one, regardless of the author number or how authors are ranked. Author rank can

Sekercioglu, Cagan Hakki

7

Profit (p)-Index: The Degree to Which Authors Profit from Co-Authors  

PubMed Central

Current metrics for estimating a scientist’s academic performance treat the author’s publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual’s own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the ‘profit (p)-index’, which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award), and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80%) and that researchers’ relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods introduced here may thus provide a more fair impression of a scientist’s autonomous academic performance. PMID:23573211

Aziz, Nasir Ahmad; Rozing, Maarten Pieter

2013-01-01

8

Predicting Co-Author Relationship in Medical Co-Authorship Networks  

PubMed Central

Research collaborations are encouraged because a synergistic effect yielding good results often appears. However, creating and organizing a strong research group is a difficult task. One of the greatest concerns of an individual researcher is locating potential collaborators whose expertise complement his best. In this paper, we propose a method that makes link predictions in co-authorship networks, where topological features between authors such as Adamic/Adar, Common Neighbors, Jaccard's Coefficient, Preferential Attachment, Katz?, and PropFlow may be good indicators of their future collaborations. Firstly, these topological features were systematically extracted from the network. Then, supervised models were used to learn the best weights associated with different topological features in deciding co-author relationships. Finally, we tested our models on the co-authorship networks in the research field of Coronary Artery Disease and obtained encouraging accuracy (the precision, recall, F1 score and AUC were, respectively, 0.696, 0.677, 0.671 and 0.742 for Logistic Regression, and respectively, 0.697, 0.678, 0.671 and 0.743 for SVM). This suggests that our models could be used to build and manage strong research groups. PMID:24991920

Yu, Qi; Long, Chao; Lv, Yanhua; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang

2014-01-01

9

World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2007, p. 19 Craig A. Severance, CPA is co-author of The  

E-print Network

Page 1 1 World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2007, p. 19 Craig A. Severance, CPA is co-author of The Economics of Nuclear and Coal Power (Praeger 1976), and former Assistant to the Chairman and to Commerce of New Nuclear Power Craig A. Severance Several U.S. utilities are now advancing proposals for a new

Laughlin, Robert B.

10

25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php  

E-print Network

1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Now on Science for Everyone Page 2 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Search://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Links EvoS The Evolution Institute Binghamton Neighborhood

Gardner, Andy

11

Illustration: Bibliometric network visualization of organizations affiliated to KTH Royal Institute of Technology and University of Tokyo co-authored items in ISI Web of Science.  

E-print Network

of Technology and University of Tokyo co-authored items in ISI Web of Science. Bibliometric Overview-authorship .......................................................................................................................6 Method and publication properties A search was conducted in ISI Web of Science where co

Haviland, David

12

Books, co-authored 3 Ernst, J., M. C. Monroe, and B. Simmons. 2009. Evaluating your environmental education program. Washington DC: NAAEE.  

E-print Network

, in Day, B.A., and M. C. Monroe (eds). 2000. Environmental education and communication strategies.A., and M. C. Monroe (eds). Environmental education and communication strategies for a sustainable worldBooks, co-authored 3 Ernst, J., M. C. Monroe, and B. Simmons. 2009. Evaluating your environmental

Hill, Jeffrey E.

13

Implementation of an onto-wiki toolkit using web services to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medical ontology co-authoring and analysis.  

PubMed

The ICD11 draft was launched by the WHO in order to define ICD ontology by selected experts using a wiki-like structured joint-authoring tool. The challenge of this expert-/community-based ontology co-authoring is how to manage and process the ontology objects in the wiki page. The wiki-tools in the market require lots of time and human effort to organise, process and extract the ontology content from the wiki page for review and analysis. Therefore, this article is to investigate how to apply semantic web technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ontology co-authoring and analysis. An onto-wiki toolkit that provides a set of web services is proposed for ontology creators to create, co-edit, organise, map and relate the wiki-like structured ontology objects on a wiki page for review and analysis. By using the onto-wiki toolkits, the pace of terminology standardisation, e-patient records integration, exchange and sharing can be improved. PMID:19306201

Lau, Adela S M

2009-01-01

14

CURRICULUM VITAE Birgitta Johnson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

300.04, Cultural History of Rap (Spring 2012) --History of Music 400.01, African American Sacred Music, Ethnomusicology "`Oh, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing': Music and Worship in African American Megachurches of Los College, Atlanta, Georgia, Music Post-Ph.D. Employment (See Teaching Experience for course titles taught

Kovalev, Leonid

15

Publications Books authored or co-authored  

E-print Network

nd edition Southern Nursery Association, Atlanta, GA, 102 p. Books edited or co-edited: None Chapters Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises. CRC Press, Atlanta, GA. Monographs: None Refereed Journal of Small Fruit and Viticulture 1:27-34. 9. Ruter, J. M. 1992. Growth and flowering response of butterfly

Radcliffe, David

16

Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

Kim, Hyun-Sook

2009-01-01

17

Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Matsunaga, Y.

2012-12-04

18

Hue, saturation, and depth in planar images Birgitta Dresp-Langley* & Adam Reeves$  

E-print Network

to create landscape depth and figure-ground effects. Later in the evolution of visual art, modern architects to human observers. Luminance and saturation of the inducers was uniform on each trial, but varied across in the genesis of form, and in particular figure-ground percepts in the absence of chromatic stereopsis. hal

19

Avhandlingar 1963 Birgitta Tamm, Auditorium and palatium. A study on assembly-rooms in Roman  

E-print Network

1999 Gunnel Ekroth, The sacrifial rituals of Greek hero-cults in the Archaic to the early Hellenistic Civitate (Murlo) 1988 Kåre Fagerström, Greek Iron Age architecture. Developments through changing times votive sculpture. Part 2. Functional analysis 1994 Claude Björk, Early pottery in Greece. A technological

20

To Co-Author or Not to Co-Author: How to Write, Publish, and Negotiate Issues of Authorship with Undergraduate Research Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Matthew Chumchal (Texas Christian University;)

2009-10-27

21

Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2008 Total Published = 158 Articles (3 co-authored with undergraduate students and 132 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

. J. Huang, "A milliseconds microfluidic mixer based on single bubble streaming," the 12th. Kosai, M. Veiseh, J. Xu, and M. Q. Zhang, "Influence of cell adhesion and spreading on impedance and Gas Journal, June 2008, pp. 36-44. Cetinkaya, M*., Malvadkar, N.*, and Demirel, M. C., "Power

Demirel, Melik C.

22

Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2006 Total Published = 201 articles (1 co-authored with undergraduate students and 86 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

**, P., G. Cai*, R. Akarapu*, and A.E. Segall, "Controlled-Fracture of Thick Ceramics using Dual CO2 of Niobium Powder Injection Molding - Part I: Feedstock and Injection Molding," Int. J. Refractory Metals

Demirel, Melik C.

23

Engineering Science and Mechanics Publications 2010 Total Published= 187 Articles (3 co-authored with undergraduate students and 104 co-authored with graduate students)  

E-print Network

Particles in Cold Spray Coating," Proceedings of the 16th US National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Processing," Material Research Innovations, 14(1), 3-8 (2010) Akarapu, R., A. R. Nassar*, S. M. Copley and J. A. Todd, "Numerical Model of a Laser-Sustained Argon Plasma", Journal of Laser Applications, 21

Demirel, Melik C.

24

Max Baumhefner & Ed Pike, Co-Authors Andreas Klugescheid, Contributing Author  

E-print Network

is to safeguard the Earth: its people, its plants and animals and the natural systems on which all life depends. 3 in California are already clean vehicles Source: EPA "Beyond Tailpipe Emissions" calculator #12;The Plug: BMW #12;Conclusions 19 Thinking Beyond the Roof Co-promotion Co-education Coordination Market

California at Davis, University of

25

OSU Authors and Editors (published in 2011) Book Title Authors, Co-Authors & Editors Department College  

E-print Network

Michael C. Qian Food Science and Technology Agricultural Sciences Wading for Bugs: Exploring Streams-Mendez School of Language, Culture, and Society Liberal Arts Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case College Small Animals Pediatrics Michelle Kutzler Michael Peterson Animal Sciences Agricultural Sciences

Escher, Christine

26

A paper in Nature co-authored by Nobel prizewinning scientist Linda Buck has been  

E-print Network

that expressed a plant protein in neurons that have a specific odour receptor. The plant protein can travel across the junctions between neurons, allow- ing researchers to map neuronal networks by pinpointing of the discovery. www.nature.com/ news/specials/flores/ index.html 13 NATURE|Vol 452|6 March 2008 NEWS

Movileanu, Liviu

27

Empirical Study on Collaborative Writing: What Do Co-authors Do, Use, and Like?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do people work when they are collaborating to write a document? What kind of tools do they use and, in particular, do\\u000a they resort to groupware for this task? Forty-one people filled out a questionnaire placed on the World Wide Web. In spite\\u000a of the existence of specialized collaborative writing tools, most respondents reported using individual word processors and

Sylvie Noël; Jean-marc Robert

2004-01-01

28

The Co-Authored Curriculum: High-School Teachers' Reasons for Including Students' Extra-Curricular Interests in Their Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing evidence of a gap between curricular requirements and what students actually want to know. One of the factors influencing what is taught in the classroom is teachers' attitudes towards integrating their students' interests. This study investigated what prompts high-school teachers who prepare students for national matriculation…

Hagay, Galit; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Peleg, Ran

2013-01-01

29

Expertise localization discovered through correlation of key term distribution and community detection in co-author networks  

E-print Network

We present an efficient and effective automatic method for determining the research focus of scientific communities found in co-authorship networks. It utilizes bibliographic data from a database to form the network, followed by fastgreedy community detection to identify communities within large connected components of the network. Text analysis techniques are used to identify community-specific significant terms which represent the topic of the community. In order to greatly reduce computation time, the `Topics' field of each publication in the network is analyzed rather than its entire text. Using this text analysis approach requires a certain level of statistical confidence,therefore analyzing very small communities is not effective with this technique. We find a minimum community size threshold of 8 coauthored papers; below this value, the community's topic cannot be reliably identified with this method. Additionally, we consider the implications this study has regarding factors involved in the formation ...

Durante, Joe; Serpa, F G; Javier, Artjay

2014-01-01

30

New publication on female genital mutilation. Interviews with Nahid Toubia and Anika Rahman, co-authors of Female Genital Mutilation: a Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide.  

PubMed

Female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FC/FGM) is the collective name given to several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals. The WHO has grouped them in four categories: type 1: Clitoridectomy; type 2: Excision; type 3: Infibulation; and type 4: Unclassified. Reports indicate that an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone FC/FGM and that it is practiced in 28 countries in the sub-Saharan and northeastern regions of Africa. As part of the growing movement to stop this human rights violation, numerous UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) and RAINBO work together to monitor government responses. Presented in a questionnaire form, two authors Anika Rahman, CRLP's International Program Director, and Nahid Toubia, Director of RAINBO, discuss their recent book collaboration, "Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide". The issues covered in the interview include the purpose of the book, reasons why FC/FGM is considered a human rights violation rather than a threat to women's health, role of international agencies in the eradication of the practice, and the effects of formal laws and policies in eliminating FC/FGM. PMID:12296161

Grossman, S

2000-09-01

31

The Role of Postgraduate Students in Co-Authoring Open Educational Resources to Promote Social Inclusion: A Case Study at the University of Cape Town  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many universities worldwide, the University of Cape Town (UCT) in South Africa has joined the open educational resources (OER) movement, making a selection of teaching and learning materials available through its OER directory, UCT OpenContent. However, persuading and then supporting busy academics to share their teaching materials as OER…

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

2012-01-01

32

About Michal Kzek's activites in popularization of science Prof. Michal Kzek is author or co-author of about 150 such popularization works, including  

E-print Network

About Michal Kízek's activites in popularization of science Prof. Michal Kízek is author or co spectrum of Czech, Slovak and international journals popularizing science, including Mathematical Spectrum-author of about 150 such popularization works, including 10 books. Apart from giving many public lectures

Savicky, Petr

33

inverter. He is the author or co-author of more than 300 publica-tions in his research fields including the book `Control in Power  

E-print Network

Elteknik. He received the 1995 Angelos Award for his contribution in modulation technique and control generators can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century until they were almost disappeared because they enable very advanced and inexpensive types of control, new techniques of reactive power

Simões, Marcelo Godoy

34

Publications for Michael O. Garcia Authored or co-authored of 100+ published papers in the scientific literature and 3 geologic/  

E-print Network

, geology, geophysics and geochemistry of Mahukona volcano, Hawaii. Bulletin of Volcanology (in review Loa volcano, Hawaii. (in review) Pietruszka, A.J., Norman, M.D., Garcia, M.O., Marske, J., Burns, D on the shield evolution of Kauai and Niihau. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, B08412, doi:10.1029/2009JB

Wang, Yuqing

35

LEADERSHIP BOARD HEAD OF DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

) Henrik Morin Inger Hjalmarsson Karin Persson Kenneth Olwig Linnea Oskarsson Ragnhild Claesson Ã?sa Ahrland Lindgren Birgitta Winberg Christina Hedman Thomas Dahlberg Wictoria Jogmark ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE VALUES

36

Commonplace Divinity: Feminine Topoi in the Rhetoric of Medieval Women Mystics  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the works of five medieval women mystics—Hildegard of Bingen, Hadewijch of Brabant, Angela of Foligno, Birgitta of Sweden, and Julian of Norwich—to argue that these writers used feminine topoi, commonplace images of women...

Cedillo, Christina

2012-10-19

37

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

in the chapter which serves neo-latin news 239 as an introduction to the poems; in the commentary section, the writer gets back to several questions with further details. Ecloga prima, printed in 1599 in Hamburg, was written on the death of Birgitta... in the chapter which serves neo-latin news 239 as an introduction to the poems; in the commentary section, the writer gets back to several questions with further details. Ecloga prima, printed in 1599 in Hamburg, was written on the death of Birgitta...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2009-01-01

38

Neurolinguistic Papers: Proceedings of the Finnish Conference of Neurolinguistics (2nd, Joensuu, Finland, May 31-June 1, 1985). AFinLA Series No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of papers on neurolinguistics includes: "Communication Strategies in Aphasia" (Elisabeth Ahlsen); "Speech Planning in the Light of Stuttering" (Ann-Marie Alme); "L. S. Tsvetkova's Aphasia Rehabilitation Method and Its Applications" (Ritva Hanninen); "Semantic Aphasia and Luria's Neurolinguistic Model" (Birgitta Johnsen); "Aphasic…

Niemi, Jussi, Ed.; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi, Ed.

39

Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause  

E-print Network

Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause Birgitta S, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how

Tullberg, Birgitta

40

Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

Post, David

2001-01-01

41

A Patient-defined “Best Case” of Multiple Sclerosis Related to the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Chronically ill people are frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Some patients experience great benefits from their use of CAM, like patient “XX” in this case report. XX was diagnosed with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis in 2004 and has reported a “best case” after the use of Dr Birgitta Brunes' unconventional treatment. The patient reports that many of her symptoms that, according to her neurologist, were irreversible are gone or have been greatly reduced. Such patient-defined “best cases” related to the use of CAM should be further explored to optimize and safeguard patients' treatment decisions and treatment outcomes. PMID:24278800

Drageset, Brit J.; Fønnebø, Vinjar

2012-01-01

42

CURRICULUM VITAE Shane Greene  

E-print Network

for Research, Indiana University. (Co-authored with Christiana Ochoa, Bradley Levinson, and Beverly Stoeltje, Indiana University. (Principal author; co-authored with Jeffrey Gould, John McDowell, Daniel Suslak, David

Scheiber, Laura L.

44

Credit where credit's due: accounting for co-authorship in citation counts.  

PubMed

I propose a new method (Pareto weights) to objectively attribute citations to co-authors. Previous methods either profess ignorance about the seniority of co-authors (egalitarian weights) or are based in an ad hoc way on the order of authors (rank weights). Pareto weights are based on the respective citation records of the co-authors. Pareto weights are proportional to the probability of observing the number of citations obtained. Assuming a Pareto distribution, such weights can be computed with a simple, closed-form equation but require a few iterations and data on a scholar, her co-authors, and her co-authors' co-authors. The use of Pareto weights is illustrated with a group of prominent economists. In this case, Pareto weights are very different from rank weights. Pareto weights are more similar to egalitarian weights but can deviate up to a quarter in either direction (for reasons that are intuitive). PMID:21957320

Tol, Richard S J

2011-10-01

45

AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering 1 Article title: Interpenetrating Polymeric Networks  

E-print Network

AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Contact Author 1;AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Co-Author 1 Article

Peppas, Nicholas A.

46

Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

2008-01-01

47

2014 Interdisciplinary Graduate and Professional Symposium Winners  

E-print Network

Activation. Destanie Rose, Inmunology; $100 | Co-authors: Milo Careaga; Houa Yang; Melissa Bauman; Paul M. Robinson. 2nd Place - Self-Determination as a Function of Economic Pressure and Family Straw. Nardrapee Karuna, Biological and Agricultural Engineering; $50 | Co- authors: Lu Zhang; Jeffrey H

Yoo, S. J. Ben

48

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

49

Essays in cooperation and repeated games  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores cooperation when formal contracts and legal institutions are imperfect. The first chapter (co-authored with Isaiah Andrews) considers how a principal allocates business among a group of agents ...

Barron, Daniel (Daniel Vincent)

2013-01-01

50

Center for Learning & Attention Disorders Portsmouth, New Hampshire  

E-print Network

Center for Learning & Attention Disorders Portsmouth, New Hampshire Co-author, Executive Skills President, National Association of School Psychologists (NASP); and International School Psychology Association Recipient, NASP Lifetime Achievement Award (2006); and International School Psychology

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

51

2011 Awards Gala | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Founder and CEO, Oracle Paul G. Rogers Health Communications Award Mehmet Oz, MD, and Michael Roizen, MD, co-authors, YOU: The Owner’s Manual Distinguished Medical Science Award Purnell W. Choppin, MD, President Emeritus, Howard ...

52

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...

53

Professor Philip W. Kuchel, University of Sydney, Australia Modeling Cellular Metabolism  

E-print Network

Cellular Metabolism: Glycolysis, the Urea Cycle and Membrane Transport Measured Using of differential rate equations for the individual enzymes and membrane transport proteins based on enzyme kinetics, and the co-authored book "Modelling Metabolism

Zhao, Yuxiao

54

Oct. 7, 2013 Comedy and climate change by stand-up economist, Yoram Bauman  

E-print Network

to fight climate change is with the tools of economics," according to Yoram Bauman, an environmental academic paper ("Climate sensitivity: should the climate tail wag the policy dog?") was co-authored with UW

Pedersen, Tom

55

The Golden Years Don't Glitter for All  

MedlinePLUS

... as part of a special series on aging. "Economic theory can predict a dip in well-being ... study co-author Angus Deaton, a professor of economics and international affairs at Princeton University, said in ...

56

Essays in financial economics  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of three empirical essays in financial economics, examining the consequences of imperfect financial markets for households, small business and house prices. In the first chapter (co-authored with Meta ...

Severino Díaz, Felipe

2014-01-01

57

Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.

2008-10-06

58

Where Does Mercury in the Arctic Environment Come From, and How Does it Get There?  

E-print Network

Dastoor, Tom Douglas, Dorothy Durnford, Mike Goodsite, Robie Macdonald, Derek Muir, John Munthe, Peter? Coordinating authors: John Munthe, Michael Goodsite Co-authors: Torunn Berg, John Chételat, Amanda Cole, Ashu

Douglas, Thomas A.

59

Laundry Detergent Pods Pose Poisoning Risk to Kids, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... to kids," said report co-author Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research and ... if they bring these products into their homes," Smith added. "We're recommending that they not use ...

60

Essays in credit markets and development economics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 (co-authored with Ali Choudhary) exploits exogenous variation in the amount of public information available to banks about a firm to empirically evaluate the importance of adverse selection in the credit market. ...

Jain, Anil (Anil Kumar)

2014-01-01

61

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COGENERATION POLICY  

E-print Network

Rawson and John Sugar Co-Authors John Sugar Manager PUBLIC PROGRAMS OFFICE Valerie T. Hall Deputy to the development of this report by the Energy Commission's Distributed Generation Policy Advisory Team; Melissa...................................................................................................................5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLICY ROADMAP

62

Essays in empirical law and economics/  

E-print Network

This dissertation, which is a collection of three essays, uses empirical methods to study questions at the intersection of law and economics. The first chapter, co-authored with Joshua Fischman, explores how supervision ...

Lem, Jacklin Chou

2010-01-01

63

Artificial Sweeteners May Raise Blood Sugar Levels  

MedlinePLUS

... study's co-author Eran Segal, a professor of computer science and applied mathematics at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. Even though the human and mouse studies mainly focused on saccharine, the ...

64

Further results on stability of networked control systems: a Lyapunov Daniele Carnevale and Andrew R. Teel and Dragan Nesic  

E-print Network

and Andrew R. Teel and Dragan Nesi´c Abstract-- Simple Lyapunov proofs are given for an improved (relative], [2]). Following pioneering work of Walsh and co-authors [13], [12], we consider the problem

Nesic, Dragan

65

Registration begins April 7-11, 2014 CEEN 405/505: Numerical Methods for Engineers  

E-print Network

on a textbook co-authored by the instructor ("Numerical Methods for Engineers", by D.V. Griffiths and I.M. Smith, predictor- corrector methods, boundary value problems. g Interpolation and curve fitting (Chapter 5

66

Three essays on sovereign debt and financial markets  

E-print Network

This dissertation analyzes different aspects of the actions of borrowing and repaying debts by governments in both domestic and international financial markets. In Chapter 1, which is co-authored with Guido Sandleris and ...

Alessandro, Mauro

2011-01-01

67

Encouraging Your Baby's Babbling May Speed Language Development  

MedlinePLUS

... author Julie Gros-Louis, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Iowa, said in a ... co-author Andrew King, a senior scientist in psychology at Indiana University, said in the news release. ...

68

Depression Research - The STAR*D Study - Relief in Hours?  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. The STAR*D Study New research reveals that, by working ... Southwestern Medical Center and co-authors of the STAR*D study. Photo courtesy of University of Texas ...

69

Contagion by shared financial intermediary in the pre-1914 London sovereign debt market  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of one empirical essay on contagion (co-authored with Joao Manoel Pinho de Mello¹ and Marcelo de Paiva Abreu²). We document a novel type of international financial contagion whose driving force is ...

Sodre, Antonio Carlos de Azevedo

2011-01-01

70

Quantum Effects in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy TomᚠMan?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

2014-08-01

71

A Small World of Citations? The Influence of Collaboration Networks on Citation Practices  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the proximity of authors to those they cite using degrees of separation in a co-author network, essentially using collaboration networks to expand on the notion of self-citations. While the proportion of direct self-citations (including co-authors of both citing and cited papers) is relatively constant in time and across specialties in the natural sciences (10% of references) and the social sciences (20%), the same cannot be said for citations to authors who are members of the co-author network. Differences between fields and trends over time lie not only in the degree of co-authorship which defines the large-scale topology of the collaboration network, but also in the referencing practices within a given discipline, computed by defining a propensity to cite at a given distance within the collaboration network. Overall, there is little tendency to cite those nearby in the collaboration network, excluding direct self-citations. These results are interpreted in terms of small-scale structure, field-specific citation practices, and the value of local co-author networks for the production of knowledge and for the accumulation of symbolic capital. Given the various levels of integration between co-authors, our findings shed light on the question of the availability of ‘arm's length’ expert reviewers of grant applications and manuscripts. PMID:22413016

Wallace, Matthew L.; Lariviere, Vincent; Gingras, Yves

2012-01-01

72

A small world of citations? The influence of collaboration networks on citation practices.  

PubMed

This paper examines the proximity of authors to those they cite using degrees of separation in a co-author network, essentially using collaboration networks to expand on the notion of self-citations. While the proportion of direct self-citations (including co-authors of both citing and cited papers) is relatively constant in time and across specialties in the natural sciences (10% of references) and the social sciences (20%), the same cannot be said for citations to authors who are members of the co-author network. Differences between fields and trends over time lie not only in the degree of co-authorship which defines the large-scale topology of the collaboration network, but also in the referencing practices within a given discipline, computed by defining a propensity to cite at a given distance within the collaboration network. Overall, there is little tendency to cite those nearby in the collaboration network, excluding direct self-citations. These results are interpreted in terms of small-scale structure, field-specific citation practices, and the value of local co-author networks for the production of knowledge and for the accumulation of symbolic capital. Given the various levels of integration between co-authors, our findings shed light on the question of the availability of 'arm's length' expert reviewers of grant applications and manuscripts. PMID:22413016

Wallace, Matthew L; Larivière, Vincent; Gingras, Yves

2012-01-01

73

Using GIS to Answer the "Whys" of "Where" in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors build upon the use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) in U.S. history and in current demographic studies, using examples from co-author Herschel Sarnoff's classroom in the Watts section of Los Angeles. They discuss theoretical and conceptual approaches that support student learning with GIS and provide resources…

Alibrandi, Marsha; Sarnoff, Herschel M.

2006-01-01

74

Arthur M. (Andy) Horne, who served as interim dean of the University of Georgia College of Education from  

E-print Network

bullying and aggressive behavior. He is co-author or editor of 11 books and manuals, many dealing with family counseling and therapy and bullying, and has made more than 200 presentations at professional prevention in middle schools. He also received more than $1.5 million in grants from the U.S. Department

Scott, Robert A.

75

Keeping Students and Schools Safe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an interview with a noted expert on school violence who recently co-authored the book Targeting Innocence--When Terrorism Comes to School. Central to school safety are supportive bonds with adults who help create school climates free of bullying. The expert interviewed is Michael Dorn. He recommends that in regard to…

Dufresne, Jerilyn

2005-01-01

76

JPL stories: story on the story (series) Careering through JPL, presented by Alice M. Fairhurst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alice Fairhurst, co-author of Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, presented an enthusiastic overview of her tenure as a JPL career development and mentoring coordinator (1991-2001). Among other things, Alice is an expert in Keirseyian Temperament and Myers-Briggs typology.

Hendrickson, S.

2002-01-01

77

DONOR SPOTLIGHT BUSINESS LINKAGE STROKE TREATMENT  

E-print Network

include a private trackside marquee, a delicious lunch menu, and a drinks package. Places are limited, so in conjunction with current treatments," study co-author Associate Professor Thiruma Arumugam of the UQ School molecule of the year by the FDA in America for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma, and is likely to come out

Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

78

Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to illustrate the benefits of collaboration between scientists from psychology and computer science, namely machine learning, this book contains the following chapters, most of which are co-authored by scholars from both sides: (1) "Introduction: What Do You Mean by 'Collaborative Learning'?" (Pierre Dillenbourg); (2) "Learning Together:…

Dillenbourg, Pierre, Ed.

79

Positioning New Patterns of Privilege in Learning: A Response to Ware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special series represents collective courage because what is willing to be risked may be profound. At center is a willingness to reach out and cultivate new conversations on disability. Indeed, the artists who contribute to Ware's article are key co-authors; their art ushers us into a new disability literacy that extends and challenges…

Paxton-Buursma, Debra J.; Mariage, Troy V.

2011-01-01

80

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS  

E-print Network

dedicated to recruitment, but very little data is being gathered on why students switch out of the program at-risk students through her courses. Additionally, she has co-authored the Computer Graphics ­ organizing papers into sessions, selecting session chairs, create conference schedule ­ select best student

Gooch, Amy

81

Healthy Home Assessment Program: The Wampanoag Environmental Life Learning (W.E.L.L.)  

E-print Network

is a Certified Indoor Air Quality Professional (CIAQP) and is principal scientist of May Indoor Air and indoor air quality problems in thousands of homes, schools and offices across the country. A nationally known speaker, he is author or co-author of four books on indoor air quality - published by Johns

82

Dr. Nabil R. Adam At Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey, Dr. Nabil R. Adam is a Professor of Computers and  

E-print Network

web search, this technology may also allow the development of intelligent internet agents Systems, and International Journal of Intelligent and Cooperative Information Systems. He has co- authored), NOAA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the National

83

Coming out in Spain: 'Los Invisibles Published Thursday 24th February 11  

E-print Network

) history month with the translation into Spanish of his groundbreaking history of male homosexuality in Spain. His co-authored 'Los Invisibles': A History of Male Homosexuality in Spain, 1850 focus. The book concentrates on the changing ways male homosexuality was represented in Spanish public

Berzins, M.

84

M i s s i o n t o S a t u r n E d u c a t o r G u i d e Reading, Writing & Rings!  

E-print Network

with educators, teachers, and school administrators. --Laurie Thompson, Manager The Writing Teams for "Reading, Washington Elementary School West Contra Costa Unified School District, Pt. Richmond, CA Co-Authors Grades 3�4 Linda Block, Bay Area Writing Project, Teacher-Consultant Fifth Grade Teacher, Independent Elementary

Waliser, Duane E.

85

Livestock's Role in Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editor's note: Frank Mitloehner, Ph.D., is an associate professor who has extensively researched the impacts of livestock emissions on air quality. This article summarizes Mitloehner and co-authors's examination on livestock emissions in regard to the United Nation's global life cycle assessment on food animal production entitled, \\

Frank Mitloehner

86

Rutgers-Newark newsmakers (MarchMay 2007)  

E-print Network

climate change and global warming, as well as in the March 20 Herald-News. He authored an o-ed piece on global warming and climate change for The Record on March 4. Clement A. Price, history, was featured and Sciences Alexander Motyl, political science, co-authored an article, "The Myth of Russian Resurgence

Hanson, Stephen José

87

Teaching with Folk Stories of the Hmong: An Activity Book. Learning through Folklore Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a guide for teaching students about Hmong culture while building appreciation of worldwide cultural diversity. After providing an overview of the distinct history and customs of the Hmong, co-author Dia Cha shares her experiences growing up in Laotian villages, escaping from communist soldiers, living in refugee camps in…

Cha, Dia; Livo, Norma J.

88

Money and Schools. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For future principals and others enrolled in courses on School Finance, this book explains and demonstrates the relationship between money and student achievement. New to this edition: (1) Includes updated information on the ever-changing landscape of school finance; (2) Co-author Faith E. Crampton has joined the author team, applying the…

Thompson, David C.; Wood, R. Craig; Crampton, Faith E.

2008-01-01

89

Professor Michael C. Fu Robert H. Smith School of Business  

E-print Network

the algorithm to recent work on Monte Carlo tree search for playing Go. Biography: Michael Fu is Ralph J. Tyser-Teacher for 2004-2005. He has published four books (all co-authored or co-edited): Conditional Monte Carlo

Lin, Xiaodong

90

The lost control and other mysteries: Further revelations on New Zealand's fluoridation trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hastings fluoridation trial in the 1950s is listed in textbooks as an important study confirming the effectiveness of fluoridation. A paper to the 56th (1987) Congress of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science co?authored by one of us (JC) showed, from government archives obtained under the Official Information Act, that the claimed tooth decay

John Colquhoun; Bill Wilson

1999-01-01

91

Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

McTighe Musil, Caryn

2014-01-01

92

Int. J. Simulation and Process Modelling, Vol. 3, Nos. 1/2, 2007 45 Copyright 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

development and a consultant in a number of I&C NPP. Now he is a Leading Researcher on safety-related software of State Science-Technical Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Ukraine). Alexander Romanovsky design technologies, software verification and expert analysis. He has co-authored more than 140

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

93

Faculty Accomplishments Spring 2008  

E-print Network

syndrome: A critical review of the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotype. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(6), 576-608. Rodgers, Adrian, co-authored The Effective Literacy Coach on general Quasi-Projective manifolds, accepted for publication in "communications in Analysis and geometry

94

Study Points to Causes Behind Age-Linked Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... co-author Gagan Wig, of the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas. At issue ... Gagan Wig, Ph.D., assistant professor, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas; Michael Cole, Ph. ...

95

Learning to Teach Inclusively: Student Teachers' Classroom Inquiries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book--co-authored by a teacher educator, a diverse group of five pre-service student teachers, and their student teaching supervisor--takes a unique, illuminating look at the experience of student teaching from the perspective of student teachers. It is premised on learning to teach as an inquiry process enriched by collaborative…

Oyler, Celia

2006-01-01

96

Becoming Connected, Being Caring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights perspectives on action research in education, health and social care and was originally presented as a keynote at the International Practitioner Research Conference and Collaborative Action Research Conference in 2005. The paper links with the other conference keynote given by Stephen Kemmis, co-author of "Becoming Critical".…

Meyer, Julienne; Ashburner, Charlotte; Holman, Cheryl

2006-01-01

97

Dr. Jihong Lian Department of Pediatrics  

E-print Network

B)-containing lipoproteins, and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for the atherosclerosis. Ces3/TGH global/TGH had protective effect against development of dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic plaques be sufficient to afford protection against dyslipidemia and fatty liver. #12;I also have co-author papers

MacMillan, Andrew

98

Research Ideas for the Classroom: Early Childhood Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the early…

Jensen, Robert J., Ed.

99

Bilingual or Immersion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of new studies is providing fresh evidence of what many researchers have been saying all along: English immersion has more political appeal than educational merit. Dr. Amy Merickel, co-author of "Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners K-12," says it is not possible given the data available to…

Hamilton, Kendra

2006-01-01

100

Algebraic properties of chromatic roots Peter J. Cameron  

E-print Network

Algebraic properties of chromatic roots Peter J. Cameron Co-authors The problem was suggested Vladimir Dokchitser, F. M. Dong, Graham Farr, Bill Jackson, Kerri Morgan, James Sellers, Alan Sokal vertices. . But Alan Sokal showed: Theorem 2. Complex chromatic roots are dense in the complex plane

Cameron, Peter

101

Curriculum Vita Suresh Govindaraj  

E-print Network

.Tech., Institute of Technology, B.H.U., India. Research Publications (Refereed Journals) "The Effects of Correlated Demand on Pricing, Inventory, and Production", (co-authored with Mahesh Kumar, University of Maryland, and Finance, Vol. 22, 4 (Fall), 2007, p. 559-572. "Using the Event Study Methodology to Measure the Social

Lin, Xiaodong

102

Online Course Syllabus STATS 8: Introduction to Biological Statistics  

E-print Network

for distance learning to co-authoring a textbook specifically designed for life sciences applications. TA: Name and proportions. Only one course from Statistics 8, Statistics 7/Mathematics 7, Management 7, Biological Sciences to a regular statistics class except that we focus on concrete and realistic examples from a wide array

Loudon, Catherine

103

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National approach to tackling climate change for public health agencies Presenter and Co-author: Gino D. MarinucciD, Associate Director for Climate Change, Climate and Health Program, Division of Environmental Hazards

Miami, University of

104

COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant

2007-01-01

105

Doctoral Thesis ETH No. 18522 Universe Types  

E-print Network

, again, how many people contributed to making this thesis possible and the experience absolutely fabulous discussions and learning experiences with all my co-authors. During my thesis work, besides Sophia and Peter;Acknowledgments listened to many rants of mine and always were there to cheer me up. All the best with the baby

Dietl, Werner M.

106

April 28, July 16, August 2, 2010 Little Boxes: The Simplest Demonstration of the Failure of Einstein's  

E-print Network

of the Franklin Institute 221, 349-382 (1936); A. Einstein, "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein of the Failure of Einstein's Attempt to Show the Incompleteness of Quantum Theory John D. Nortona To appear in American Journal of Physics. The failure of Einstein's co-authored "EPR" attempt

107

The Freakonomics of Tenure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ever-simmering question of whether the tenure system should be reformed lit up the blogosphere, ignited by an online essay from the (tenured) professor Steven D. Levitt, co-author of the publishing phenomenon "Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything" and the popular blog Freakonomics. When Levitt posted "Let's…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

108

Primary publication in microprint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a progress report on an experiment to demonstrate practicality of such publication. Based on a study conducted since 1959 through the publication of 'Wildlife Disease', the co-authors review the original aims, accomplishments, and future of primary publication in microprint. Space and cost savings, as well as author and reader reactions, portend further developments and use of this medium.

Herman, C.M.; Davis, D.E.

1964-01-01

109

Dr. Georg Schmlzer Department of Pediatrics  

E-print Network

Dr. Georg Schmölzer Department of Pediatrics Supervisor: Dr. Po-Yin Cheung I was born in Graz pediatric residency training, I moved to Melbourne, Australia to pursue neonatal fellowship and a Ph of Pediatrics (January 2014). I like to acknowledge all the contributors and co-authors in this publication

MacMillan, Andrew

110

Restoring Bonds of Respect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In writing about the Circle of Courage, Martin Brokenleg and his co-authors brought together different professions, racial backgrounds, and upbringing (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 2002). While the Circle of Courage philosophy transcends culture, they initially used Native American images and stories to express these ideas. Because…

Brokenleg, Martin

2014-01-01

111

About Global Forest Watch Press Release  

E-print Network

in Indonesia, resulting in a doubling of the country's deforestation rates in the late 1990s, according. "Deforestation on this scale, at this speed, is unprecedented," said Emily Matthews, co-author of the report concludes that the doubling of deforestation rates in Indonesia is largely the result of a corrupt political

112

USGS Oceanographer Named to IPCC Report  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Asbury (Abby) H. Sallenger has been named one of the authors of a chapter in the next IPCC report, due to be published in 2014. Sallenger has been assigned to co-author Chapter 5 of the Fifth Assessment Report, entitled Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas. This chapter will contain an international ...

2010-06-23

113

Gender and collaboration patterns in distance education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the associations between gender, collaboration and research methods in distance education research. Following a bibliometric approach, collaboration is operationalised through co?author relationships. The study is based on a review of 695 papers published in five prominent distance education journals between 2000 and 2008. It reveals a significant trend towards collaborative research in distance education. There are no

2010-01-01

114

8/12/08 9:43 AMUntitled Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

, approximately 0.2 mm thick, as an oxygen supply. (Credit: John Bush and Morris Flynn) Web address: http as deep as about 30 meters, according to the study co-authored by Bush and Morris Flynn, former applied that the insects can go as deep as 30 meters below the surface, they rarely venture deeper than several meters, due

Flynn, Morris R.

115

Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

2011-01-01

116

December 2010 Features | News | Media | Events Business, Science, and Technology Rutgers IEMBA grad battles  

E-print Network

: even if you don't have your test scores in. All materials due in by January 10 for the Spring 2011 industry Energetic and entertaining, Joseph Pieroni, engaged a packed auditorium full of MBA students on the Parsippany Board of Education for 15 years. 'Apprentice' winner and Alumnus Randal Pinkett co-authors 'Black

Lin, Xiaodong

117

Publications by Michael Srensen: In refereed Publications  

E-print Network

Publications by Michael Sørensen: In refereed Publications: [1] Normal variance-mean mixtures and z. Co-authors: O.E. Barndorff-Nielsen, P. Blæsild and J.L.Jensen. In A.C. Atkinson and S.E. Fienberg

Sørensen, Michael

118

r. Nicolas Bazan, Boyd DProfessor and Director of  

E-print Network

, is the co- author of selected by the American Journal of Nursing (AJN) as one of the 2010 Books of the Year. Nursing in the Storm: Voices from Hurricane Katrina, Since 1969, the American Journal of Nursing has been overcome time limitations, primary care physicians can encourage their nursing staff to talk to parents

119

Discovery Park Directors April 2008 1  

E-print Network

in 1973, and his PhD in 1975, both from Purdue University. Following a brief stay in mixed animal p Dr as an experimental pathologist at the Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico-in-chief of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. Dr. Rebar is the author or co-author of 11 books

120

Toward Next Generation Mobile Networks Abbas Jamalipour, PhD; Fellow IEEE, Fellow IEAust  

E-print Network

a consensus regarding the priority of one radio system over another. In this tutorial, the state-of-the art University, Japan. He is the author of the first book on wireless IP and two other books, and has co-authored five books and over 175 technical papers, all in the field of wireless networks. He is a Fellow Member

121

External Resource: Real time Geochron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is developed and maintained by John Walker, founder of Autodesk, Inc. and co-author of AutoCAD. A variety of documents, images, software for various machines, and interactive Web resources are available here. Specifically, for this interactive r

1900-01-01

122

LABORATOIRE D'INFORMATIQUE DE NANTES-ATLANTIQUE --Bioinformatics --  

E-print Network

analyses as disease association studies, which aim at mappping genetic variants underlying complex human to genotyping again the missing regions. In this paper, we present SNPShuttle, an algorithm designed to gain accuracy over a former method described by Roberts and co-authors [7] (NPUTE). Given an SNP panel, NPUTE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Srgio L. Morelho morelhao@if.usp.br  

E-print Network

;Data fitting by genetic algorithm Intrinsic profile: I()=|D1|2 + |D2()|2 + + D1D2 *() + D1 *D2() i Miranda (PhD candidate, UofGuelph, Canada) Stefan Kycia (UofGuelph, Canada) Co-authors and Acknowledgment

Morelhão, Sérgio Luiz

124

Evaluation of Static and Dynamic Scheduling for Media Processors  

E-print Network

­ video/computer games ­ movies ­ animation -- Computer Vision ­ image understanding ­ surveillance1 Page 1 Evaluation of Static and Dynamic Scheduling for Media Processors Jason Fritts Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science Co-Author: Wayne Wolf 2 Overview q Media Processing ­ Present

Fritts, Jason

125

David J. Icove, Ph.D., P.E., CFEI Adjunct Assistant Professor  

E-print Network

(June 2000) o Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders" (July 2001) · American of the leading internationally recognized fire scientists and co-author of Forensic Fire Scene Reconstruction expertise in forensic fire scene reconstruction is based on a blend of on-scene experience, design

Tennessee, University of

126

Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.405-407. 2006 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences  

E-print Network

:Literature, Culture and Chaos Theory demonstrated that these approaches workequallywell when applied to Renaissance Strange Weather:Culture, Science, and Technology in the Age of Limits, and more significantlyhe calling itself a coffee table work, is co-authored by Robin Chapman and Julien Clinton Sprott, colleagues

Sprott, Julien Clinton

127

Research: Suicides May Be Higher Than Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today marks World Suicide Prevention Day, but new research in the respected international journal 'Public Health' suggests suicides may be higher than Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data show. Dr Samara McPhedran, co-author of the peer-reviewed study, said \\

Samara McPhedran; Jeanine Baker

128

From Idea to Product--Translating Knowledge between the Lab and the Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is composed of three essays looking at innovation at Academic Medical Centers. It tries to empirically explore the problem of translating knowledge from the laboratory bench to the clinic and from the clinic to the bench. Chapter 1, co-authored with Iain Cockburn, establishes the importance of in-house complementary knowledge in…

Ali, Ayfer Habib

2012-01-01

129

The Future of the American Faculty: An Interview with Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster have teamed up to continue tracing the changes taking place in faculty work with their Project on the American Faculty. They have published The New Academic Generation: A Profession in Transformation (1998), co-authored with Robert Seal, and are preparing a new manuscript to appear in 2004 with a working…

Rice, R. Eugene

2004-01-01

130

Special Education in High School Redesign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, co-authored by the National High School Center and the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center, identifies articles that address high school redesign as it relates to students with disabilities and special education's role in such initiatives. The articles are organized around the National High School…

National High School Center, 2011

2011-01-01

131

NERC All rights reserved Differentiating earthquake tsunamis from other  

E-print Network

© NERC All rights reserved Differentiating earthquake tsunamis from other sources; how do we tell and colleagues, co-authors on SMFs and the Japan 2011 tsunami, it's an update, · New marine data presented, · The Japan event raises questions on our use of established methodologies ­ such as tsunami wave form

Kirby, James T.

132

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall  

E-print Network

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall Julia Piantadosi Co-authors Phil Howlett entropy that matches an observed set of grade correlation coefficients. This problem is formulated as the maximization of a concave function on a convex polytope. · Under mild constraint qualifications we show

Borwein, Jonathan

133

NEWS AND INFORMATION: Study of mutation rate in offspring of Chernobyl liquidators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, which was published recently in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, reports research done by Weinberg and ten co-authors from Israel and Ukraine on the effect of parental exposure to ionising radiation on the DNA of the offspring of Chernobyl liquidators. The research involved the use of rapid molecular genetic screening methods on the DNA to detect mutations.

F. J. Turvey

2001-01-01

134

Tropospheric Aerosols Lead authors: Jost Heintzenberg Frank Raes Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-print Network

Co-authors: Ingmar Ackermann · Paulo Artaxo · Timothy S.Bates · Carmen Benkovitz · Keith Bigg · Tami · Bernd Kärcher · Yoram Kaufman Geoffrey S. Kent · Markku Kulmala · Caroline Leck · Catherine Liousse

Schwartz, Stephen E.

135

Latin American scientific output 1986–91 and international co-authorship patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of a study covering 1986–91 of the scientific output of Latin American nations. The distribution of the output within the countries is shown: in most countries there is a high concentration in the national capital. The papers co-authored with scientists from other countries are also examined. There has been a notable rise in both the number and

G. Lewison; A. Fawcett-Jones; C. Kessler

1993-01-01

136

A REVIEW OF THE PROPERTIES OF DEUTERIUM AND TRITIUM COMPOUNDS. Annual Bibliography1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

The references in the bibliography are arranged alphabetically according ; to the last name of the leading author. Each reference is numbered by a letter-; number symbol corresponding, respectively, to the first letter of the leading ; author's last name and the numerical listing under that letter. The names of co-; authors are listed alphabetically and cross-indexed. Compound and subject

Johnson

1957-01-01

137

A REVIEW OF THE PROPERTIES OF DEUTERIUM AND TRITIUM COMPOUNDS. Annual Bibliography1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

The references in the bibliography are arranged alphabetically according ; to the last name of the leading author. Each refercnce is numbered by a letter-; number symbol corresponding, respectively, to the last letter of the leading ; author's last name and numerical listing under that letter. The names of co-; authors are listed alphabeticably and cross-indexed. Compound and subject ;

V. R. Johnson; I. Oppenheim

1958-01-01

138

Research Ideas for the Classroom: Middle Grades Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the middle…

Owens, Douglas T., Ed.

139

Aaron Sandoski Managing Director, Norwich Ventures  

E-print Network

is co-author of How the Wise Decide, a book on best practices in making tough decisions. Aaron earned Director of Norwich Ventures, a seed and early- stage venture capital firm specializing in the medical advised healthcare clients ranging from leading medical device companies to a rural hospital system. He

Vajda, Sandor

140

Assumptions and Limitations of the Census Bureau Methodology Ranking Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in Cities and Metro Areas  

E-print Network

Bureau. I. Summary Points The CENSR-3 publication analyzes segregation for non-white racial/ethnic groups schools and limiting employment and housing opportunities for individuals based on race. Yet and White Housing Patterns, published in December 2002 and co-authored with John Pawasarat, and that study

Saldin, Dilano

141

Identity Matters in a Short-Term, International Service-Learning Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the role that identity and the identity development process play in a short-term, international service-learning experience. Employing narrative inquiry, two of the co-authors, student participants in a 2-week service-learning program in Honduras, describe and interpret their service-learning experience in the context of life…

Mather, Peter C.; Karbley, Megan; Yamamoto, Makiko

2012-01-01

142

Neck Manipulation May Be Associated with Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... 3.0 MB) Ralph Sacco, M.D. Ralph L. Sacco M.D., M.S., co-author of the statement and professor and Olemberg Chair of Neurology, executive director McKnight Brain Institute, chief of Neurology Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami copyright Lockwood ...

143

Surviving Galeras by Stanley Williams & Fen Montaigne  

E-print Network

, also a geologist, who paints a different picture of the same events. Both books are well written is the subject of both these books. One is co-authored by StanleyWilliams,aseniorvolcanologistwho was a co is excruciating. Both books agree on this point and document it well. Having worked with dozens of graduate

Rose, William I.

144

Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Smith's career-long study of the surface geology of the Searles Valley was recently published by the USGS (Smith, 2009, online and printed). The co-authors of this abstract are the team responsible for completing the publication from the original materials. Searles Valley is an arid, closed basin lying 70 km east of the south end of the Sierra Nevada, California.

M. Nathenson; G. I. Smith; J. E. Robinson; P. H. Stauffer; J. L. Zigler

2010-01-01

145

The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation structures…

Roebken, Heinke

2008-01-01

146

@ Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1998, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford, OX4 IJF, UK and 350 Main Stred, Malden, MA 02148, USA.  

E-print Network

a book composed by six co-authors, RI displays a diverse body of evidence and analysis, ranging from, will rapidly give rise to a specific behaviour or body of knowledge: for example, knowledge of human face's Knowledge Anyway?* ANDY CLARK Rethinking Innateness (henceforth RI) is a remarkable book, and a substantial

Edinburgh, University of

147

COMPUTER SCIENCE North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SX Scotland  

E-print Network

ever whole-body computational solution for flow over a submarine (incorporating hull, lifting surface imaging. He later co-authored possibly the first book+CD-ROM title, the multiple award & Intelligence UCH (Upper College Hall) Abstract: We will look at examples of non-human intelligence, in support

St Andrews, University of

148

LTER All-Scientists Meeting 2003: Niwot Ridge Posters SOURCE WATERS AND FLOWPATHS IN  

E-print Network

SNOW-COVERED CATCHMENT, COLORADO FRONT RANGE, USA Lead Author: Fengjing Liu Co-Author(s): Mark Williams;LTER Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Intersite Comparsion (DONIC) Lead Author: Mark Williams Co of Colorado - Boulder Contact: Mark Williams (markw@snobear.colorado.edu) Primary Site: NWT Abstract: Our

Colorado at Boulder, University of

149

Redundancy and Collaboration in Wikibooks Ilaria Liccardi2,1  

E-print Network

. The presence of redundant material is negatively correlated with collaboration mechanisms; 2. For most books speed and improve the book's ultimate quality. Keywords: Collaborative writing, text redundancy, experience and points of view. Groups of co-authors manage their work differently, which affects writing

150

The Spiritual Sequelae of Combat as Reflected by Vietnam Veterans Suffering from PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat veterans experience severe physical, psychological and social consequences as a result of their involvement in life-threatening and other horrific phenomena. They also endure a great deal of trauma to their spiritual selves as well. This article reports on a group led by the co-authors of this paper that was designed to focus on the spiritual dimension of the experience

Gail M. Barton; Lawrence L. Lapierre

1999-01-01

151

Research Ideas for the Classroom: High School Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the high…

Wilson, Patricia S., Ed.

152

General conclusions regarding the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a collection of research papers devoted to the problem of solar variability and its origin in planetary beat, it is demonstrated that the forcing function originates from gravitational and inertial effects on the Sun from the planets and their satellites. This conclusion is shared by nineteen co-authors.

Mörner, N.-A.; Tattersall, R.; Solheim, J.-E.; Charvatova, I.; Scafetta, N.; Jelbring, H.; Wilson, I. R.; Salvador, R.; Willson, R. C.; Hejda, P.; Soon, W.; Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Humlum, O.; Archibald, D.; Yndestad, H.; Easterbrook, D.; Casey, J.; Gregori, G.; Henriksson, G.

2013-12-01

153

Bethke, Donna From: UM SOM PTRS  

E-print Network

and multiple step recovery responses to lateral perturbations of standing balance in older adults." Co stimulation timing during planar robotic training on neuroplasticity in older adults." Co-authors include, "Control of landing during forward-induced stepping for balance recovery in healthy young adults." Co

Weber, David J.

154

**NEWS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES**  

E-print Network

and co-authors write that ". . . Financial benefits are not uniform to all individuals who play sports. Daniel J. Henderson 607-777-4480 djhender@binghamton.edu Do College Sports Enhance Future Earnings? Less percent) were athletes who had earned a varsity letter in any sport in college. The participants were

Sprott, Julien Clinton

155

Daniel A. Menasc, 2001 A. A. Michelson Award Acceptance Speech Jeff, thank you very much for your nice words. I must say I am really thrilled for  

E-print Network

that this award is presented to me by Jeff Buzen and during his tenure as President of the Computer Measurement years and my very good friend, Virgilio Almeida, who is my co-author in many papers and in all my books of the field of computer measurement and performance evaluation during the past thirty years or so, I realize

156

Introduction to Computer System Security A Proposal for a Tutorial to be Presented at AICCSA-07  

E-print Network

is the co-author of five books in the areas: advanced computer architecture published by Wiley (2004. He is also the editor or co-editor of many conference proceeding books published by the IEEE ComputerIntroduction to Computer System Security A Proposal for a Tutorial to be Presented at AICCSA-07

157

Unleashing Deep Smarts: The Most Valuable Untapped Source of Knowledge Lies within the District's Own Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A widely applied premise in the field of business asserts that the key to an organization's success in today's changing environment is a world-class knowledge management system. The most critical value-added piece of this puzzle lies in what co-authors Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap in their book Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer…

Burbach, Harold J.; Butler, Alfred R., IV

2005-01-01

158

DON P. CHAMBERS College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave S, St. Petersburg, FL 33701  

E-print Network

As Co-Author 1) Willis, J. K., D. P. Chambers, C. K. Shum, and C-Y Kuo, Global Sea Level Rise: RecentDON P. CHAMBERS College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave S, St of Marine Science, University of South Florida Sept. 2003 � Aug. 2009 Research Scientist, Center for Space

Meyers, Steven D.

159

Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* J. Hansen, M. Sato  

E-print Network

Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* J. Hansen, M. Sato NASA Goddard;Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture* Jim Hansen March 11, 2009 Climate. Air Pollutant Climate Forcings within the Big Climate Picture co-authors or colleagues providing data

Hansen, James E.

160

Published in the Proceedings of ION GPS-96, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, September 17-20, 1996 Flying Curved Approaches and Missed Approaches  

E-print Network

, and space vehicle navigation and control. He is a co- author of two control system textbooks. ABSTRACT awareness. In addition to enhancing typical passenger aircraft operations, such systems would be valuable Flying Curved Approaches and Missed Approaches: 3-D Display Trials Onboard a Light Aircraft Andrew K

Stanford University

161

Despotism, Democracy, and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Leadership and Followership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to comments made by George B. Graen and Stephen J. Guastello on the current author's article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. In the original article my co-authors and I proposed a new way of thinking about leadership, informed by evolutionary (neo-Darwinian) theory. In…

Van Vugt, Mark

2009-01-01

162

N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

163

Culturally Sensitive Computer Support for Creative Co-authorship of a Sex Education Game  

E-print Network

Culturally Sensitive Computer Support for Creative Co-authorship of a Sex Education Game Junia C, Canada, ssfels@ece.ubc.ca Abstract. We describe a computer-supported game authoring system for educators to co-author a game to help teaching sensitive content, specifically sex education. Our approach

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

The Ryuichi Kitamura Paper Award For the best paper authored by a student mentor combination  

E-print Network

date. For example, papers for the 2010 Annual Meeting are due August 1, 2009. If the primary studentThe Ryuichi Kitamura Paper Award For the best paper authored by a student ­ mentor combination the success of his students. Ryuichi Kitamura co-authored many papers with his students and made

California at Davis, University of

165

A Discourse on Staging a Writer's Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known and celebrated for the startling imagery and dream-like characteristics of her plays, Adrienne Kennedy's work challenges anyone who decides to stage her work. This article considers the use of digital technologies that contribute to Adrienne Kennedy's evocative and powerful vision. Focusing on a production of Sleep Deprivation Chamber (1996), which Kennedy co-authored with her son Adam P. Kennedy, it

Lesley Ferris; Johanna Frank

2012-01-01

166

Journal of Geophysical Research Publications: Community Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do earth science publications differ by subfield or gender? To figure this out we analyzed publications in JGR Atmosphere, Oceans, and Solid Earth for the year 2000. We assumed that the first author exerted controlling influence over publication characteristics and then we looked at the number of co-authors, number of institutions represented by co-author affiliations, page length of the article, number of references cited, number of subject categories represented in the cited references, number of times the article was cited, and the time between the date the article was submitted and the date when it was accepted for publication. We found that, within each field, there was remarkable similarity between the publications led by women and those led by men. Interesting differences showed up between subfields: for example, Solid Earth authors use more references than do authors publishing in Atmosphere or Oceans.

Pfirman, S. L.; Porter, A.

2009-12-01

167

The multi-ion, multi-event test of ion cyclotron resonance heating. Semiannual status report, 8 May-30 August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The multi-ion, multi-event study of ion cyclotron resonance heating was funded to study ion energization through ion cyclotron resonance with low frequency broadband electromagnetic turbulence. The initial work on the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of oxygen ions was presented in Crew et al. Crew and his co-authors developed a two-parameter representation of selected oxygen conic distributions and modeled the conic formation in terms of resonance heating. The first year seeks to extend the work of Crew and his co-authors by testing the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to helium ion conic distributions, using data obtained from the Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer and the Plasma Wave Instrument on Dynamics Explorer 1.

Persoon, A.M.

1993-08-01

168

Multi-ion, multi-event test of ion cyclotron resonance heating. Semiannual status report, 1 September-30 December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The multi-ion, multi-event study of ion cyclotron resonance heating has been funded to study ion energization through ion cyclotron resonance with low frequency broadband electromagnetic turbulence. The modeling algorithm for the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of oxygen ions was presented by Crew et al. Crew and his co-authors developed a two-parameter representation of selected oxygen conic distributions and modelled the conic formation in terms of resonance heating. The first year of this study seeks to extend the work of Crew and his co-authors by testing the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to helium ion conic distributions, using data obtained from the Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer and the Plasma Wave Instrument on Dynamics Explorer 1.

Persoon, A.M.

1993-12-01

169

Yuri I. Galperin (1932-2001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yuri I. Galperin, head of the Laboratory of Auroral Physics Phenomena at the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, passed away on 28 December 2001 due to a heart attack. He was a pioneer of auroral and upper atmospheric physics and contributed significantly to the development of space plasma physics. He had been an AGU member (SM) since 1974.Galperin authored and co-authored more than 200 publications in scientific journals and was a co-author of three monographs on experimental space physics. In addition to AGU, Galperin was a member of many scientific councils in Russia, and he had also been a member of the International Astronomical Union since 1958 and the International Academy of Astronautics since 1975.

Zelenyi, Lev; Muliarchik, Tatiana; Stepanov, Vladimir

170

Advances in thermal infrared remote sensing for land surface modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 10 years ago, John Norman and co-authors proposed a thermal-based land surface modeling strategy that treated the energy exchange and kinetic temperatures of the soil and vegetated components in a unique “Two-Source Model” (TSM) approach. The TSM formulation addresses key factors affecting the convective and radiative exchange within the soil–canopy–atmosphere system, focusing on the relationship between radiometric and aerodynamic

William Kustas; Martha Anderson

2009-01-01

171

KU Today, October 22, 2012  

E-print Network

View all tweets FEATURED MULTIMEDIA KU ON YOUTUBE University of Kansas cheerleaders More: photos | videos KU IN THE NEWS International Business TImes (Oct. 22, 2012) Mayan calendar 'doomsday' in 2 months CONNECT connect...KU Today Campus Newsletter | Problems viewing this e-mail? View online. Monday, October 22, 2012 Researcher proposes data exchange model A KU researcher co-authored a report for the October issue of Science magazine outlining how...

172

Hockey Despite Hitler: World War II and the Challenge to Hockey’s Global Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This CART Summer Grant project (Summer I term 2008) will complete the research and writing of a 25-30 page book chapter entitled “Hockey Despite Hitler: World War II and the Challenge to Hockey’s Global Divergence.” This chapter is of central importance to Part Two of the book that I am co-authoring (with Dr. Stephen Hardy, University of New Hampshire) entitled

Andrew C. Holman

2008-01-01

173

Little Boxes: The Simplest Demonstration of the Failure of Einstein's Attempt to Show the Incompleteness of Quantum Theory  

E-print Network

The failure of Einstein's co-authored "EPR" attempt to show the incompleteness of quantum theory is demonstrated directly for spatial degrees of freedom using only elementary notions. A GHZ construction is realized in the position properties of three particles whose quantum waves are distributed over three two-chambered boxes. The same system is modeled more realistically using three spatially separated, singly ionized hydrogen molecules.

John D. Norton

2010-08-02

174

Tsunamis, hurricanes and neotectonics as driving mechanisms in coastal evolution (Proceedings of the Bonaire Field Symposium, March 2-6, 2006. A contribution to IGCP 495)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using field oberservations and remote sensing data from the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 impact at Banda Aceh and Lhok Nga districts (Indonesia) F.Lavigne, R.Paris, P.Wassmer, Ch.Gomez, D.Brunstein and 11 other Co-authors present a field data-based methodology to calibrate simulation codes for tsunami inundation models. The presented preliminary results are part of the French-Indonesian TSUNAMIRISQUE programme with the aim to improve

Anja Scheffers; Dieter Kelletat

2006-01-01

175

Organic compounds in hydrothermal systems on the Russian Far East: relevance to the origin of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 70th of the last century L. Mukhin with co-authors (1) explored amino acids in the hot springs and water-steam mixture from the boreholes in Kamchatka peninsula of eastern Rus-sia. According to their results, 12 amino acids of biological origination were detected in hot springs inhabited by thermophiles and hyperthermophiles. Only a single amino acid -glycine -was found in the

Vladimir Kompanichenko

2010-01-01

176

On Being Called an Anti-Semite in Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the coordinator of a university lecture series, the author is always on the lookout for good speakers. He thought that he had found one in Stephen Walt, a political scientist at Harvard University and the co-author of an article about the influence of the pro-Israel lobby on U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. In this article, the author…

Drake, Richard

2007-01-01

177

Stigma and Discrimination: the Mumbai Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Stigma & Discrimination: The Mumbai Experience\\u000aMain Author: Amresh Shrivastava MD, DPM, MRCPsych, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.\\u000aCo-Authors: Gopa Sarkhel, MA, Iyer Sunita MA, Thakar Meghana MA, Shah Nilesh, MD, DPM\\u000aAddress of Presenter: Executive Director, Mental health foundation of India (PRERANA Charitable Trust) Mumbai, India; Currently at Department of Psychiatry, The University of Western Ontario,

Amresh Srivastava

2009-01-01

178

Critical Error: Tom Daschle's Blurred Health Care Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tom Daschle's new book, Critical: What Can We Do About the Health-Care Crisis, confirms that advocates for a complete government takeover of American health care have learned an important lesson: Don't try it in one big bite. Here Daschle and co-author Jeanne Lambrew have direct experience. Mr. Daschle was a Democratic leader in the Senate during the push for \\

John R. Graham

179

Public Service, Governance and Web 2.0 Technologies : Future Trends in Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edited by Ed Downey and Matt Jones.Imncludes a chapter co-authored by two College at Brockport faculty members: Melchor De Guzman and Korni Swaroop Kumar: Using Web 2.0 as a Community Policing Strategy: An Examination of the United States Municipal Police Departments.Web 2.0 can create value for political processes by decreasing costs and increasing opportunities for civic engagement, and, as a

Edward H. Downey; Matthew A. Jones; Melchor De Guzman; Korni Swaroop Kumar

2012-01-01

180

Mentoring Interns and Postdoctoral Residents in Academic Health Sciences Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article was co-authored by a senior mentor and one of her students who worked with her as both an intern and a postdoctoral\\u000a fellow. It is an expanded version of a presentation given by the first author after receiving the Association of Psychologists\\u000a in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Distinguished Achievement in Teaching Award. The article offers a historical view

Nadine J. Kaslow; Nathan A. Mascaro

2007-01-01

181

Sample size and the fallacies of classical inference.  

PubMed

I would like to thank Michael Ingre, Martin Lindquist and their co-authors for their thoughtful responses to my ironic Comments and Controversies piece. I was of two minds about whether to accept the invitation to reply - largely because I was convinced by most of their observations. I concluded that I should say this explicitly, taking the opportunity to consolidate points of consensus and highlight outstanding issues. PMID:23583356

Friston, Karl

2013-11-01

182

Water resources publications of the U.S. Geological Survey for Tennessee, 1987-1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an updated bibliography of water-resources related reports authored or co-authored by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Tennessee District The bibliography lists 102 reports published by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period 1987 through 1993. Articles, papers, and abstracts published by non-U.S. Geological Survey sources for this same period also are listed. The report augments a previous bibliography for the years 1906-1987.

Baker, Eva G.; Oldson, Barbara B.

1994-01-01

183

Clinical Trials Research Training Internships  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute offers unpaid clinical trials research training internships for outstanding statistics and biostatistics students who have strong interests in both clinical trials and methodological research. Each intern selects a research project from any of the areas of active research interest of the preceptor, and works with this preceptor towards turning the project into a paper that can be published (with the intern as a co-author).

184

Kalman filter design for atmospheric tip/tilt, tip/tilt anisoplanatism and focus filtering on extremely large telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses Kalman filter design to correct for atmospheric tip/tilt, tip/tilt anisoplanatism and focus disturbances in laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics. Model identification, controller design and computation, command oversampling and disturbance rejection are discussed via time domain analysis and control performance evaluation. End-to-end high-fidelity sky-coverage simulations are presented by Wang and co-authors in a companion paper.

Gilles, L.; Raynaud, H. F.; Correia, C.; Wang, L.; Ellerbroek, B.; Boyer, C.; Kulcsár, C.

2014-07-01

185

Reply to Comment on “The timing and evolution of the post-glacial transgression across the Sea of Marmara shelf south of Istanbul” by Hiscott et al., Marine Geology 248, 228–236  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their comment Hiscott and co-authors adhere rigidly to ages and sources for sedimentary units in the subsurface of the Marmara shelf that they have previously reported in their publications from 2002 through 2007. This adherence is in spite of a superior age-depth model from our 13 m-long sediment core that penetrated deeply into the deposits under consideration and in

K. K. Eri?a; W. B. F. Ryan; M. N. Ça?atay; G. Lericolais; Ü. Sancar; G. Menot; E. Bard

2008-01-01

186

A compact broadband omnidirectional vertically polarized VHF antenna for aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very efficient miniaturized VHF antenna with dimensions of 0.15?0 × 0.15?0 etched on 0.787 mm and ?r=4.4 dielectric FR-4 substrate is presented. It is inspired from the Sarabandi and co-authors works. The antenna is vertically polarized and behaves like a vertical dipole antenna used for Civil Aviation. It is composed by a great number of folded slots arranged in

T. J. Yuan; L. Y. Zhou; H. H. Ouslimani; A. Priou; P. Besnard; G. Collignon; A. Marteau

2010-01-01

187

Using AVIRIS In The NASA BAA Project To Evaluate The Impact Of Natural Acid Drainage On Colorado Watersheds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Colorado Geological Survey and the co-authors of this paper were awarded one of 15 NASA Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) grants in 2001. The project focuses on the use of hyperspectral remote sensing to map acid-generating minerals that affect water quality within a watershed, and to identify the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to that drainage. A further objective is to define the most cost-effective remote sensing instrument configuration for this application.

Hauff, Phoebe L.; Coulter, David W.; Peters, Douglas C.; Sares, Matthew A.; Prosh, Eric C.; Henderson, Frederick B., III; Bird, David

2004-01-01

188

A Probabilistic Similarity Metric for Medline Records: A Model for Author Name Disambiguation  

PubMed Central

We present a model for automatically generating training sets and estimating the probability that a pair of Medline records sharing a last and first name initial are authored by the same individual, based on shared title words, journal name, co-authors, medical subject headings, language, and affiliation, as well as distinctive features of the name itself (i.e., presence of middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in Medline). PMID:14728536

Torvik, Vetle I.; Weeber, Marc; Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.

2003-01-01

189

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

3D cloud radiative community has matured enough to prepare a volume on 3D radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere that will be published by Springer-Verlag this year. Many leading 3D radiative transfer scientists are amongst the co-authors of the book. The book starts with the basic 3D radiative transfer problem, describes its solutions and models, discusses the effects of cloud inhomogeneity for remote sensing, addresses climate problems in realistic atmosphere and studies cloud-vegetation interactions.

Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony B.; LeBlanc, Lisa

2004-01-01

190

Book Review: Mindsight: Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind, by Kenneth Ring and Sharon Cooper. Palo Alto, CA: William James Center for Consciousness Studies\\/Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 1999, 217 pp. + xix, $12.95, pb  

Microsoft Academic Search

I approached Mindsight: Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind with my usual anticipation in reading work done by Kenneth Ring, who is known to me personally and through his scholarly writing over many years of research into near-death experiences (NDEs). Together with his co-author, Sharon Cooper, he has produced another fascinating book reflecting research into apparent “mindsight” of people

Stuart W. Twemlow

2002-01-01

191

Literacy teachers learning a new literacy: A study of the use of electronic mail in a reading education class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of electronic mail as an instructional tool in a graduate reading class where the instructor and students were non?experts in the use of computer technology. The data set consisted of all of the e?mail messages sent by the students and the instructor and the daily journals of the instructor and the student co?author. The data

Jim Anderson; Andrea Lee

1995-01-01

192

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE NURSES CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS (short  

E-print Network

Please find enclosed a manuscript for consideration for publication in the International Journal of Nursing Practice. This article has not been published elsewhere. The co-author has contributed significantly to this body of work and is in agreement with the content of the manuscript. We believe the content of this manuscript should be of interest to the wide readership of your journal. We look forward to your reviewers ? comments. Yours sincerely,

Elaine Simpson; Phd Rn; Elaine Simpson; Mary Courtney

2007-01-01

193

Presidential Address: From Goldschmidt to Globalization: The Southern Model and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

I'm honored to be here sharing some thoughts with you. I've been attending SRSA meetings since 1989 where I gave my second pa- per, co-authored with Bill Heffernan, on corporate concentration in the agri-food industries. Bill's specialty is poultry, and I learned a lot about the social and economic organization of the poultry indus- try and the extension of the

Douglas H. Constance

2003-01-01

194

The Impact of Electronic Trading Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ROBERT SCHWARTZ: Rich Holowczak is head of the Wasserman Trading Floor – Subotnick Center here at Baruch College. Rich is\\u000a my colleague, a friend and also a co-author. Please welcome him.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a RICHARD HOLOWCZAK: Thanks Bob. The professor in me wants to get some definitions out of the way. So, my first question for\\u000a the panel is, what do you consider

Richard Holowczak; Leslie Boni; Kevin Callahan; Alfred Eskandar; James Leman; Robert McCooey; Joseph Wald

195

The Encyclopedia of Writing and Illustrating Children's Books: From Creating Characters to Developing Stories, a Step-by-step Guide to Making Magical Picture Books (hardcover)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical and theoretical guide to creating successful childrens books. Co- authored by Sue Thornton and Yadzia Williams. Publishers Description The latest in our best selling Encyclopedia of Art series now focuses on a popular topic for both writers and illustrators: how to make, craft, and sell children’s books. This practical book is a step-by-step guide to becoming a successful

Desdemona McCannon; Susan Thornton; Yadzia Williams

2008-01-01

196

Interactive comment on \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manuscript of M. Vichi and co-authors addresses the causal link between primary production and export flux of organic matter in the Ross Sea at a specific site (station B, located at 175oE, 74oS). The authors compare results of a one-dimensional biogeo- chemical model with observed nutrient concentrations and data from sediment traps. The physical setup is based upon the

M. Vichi; A. Coluccelli; M. Ravaioli; F. Giglio; L. Langone; M. Azzaro; F. Azzaro; R. La Ferla; G. Catalano; S. Cozzi

197

Aerosol characterization in Northern Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Basin and Middle East from direct-sun AERONET observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an atmospheric aerosol characterization for North Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Middle East based on the analysis of quality-assured direct-sun observations of 39 stations of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) which include at least an annual cycle within the 1994-2007 period. We extensively test and apply the recently introduced graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors in order to

S. Basart; C. Pérez; E. Cuevas; J. M. Baldasano; G. P. Gobbi

2009-01-01

198

PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 The University of Victoria's  

E-print Network

AkE UP tHE HUmAN bODy-- All OF wHICH StARtED OUt AS A StEm CEll. lESSoNSfRoM thEchRIStchuRch EARthqu newspaper ring.uvic.ca SPEED READING DONNER PRIZE PhD student wins national book award Public Administration doctoral candidate Mark Jarvis has been awarded the prestigious Donner Prize for his co- authored book

Pedersen, Tom

199

Acts of Sovereignty: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy and the Politics of Reconciliation in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their co-authored chapter, “Acts of Sovereignty: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy and the Politics of Reconciliation in Australia,” Andrew Schaap and Paul Muldoon ask how the 1972 aboriginal tent “embassy” protests in Canberra inform our understanding of the “agonic relation of colonial governance vis-à-vis indigenous resistance” in Australia. The claim to indigenous sovereignty, which activists insist was never ceded to

Andrew Schaap; Paul Muldoon

200

Paraeducators in Physical Education : A Training Guide to Roles and Responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edited by College at Brockport faculty member Lauren J. Lieberman.Also includes a chapter by College at Brockport faculty member Douglas Collier: Positive methods for dealing with difficult behavior, and chaopters co-authored by College at Brockport alumni Rocco Aiello: Instruction strategies; and Carin Mulawka: Assessment.Paraeducators work in virtually every school—but until now, no systematic training program has existed to teach them

Lauren J. Lieberman; Douglas Collier; Carin Mulawka; Rocco Aiello

2007-01-01

201

The giant impact hypothesis: past, present (and future?).  

PubMed

At the request of editors, this paper offers a historical review of early work on the giant impact hypothesis, as well as comments on new data. The author hereby claims (whether believable or not) that his interest is to move towards a correct model of lunar origin, not to defend a possibly incorrect idea, just because of being a co-author of a relevant early paper. Nonetheless, the 1974 giant impact hypothesis appears still to be viable. PMID:25114315

Hartmann, William K

2014-09-13

202

Critical Mathematics Pedagogy: Transforming Teachers' Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the effects of a graduate-level mathematics education course that focused on critical theory and teaching for social justice on the pedagogical philosophies and practices of three mathematics teachers (middle, high school, and 2-year college). The study employed Freirian participatory research methodology; in fact, the participants were not only co- researchers, but also co-authors of the study. Data

David W. Stinson; Carla R. Bidwell; Christopher C. Jett; Ginny C. Powell; Mary M. Thurman

203

Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of

Herschel B. Snodgrass

2009-01-01

204

A CGRO Target of Opportunity Proposal for Flaring Blazars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray observations of the quasar 3C 279 during the reporting period were carried out and analyzed by Dr. Robert Hartman, the overall project principal investigator, in response to a target of opportunity. The PI and co-I of this grant, Drs. Alan Marscher and Svetlana Marchenko (now Svetlana Jorstad), observed with the VLBA at 43 GHz after the flare. The results and interpretation of the multiwaveband observations are reported in a paper by Hartman et al. that was recently submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, on which the PI is a co-author.

Marscher, Alan P.

2000-01-01

205

A review of "Renaissance England’s Chief Rabbi: John Selden." by Jason R. Rosenblatt  

E-print Network

of the detail for which non-specialists have been looking for some time. Jason R. Rosenblatt. Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi: John Selden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ix + 314 + 1 halftone illus. $99.00. Review by WILLIAM E. ENGEL..., and, as Jason Rosenblatt shows in Chapter Two of Renaissance England?s Chief Rabbi (while building on his previous scholarship co-authored with Winfried Schleiner on Selden?s letter to the playwright con- REVIEWS 177 cerning cross-dressing and bi...

Engel, William E.

2006-01-01

206

International Soil Reference and Information Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), which is associated with the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Berne, Switzerland, aims to "provide a better understanding of soils and to promote sustainable use of the land." The ISRIC Web site gives visitors several areas to explore, but of special note are the reports and publications link within the publications page, which contains downloadable annual and biannual reports, conference proceedings, soil briefs, technical papers, and more. These publications have been authored or co-authored by staff members, and guest researchers of ISRIC or the former International Soil Museum.

2008-01-01

207

International Soil Reference and Information Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), which is associated with the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Berne, Switzerland, aims to "provide a better understanding of soils and to promote sustainable use of the land." The ISRIC Web site gives visitors several areas to explore, but of special note are the reports and publications link within the publications page, which contains downloadable annual and biannual reports, conference proceedings, soil briefs, technical papers, and more. These publications have been authored or co-authored by staff members, and guest researchers of ISRIC or the former International Soil Museum.

2001-01-01

208

Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

{\\\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar

A. Csillaghy

2003-01-01

209

Simple one-dimensional lattice model for lipids in water  

E-print Network

A lattice model for binary mixture of lipids and water is introduced and investigated. The orientational degrees of freedom of the amphiphilic molecules are taken into account in the same way as in the model for oil-water-surfactant mixtures introduced earlier by Johan H\\o ye and co-authors. The ground state of the model is discussed in detail, and the mean-field stability analysis of the disordered phase is performed. The model is compared to the recently introduced lattice model for colloidal self-assembly.

Alina Ciach; Jakub P?kalski

2014-07-03

210

Scientific and Technical Information (STI)....what`s the status?  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed an electronic Publications and Presentations Registry designed to track Scientific and Technical Information (STI) products through PNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programmatic reviews. All information forwarded to the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) for release (e.g., public, UCNI, Export Control) is included in the database. The database contains client and programmatic information for all STI generated by PNL. This electronic format is currently one of the most comprehensive resources for PNL authored and co-authored documents on the Hanford Site.

Varley, D.A.

1993-12-01

211

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS About Ginzburg-Landau, and a bit on others  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note is a brief history of how the theory of Ginzburg and Landau came to be. Early publications on the macroscopic theory of superconductivity are reviewed in detail. Discussions that the two co-authors had with their colleagues and between themselves are described. The 1952 review by V L Ginzburg is discussed, in which a number of well-defined requirements on the yet-to-be-developed microscopic theory of superconductivity were formulated, constituting what J Bardeen called the 'Ginzburg energy gap model'.

Maksimov, Evgenii G.

2011-02-01

212

A review of "Humour in Dutch Culture of the Golden Age." by Rudolf M. Dekker  

E-print Network

86 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Rudolf M. Dekker. Humour in Dutch Culture of the Golden Age. New York: Palgrave, 2001. 187 pp. + 23 illus. $55.00. Review by LARRY SILVER, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Back in 1977, Amsterdam art historian Hessel... of Erasmus University, Rotterdam, co-author most recently of an essay on childhood education during the Dutch Golden Age for a recent exhibition of children?s portraits (Pride and Joy, Exhibition Cata- log, Haarlem-Antwerp, 2000-01). The core of his new...

Larry Silver

2002-01-01

213

TECOAS 0.9  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More and more persons are telecommuting everyday, and an increasing number may find it necessary to browse or comment on any number of documents interactively. This version of TECOAS provides such an opportunity to interactively browse and discuss a document, and is intended to both help with the co-authoring of papers and to provide a format in which small seminar groups can discuss various works. The website for the application also includes a helpful user's manual. TECOAS 0.9 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X or Windows 95 and above.

214

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

215

Internet Research News/ ResearchBuzz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A companion site to the book Official Netscape Guide to Internet Research (2nd edition), this current awareness resource features a selection of Internet finds on a variety of topics, with a primary focus on tools for research and more efficient searching online. Updated several times a week, the site and its weekly email newsletter, ResearchBuzz, are maintained by Tara Calishain, the book's co-author. Additional resources at the site include a periodic series of articles on Internet research, Quick Tips for searching online, and an internal search engine.

216

Final Report to Jupiter Oxygen Corporation on CRADA Phase 1 Activities, January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect

In January of 2004, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed with the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation; its term extends from January 2004 to January 1, 2009. The statement of work is attached as Appendix A. Under Phase I of this agreement, ARC was to provide technical expertise to develop computer models of existing power plants relative to retrofitting with oxy-fuel combustion; help design experiments to verify models and analyze data from experiments; help produce designs at larger scales; help design a new technology oxy-fuel power plant; and co-author technical papers on this work for presentation at appropriate conferences.

Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Turner, Paul C.

2005-06-30

217

Geron Corporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geron Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company specializing in therapeutic and diagnostic products for age-related diseases. Geron owns several telomerase related patents. Calvin B. Harley of Geron is one of the co-authors of the Science article. Their page describes programs and products related to cellular aging and Cancer Therapeutics. There has been a recent finding regarding telomerase, a gene which affects the mechanisms controlling human cell replication. The site above provides general information on telomerase, current telomere research, and the use of telemorase in medical practice. Telomerase increases the life-span of a cell, and is thus central to both aging and cancer.

1998-01-01

218

Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging Instrument for Earth Gravity Measurements. ' These two papers were presented at the conference Semiconductor Lasers, Advanced Devices and Applications, August 21 -23, 1995, Keystone Colorado. The manuscript is a draft in the preparation for publication, which summarizes the theory we developed on space-borne laser ranging instrument for gravity measurements.

Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

1995-01-01

219

Olgierd (Olek) Cecil Zienkiewicz (1921-2009): A Biographical Tribute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this tribute the authors present a personal and academic biography of O. C. Zienkiewicz.(1921-2009) who is recognized as having been one of the pioneers of the Finite Element Method. O. C. Zienkiewicz co-authored the first text book on the method which was largely responsible for the introduction of the concept to a worldwide audience. His contribution to the computational mechanics community encompasses structural, geotechnical and fluid flow analysis as well as numerous fundamental finite element developments. This paper presents these achievements within the context of his life and includes personal recollections by the authors who were his colleagues.

Roger, D.; Owen, J.; Wood, Richard D.

2010-06-01

220

Halliday-Resnick Plus 50  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last year marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Halliday and Resnick's classic introductory textbook ``Physics.'' I used the first edition of the the textbook as an undergraduate students, the second editions as a graduate teaching assistant, the the third edition as a newly hired assistant professor, and I became a co-author for the fourth and fifth editions. In this talk I will offer some views of how this book came to re-define the introductory physics course and how this textbook and other introductory physics texts have changed over 50 years.

Krane, Kenneth

2011-10-01

221

Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.)

1984-12-01

222

International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals  

E-print Network

Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

2014-01-01

223

ANOMIE, ALIENATION AND THE EVALUATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

it is legitimate to derive an evaluation of social structures fronl a description of them. Robert Merton's essay Social Structure and Anomie 1 has had widespread influence on both theoretical and empirical studies in the field of social deviance. Clinard and his co...-authors summarise the work carried out under the influence of Merton. As Clinard points out,2 Merton's idea of anomie is derived, with certain modifications, from Durkheim. Durkheim's central thesis in relation to anomie is the idea that no living being can be happy...

Bagley, Christopher

1967-07-01

224

Final Technical Report-Grant # DE-FG02-97ER45628 ?Structural Diorder in Materials?  

SciTech Connect

Since the grant was renewed in 2000 and 2003 final technical reports of the grant have been previously submitted for those years. For that reason this final technical report covers the last four years of the grant. We had an exceptionally successful and productive last four years under the support of the grant. Our progress takes three different aspects, described in more detail below: 1.1 instrumentation, infrastructure, and other research support at Sector 20 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS); 1.2 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were PI?s; and 1.3 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were co-PI?s or where Drs. Dale Brewe or Julie Cross were authors or co-authors. Drs. Brewe and Cross are the two research scientists (permanently stationed at sector 20) who are supported by the grant. They provide support to the scientific goals of the grant and more broadly provide research support for many general users at Sector 20. Finally, in section 1.4 we provide a complete list of publications resulting from funding in the grant on which at least one of Stern, Seidler, Cross, or Brewe were co-authors. Given the inclusion of operations funding in the grant, this is of course a subset of the full scientific impact of the grant.

Stern, Edward A

2009-02-23

225

Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images. The imaging files were shared via the Advanced Technology Consortium. A program developed by one of the co-authors (I.E.N.) used binomial maximum-likelihood estimates to generate a 95% group consensus contour. The computer-estimated consensus contours were then reviewed by the group and modified to provide a final contouring consensus atlas. Results: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer. The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusion: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: myerson@radonc.wustl.edu; Garofalo, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Apte, Aditya; Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale AZ (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J.J. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-07-01

226

A citation-analysis of economic research institutes.  

PubMed

The citation analysis of the research output of the German economic research institutes presented here is based on publications in peer-reviewed journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index for the 2000-2009 period. The novel feature of the paper is that a count data model quantifies the determinants of citation success and simulates their citation potential. Among the determinants of the number of cites the quality of the publication outlet exhibits a strong positive effect. The same effect has the number of the published pages, but journals with size limits also yield more cites. Field journals get less citations in comparison to general journals. Controlling for journal quality, the number of co-authors of a paper has no effect, but it is positive when co-authors are located outside the own institution. We find that the potential citations predicted by our best model lead to different rankings across the institutes than current citations indicating structural change. PMID:23667276

Ketzler, Rolf; Zimmermann, Klaus F

2013-06-01

227

Costing considerations for maintenance and new construction coating work  

SciTech Connect

This paper updates ``Updated Protective Coating Costs, Products, and Service Life`` on protective coating costing and selection co-authored by G. H. Brevoort, M. F. MeLampy and K. R. Shields. Beginning with this edition, data collection and publication will be co-authored by K. R. Shields, M. F. MeLampy and M. P. Reina. Designed to assist the coatings engineer or specifier in identifying suitable protective coating systems for specific industrial environments, this paper provides guidelines for calculating approximate installed costs, expected coating life for each identified system, and how to determine the most cost-effective systems. The effect of maintenance sequences on long-term costs and system performance is also reviewed. New features of this paper include life-cycle and material costs for hot dip galvanizing. Included in the paper are (1) most commonly used generic systems in typical industrial environments, (2) service life for each, (3) current material costs, and (4) current field and shop painting costs. Guidelines for developing long-term life-cycle costs, and number of paintings for the expected life of the structure are included. The basic elements of economic analysis and justification, and how to prepare a Present Value Analysis are also addressed. Worksheets and examples are provided to aid the reader in the proper use of the information.

Reina, M.P.; Shields, K.R.; MeLampy, M.F. [KTA-TATOR, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

228

KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Moore, Patrick K.

2003-01-01

229

Caffeine Appears To Be Beneficial In MalesÃÂBut Not FemalesÃÂWith Lou GehrigÃÂs Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an APS press release on a study, entitled 'Caffeine Reduces Motor Performance and Antioxidant Enzyme Capacity in the Brain of Female G93A Mice, An Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)', that was conducted by Rajini Seevaratnam1 supervised by Mazen J. Hamadeh1,2 , and co-authored by Sandeep Raha2 and Mark A. Tarnopolsky2 (1School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada). The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting that was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-04-17

230

KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

Moore, Patrick K.

2002-01-01

231

PinBus Interface for Interoperable, Grid-Responsive Devices  

SciTech Connect

A very simple appliance interface was suggested by this author and his co-authors during Grid-Interop 2007. The approach was based on a successful collaboration between utilities, a major appliance manufacture, and the manufacturer of a load control module during the U.S. Department of Energy’s Grid Friendly Appliance project. The suggested approach was based on the assumption that demand-response objectives could be effectively communicated to and from many small electrical loads like appliances by simply agreeing on the meaning of the binary states of several shared connector pins. It was argued that this approach could pave the way for a wave of demand-response-ready appliances and greatly reduced expenses for utilities’ future demand-response programs. The approach could be supported by any of the many competing serial communication protocols and would be generally applicable to most end-use devices.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2009-12-02

232

X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

Pal, Main

233

‘The world is full of big bad wolves’: investigating the experimental therapeutic spaces of R.D. Laing and Aaron Esterson  

PubMed Central

In conjunction with the recent critical assessments of the life and work of R.D. Laing, this paper seeks to demonstrate what is revealed when Laing’s work on families and created spaces of mental health care are examined through a geographical lens. The paper begins with an exploration of Laing’s time at the Tavistock Clinic in London during the 1960s, and of the co-authored text with Aaron Esterson entitled, Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964). The study then seeks to demonstrate the importance Laing and his colleague placed on the time-space situatedness of patients and their worlds. Finally, an account is provided of Laing’s and Esterson’s spatial thinking in relation to their creation of both real and imagined spaces of therapeutic care. PMID:25114145

2014-01-01

234

A NASA/University Joint Venture in Space Science (JOVE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several papers have been given to national level meeting and a paper has been published in an international journal. Several additional papers have been co-author by students. The initial research project on the Atchafalaya Delta seems to have died in part due to a transfer of the NASA colleague to another location and subsequent reassigment to another job title. I have continued to include credit to NASA for many of my papers presented and published: A major debris flow along the Wasatch front in Northern Ogden; Spatial and volumetric changes in the Atchafalaya delta, Louisiana; An analysis of prehistoric Greenstone artifact in northern Alabama; An assessment of surfacing algorithm; Analysis of georeferencing algorithms to assess spatial accuracy.

Vaughn, Danny M.

1997-01-01

235

'The world is full of big bad wolves': investigating the experimental therapeutic spaces of R.D. Laing and Aaron Esterson.  

PubMed

In conjunction with the recent critical assessments of the life and work of R.D. Laing, this paper seeks to demonstrate what is revealed when Laing's work on families and created spaces of mental health care are examined through a geographical lens. The paper begins with an exploration of Laing's time at the Tavistock Clinic in London during the 1960s, and of the co-authored text with Aaron Esterson entitled, Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964). The study then seeks to demonstrate the importance Laing and his colleague placed on the time-space situatedness of patients and their worlds. Finally, an account is provided of Laing's and Esterson's spatial thinking in relation to their creation of both real and imagined spaces of therapeutic care. PMID:25114145

McGeachan, Cheryl

2014-09-01

236

Assessing research productivity in an oncology research institute: the role of the documentation center.  

PubMed Central

An evaluation method used to assess the quality of research productivity and to provide priorities for budget allocation purposes is presented. This method, developed by a working group of the National Institute for Research on Cancer (IST), Genoa, Italy, is based on the partitioning of categories of the Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Reports (SCI-JCR) into deciles, which normalizes journal impact factors in order to gauge the quality of the productivity. A second parameter related to the number of staff of each institute department co-authoring a given paper has been introduced in order to guide departmental budget allocations. The information scientists of the IST Documentation Center who participated in the working group played a pivotal role in developing the computerized database of publications, providing and analyzing data, supplying and evaluating literature on the topic, and placing international bibliographic databases at the working group's disposal. PMID:9028569

Ugolini, D; Bogliolo, A; Parodi, S; Casilli, C; Santi, L

1997-01-01

237

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

2000-08-23

238

[The establishment of the "dollhouse" at Oslo hospital].  

PubMed

The "Dollhouse" at Oslo Hospital was established in 1778 in a municipal institution built in 1538 to serve poor people that had become struck by illness. A medical doctor cared for the insane inmates' somatic ailments and a priest for the needs of the soul. However, from the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical view came to dominate. The first Norwegian law concerning "The Treatment and Care of the Insane" was approved in 1848, co-authored by the first medical superintendent at Oslo Hospital, Herman Wedel Major, the first institutional psychiatrist in Norway. The Oslo Hospital is still in operation, now for both sexes as part of the community-run psychiatric services in Oslo. PMID:11187200

Abrahamsen, P

2000-11-20

239

Equipment and skills shortage in Uzbekistan.  

PubMed

In this article, supplied with the help of the International Federation of Hospital Engineering (IFHE), five co-authors from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)--a German organisation that seeks to encourage and co-ordinate international cooperation in areas ranging from sustainable development to fund management, and its partner organisation, IFHE member, the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine (RRCEM) in Uzbekistan, discuss the use of medical technology in the central Asian country. They also explain how a GIZ project is helping to boost the number of skilled staff, improve quality assurance and management in procurement, logistics, and maintenance, and promote good training of medical and technical staff, across Uzbekistan. PMID:24930180

Khodjibaev, Abdukhakim M; Anvarov, Khikmat; Borisova, Elena; Schmitt, Roger; Murotova, Nigora

2014-05-01

240

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

241

Sudden death at the end of the Mesozoic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A paleoecological analysis of the fossil record before and after the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary indicates that the widespread extinctions and biological stresses around the boundary are best explained in terms of a sudden, significant, but short temperature rise. L. Alvarez and co-authors, having found an enrichment in iridium at the same boundary, postulated that it was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body. If this body struck the ocean, the water injected into the atmosphere may have led to a transient increase in the global surface temperature. This temperature pulse may have been primarily responsible for the effects observed in the biosphere. The pattern of extinction of higher plant species suggests that splash down occurred in the northern Pacific-Bering Sea area. ?? 1981.

Emiliani, C.; Kraus, E. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.

1981-01-01

242

Seasonal gravity wave drags on the upper stratosphere due to the northwestern pacific typhoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent study of the first author and his co-authors (Zeyu Chen, Peter Preusse, Michael Jarisch, Manfred Ern, and Dirk Offermann, 2003), it has been revealed that a northwestern Pacific typhoon can generate stratospheric gravity waves with the horizontal scales ranging from 500 km ˜ 1000 km, and carrying a magnitude of ˜ 0.001 Pascal of momentum flux into the upper stratosphere Statistics indicates that the annual mean number of typhoon in the northwestern Pacific is about 32, most of them happen in summer. In this presentation, we show that a parameterization scheme is developed to derive the magnitude of the momentum flux of the waves from operational satellite observations that can scale the intensity of a typhoon (e.g. the brightness temperature observations from the GMS-5 satellite), and operational meteorological data analysis. The seasonal effect of the Gravity Wave Drags due to the typhoons in the area is derived.

Chen, Zeyu; Lu, Daren

243

1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

244

College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year, the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded jointly to economist Alvin E. Roth and mathematician Lloyd S. Shapley for their work on market design and matching theory, which relate to how people and companies find and select one another in everything from marriage to school choice to jobs to organ donations. Shapley first developed his ideas on analyzing resource allocation in a classic early paper co-authored with David Gale titled "College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage". Recently, the Mathematical Association of America plucked this 1962 article out of their fine archives and placed it online for the general public. Today, the article remains one of the American Mathematical Monthly's most cited works.

245

Rutgers University: Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences -Deep Sea Microbiology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, Dr. Costantino Vetriani's Deep Sea Microbiology Lab focuses on "the physiology, ecology and evolutionary relationships of deep-sea prokaryotes, with an emphasis on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps"." The Microbiology Lab website includes a Publications section which lists book chapters and a number of downloadable, refereed journal articles that have been authored, or co-authored, by Dr. Vetriani. The site also contains a short summary of a current research project, and a listing of oceanographic expeditions dating back to 1995. The site's Deep-Sea Video Clips include some brief, yet interesting coverage of tube worms, zoarcid fish, Pompeii worms, crabs, and more. The site also contains a few intriguing DSML underwater images of microorganisms from hydrothermal vents.

246

Evidence-Based of Nonoperative Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Until now because there are many published journals with a variety of opinions so I will stratify these articles by giving weighted value on grade evaluation which depend on each institution (written author and co-authors) and external evaluate status (SCI, SCIE, impact factor) rather than the outcomes provided by each article. Consequently, before evaluating publicized papers, study quality assessment of each interesting paper should be performed by mean of gauging the quality of evidence. Reviewing these articles, a grade of medical literature was divided into the following 5 levels as level I (randomized controlled study), level II (non-randomized controlled study), level III (case-control study), level IV (case series), and level V (expert opinions). However, in present article I concluded only involved medical literatures with weighted value of level I and II evidence. PMID:25346826

2014-01-01

247

Struggling with the fragility of life: a relational-narrative approach to ethics in palliative nursing.  

PubMed

In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethical dilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual. PMID:16045242

Abma, Tineke A

2005-07-01

248

CEOs for Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen a growing number of organizations, institutions, and national think tanks express an increasing concern for sustaining the competitive economic advantage of major urban areas. One such group is CEOS for Cities, which is a national bipartisan alliance of mayors, corporate executives, university presidents, and other nonprofit leaders whose primary directive is to advance the economic competitiveness of cities. The group's executive committee includes such powerful leaders as Mayor Richard M. Daley of Chicago and Paul S. Grogan, the CEO of the Boston Foundation. One of the site's best features is the Trends and Data Analysis Reports, coupled with the Best Practice reports. Many of these documents are co-authored with other like-minded institutions, such as the Brookings Institution, and delve into such topics as What the IT Revolution Means for Regional Economic Development and Leveraging Colleges and Universities for Urban Economic Revitalization: An Action Agenda.

249

Observation of the E(38)-boson  

E-print Network

The first results of the search for the E(38)-boson are presented. The search was conducted in the effective mass spectra of photon pairs produced in the d(2.0 GeV/n) + C, d(3.0 GeV/n) + Cu and p(4.6 GeV) + C reactions. The experimental data was obtained at internal beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Due to non ordinariness of the obtained results (standing out of The Standard Model) and at the request of co-authors the first version of the article is withdrawn for further verification and more detailed description of the experiment and data analysis. The second version is being prepared.

Kh. U. Abraamyan; A. B. Anisimov; M. I. Baznat; K. K. Gudima; M. A. Nazarenko; S. G. Reznikov; A. S. Sorin

2012-08-19

250

Wright Flyer Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wind tunnel test results have been published in the literature as summarized at the end of this report. As part of the education program, an introduction to engineering course module was designed and tested on 80 freshman engineering students at Old Dominion University. The five-week module required that five-person teams design, build and fly a radio-controlled airplane using only the wind tunnel data developed by the Wright brothers in 1902. That module is described in Sparks and Ash (2001). The Principal Investigator has co-authored one dozen publications resulting from this research, as listed at the end of this report. The Principal Investigator has given fourteen lectures on the Wright brother testing program and has appeared in two documentary television programs (summarized at the end of this report). Speaking invitations have continued since the completion of the project.

2004-01-01

251

A consensus statement for safety monitoring guidelines of treatments for major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring. Method Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content. Results Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment. Conclusion The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression. PMID:21888608

Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Tiller, John; Schweitzer, Isaac; Hickie, Ian; Khoo, Jon Paul; Bassett, Darryl L; Lyndon, Bill; Mitchell, Philip B; Parker, Gordon; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Udina, Marc; Singh, Ajeet; Moylan, Steven; Giorlando, Francesco; Doughty, Carolyn; Davey, Christopher G; Theodoras, Michael; Berk, Michael

2011-01-01

252

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

E-print Network

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

253

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-print Network

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14

254

Race, gender and the econophysics of income distribution in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The econophysics “two-class” theory of Yakovenko and his co-authors shows that the distribution of labor incomes is roughly exponential. This paper extends this result to US subgroups categorized by gender and race. It is well known that Males have higher average incomes than Females, and Whites have higher average incomes than African-Americans. It is also evident that social policies can affect these income gaps. Our surprising finding is that nonetheless intra-group distributions of pre-tax labor incomes are remarkably similar and remain close to exponential. This suggests that income inequality can be usefully addressed by taxation policies, and overall income inequality can be modified by also shifting the balance between labor and property incomes.

Shaikh, Anwar; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Wiener, Noe

2014-12-01

255

Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  

PubMed

While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management. PMID:23678657

Dillow, Geoff

2013-04-01

256

1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

Not Available

1988-01-01

257

Coldwater fish in wadeable streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Standardizing sampling methods for fish populations across large regions is important for consistent measurement of large-scale effects of climate or geography. In addition, pooling samples creates larger sample sizes and can facilitate data sharing among scientists and land managers. Sampling freshwater fish has largely not been standardized due to the diversity of fish and habitats. USGS aquatic ecologist Jason Dunham and co-authors contributed a chapter about sampling coldwater fish in wadeable streams to a new book that details common methods, protocols, and guidelines for sampling fish across North America. Topics include three common sampling methods: electrofishing, snorkeling, and nest counts. Each method provides complementary information about different species and life stages. The information will be useful for initiating new or fine-tuning ongoing sampling programs.

Dunham, Jason B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Thurow, Russell F.; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Howell, Philip J.

2009-01-01

258

Museum of Southwestern Biology: Division of Birds-Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Division of Birds at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, this website contains a collection of downloadable publications regarding a number of bird species. The publications are all authored (or co-authored) by Robert W. Dickerman, a Research Associate Professor and Acting Curator for the Division of Birds. Professor Dickerman's articles have appeared in such publications as _Journal of Raptor Research_, _Western Birds_, _Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington_, _The Southwestern Naturalist_, and _The AUK_ between the years 1991 and 2004. Titles found at this site include "A review of the North American subspecies of the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)," "Talon-Locking in the Red-Tailed Hawk," "An Extinct Subspecies of Sharp-Tailed Grouse," and "On the Validity of Bubo virginianus occidentalis Stone," to name a few.

259

The Different Wavelengths of Radio Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Science covers many different avenues. This summer I attempted to work in each of the different avenues to learn the full range of subjects covered by Radio Science. I began my summer by traveling to Greece for the 3rd International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-3). I went as a co-author of the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) team paper. My first job when I returned from Greece was to update the Radio Science activities webpage. I then used Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to find radio signals in recorded Radio Science experimental data and determine frequencies and powers. I read about and ran Fortran code being used to determine wind measurements on Huygens. I formatted and revised the abstracts and data lengths for the DVD data sets. By performing these tasks, I also learned the Unix operating system as well as a small amount of shell programming.

Malecha, Jessica L.

2005-01-01

260

Thin helical vortex dynamics in low-viscosity liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of helical vortices description has the significant interest as from fundamental point of view as well for practice. In some sense this problem is close to the vortex ring one which attracted much more attention in last decades. The reviews on the vortex rings investigations can be found in recent papers [1,2] or in book by Akhmetov [3]. In particular, in series of papers by Kaplanskii with co-authors [4-6] there was considered the viscosity influence on the vortex ring evolution. Separate attention was paid to the low Reynolds number case and to high Reynolds number one, initial stage of viscous evolution and final one. This paper presents first attempt for research on the diffusion and dynamics of a viscous helical vortex.

Agafontseva, M. V.; Kuibin, P. A.

2014-08-01

261

Appendix: Velocity Reference  

E-print Network

*These chapters are included in the reader Please note that the chapters included here are in their “beta ” form, and are subject to modification and correction before the final book ships. About the Author Rob Harrop is Lead Software Architect of UK-based development house, Cake Solutions Limited. At Cake, Rob leads a team of six developers working on enterprise solutions for a variety of clients including the Department of Trade and Industry, the Metropolitan Police and NUS Services Limited. Rob, and Cake, specialises in both.NET and J2EE-based development, with Rob having been involved with.NET since the alpha stages. Rob is the author of Pro Jakarta Velocity (Apress, Not Yet Published) as well as co-author of Pro Jakarta Struts (Apress, 2004), Pro Visual Studio.NET (Apress, Not Yet Published) and

Rob Harrop

262

1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies.

Not Available

1988-01-01

263

Pierre Curie, 1859-1906  

PubMed Central

The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background—his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years. PMID:17576470

Mould, R.F.

2007-01-01

264

Evidence-based of nonoperative treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

Until now because there are many published journals with a variety of opinions so I will stratify these articles by giving weighted value on grade evaluation which depend on each institution (written author and co-authors) and external evaluate status (SCI, SCIE, impact factor) rather than the outcomes provided by each article. Consequently, before evaluating publicized papers, study quality assessment of each interesting paper should be performed by mean of gauging the quality of evidence. Reviewing these articles, a grade of medical literature was divided into the following 5 levels as level I (randomized controlled study), level II (non-randomized controlled study), level III (case-control study), level IV (case series), and level V (expert opinions). However, in present article I concluded only involved medical literatures with weighted value of level I and II evidence. PMID:25346826

Kim, Hak-Sun

2014-10-01

265

Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym

2008-01-01

266

Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To place the condition monitoring program in perspective); (11) Use of procedures for Predictive, Condition Monitoring and maintenance in general (To get consistent results); (12) Developing a scheme for predictive, condition monitoring personnel qualification and certification (To provide a career path and incentive to advance skill level and value to the company); (13) Analyst Assignment to Technologies and Related Duties (To make intelligent use of the skills of individuals assigned); (14) Condition Monitoring Analyst Selection Criteria (Key attributes for success are mentioned.); (15) Design and Modification to Support Monitoring (For old and new machinery to facilitate data acquisition); (16) Establishment of a Museum of Components and Samples Pulled from Service for Cause (For orientation and awareness training of operators and managers and exchange of information between analysts); (17) Goals (To promote a proactive program approach for machinery condition improvement).

Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.

1999-03-01

267

Essays in microeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets. This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races. Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results. We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices. We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass-merchandisers and grocery stores reduce market prices by a larger amount and over a greater distance than other types of gas stations. We demonstrate that our conclusions are not sensitive to the choice of distance metric.

Davies, Tim

268

Basal vertebrates clarify the evolutionary history of ciliopathy-associated genes Tmem138 and Tmem216.  

PubMed

Recently, Lee et al. (Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Lee JE, et al. (30 co-authors). 2012. Evolutionarily assembled cis-regulatory module at a human ciliopathy locus. Science (335:966-969.) demonstrated that mutation in either of the transmembrane protein encoding genes, TMEM138 or TMEM216, causes phenotypically indistinguishable ciliopathy. Furthermore, on the basis of the observation that their orthologs are linked in a head-to-tail configuration in other mammals and Anolis, but present on different scaffolds or chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis and zebrafish, the authors concluded that the two genes were joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the evolutionary amphibian-to-reptile transition to form a functional module. We have sequenced these gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, and found that the two genes together with a related gene (Tmem80) constitute a tandem cluster. This suggests that the two genes were already linked in the vertebrate ancestor and then rearranged independently in Xenopus and zebrafish. Analyses of the coelacanth and lamprey genomes support this hypothesis. Our study highlights the importance of basal vertebrates as critical reference genomes. PMID:22936720

Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Warren, Wesley C; Brenner, Sydney

2013-01-01

269

Atmospheric Aerosol Chemical Composition Measurements for the Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We received funding to provide measurements of the chemical composition of aerosols aboard the NASA Ames DC-8 research aircraft during the SUCCESS mission. These measurements were successfully completed and the final data resides in the Cloud I computer archive at NASA Ames Research Center. The interpretation of the data obtained on this mission over the central United States has been published in special issues of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers with the University of New Hampshire as first author constitute this report and summarize the salient features of our data. The paper by Talbot et al. discusses the impact of vertical transport on free tropospheric chemistry over the the central USA in springtime. This transport was a dominant feature of the aerosol chemistry during SUCCESS. The paper by Dibb et al. discusses aerosol chemistry specifically as it related to free tropospheric sulfate related to jet exhaust and surface sources. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that surface sources appeared to dominant the distribution of aerosol sulfate in the free troposphere. In addition to these first authored papers, researchers from the University of New Hampshire were co-authors on numerous other companion papers in the special issues.

Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

1998-01-01

270

Healing in forgiveness: A discussion with Amanda Lindhout and Katherine Porterfield, PhD.  

PubMed

In 2008, Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped by a group of extremists while traveling as a freelance journalist in Somalia. She and a colleague were held captive for more than 15 months, released only after their families paid a ransom. In this interview, Amanda discusses her experiences in captivity and her ongoing recovery from this experience with Katherine Porterfield, Ph.D. a clinical psychologist at the Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture. Specifically, Amanda describes the childhood experiences that shaped her thirst for travel and knowledge, the conditions of her kidnapping, and her experiences after she was released from captivity. Amanda outlines the techniques that she employed to survive in the early aftermath of her capture, and how these coping strategies changed as her captivity lengthened. She reflects on her transition home, her recovery process, and her experiences with mental health professionals. Amanda's insights provide an example of resilience in the face of severe, extended trauma to researchers, clinicians, and survivors alike. The article ends with an discussion of the ways that Amanda's coping strategies and recovery process are consistent with existing resilience literature. Amanda's experiences as a hostage, her astonishing struggle for physical and mental survival, and her life after being freed are documented in her book, co-authored with Sara Corbett, A House in the Sky. PMID:25317259

Porterfield, Katherine A; Lindhout, Amanda

2014-01-01

271

Panel discussion review: session 1--exposure assessment and related errors in air pollution epidemiologic studies.  

PubMed

Examining the validity of exposure metrics used in air pollution epidemiologic models has been a key focus of recent exposure assessment studies. The objective of this work has been, largely, to determine what a given exposure metric represents and to quantify and reduce any potential errors resulting from using these metrics in lieu of true exposure measurements. The current manuscript summarizes the presentations of the co-authors from a recent EPA workshop, held in December 2006, dealing with the role and contributions of exposure assessment in addressing these issues. Results are presented from US and Canadian exposure and pollutant measurement studies as well as theoretical simulations to investigate what both particulate and gaseous pollutant concentrations represent and the potential errors resulting from their use in air pollution epidemiologic studies. Quantifying the association between ambient pollutant concentrations and corresponding personal exposures has led to the concept of defining attenuation factors, or alpha. Specifically, characterizing pollutant-specific estimates for alpha was shown to be useful in developing regression calibration methods involving PM epidemiologic risk estimates. For some gaseous pollutants such as NO2 and SO2, the associations between ambient concentrations and personal exposures were shown to be complex and still poorly understood. Results from recent panel studies suggest that ambient NO2 measurements may, in some locations, be serving as surrogates to traffic pollutants, including traffic-related PM2.5, hopanes, steranes, and oxidized nitrogen compounds (rather than NO2). PMID:18079768

Sarnat, Jeremy A; Wilson, William E; Strand, Matthew; Brook, Jeff; Wyzga, Ron; Lumley, Thomas

2007-12-01

272

Theory and detection scheme of seismic EM signals transferred into the atmosphere from the oceanic and continental lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the compound structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances in the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in the lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors' detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain why Prof. Kopytenko (Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci.) and co-authors were able to estimate location of the future seismic epicenter area from their magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth's surface.

Novik, Oleg; Ershov, Sergey; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnov, Fedor; Volgin, Maxim

2014-07-01

273

Lectures of Fermi liquid theory  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid {sup 3}He, {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

Bedell, K.S.

1993-07-01

274

Lectures of Fermi liquid theory  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid [sup 3]He, [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

Bedell, K.S.

1993-01-01

275

Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416

Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo

2014-01-01

276

E-portfolios and personalized learning: research in practice with two dyslexic learners in UK higher education.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the use of an e-portfolio system in contributing to the personalized learning of two dyslexic learners at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. The rationale for this research rests at the intersection of generic findings from e-portfolio (and wider e-learning) research and the still challenging project in higher education (HE) of creating inclusive curricula. A qualitative, ethnographic approach was employed in a piece of collaborative research between academic staff and dyslexic learners. Two retrospective learner narratives were constructed and then reviewed by all co-authors in terms of the 'personalized fit' which they allowed with dyslexic thinking, learning and writing experience. The findings suggest a potential refinement of the general pedagogical claims about e-portfolio-based learning when considering dyslexic learners and thence the value of an enhanced prioritization of e-portfolio learning practices within inclusive HE curricula. The review and analysis also allow a 'critical' discussion of the practical and theoretical issues arising within this work. PMID:20865707

Hughes, Julie; Herrington, Margaret; McDonald, Tess; Rhodes, Amy

2011-02-01

277

On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

2012-01-01

278

On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard

2012-01-01

279

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (size about 2-200 km). The CRMs also allow explicit interaction between out-going longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation with clouds. Observations can provide the initial conditions and validation for CRM results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model, a cloud-resolving model, has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past two decades. Dr. Joanne Simpson played a central role in GCE modeling developments and applications. She was the lead author or co-author on more than forty GCE modeling papers. In this paper, a brief discussion and review of the application of the GCE model to (1) cloud interactions and mergers, (2) convective and stratiform interaction, (3) mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction, (4) latent heating profiles and TRMM, and (5) responses of cloud systems to large-scale processes are provided. Comparisons between the GCE model's results, other cloud-resolving model results and observations are also examined.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2002-01-01

280

Transforming Introductory Physics for Life Scientists: Researching the consequences for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to policy documents calling for dramatic changes in pre-medical and biology education [1-3], the physics and biology education research groups at the University of Maryland are rethinking how to teach physics to life science majors. As an interdisciplinary team, we are drastically reconsidering the physics topics relevant for these courses. We are designing new in-class tasks to engage students in using physical principles to explain aspects of biological phenomena where the physical principles are of consequence to the biological systems. We will present examples of such tasks as well as preliminary data on how students engage in these tasks. Lastly, we will share some barriers encountered in pursuing meaningful interdisciplinary education.[4pt] Co-authors: Edward F. Redish and Julia Svaboda [4pt] [1] National Research Council, Bio2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (NAP, 2003).[0pt] [2] AAMC-HHMI committee, Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (AAMC, 2009).[0pt] [3] American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action (AAAS, 2009).

Turpen, Chandra

2011-10-01

281

Yup'ik Culture and Context in Southwest Alaska: Community Member Perspectives of Tradition, Social Change, and Prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup’ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup’ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup’ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup’ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup’ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James

2014-01-01

282

Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

Sastry, S. S.

1997-01-01

283

CHRONOMICS AND GENETICS.  

PubMed

The mapping of time structures, chronomes, constitutes an endeavor spawned by chronobiology: chronomics. This cartography in time shows signatures on the surface of the earth, cycles, also accumulating in life on the earth's surface. We append a glossary of these and other cycles, the names being coined in the light of approximate cycle length. These findings are transdisciplinary, in view of their broad representation and critical importance in the biosphere. Suggestions of mechanisms are derived from an analytical statistical documentation of characteristics with superposed epochs and superposed cycles and other "remove-and-replace" approaches. These approaches use the spontaneously changing presence or absence of an environmental, cyclic or other factor for the study of any corresponding changes in the biosphere. We illustrate the indispensability of the mapping of rhythm characteristics in broader structures, chronomes, along several or all available different time scales. We present results from a cooperative cartography of about 10, about 20, and about 50-year rhythms in the context of a broad endeavor concerned with the Biosphere and the Cosmos, the BIOCOS project. The participants in this project are our co-authors worldwide, beyond Brno and Minneapolis; the studies of human blood pressure and heart rate around the clock and along the week may provide the evidence for those influences that Mendel sought in meteorology and climatology. PMID:19710947

Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Katinas, G; Dušek, J; Homolka, P; Karpíšek, Z; P Sonkowsky, R P; Schwartzkopff, O; Fišer, B; Siegelová, J

2007-10-01

284

Research ethics capacity development in Africa: exploring a model for individual success.  

PubMed

The Johns Hopkins-Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program (FABTP) has offered a fully-funded, one-year, non-degree training opportunity in research ethics to health professionals, ethics committee members, scholars, journalists and scientists from countries across sub-Saharan Africa. In the first 9 years of operation, 28 trainees from 13 African countries have trained with FABTP. Any capacity building investment requires periodic critical evaluation of the impact that training dollars produce. In this paper we describe and evaluate FABTP and the efforts of its trainees. Our data show that since 2001, the 28 former FABTP trainees have authored or co-authored 105 new bioethics-related publications; were awarded 33 bioethics-related grants; played key roles on 78 bioethics-related research studies; and participated in 198 bioethics workshops or conferences. Over the past nine years, trainees have collectively taught 48 separate courses related to bioethics and have given 170 presentations on various topics in the field. Many former trainees have pursued and completed doctoral degrees in bioethics; some have become editorial board members for bioethics journals. Female trainees were, on average, less experienced at matriculation and produced fewer post-training outputs than their male counterparts. More comprehensive studies are needed to determine the relationships between age, sex, previous experience and training program outputs. PMID:22708713

Ali, Joseph; Hyder, Adnan A; Kass, Nancy E

2012-08-01

285

Jim Starnes' Contributions to Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of advances in residual strength analyses methods for metallic structures that were realized under the leadership of Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr., is presented. The majority of research led by Dr. Starnes in this area was conducted in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Dr. Starnes, respectfully referred to herein as Jim, had a passion for studying complex response phenomena and dedicated a significant amount of research effort toward advancing damage tolerance and residual strength analysis methods for metallic structures. Jim's efforts were focused on understanding damage propagation in built-up fuselage structure with widespread fatigue damage, with the goal of ensuring safety in the aging international commercial transport fleet. Jim's major contributions in this research area were in identifying the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads, and geometric nonlinearity, on the response of built-up structures with damage. Analytical and experimental technical results are presented to demonstrate the breadth and rigor of the research conducted in this technical area. Technical results presented herein are drawn exclusively from papers where Jim was a co-author.

Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Harris, Charles E.

2005-01-01

286

Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: "Reflecting" on the Mirror, Part II  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror’s results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession’s progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421566

Weber, Robert J.; Stevenson, James G.; White, Sara J.

2014-01-01

287

Solving nuclear shape conundrum at HIE-ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is the purpose of this paper to illustrate some of the low-energy nuclear physics that we want to pursue at the new HIE-ISOLDE radioactive-ion-beam facility at CERN. The University of the Western Cape leads an experimental proposal and co-authors two Letters of Intent, in collaboration with European institutions, at HIE-ISOLDE. Timely topics such as the "Exploration of K-isomerism using unique high-K isomeric beams - CERN-INTC-I-101" and "Shape changes and proton-neutron pairing around the N = Z line - CERN-INTC-I-102" are addressed in these Letters of Intent. Our experimental proposal aims at performing a multi-step Coulomb-excitation of radioactive 70Se ion beams using the 208Pb(70Se,70Se*)208Pb* reaction at a bombarding energy of 5.5 MeV/u. The physics goal is a precise measurement of the (2+1 || Ê2 || 2+1) diagonal matrix element, related to the spectroscopic quadrupole moment, in 70Se. Full simulations presented in this work show distinct angular distributions for plausible values of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment; with a predicted uncertainty of approximately ±0.1 eb. Additional diagonal and transitional matrix elements will also be obtained. These results will shed light onto the origin of rarely-found oblate shapes and shape coexistence in this region of rapidly-changing shell structure.

Orce, J. N.

2013-08-01

288

Yup'ik culture and context in Southwest Alaska: community member perspectives of tradition, social change, and prevention.  

PubMed

This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup'ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup'ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup'ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup'ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup'ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James; Rasmus, Stacy M

2014-09-01

289

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

290

(Bioremediation of mercury-contaminated sites)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this travel was to allow the traveler to (1) attend the 7th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment held in Geneva, Switzerland; (2) chair two sessions (Wastewater Purification and Organometallic Compounds, respectively) of the conference; and (3) present a paper describing research (supported jointly by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) on the bioremediation of mercury-contaminated sites. The title of the paper was Volatilization, Methylation, and Demethylation of Mercury in a Mercury-Contaminated Stream.'' The traveler was also a co-author of another paper, Gene Probes to Predict Responses of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Toxic Metals,'' which was presented by the USEPA collaborator (T. Barkay). The conference brought together international experts to present and discuss research findings on many aspects of metals in the environment and thus provided the traveler the opportunity to interact beneficially with researchers in the subfields of mercury biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. The traveler also attended conference sessions on metals and acid deposition, groundwater, wastewater purification, and municipal solid waste. 2 refs.

Turner, R.R.

1989-09-27

291

[Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

Ogata, K

1981-08-01

292

An analysis of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006  

E-print Network

We extracted and processed abstract data from the SFN annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001-2006, using techniques and software from natural language processing, database management, and data visualization and analysis. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. The resulting co-author graph in 2006, for example, had 39,645 nodes (with an estimated 6% error rate in our disambiguation of similar author names) and 13,979 abstracts, with an average of 1.5 abstracts per author, 4.3 authors per abstract, and 5.96 collaborators per author (including all authors on shared abstracts). Recent work in related areas has focused on reputational indices such as highly cited papers or scientists and journal impact factors, and to a lesser extent on creating visual maps of the knowledge space. In contrast, there has been relatively les...

Lin, J M; Burns, G; Allen, C B; Mitra, P P

2007-01-01

293

Theoretical estimation of optical hyperpolarizability appearance in fullerene molecule and carbon nanotubes interacting with ionic crystal surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first hyperpolarizability (HP) of fullerene and finite length carbon nanotubes (FCN), attached to the neutral surfaces of SiO 2 (1 1 0), CdS(1 1 2 0), and CdTe(1 1 0) crystals, is calculated in the framework of the semi-empirical version of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory (TDHF). The norm of ?-vector invariant, induced by the substrate, is of the same order as in some organic molecules with the observed nonlinear optical properties. The orthogonal to the substrate ?-component is responsible for generation of the second harmonic by fullerene according to Hoshi and co-authors [H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, Y. Maruyama, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (1991) L1397]. The calculated value of this component is shown sufficient for the weak generation. It is found that zig-zag FCN, in contrast to armchair FCN, are characterized by the resonant behaviour of HP for second harmonic generation (SHG) at low frequencies due to the existence of quasi-degenerate (hyperbolic) levels in the close vicinity of the Fermi level. This ability is created by the external ionic crystal potential and affected by mutual electron interaction of molecules in the layer.

Mestechkin, M. M.

2007-05-01

294

Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

Kniffen, Donald A.

1996-01-01

295

The East China Sea continental shelf data and it¡¦s scientific merits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40 years ago (1968), when the US Naval research vessel Hunt surveyed in the East China Sea and Taiwan Strait, 3 leaders of the cruise (Emory, Wageman and Hilde, co-author of this paper) first discovered several thick sedimentary deposits forming the sub-basins. Some of these sedimentary sub-basins can be up to 9 kms thick. This was quickly translated to be a possible for the petroleum resource. The marine surveys of both the geological and geophysical fields in the East China Sea continental shelf have been increased significantly, even up to date. Our collections of the seismic, magnetic, gravity, and bathymetry data include the sources from Taiwan, USA, France, and Japan as well as from the commercial oil companies. The total seismic profiles alone can be up to 20,000 kms. This big data base has been gathered as a focus to better understand the tectonic structure, geological evolution, marine slope stability, and also be treated as an early tsunami warning system for the East Asia region. Some of the data can also be used to evaluate the local hydrocarbon potentials.

Lee, C.; Hilde, T.

2007-12-01

296

CDC Global Health E-Brief Building USG Interagency Collaboration Through Global Health Engagement First Quarter 2008 WELCOME to 2008’s first quarter Global Health  

E-print Network

E-Brief, designed to inform readers about key global health activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our first issue of the year focuses on efforts to harmonize national global public health priorities across the U.S. Government and other public-private partnerships through Global Health Engagement—a strategic approach to leverage U.S. public health capabilities in support of equity, security, diplomacy, trade, development and the environment. Co-authored with our interagency partners, this issue highlights Project Horizon, an ongoing interagency strategic planning process bringing greater cohesion to federal agencies with international mandates. This issue also features activities that exemplify Global Health Engagement, and a plan to chart its success.? The Spirit of Engagement Already a recognized global public health leader through its work in smallpox eradication and global malaria and measles control, CDC continues to invest in cross-sector global health strategies and partnerships. Increasingly, CDC is partnering with federal agencies with growing interests, mandates, and unique capabilities in global health. The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), administered through the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC), set the standard for a USG-wide approach when it formalized the response to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. The remarkable progress to date would not have been possible without hard won unity between federal

unknown authors

297

Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications  

SciTech Connect

A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced.

Li Hui [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090 (China); School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

2008-07-08

298

Correction and commentary for “Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the regional ocean modeling system” by Haidvogel et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, pp. 3595-3624  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although our names appear as co-authors in the above article (Haidvogel et al. (2008) [1], hereafter H2008), we were not aware of its existence until after it was published. In reading the article, we discovered that a significant portion of it ( ˜40%, or 10 pages) repeats three large fragments from our own previously published work, Shchepetkin and McWilliams (2005) [2] (hereafter SM2005), but now presented in such a way that the motivation for the specific algorithmic choices made in ROMS and the relations among the different model components are no longer clear. The model equations appearing in H2008, Section 2.1 (taken from an earlier article, Haidvogel et al. (2000) [3]) are not entirely consistent with the actual equations solved in the ROMS code, resulting in contradictions within H2008 itself. In our view the description in H2008 does not constitute a mathematically accurate statement about the hydrodynamic core of ROMS. The purpose of this note is to clarify and correct this, as well as to explain some of the algorithmic differences among ROMS versions now in use.

Shchepetkin, Alexander F.; McWilliams, James C.

2009-12-01

299

Human biology: From a love to profession and back again.  

PubMed

In 1937-1939, while working with my right hand as psychologist in the Bata Shoe Co. in Zlín, Moravia, with my left hand I was involved in research on age changes in body dimensions and profited from the interdisciplinary orientation of the (Czech) Biotypological Society, of which I was an active member. In 1941 I joined the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene, a research and teaching unit in the School of Public Health of the University of Minnesota. My contributions ranged from philosophy of science through a broadly conceived physical anthropology, including nutritional anthropometry, to the study of behavior. I did field work both in Yugoslavia and in the United States. The research topics included aging, the effects of smoking, and etiology of coronary heart disease. In the collaborative monograph on The Biology of Human Starvation, I co-authored chapters on body weight, physical appearance and external dimension, body fat, a synthesizing chapter on compartments of the body, special senses, neuromuscular functions and motor performance, and seven chapters devoted to psychology. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:143-155, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533938

Brozek, Josef

1999-01-01

300

Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2003-02-01

301

Textual standardization and the DSM-5 "common language".  

PubMed

In February 2010, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched their DSM-5 website with details about the development of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The APA invited "the general public" to review the draft diagnostic criteria and provide written comments and suggestions. This revision marks the first time the APA has solicited public review of their diagnostic manual. This article analyzes reported speech on the DSM-5 draft diagnostic criteria for the classification Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It demonstrates how textual standardization facilitates the cultural portability of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria such that a community of speakers beyond the borders of the APA come to be seen as exemplary speakers, writers, and revisers of the professional style. Furthermore, analysis shows how co-authoring practices recontextualize the "voice" and persona of putative patient reported speech on Criterion D2. As a consequence of textual standardization, spoken discourse becomes recontextualized as the product of scientific inquiry and the organization of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:24682628

Kelly, Patty A

2014-06-01

302

Regular and chaotic regimes in Saltzman model of glacial climate dynamics under the influence of additive and parametric noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the climate system, due to its nonlinearity, can be sensitive to stochastic forcing. New types of dynamical regimes caused by the noise-induced transitions are revealed on the basis of the classical climate model previously developed by Saltzman with co-authors and Nicolis. A complete parametric classification of dynamical regimes of this deterministic model is carried out. On the basis of this analysis, the influence of additive and parametric noises is studied. For weak noise, the climate system is localized nearby deterministic attractors. A mixture of the small and large amplitude oscillations caused by noise-induced transitions between equilibria and cycle attraction basins arise with increasing the noise intensity. The portion of large amplitude oscillations is estimated too. The parametric noise introduced in two system parameters demonstrates quite different system dynamics. Namely, the noise introduced in one system parameter increases its dispersion whereas in the other one leads to the stabilization of the climatic system near its unstable equilibrium with transitions from order to chaos.

Alexandrov, Dmitry V.; Bashkirtseva, Irina A.; Fedotov, Sergei P.; Ryashko, Lev B.

2014-10-01

303

Ap stars with variable periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars exhibit periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectroscopic variations that can be modelled adequately as a rigidly-rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures. Nevertheless, there is a small sample of diverse mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades while the shapes of their phase curves remain unchanged. Alternating period increases and decreases have been suspected in the hot CP stars CU Vir and V901 Ori, while rotation in the moderately cool star BS Cir has been decelerating. These examples bring new insight into this theoretically unpredicted phenomenon. We discuss possible causes of such behaviour, and propose that dynamic interactions between a thin, outer, magnetically-confined envelope braked by the stellar wind, and an inner faster-rotating stellar body, are able to explain the observed rotational variability. The article is dedicated to one of its co-authors - Dr. Jozef Žiž?ovský who passed away on 15 June 2013.

Mikulášek, Z.; Krti?ka, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Henry, G. W.; Paunzen, E.; Žiž?ovský, J.; Zverko, J.

2014-11-01

304

Healing in forgiveness: A discussion with Amanda Lindhout and Katherine Porterfield, PhD  

PubMed Central

In 2008, Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped by a group of extremists while traveling as a freelance journalist in Somalia. She and a colleague were held captive for more than 15 months, released only after their families paid a ransom. In this interview, Amanda discusses her experiences in captivity and her ongoing recovery from this experience with Katherine Porterfield, Ph.D. a clinical psychologist at the Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture. Specifically, Amanda describes the childhood experiences that shaped her thirst for travel and knowledge, the conditions of her kidnapping, and her experiences after she was released from captivity. Amanda outlines the techniques that she employed to survive in the early aftermath of her capture, and how these coping strategies changed as her captivity lengthened. She reflects on her transition home, her recovery process, and her experiences with mental health professionals. Amanda's insights provide an example of resilience in the face of severe, extended trauma to researchers, clinicians, and survivors alike. The article ends with an discussion of the ways that Amanda's coping strategies and recovery process are consistent with existing resilience literature. Amanda's experiences as a hostage, her astonishing struggle for physical and mental survival, and her life after being freed are documented in her book, co-authored with Sara Corbett, A House in the Sky. PMID:25317259

Porterfield, Katherine A.; Lindhout, Amanda

2014-01-01

305

Terahertz Imaging and Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies could vastly improve the security of personnel checkpoints, because of the penetration through clothing and spatial resolution available in this spectral range. Since 9/11, the social need for improved checkpoint screening has been obvious and great. However, although efforts to develop such imagers had been underway for many years before that, practical low-cost systems, analogous to IR uncooled imagers, still don't exist. An emphasis on purely passive imaging places very stringent sensitivity requirements on such imagers. A number of long-term efforts, which I briefly mention, are underway to improve the sensitivity of such passive imagers. However, most of the emphasis in our program is on active imaging. With this approach, much simpler and lower-cost detectors, such as (uncooled) antenna-coupled microbolometers can be used, at the expense of incorporating slightly more complex optics and illumination components. I discuss several tradeoffs presented in the design of active imaging systems for the 100 to 1000 GHz frequency range, describe how we have addressed them in the design of a scanning, 95 GHz, bolometer-based imager for concealed weapons detection that is nearing completion, and describe how the system architecture can be modified to scale the operating frequency to the 650 GHz atmospheric window. Co-authors: Arttu Luukanen and Aaron Miller

Grossman, Erich

2005-03-01

306

A sample of star forming regions triggered by cloud-cloud collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision between molecular clouds is considered an efficient mechanism to trigger cloud collapse to form stars. We conducted a large-scale survey for the infrared sources, which are possibly regions of cloud-cloud collision, by making ^12CO (1-0), ^13CO(1-0), and C^18O(1-0) molecular lines observations. We selected more than 200 IRAS sources whose ^12CO (1-0) molecular line is double-peaked or multi-peaked. We eliminated ones whose optically thinner line peaks at the absorption part of the ^12CO (1-0) double line. They are possibly molecular clouds that are collapsing, and the double- peaked ^12CO(1-0) line is a sign of possible self-absorption. We keep the sources whose molecular lines' feature accord with the description of cloud-cloud collision. Finally, we have built up a sample of those cold IRAS sources which are possibly cloud-cloud collision regions,and provided astronomers with useful information for their further studies. Co-authors: Jun-Jie Wang

Xin, Bei; Wang, Jun-Jie

307

Integral Observations of the Reflection Component of Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data were analyzed by Dr. Fabian's student Adrian Turner and included in his thesis (completed Sept 2004). We did not detect MCG-6 using the then current software and the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy turned out to be even worse then the published BeppoSAX spectrum. We decided not to do any more work on it. We were contacted about the data in March by Thierry Courvoisier (the data were thea public) as he had a student, Simona Soidi, working on a compilation of spectra. Dr. Fabian sent them the chapter from Adrian's thesis and we provided some general comments on what they were doing on 6 objects. This has since been accepted for publication with Fabian as a co-author. A paper on the Integral AGN catalogue appeared on astro-ph a few days ago which contains an detection of MCG-6 with a very poor spectrum. We didn't detect it because the software back then required a source to be detected within something like 30 min exposure in order to work. Integral is NOT very sensitive.

Fabian, Andrew

2005-01-01

308

Chemical Reactivity at Metal Oxide-Aqueous Solution Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical reactivity of metal oxide surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions, with respect to cations and anions, is controlled by the composition, structure, and charging properties of the surface, the dielectric properties of the bulk oxide, and the stability of the aqueous cation or anion complex versus its sorption complex. These points will be illustrated for selected cations, anions, and metal oxides using macroscopic uptake and EXAFS spectroscopy results, x-ray standing wave data, and crystal truncation rod diffraction data. The reactivity of metal oxide surfaces with respect to low molecular weight (LMW) carboxylic acids is also dependent on the types of ring structures formed between surface functional groups and the LMW organic molecules. These types of interactions will be illustrated using ATR-FTIR data and dissolution measurements as a function of pH for oxalate, maleate, phthalate, and pyromellitate interacting with boehmite (AlOOH). Co-Authors are Tae Hyun Yoon, Stephen B. Johnson, Dept. of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305-2115; Thomas P. Trainor, Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775; Anne M. Chaka, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899

Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

2005-03-01

309

Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects: how large is too large?  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter closure has become an accepted alternative to surgical repair for ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). However, large ASDs (>38 mm) and defects with deficient rims are usually not offered transcatheter closure but are referred for surgical closure. Several studies have reported the feasibility of transcatheter closure in complex cases with a variety of modified implantation methods such as balloon assisted technique (BAT). AA Pillai and co-authors report the transcatheter closure of ASD ?35 mm with the BAT. However, the true significance of their study is rather in demonstrating the superiority of BAT to conventional technique and other modified implantation techniques in patients with ASD rather than feasiblity of transcatheter closure of large defect. Finally, a single dimension does not reflect the true ASD size because many defects are not round in shape but rather oval or even crescentric. Hence, future studies will need not only to demonstrate the ideal implantation method but also the appropriate 3-dimensional (3D) imaging definition of the defect in this patient population. PMID:25009789

Trivedi, Kalyani R.

2014-01-01

310

Measuring change in health-system pharmacy over 50 years: "reflecting" on the mirror, part I.  

PubMed

The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews the profession's progress on the first 3 goals; an article in the January 2014 issue of Hospital Pharmacy will review the final 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24474839

Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James; Ng, Christine; White, Sara

2013-12-01

311

Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: "Reflecting" on the Mirror, Part II.  

PubMed

The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror's results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421566

Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James G; White, Sara J

2014-01-01

312

Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-01ER54617 Computer Modeling of Microturbulence and Macrostability Properties of Magnetically Confined Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 We have made significant progress during the past grant period in several key areas of the UCLA and national Fusion Theory Program. This impressive body of work includes both fundamental and applied contributions to MHD and turbulence in DIII-D and Electric Tokamak plasmas, and also to Z-pinches, particularly with respect to the effect of flows on these phenomena. We have successfully carried out interpretive and predictive global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell calculations of DIII-D discharges. We have cemented our participation in the gyrokinetic PIC effort of the SciDAC Plasma Microturbulence Project through working membership in the Summit Gyrokinetic PIC Team. We have continued to teach advanced courses at UCLA pertaining to computational plasma physics and to foster interaction with students and junior researchers. We have in fact graduated 2 Ph. D. students during the past grant period. The research carried out during that time has resulted in many publications in the premier plasma physics and fusion energy sciences journals and in several invited oral communications at major conferences such as Sherwood, Transport Task Force (TTF), the annual meetings of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society, of the European Physical Society, and the 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, FEC 2002. Many of these have been authored and co-authored with experimentalists at DIII-D.

Jean-Noel Leboeuf

2004-03-04

313

Optimization of ultra-fast interactions using laser pulse temporal shaping controlled by a deterministic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser pulse temporal shaping techniques have led to important advances in different research fields like photochemistry, laser physics, non-linear optics, biology, or materials processing. This success is partly related to the use of optimal control algorithms. Due to the high dimensionality of the solution and control spaces, evolutionary algorithms are extensively applied and, among them, genetic ones have reached the status of a standard adaptive strategy. Still, their use is normally accompanied by a reduction of the problem complexity by different modalities of parameterization of the spectral phase. Exploiting Rabitz and co-authors' ideas about the topology of quantum landscapes, in this work we analyze the optimization of two different problems under a deterministic approach, using a multiple one-dimensional search (MODS) algorithm. In the first case we explore the determination of the optimal phase mask required for generating arbitrary temporal pulse shapes and compare the performance of the MODS algorithm to the standard iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Based on the good performance achieved, the same method has been applied for optimizing two-photon absorption starting from temporally broadened laser pulses, or from laser pulses temporally and spectrally distorted by non-linear absorption in air, obtaining similarly good results which confirm the validity of the deterministic search approach.

Galvan-Sosa, M.; Portilla, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.; Moreno, L.; Ruiz de la Cruz, A.; Solis, J.

2014-02-01

314

Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann

315

Device-guided breathing exercises for the treatment of hypertension: An overview.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association considers device-guided breathing as a reasonable treatment modality in their statement on non-pharmacological options for lowering blood pressure. This review discusses all randomized controlled trials that have investigated the effects of device-guided breathing on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Thirteen studies were included in this review. In total, 627 patients were included, of which 365 patients were allocated to device-guided breathing. Only 6 studies used acceptable control groups: listening to music, meditative relaxation exercises, or a sham-device. Two sponsored trials showed beneficial effects of device-guided breathing, both used listening to music as a control group. The remaining 4 studies, which had no employees of the manufacturer listed as co-author, observed no beneficial effects on blood pressure. There is only 1 study that used a sham device as a control group. All other studies were to some extend methodologically flawed. Based on the studies with an acceptable methodological quality, there is no clear evidence supporting a short-term beneficial effect on blood pressure by using device-guided breathing. PMID:24944757

van Hateren, Kornelis Jj; Landman, Gijs Wd; Logtenberg, Susan Jj; Bilo, Henk Jg; Kleefstra, Nanne

2014-05-26

316

Optimization of ultra-fast interactions using laser pulse temporal shaping controlled by a deterministic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser pulse temporal shaping techniques have led to important advances in different research fields like photochemistry, laser physics, non-linear optics, biology, or materials processing. This success is partly related to the use of optimal control algorithms. Due to the high dimensionality of the solution and control spaces, evolutionary algorithms are extensively applied and, among them, genetic ones have reached the status of a standard adaptive strategy. Still, their use is normally accompanied by a reduction of the problem complexity by different modalities of parameterization of the spectral phase. Exploiting Rabitz and co-authors' ideas about the topology of quantum landscapes, in this work we analyze the optimization of two different problems under a deterministic approach, using a multiple one-dimensional search (MODS) algorithm. In the first case we explore the determination of the optimal phase mask required for generating arbitrary temporal pulse shapes and compare the performance of the MODS algorithm to the standard iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Based on the good performance achieved, the same method has been applied for optimizing two-photon absorption starting from temporally broadened laser pulses, or from laser pulses temporally and spectrally distorted by non-linear absorption in air, obtaining similarly good results which confirm the validity of the deterministic search approach.

Galvan-Sosa, M.; Portilla, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.; Moreno, L.; Ruiz de la Cruz, A.; Solis, J.

2013-04-01

317

The Origin and Distribution of Heavy Elements in the CD Groups MKW 4 and AWM 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At this point, data for MKW4 have been received and those for AWM4 are still awaited. The MKW4 data have been fully analyzed and a complete manuscript is available and in final review by co-authors before submission for refereed publication. The following is a summary of our principal findings: We examined the distribution and properties of the hot gas which makes up the group halo. The inner halo shows some signs of structure, with circular or elliptical beta-models providing a poor fit to the surface brightness profile. This may be evidence of large-scale motion in the inner halo, but we do not find evidence of sharp fronts or edges in the emission. The temperature of the halo declines in the core, with deprojected spectral fits showing a central temperature of approximately 1.3keV compared to approximately 3keV at 250 arcsec. However, cooling flow models provide poor fits to the inner regions of the group and the estimated cooling time of the gas is long except within the central dominant galaxy, NGC4073. Abundance profiles show a sharp increase in the core of the group. We conclude that MKW4 is a fairly relaxed group, which has developed a strong central temperature gradient but not a large-scale cooling flow.

Vrtilek, Jan; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

318

Diffusion in a time-dependent external field.  

PubMed

The problem of diffusion in a time-dependent (and generally inhomogeneous) external field is considered on the basis of a generalized master equation with two times, introduced by Trigger and co-authors [S. A. Trigger, G. J. F. van Heijst, and P. P. J. M. Schram, Physica A 347, 77 (2005); J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 11, 37 (2005)]. We consider the case of the quasi-Fokker-Planck approximation, when the probability transition function for diffusion (PTD function) does not possess a long tail in coordinate space and can be expanded as a function of instantaneous displacements. The more complicated case of long tails in the PTD will be discussed separately. We also discuss diffusion on the basis of hydrodynamic and kinetic equations and show the validity of the phenomenological approach. A type of "collision" integral is introduced for the description of diffusion in a system of particles, which can transfer from a moving state to the rest state (with some waiting time distribution). The solution of the appropriate kinetic equation in the external field also confirms the phenomenological approach of the generalized master equation. PMID:18351818

Trigger, S A; van Heijst, G J F; Petrov, O F; Schram, P P J M

2008-01-01

319

Profiles in Leadership: Clifton J. Latiolais, MSc, DSc  

PubMed Central

The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of pharmacy services in the United States. The late Clifton J. Latiolais, MS, DSc, served as the assistant program director for the study and was a co-author of the Mirror. The late Don E. Francke, MS, DSc, was the lead author of the Mirror and the principal investigator of the federally funded study that reviewed hospital pharmacy services across the United States. The next 2 articles in Director’s Forum profile the leadership of Drs. Latiolais and Francke. This article highlights Dr. Latiolais (“Clif”) by briefly reviewing his biography and key career accomplishments, describing his leadership philosophy, and translating that philosophy to today’s health care challenges. Clif’s influence on health system pharmacy serves as an example of effective leadership. This historical perspective on Clif’s leadership, as seen through the eyes of those who knew him, provides directors of pharmacy a valuable leadership viewpoint as they develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421540

White, Sara; Godwin, Harold N.; Weber, Robert J.

2013-01-01

320

CHRONOMICS AND GENETICS  

PubMed Central

The mapping of time structures, chronomes, constitutes an endeavor spawned by chronobiology: chronomics. This cartography in time shows signatures on the surface of the earth, cycles, also accumulating in life on the earth‘s surface. We append a glossary of these and other cycles, the names being coined in the light of approximate cycle length. These findings are transdisciplinary, in view of their broad representation and critical importance in the biosphere. Suggestions of mechanisms are derived from an analytical statistical documentation of characteristics with superposed epochs and superposed cycles and other „remove-and-replace“ approaches. These approaches use the spontaneously changing presence or absence of an environmental, cyclic or other factor for the study of any corresponding changes in the biosphere. We illustrate the indispensability of the mapping of rhythm characteristics in broader structures, chronomes, along several or all available different time scales. We present results from a cooperative cartography of about 10, about 20, and about 50-year rhythms in the context of a broad endeavor concerned with the Biosphere and the Cosmos, the BIOCOS project. The participants in this project are our co-authors worldwide, beyond Brno and Minneapolis; the studies of human blood pressure and heart rate around the clock and along the week may provide the evidence for those influences that Mendel sought in meteorology and climatology. PMID:19710947

Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Katinas, G.; Dušek, J.; Homolka, P.; Karpíšek, Z.; P. Sonkowsky, R. P.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Fišer, B.; Siegelová, J.

2008-01-01

321

Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' ? = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of ? with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

Podzorov, Vitaly

2005-03-01

322

Flash crashes, bursts, and black swans: parallels between financial markets and healthcare systems.  

PubMed

As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 16th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, Dr Clancy, the editor of this column, and co-author, Dr West, discuss how the collapse of global financial markets in 2008 may provide valuable insight into mechanisms of complex system behavior in healthcare. Dr West, a physicist and expert in the field of complex systems and network science, is author of a chapter in the book, On the Edge: Nursing in the Age of Complexity (Lindberg C, Nash S, Linberg C. Bordertown, NJ: Plexus Press; 2008) and his most recent book, Disrupted Networks: From Physics to Climate Change (West BJ, Scafetta N. Singapore: Disrupted Networks, World Scientific Publishing; 2010). PMID:20978411

West, Bruce J; Clancy, Thomas R

2010-11-01

323

Diffusion in a time-dependent external field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of diffusion in a time-dependent (and generally inhomogeneous) external field is considered on the basis of a generalized master equation with two times, introduced by Trigger and co-authors [S. A. Trigger, G. J. F. van Heijst, and P. P. J. M. Schram, Physica A 347, 77 (2005); J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 11, 37 (2005)]. We consider the case of the quasi-Fokker-Planck approximation, when the probability transition function for diffusion (PTD function) does not possess a long tail in coordinate space and can be expanded as a function of instantaneous displacements. The more complicated case of long tails in the PTD will be discussed separately. We also discuss diffusion on the basis of hydrodynamic and kinetic equations and show the validity of the phenomenological approach. A type of “collision” integral is introduced for the description of diffusion in a system of particles, which can transfer from a moving state to the rest state (with some waiting time distribution). The solution of the appropriate kinetic equation in the external field also confirms the phenomenological approach of the generalized master equation.

Trigger, S. A.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Petrov, O. F.; Schram, P. P. J. M.

2008-01-01

324

Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  

PubMed

The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

2014-06-01

325

Visual Arts Data Service (VADS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

VADS, part of the UK Arts & Humanities Data Service (AHDS), was established to create a searchable, online archive of digital resources for use by the visual arts community, especially those in higher education, and "to establish and promote good practice in the creation, management and preservation of digital resources through an advisory, training and publications programme." Recently redesigned, the VADS site now offers online access to three collections: the excellent Imperial War Museum Art Collection, Other Educated Persons: Art in East London 1972-1999, and Documentary Photography: Jacob Riis (actually a Computer Assisted Learning program that requires a Windows machine). Visitors to the site will also find the full text of the recent Creating Digital Resources for the Visual Arts: Standards and Good Practice. Co-authored with the Technical Advisory Service for Images (TASI), the Guide "highlights examples of current practice in the creation of digital information in the visual arts domain, and makes recommendations for good practice in data creation, collection, description, delivery and preservation." The site features several additional resources offering training and advice for higher education users involved in the creation, use, and preservation of digital resources. While still rather modest in size and scope, major additions are promised for the future, and interested users will certainly want to follow the development of the VADS site.

326

Geometer energy unified field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

327

Comment on "a comparison of buprenorphine + naloxone to buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes".  

PubMed

In a recent article, Lund et al sought to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of various treatment regimens for opioid dependence during pregnancy.1 In their background, discussion the authors state that "In the United States buprenorphine plus naloxone [Suboxone(®)] … has been the preferred form of prescribed buprenorphine due to its reduced abuse liability relative to buprenorphine alone [Subutex(®)]." This claim is certainly consistent with the view of the firm that has manufactured and sold both products, Reckitt Benckiser. In September of 2011, the company announced that it was "… discontinuing distribution and sale of Subutex(®) tablets as we believe that mono product (product containing buprenorphine alone with no naloxone) creates a greater risk of misuse, abuse and diversion …".2 Supporting evidence for the alleged "reduced abuse liability" appears to be lacking, however, and evidence cannot be located in the two references cited by Dr. Lund and his co-authors, which in fact are silent on the subject of abuse potential.3,4 In contrast, it has been reported that the transition to buprenorphine/naloxone from the mono formulation has been associated with "… no reduction in injection risk behaviors among IDUs."5. PMID:23772177

Newman, Robert G; Gevertz, Susan G

2013-01-01

328

On advanced estimation techniques for exoplanet detection and characterization using ground-based coronagraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; G?adysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

2012-07-01

329

RefSponse: A Literature Evaluation System for the Professional Astrophysics Community  

E-print Network

We describe an implementation of a semi-automated review system for the astrophysics literature. Registered users identify names under which they publish, and provide scores for individual papers of their choosing. Scores are held confidentially, and combined in a weighted average grade for each paper. The grade is divided among the co-authors as assigned credit. The credit accumulated by each user (their ``mass'') provides the weight by which their score is averaged into papers' grades. Thus, papers' grades and users' masses are mutually dependent and evolve in time as scores are added. Likewise, a user's influence on the grade of a paper is determined from the perceived original scientific contribution of all the user's previous papers. The implementation, called RefSponse -- currently hosted at http://bororo.physics.mcgill.ca -- includes papers in astro-ph, the ApJ, AJ, A&A, MNRAS, PASP, PASJ, New Astronomy, Nature, ARA&A, Phys. Rev. Letters, Phys. Rev. D. and Acta Astronomica from 1965 to the present, making extensive use of the NASA/ADS abstract server. We describe some of the possible utilities of this system in enabling progress in the field.

Robert E. Rutledge

2004-06-28

330

Aerosol characterization in Northern Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Basin and Middle East from direct-sun AERONET observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an atmospheric aerosol characterization for North Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Middle East based on the analysis of quality-assured direct-sun observations of 39 stations of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) which include at least an annual cycle within the 1994-2007 period. We extensively test and apply the recently introduced graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors in order to track and discriminate different aerosol types and quantify the contribution of mineral dust. The method relies on the combined analysis of the Ångstrøm exponent (?) and its spectral curvature. Plotting data in these coordinates allows to infer aerosol fine mode size (Rf) and fractional contribution (?) to total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and separate AOD growth due to fine-mode aerosol humidification and/or coagulation from AOD growth due to the increase in coarse particles or cloud contamination. Our results confirm the robustness of this graphical method. Large mineral dust is the most important constituent in Northern Africa and Middle East; and under specific meteorological conditions, its transport to Europe is observed from spring to autumn. Small pollution particles are abundant in sites close to urban and industrial areas of Continental and Eastern Europe and Middle East; as well as, important contributions of biomass burning are observed in the sub-Sahel region in winter. Dust is usually found to mix with these fine, pollution aerosols.

Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.; Gobbi, G. P.

2009-03-01

331

A new introductory quantum mechanics curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Physics New Quantum Curriculum consists of freely available online learning and teaching materials (quantumphysics.iop.org) for a first course in university quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. This approach immediately immerses students in inherently quantum-mechanical aspects by focusing on experiments that have no classical explanation. It allows from the start a discussion of the interpretive aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. This paper gives an overview of the resources available from the IOP website. The core text includes around 80 articles which are co-authored by leading experts, arranged in themes, and can be used flexibly to provide a range of alternative approaches. Many of the articles include interactive simulations with accompanying activities and problem sets that can be explored by students to enhance their understanding. Much of the linear algebra needed for this approach is included in the resource. Solutions to activities are available to instructors. The resources can be used in a variety of ways, from being supplemental to existing courses to forming a complete programme.

Kohnle, Antje; Bozhinova, Inna; Browne, Dan; Everitt, Mark; Fomins, Aleksejs; Kok, Pieter; Kulaitis, Gytis; Prokopas, Martynas; Raine, Derek; Swinbank, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

332

Milton Schwebel (1914-2013).  

PubMed

Milton Schwebel was born May 11, 1914, in Troy, New York, the son of Frank Schwebel and Sarah Oxenhandler Schwebel. He died October 3, 2013, in Tucson, Arizona. His 99 years were filled with love, activism, scholarship, and leadership. In educational psychology, he was a career-long proponent of educating disadvantaged children. A pioneer in peace psychology, Schwebel helped establish the field's intellectual foundation. Recognizing that politics, current events, and international affairs influenced children's mental and physical health. Over a remarkable 73-year publishing career, Schwebel's scholarly contributions included authoring, editing, or co-authoring 14 books and innumerable articles. Schwebel was always working to improve the human condition, and his scholarship was most prominent in three interwoven areas. Schwebel will long be remembered as a treasured friend and mentor who cared deeply about vulnerable people, particularly children, the underprivileged, and the disadvantaged. He enjoyed listening to diverse perspectives and was a renowned teacher, clinician, and lecturer, beloved by students and colleagues. His life serves as a beacon to all who seek to promote human well-being. PMID:25046718

Schwebel, David C; Schwebel, Robert; Wessells, Michael

2014-01-01

333

2008 Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

For the fifth year, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, invited graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, university faculty, and students entering graduate students from around the world to participate in the Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics. The institute offers participants the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-notch research laboratories while working along internationally respected mentors. Of the 38 applicants, 20 were accepted for the 8- to 10-week program. The participants came from universities as close as Seattle and Portland and as far away as Germany and Singapore. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the 20 participants were mentored by 13 scientists. These mentors help tailor the participant’s experience to the needs of that person. Further, the mentors provide guidance on experimental and theoretical techniques, research design and completion, and other aspects of scientific careers in interfacial and condensed phase chemical physics. The research conducted at the institute can result in tangible benefits for the participants. For example, many have co-authored papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, including top-rated journals such as Science. Also, they have presented their research at conferences, such as the Gordon Research Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces and the AVS national meeting. Beyond that, many of the participants have started building professional connections with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, connections that will serve them well during their careers.

Garrett, Bruce C.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Avery, Nachael B.

2008-11-01

334

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

2013-06-28

335

The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network  

PubMed Central

The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms. An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington (DC, USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated. PMID:24606731

2014-01-01

336

The MARS Photon Processing Cameras for Spectral CT  

E-print Network

This thesis is about the development of the MARS camera: a stan- dalone portable digital x-ray camera with spectral sensitivity. It is built for use in the MARS Spectral system from the Medipix2 and Medipix3 imaging chips. Photon counting detectors and Spectral CT are introduced, and Medipix is identified as a powerful new imaging device. The goals and strategy for the MARS camera are discussed. The Medipix chip physical, electronic and functional aspects, and ex- perience gained, are described. The camera hardware, firmware and supporting PC software are presented. Reports of experimental work on the process of equalisation from noise, and of tests of charge sum- ming mode, conclude the main body of the thesis. The camera has been actively used since late 2009 in pre-clinical re- search. A list of publications that derive from the use of the camera and the MARS Spectral scanner demonstrates the practical benefits already obtained from this work. Two of the publications are first- author, eight are co-authore...

Doesburg, Robert Michael Nicholas; Butler, APH; Renaud, PF

337

Note de lecture: 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent'  

E-print Network

This is a critical review of the book 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent', under the scientific supervision of Pr Itsvan Mark\\'o, and co-authored by Anne Debeil, Ludovic Delory, Samuel Furfari, Drieu Godefridi, Henri Masson, Lars Myren, and Alain Pr\\'eat. We show that regarding climate science, the book contains too many approximations or mistakes to be considered seriously. Nevertheless, the book is interesting in several aspects, in particular from an epistemological perspective. We also argue that the main take-home message is not stated clearly enough by the authors: there is a strong practical incompatibility between economic \\emph{laissez-faire} and anthropogenic climate change. ----- Ceci est une analyse du livre 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent', publi\\'e par un collectif sous la direction scientifique du Pr Itsvan Mark\\'o et incluant Anne Debeil, Ludovic Delory, Samuel Furfari, Drieu Godefridi, Henri Masson, Lars Myren, et Alain Pr\\'eat. Nous montrons qu'au sujet de la science du climat, ...

Merlaud, Alexis

2014-01-01

338

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

1999-08-23

339

Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

2010-12-01

340

Unfolding our Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the stars, the planets, and other faraway objects of wonder is readily apparent, while the reason for their splendor is not. Now, there exists a source of expert advice that amateur astronomers and interested stargazers can actually understand: Unfolding Our Universe. Popular science writer and award winning author Iain Nicolson opens the world of astronomy to a wide audience. He takes readers into the heart of the Universe, clearly detailing the facts, concepts, methods, and current findings of astronomical science. This unique book strikes a perfect balance between the fundamentals of the subject and cutting-edge research. Step by step, the volume leads to a complete understanding of astronomy. Readers can access the material without referring to any mathematical principles or formulas. The well-designed text allows more ambitious readers to easily delve more deeply into key points and consult basic mathematics found within self-contained boxes. More than 100 full-color photographs beautifully and clearly illustrate all concepts. The wealth of color illustrations and very readable chapters make this book a delight for the casual reader to browse, while the clear and concise explanations will appeal to anyone with an interest in the science of astronomy. Iain Nicolson is the author or co-author of some 17 books, including The Universe (with Patrick Moore) and Heavenly Bodies. In 1995, he received the Eric Zucker Award from the Federation of Astronomical Societies (UK) for his work in popularizing the subject.

Nicolson, Iain

1999-10-01

341

A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).  

PubMed

Dr. Robert C. Allen was a gifted educator, as well as experienced ophthalmologist, who was a close personal friend of Dr. Edlich at the University of Virginia Health System. While serving on the faculty at the University of Virginia Health System, Dr. Allen proved to be a compassionate physician, who developed close personal relationships with the residents, faculty, and his patients. Dr. Allen was invited by Dr Edlich to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. When Dr. Allen told Dr. Edlich that he had ocular melanoma in 2000, this news was a wake-up call to Dr. Edlich on the need to prevent skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Empowered by this news, Dr. Edlich was honored to co-author four articles on skin cancer prevention, as well as the latest article focusing on prevention of ocular melanoma. The Ocular Melanoma Foundation (Richmond, VA (USA)) was founded in 2003 by Dr. Robert C. Allen to increase awareness, enhance education, and provide advocacy among both patients and health care professionals regarding this rare, but potentially lethal cancer. It has a website that provides patient information, up-to-date information and enables communication/ discourse between and among patients and practitioners (admin@ocularmelanoma.org). Dr. Allen died on March 24, 2005, at his home surrounded by family and loved ones. When surgeons are faced with challenging healthcare diseases, Dr. Edlich's mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, advised Dr. Edlich that he should seek the advice and guidance of skilled basic scientists, who are familiar with the problem. Dr. Wangensteen is recognized as the greatest surgical teacher during the 20th century. Consequently, Dr. Edlich enlisted the advice and guidance from the two co-authors of the next article regarding the scientific basis for the selection of sunglasses to prevent the development of cataracts, pterygia, skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Dr. Reichow is a Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact lens, you should go to the website for more information http://www.nike.com/nikevision/content.html

Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

2006-01-01

342

Powerful New Technique to Measure Asteroids' Sizes and Shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of French and Italian astronomers have devised a new method for measuring the size and shape of asteroids that are too small or too far away for traditional techniques, increasing the number of asteroids that can be measured by a factor of several hundred. This method takes advantage of the unique capabilities of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). ESO PR Photo 04a/09 Asteroid Barbara (artist's impression) "Knowledge of the sizes and shapes of asteroids is crucial to understanding how, in the early days of our Solar System, dust and pebbles collected together to form larger bodies and how collisions and re-accumulation have since modified them," says Marco Delbo from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, who led the study. Direct imaging with adaptive optics on the largest ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile (see ESO 21/05 and 18/07), and space telescopes, or radar measurements (ESO 11/07) are the currently favoured methods of asteroid measurement. However, direct imaging, even with adaptive optics, is generally limited to the one hundred largest asteroids of the main belt, while radar measurements are mostly constrained to observations of near-Earth asteroids that experience close encounters with our planet. Delbo and his colleagues have devised a new method that uses interferometry to resolve asteroids as small as about 15 km in diameter located in the main asteroid belt, 200 million kilometres away. This is equivalent to being able to measure the size of a tennis ball a distance of a thousand kilometres. This technique will not only increase the number of objects that can be measured dramatically, but, more importantly, bring small asteroids that are physically very different from the well studied larger ones into reach. The interferometric technique combines the light from two or more telescopes. Astronomers proved their method using ESO's VLTI, combining the light of two of the VLT's 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes. "This is equivalent to having vision as sharp as that of a telescope with a diameter equal to the separation between the two VLT Unit Telescopes used, in this case, 47 metres," says co-author Sebastiano Ligori, from INAF-Torino, Italy. The researchers applied their technique to the main belt asteroid (234) Barbara, which was earlier found, by co-author Alberto Cellino, to have rather unusual properties. Although it is so far away, the VLTI observations also revealed that this object has a peculiar shape. The best fit model is composed of two bodies each the size of a major city - with diameters of 37 and 21 km - separated by at least 24 km. "The two parts appear to overlap," says Delbo, "so the object could be shaped like a gigantic peanut or, it could be two separate bodies orbiting each other." If Barbara proves to be a double asteroid, this is even more significant: by combining the diameter measurements with the parameters of the orbits, astronomers can then compute the density of these objects. "Barbara is clearly a high priority target for further observations," concludes Ligori. Having proven the validity of their new and powerful technique, the team can now start a large observing campaign to study small asteroids.

2009-02-01

343

An absolute index (Ab-index) to measure a researcher's useful contributions and productivity.  

PubMed

Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author's scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index), has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s) in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index), which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute. PMID:24391941

Biswal, Akshaya Kumar

2013-01-01

344

PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

László, Gömze A.

2013-12-01

345

The interlayer exchange interaction in multilayer magnetic systems Fe/Cr/Fe (Review Article)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upsurge of interest in the study of magnetic multilayer structures began in the mid-80s of the twentieth century and was caused by significant progress in the technology of ultrathin metallic films. For a few years, phenomena extremely interesting from both fundamental and applied point of view have been found in these structures: the antiparallel arrangement of the ferromagnetic layers, giant magnetoresistance, alternating oscillations of the interlayer exchange, noncollinear interlayer ordering of magnetic moments. All this and the closeness of technologies, used for the sample preparation to those traditionally applied in microelectronics, promised great potentials for developing compact magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memory for electronic devices, etc. To date, some of these features are already implemented in the mass commercial products (e.g., read heads of hard drives), and others still wait in the wings. The Nobel Prize, awarded in 2007 to A. Fert and P. Grünberg with the words "For the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect" can be considered as recognition of the importance of the discoveries made in this area. A special place in these works was given to the Fe/Cr/Fe system. It is there for the first time almost all of the most interesting phenomena were observed that caused a boom in the physics of magnetic films. However, until recently the nature of the exchange interaction in this system aroused great debates. First of all, it was due to a complex phase diagram of chromium spacer and strong influence on the sample properties of technological perfection of its structure. Here we made a brief review of the main experimental and theoretical studies on the multilayer systems Fe/Cr/Fe, as well as recounted the results of our own studies (performed with a group of co-authors), which greatly clarify the mechanism of the interlayer interaction in this system.

Kreines, N. M.; Kholin, D. I.; Demokritov, S. O.

2012-09-01

346

Edward O. Wilson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edward O. Wilson is a name synonymous with ants, sociobiology, and biodiversity. And it's a name that more often than not appears with a mile-long list of accolades trailing it. The University of Alabama offers a more personable introduction to this celebrated scientist, one of the University's most distinguished alums (1). The next site is the homepage of the Department of Entomology at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology, home to one of the "richest and most historically significant" insect collections in North America (as well as the office of Harvard Professor Emeritus Wilson). The following site from Harvard@Home features a December 2002 lecture and slide presentation given by Wilson titled "On the Relation of Science and the Humanities." The entire lecture (over an hour in length), may be viewed online (3). Likewise, the next two Web sites contain archived broadcasts of The Connection from WBUR Boston and National Public Radio, each featuring Wilson as a guest. The first is a December 2002 broadcast in which Wilson discusses issues relating to his book _The Future of Life_ (4). The next is a more recent show (July 2003) featuring _Pheidole in the New World_, a new book co-authored by Dr. Wilson (5). Listeners can get even more of E. O. Wilson in an archived broadcast of The Paula Gordon show from Atlanta, Georgia (6). Wilson's 1988 book _Biodiversity_ may be read online or printed out entirely for free from the National Academies Press (7). And Scientific American offers a lengthy excerpt from his 2002 book _The Future of Life_, mentioned above.

Sohmer, Rachel.

347

[Co-authorship and collaboration networks in Spanish research into multiple sclerosis (1996-2010)].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Scientific collaboration is vital for to the advance of knowledge and is especially important in health sciences. The aim of this study is to identify scientific collaboration indicators and co-authorship networks of researchers and Spanish institutions that publish on multiple sclerosis (MS) during the period 1996-2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The analyzed papers were obtained from Web of Science and Scopus international databases, and IBECS and IME national databases, applying specific search profiles in each one of them. In order to identify collaboration networks all signed papers were quantified and co-authored measures were obtained, as the different indexes, degree, intermediation and closeness. RESULTS. 1,613 articles were published in the period 1996-2010, 92% of them in collaboration. With 10 or more works signed in collaboration, 20 Spanish research groups in MS were identified. 64.23% of the papers were published in collaboration between Spanish institutions, and 33.85% were in collaboration with foreign institutions. The institutional participation analysis has identified a large network of institutional partnerships that integrates 27 institutions, with the Hospital Vall d'Hebron in a central position. International collaboration is headed by the U.S. and European countries, most notably the UK and Italy. CONCLUSION. The most collaborative authors, institutions, and work groups in Spanish research in MS have been identified. Despite these indicators that characterize the collaboration in this area, it is necessary to enhance cooperation between them, since this collaboration is positively related to the quality and impact of research and publications. PMID:23884870

Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Gonzalez de Dios, J; Sempere, A P; Castello-Cogollos, L; Bolanos-Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurian, J C

2013-08-16

348

Readability Analysis of Introductory Astronomy Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, first-year students have reading deficiencies and do not have the academic discipline to read introductory textbooks. Few students have the skills needed to organize ideas elicited from texts, and even fewer seem capable of evaluating ideas and concepts as to importance. While the amount of pedagogical support has increased in introductory astronomy texts in recent years, it is worthwhile to investigate how the readability of these books has changed with time. Dukes and co-authors (1979, 1980, 1983) surveyed numerous introductory astronomy textbooks using the Flesch Readability index. For a direct comparison to Dukes' work, I have used Flesch's index to survey three groups of introductory astronomy texts. Group I samples editions from Dukes' surveys to normalize the current survey and to provide a text baseline from 25 years ago, while group II includes texts from the 1940s and 1950s and group III current texts to compare the readability of present texts with those from previous decades. At first glance, this study indicates that texts have not changed in readability over the past several decades. However, other issues arise when the results are investigated in detail. Flesch measures readability but not understandability; understandability may have changed. Reading load has increased as texts have increased in size from 478 to 605 pages, on average. While texts may have a grade 11-12 reading level, that is an average and parts of texts soar to post-graduate reading levels; the ups and downs may affect student comprehension. Readability is just one measure for analyzing texts and these other issues may be more important for judging why our students have difficulty reading introductory astronomy books.

Bruning, David H.

2008-05-01

349

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Poor maternal zinc status has been associated with foetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labour and preterm or post-term deliveries. A meta-analysis completed in 2007 showed that maternal zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth. The purposes of this analysis are to update that previous review and expand the scope of assessment to include maternal, infant and child health outcomes. Electronic searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed, randomised controlled trials where daily zinc supplementation was given for at least one trimester of pregnancy. The co-authors applied the study selection criteria, assessed trial quality and abstracted data. A total of 20 independent intervention trials involving more than 11 000 births were identified. The 20 trials took place across five continents between 1977 and 2008. Most studies assessed the zinc effect against a background of other micronutrient supplements, but five were placebo-controlled trials of zinc alone. The provided dose of supplemental zinc ranged from 5 to 50 mg/day. Only the risk of preterm birth reached statistical significance (summary relative risk 0.86 [95% confidence interval 0.75, 0.99]). There was no evidence that supplemental zinc affected any parameter of foetal growth (risk of low birth weight, birth weight, length at birth or head circumference at birth). Six of the 20 trials were graded as high quality. The evidence that maternal zinc supplementation lowers the risk of preterm birth was graded low; evidence for a positive effect on other foetal outcomes was graded as very low. The effect of zinc supplementation on preterm birth, if causal, might reflect a reduction in maternal infection, a primary cause of prematurity. While further study would be needed to explore this possibility in detail, the overall public health benefit of zinc supplementation in pregnancy appears limited. PMID:22742606

Chaffee, Benjamin W.; King, Janet C.

2013-01-01

350

Efficiency in energy production and consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall electricity consumption, but did cause a substantial intra-day shift in demand consistent with activity patterns that are tied to the clock rather than sunrise and sunset.

Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

351

Real-time Science and Educational Collaboration Online from the Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Summer of 2007, scientists and students (via the web) jointly participated in research during the Ninety East Ridge Expedition (cruise KNOX06RR) . Staff organizers from Joint Oceanographic Institutions" JOI Learning and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program planned and implemented an interactive website to allow students to directly participate with scientists during the site survey aboard the R/V Roger Revelle. Dr. Will Sager and middle school teacher Rory Wilson collaborated daily during the scientific expedition with science team, ship crew and students. From the outset, students were involved and helped to guide the program; this included coming up with the website name and initial design work. Communication with students included the website, individual and group emails and video conferences with student groups. Seven secondary schools from the USA, Europe, India and Thailand participated actively in the project from June to August. Students viewed daily updates on the website, sent in answers for weekly science challenge questions, and interacted with scientists and crew. Student participants learned about navigation, geophysics and petrology, as well as ship operations and technology. Students and educators tracked the expedition's progress in a multi-media environment. Website statistics were recorded; participation began well and increased during the expedition as more people became engaged with the website. All of the crew and scientists wrote self-profiles to help students learn about the range of ocean careers; several of the scientists and graduate students on board wrote or co- authored website articles for students. During this presentation, we will explore and review the major features of the outreach program using the Sea90e website to demonstrate how this real-time interaction engages students in science learning. We will discuss the benefits of collaboration for science and education in our "classroom at sea."

Wilson, R. H.; Sager, W. W.

2007-12-01

352

The CloudSat Education Network: Significant Collaborative Research Between Students and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CloudSat Education Network (CEN) is the primary education and public outreach component of the CloudSat mission. Approximately 116 schools in 16 countries around the world participate in the CEN, and are recruited from schools in the GLOBE program. Students and teachers in the CEN make atmospheric observations of temperature, precipitation, and crucially, of cloud type and cloud cover amount (including photographs of cloud observations), using a modified GLOBE Atmosphere protocol as a guide for observations. CEN observations are taken coincident with CloudSat overpasses, providing coincident spaceborne- and student surface observations. This puts students and teachers participating in the CEN at the forefront of scientific research as directly contributing partners in a collaborative research endeavor. CEN participants make extensive use of the CloudSat/CEN webpage, which is the primary data entry portal for the CEN. Data collected from CEN students is analyzed by CloudSat scientists for quality control purposes, as well as for use in CloudSat-related research. The webpage also provides students with CloudSat overpass dates and times, as well as CEN-specific updates, and articles about CEN projects distributed through a quarterly newsletter. Besides the newsletter, active CEN schools receive periodic visits from CloudSat scientists, providing an opportunity for students and teachers to interact directly with the scientific community. Results from completed student research include an investigation of the effect of different amounts of cloud cover on locally-grown mushroom crops in Thailand, while CloudSat-directed research using student data includes an analysis of the CloudSat cloud classification algorithm using student-collected data as a ground-truth dataset. The results of this latter study are in the process of publication with participating students and teachers listed as co-authors.

Rogers, M. A.; Vane, D.

2009-12-01

353

A Dedicated Space Observatory For Time-domain Solar System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-variable phenomena with scales ranging from minutes to decades have led to a large fraction of recent advances in many aspects of solar system science. We present the scientific motivation for a dedicated space observatory for solar system science. This facility will ideally conduct repeated imaging and spectroscopic observations over a period of 10 years or more. It will execute a selection of long-term projects with interleaved scheduling, resulting in the acquisition of data sets with consistent calibration, long baselines, and optimized sampling intervals. A sparse aperture telescope would be an ideal configuration for the mission, trading decreased sensitivity for reduced payload mass, while preserving spatial resolution. Ultraviolet capability is essential, especially once the Hubble Space Telescope retires. Specific investigations will include volcanism and cryovolcanism (on targets including Io, Titan, Venus, Mars, and Enceladus); zonal flow, vortices, and storm evolution on the giant planets; seasonal cycles in planetary atmospheres; mutual events and orbit determination of multiple small solar system bodies; auroral activity and solar wind interactions; and cometary evolution. The mission will produce a wealth of data products--such as multi-year time-lapse movies of planetary atmospheres--with significant education and public outreach potential. Existing and planned ground- and space-based facilities are not suitable for these time-domain optimized planetary dynamics studies for numerous reasons, including: oversubscription by astrophysical users, field-of-regard limitations, sensitive detector saturation limits that preclude bright planetary targets, and limited mission duration. The abstract author list is a preliminary group of scientists who have shown interest in prior presentations on this topic; interested parties may contact the lead author by 1 September to sign the associated Planetary Science Decadal Survey white paper or by 1 October to co-author the printed DPS poster.

Wong, Michael H.; Ádámkovics, M.; Benecchi, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Clarke, J. T.; de Pater, I.; Hendrix, A. R.; Marchis, F.; McGrath, M.; Noll, K.; Rages, K. A.; Retherford, K.; Smith, E. H.; Strange, N. J.

2009-09-01

354

Sequential Assembly of Magnetic Prussian Blue Films with Photo-Induced Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite interest in the area of molecule-based magnets, there are few efforts to investigate magnetism in monolayers, surface layers, and other thin films based on these materials. New synthetic methods developed by our groups now permit deposition of single layer and multilayer thin films of cyanometallate molecule-based magnet systems. These monolayers and surface films are inherently anisotropic, thereby allowing magnetic characterizations that are only possible because of our method of fabrication. Two examples will be presented. The distance dependence of dipolar interactions on magnetic order is illustrated by comparing a monolayer, bilayer, and multilayers of a mixed organic/inorganic Fe^3+/Ni^2+ cyanometallate two-dimensional network. The magnetometry results demonstrate the influence of dipolar interactions at an interlayer separation of greater than 35 ÅSecondly, anisotropic response of the photoinduced magnetism in a thin film of Rb_jCo_k[Fe(CN)_6]l \\cdot nH_2O, which experiences a ferrimagnetic transition near 20 K, has been discovered. The photo-induced magnetism may result in a net increase or decrease of the total magnetization of the sample when the externally applied magnetic field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the plane of the films. The strength of this anisotropy depends on the thickness of the film and the size of the magnetic domains, and the photo-induced magnetism was effective in magnetic fields up to 27 T while at 4.7 K. This work, co-authored with D. R. Talham, was performed with J.-H. Park, F. Frye, Y.-D. Huh, E. ?ižmár, and S. Lane, and was supported, in part, by NSF DMR-0305371.

Meisel, Mark W.

2004-11-01

355

Magma generation and differentiation in the terrestrial planets - a review of the contributions of Michael J. O'Hara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the course of the 20th century Earth Scientists argued, seemingly incessantly, about the processes of magma generation and differentiation within the Earth, Moon and other planetary bodies. Whilst N.L. Bowen's (1928) classic publication "The evolution of the Igneous Rocks " undoubtedly represents a benchmark in our understanding, it was not until the mid 1960s that the complexity of these processes was appreciated fully. The fact that we are still debating many of the key issues, forty years later, reflects the scale of the problem; each new step in our understanding seems to generate more questions! 2003 marks the 70th birthday of Michael J. O'Hara, and the 35th anniversary of the publication of two of his classic papers, which influenced the thinking of a generation of petrologists: (1) "The bearing of phase equilibria studies in synthetic and natural systems on the origin of basic and ultrabasic rocks" [Earth Sci. Rev., 4, 69-133; 1968]; (2) "Are ocean floor basalts primary magmas?" [Nature, 220, 683-686; 1968]. Since 1960, Mike has been the first, sole or joint co-author on over 120 publications, directly or indirectly related to magma generation and differentiation. His contributions have encompassed a diverse range of topics including: high P-T experimental petrology, the CMAS projection, the origin and evolution of basic and ultrabasic magmas, upper mantle petrology and dynamics, geothermometry-geobarometry of mantle rocks, RTF magma chambers and the mechanisms of dyke intrusion. Mike played a leading role in the Lunar Science Programme in the early 1970s and is still "stirring the lunar pot" [3]. (3) "Flood Basalts, Basalt Floods or Topless Bushvelds? Lunar Petrogenesis Revisited" [J.Petrology 41, 1545-1651; 2000].

Wilson, M.

2003-04-01

356

Bibliography of NASA-related publications on wind turbine technology 1973-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major program of research and development projects on wind turbines for generating electricity was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most of these projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. One other large-scale wind turbine project was sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI). The peak years for wind energy work at Lewis were 1979-80, when almost 100 engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel were involved. From 1988 their conclusion in 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. Wind energy activities at NASA can be divided into two broad categories which are closely related and often overlapping: (1) Designing, building, and testing a series of 12 large-scale, experimental, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT's); and (2) conducting supporting research and technology (SR&T) projects. The purpose of this bibliography is to assist those active in the field of wind energy in locating the technical information they need on wind power planning, wind loads, turbine design and analysis, fabrication and installation, laboratory and field testing, and operations and maintenance. This bibliography contains approximately 620 citations of publications by over 520 authors and co-authors. Sources are: (1) NASA reports authored by government grantee, and contractor personnel, (2) papers presented by attendees at NASA-sponsored workshops and conferences, (3) papers presented by NASA personnel at outside workshops and conferences, and (4) outside publications related to research performed at NASA/ DOE wind turbine sites.

Spera, David A.

1995-04-01

357

Has Large-Scale Named-Entity Network Analysis Been Resting on a Flawed Assumption?  

PubMed Central

The assumption that a name uniquely identifies an entity introduces two types of errors: splitting treats one entity as two or more (because of name variants); lumping treats multiple entities as if they were one (because of shared names). Here we investigate the extent to which splitting and lumping affect commonly-used measures of large-scale named-entity networks within two disambiguated bibliographic datasets: one for co-author names in biomedicine (PubMed, 2003–2007); the other for co-inventor names in U.S. patents (USPTO, 2003–2007). In both cases, we find that splitting has relatively little effect, whereas lumping has a dramatic effect on network measures. For example, in the biomedical co-authorship network, lumping (based on last name and both initials) drives several measures down: the global clustering coefficient by a factor of 4 (from 0.265 to 0.066); degree assortativity by a factor of ?13 (from 0.763 to 0.06); and average shortest path by a factor of 1.3 (from 5.9 to 4.5). These results can be explained in part by the fact that lumping artificially creates many intransitive relationships and high-degree vertices. This effect of lumping is much less dramatic but persists with measures that give less weight to high-degree vertices, such as the mean local clustering coefficient and log-based degree assortativity. Furthermore, the log-log distribution of collaborator counts follows a much straighter line (power law) with splitting and lumping errors than without, particularly at the low and the high counts. This suggests that part of the power law often observed for collaborator counts in science and technology reflects an artifact: name ambiguity. PMID:23894639

Fegley, Brent D.; Torvik, Vetle I.

2013-01-01

358

Is traumatic stress research global? A bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The representation of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in traumatic stress research is important to establish a global evidence base, build research capacity, and reduce the burden of unmet mental health needs around the world. Reviews of the traumatic stress literature up to 2002 showed trends toward globalization although LMIC were only marginally represented compared to high-income countries (HIC). Objective To examine the global nature of current traumatic stress research. In particular, we were interested in the extent to which traumatic stress research is: (1) conducted in LMIC, (2) conducted by LMIC researchers, and (3) accessible to them. Method Using the databases PubMed, PsychInfo, and PILOTS, we systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles on traumatic stress published in any language in the year 2012. Out of the 3,123 unique papers identified, we coded a random sample (N=1,000) for study, author, article, and journal characteristics. Results Although our sample involved research in 56 different countries, most papers (87%) involved research in HIC, with 51% of all papers describing studies in the United States. In 88% of the papers, the author team was affiliated with HIC only. Less than 5% of all author teams involved collaborations between HIC and LMIC researchers. Moreover, 45% of the articles on LMIC studies published by a HIC corresponding author did not involve any LMIC co-authors. LMIC researchers appeared to publish empirical studies in lower impact journals. Of the 1,000 articles in our sample, 32% were open access and 10% were made available via different means; over half of the papers were not accessible without subscription. Conclusions Traumatic stress research is increasingly global but still strongly dominated by HIC. Important opportunities to build capacity in LMIC appear to be missed. Implications toward more international traumatic stress research are discussed. PMID:24563730

Fodor, Kinga E.; Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Chou, Chia-Ying; Kartal, Dzenana; Leistner, Sarah; Milosavljevic, Maja; Nocon, Agnes; Soler, Laia; White, Jenifer; Yoo, Seonyoung; Alisic, Eva

2014-01-01

359

Current panorama of temporomandibular disorders' field in Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2012, the recognition of the specialty of Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain completed ten years. Given this scenario, it is extremely important to track the current situation of this field of knowledge in Brazil, specifically in the area of research and training. We hope to discuss the importance of the recognition of this specialty and the inclusion of these subjects in undergraduate programs in Dentistry. Objective The objective of this study is to perform a bibliometric survey of researches regarding Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain conducted in the country, determine the number of specialization courses in Orofacial Pain and the number of specialists in the field. Methods The bibliometric survey was conducted based on the Dissertations Portal of Coordination for the Improvement of Higher education Personnel (CAPES) and on PubMed. The panorama of the field of Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular disorders in Brazil was determined by searching on the website of the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Results We found 731 theses and dissertations with Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain as the main subjects; 81 accredited/recognized Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction completed; 8 accredited/recognized Specialization Courses on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction still in progress, and 1,064 registered specialists in Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction in the Brazilian Council of Dentistry. Search in the PUBMED database yielded 576 articles published with the participation of Brazilian researchers as first authors and/or co-authors in the period from 2000 to 2013. From this amount, only 5 were published in Portuguese, while all the others were published in english. We can also notice that the number of published articles increases over time. Conclusion The number of researches related to temporomandibular disorders has increased over the last ten years, as well as the number of specialization courses and the number of specialists, which represents a major breakthrough for this field of knowledge. PMID:25025553

MACHADO, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; LIMA, Fernanda Ferruzzi; CONTI, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

2014-01-01

360

Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research  

PubMed Central

Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells. PMID:23885955

2013-01-01

361

Fish culture: an annotated bibliography of publications of the National Fisheries Center, Leetown, 1972-1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is an annotated bibliography of the publications authored or co-authored by the staff of the National Fisheries Center - Leetown (NFC-L) from 1972 through 1980. It includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, AR; the Fish Genetics Laboratory, Beulah, WY; the Hagerman Field Station of the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Hagerman, ID; the National Fisheries Research and Development Laboratory, Marison, AL; and, the Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Cortland, NY. It also includes publications from NFC-L staff at the Aquaculture Production/Demonstration Station, Fisheries Academy, Fish Genetics Station, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, and Technical Information Services, each located in Kearneysville, WV. Prior to 1977, each functioned as a separate entity within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1977, the administrative and program activities of these components were merged into the Natkonal Fisheries Center. This bibliography lists the publications issued by each of these entities both before and after becoming joined into the Center. Publications from these components prior to 1972 are documents in U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Resource Publication 120, Bibliography of Research Publications of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1928-72. Entries in this bibliography are arranged under broad subject categories, similar to those used in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sport Fishery Abstracts. Within these categories, the publications are then arranged alphabetically by author and sequentially by date of publication. They cover a wide range of scientific and technical disciplines applicable to the field of aquaculture. The annotations were submitted by each NFC-L component, and were modified to some extent for uniformity. An author index is included at the end of the bibliography.

Mann, Joyce A.; Catrow, Violet J.; McKenzie, Lora C.; Engle, Faye V.

1982-01-01

362

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that as increased emphasis is placed on preparation for high-stakes end-of-course examinations it becomes more difficult to assess conceptual understanding. High school chemistry teachers are an innovative lot, and I am confident that ways will be found to evaluate understanding no matter what. This month's issue contains two examples of using student-constructed posters as a means of assessment. Although we most often associate poster presentations with research, such as a science fair project, these articles show that posters may also be used to assess student learning in class settings. The examples are from lower-division college courses, but they may be equally useful in high school chemistry courses. An article titled Using Poster Sessions as an Alternative to Written ExaminationsThe Poster Exam by Pamela Mills and four co-authors contains a detailed explanation of how student-constructed posters can be used to assess student learning. A number of related articles are listed in the Literature Cited section. Another example is found in A Poster Session in Organic Chemistry That Markedly Enhanced Student Learning by P. A. Huddle. The same author also contributed the article How to Present a Paper or Poster in which useful, straightforward suggestions for communicating information and ideas clearly are provided.

Howell, J. Emory

2000-09-01

363

High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2012-06-28

364

[Vaccines and autism: a myth to debunk?].  

PubMed

Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation. He proposed the administration of the MMR vaccine as a possible. cause of the inflammatory process. The hypothesis suggested by Wakefield led to a drastic drop in vaccination coverage in the UK and to the failure to achieve adequate levels of immunization in many countries, with a consequent increase in the incidence of measles and its complications. Wakefield work stimulated a broad discussion in the scientific community and many studies conducted over the next few years contradicted the research results of the English physician. In 2004, journalist Brian Deer conducted an accurate investigation that revealed how the Wakefield research presented many not regular aspects and was performed with predominantly economic objectives. In 2010, Wakefield was expelled from the General Medical Council, while the "Lancet" retracted the paper. The scientific research conducted in recent years confirm the inconsistency of the relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. The possible association with other factors, such as autoimmune processes, hyperactivation of mast cells in the hypothalamus, use of paracetamol in genetically predisposed children are currently investigated. PMID:24316883

Battistella, Melania; Carlino, Cristiana; Dugo, Valentina; Ponzo, Patrizia; Franco, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

365

UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

Lawless, William [Paine College, 1235 Fifteenth Street, Augusta, GA 30901 (United States); Whitton, John [Nexia Solutions Ltd, The British Technology Centre, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

366

Countermeasures to the US National Missile Defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.

Gronlund, Lisbeth

2001-04-01

367

University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In FY86 the Laboratory has produced a list of accomplishments in which it takes pride. LLE has met every laser-fusion program milestone to date in a program of research for direct-drive ultraviolet laser fusion originally formulated in 1981. LLE scientists authored or co-authored 135 scientific papers during 1985 to 1986. The collaborative experiments with NRL, LANL, and LLNL have led to a number of important ICF results. The cryogenic target system developed by KMS Fusion for LLE will be used in future high-density experiments on OMEGA to demonstrate the compression of thermonuclear fuel to 100 to 200 times that of solid (20 to 40 g/cm) in a test of the direct-drive concept, as noted in the National Academy of Sciences' report. The excellence of the advanced technology efforts at LLE is illustrated by the establishment of the Ultrafast Science Center by the Department of Defense through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Research in the Center will concentrate on bridging the gap between high-speed electronics and ultrafast optics by providing education, research, and development in areas critical to future communications and high-speed computer systems. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics continues its pioneering work on the interaction of intense radiation with matter. This includes inertial-fusion and advanced optical and optical electronics research; training people in the technology and applications of high-power, short-pulse lasers; and interacting with the scientific community, business, industry, and government to promote the growth of laser technology.

1987-01-01

368

The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

1999-01-01

369

Doped Cobaltites: Phase Separation, Intergranular Giant Magnetoresistance, and Glassy Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used magnetometry, transport, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to investigate magnetoelectronic phase separation in La1-xSrxCoO3. This material shows a crossover from a glassy phase at low doping to ferromagnetism (F) above x = 0.18, as well as a simultaneous transition from insulator to metal. NMR confirms magnetic phase inhomogeneity with low spin non-magnetic, glassy, and F regions coexisting spatially. SANS reveals 25 å F clusters forming in a matrix of non-F insulator at low doping, eventually leading to a percolation transition to long-range F order at x > 0.18. In single crystals, this formation of isolated clusters leads to a hysteretic negative MagnetoResistance (MR) at low temperatures, which has field, temperature, and doping dependencies consistent with an intergranular Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR) effect. We argue that this system is a naturally forming analog to the artificial structures fabricated by depositing nanoscale F particles in a metallic or insulating matrix, i.e. this material displays an intergranular GMR effect without the deliberate introduction of chemical interfaces. The formation of nanoscopic F clusters also gives rise to glassy transport phenomena that are reminiscent of relaxor ferroelectrics. The transport properties show a bifurcation of field cooled and zero field cooled temperature traces, slow response to changes in magnetic fields, and, most notably, a ``waiting time'' effect that can be observed directly in the resistivity. Acknowledgements: ACS Petroleum Research Fund, UMN NSF MRSEC. Co-Authors: J. Wu, J. Lynn, C. Glinka, J. Burley, H. Zheng, J. Mitchell, W. Moulton, M. Hoch, P. Kuhns, A. Reyes, C. Perrey, N. Munoz, R. Thompson and B. Carter.

Leighton, Chris

2005-03-01

370

The practical zealot. Interview by Joe Flower.  

PubMed

In 1987, Ellen Gaucher took an unusual trip. As senior associate director of the University of Michigan's sprawling 11,000-employee Medical Center, she was invited to a conference about a movement that was rapidly growing in the word of business--total quality. The occasion was the organizational conference of the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care, led by the Harvard Community Health Plan in Boston. Gaucher was skeptical at first. Total quality seemed a great way to make better cars, light bulbs, and aluminum siding, but would it work in a service industry? More to the point, would it work in an industry as complex, as critical, as pressured, as high-tech, as human, and as intellectual as healthcare? But by the second day, she says, "I was sold that this was what we had needed for a long time." She hurried back to Michigan like a missionary trekking into cannibal country. Today, not only is the University Medical Center deep in a total quality conversion experience, so is the University itself, through its president, James J. Duderstadt. He was exposed to the idea through Gaucher: In his ex-officio position as chairman of the Medical Center's board, he had experienced her vivid and enthusiastic educational efforts. Gaucher has related her intense experiences with TQ at conferences, in articles, in the 1990 book, Transforming Healthcare Organizations (winner of the Hamilton Award given by the American College of Healthcare Executives for the best book of the year) as well as the forthcoming Total Quality in Healthcare (both co-authored with Richard Coffey). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10116129

Gaucher, E

1992-01-01

371

27-day cycles in human mortality: Traute and Bernhard D?ll  

PubMed Central

This tribute to her parents by one co-author (NDP) is the fruit of a more than a decade-long search by the senior author (FH) for the details of the lives of Bernhard and Gertraud (“Traute”) Düll. These pioneers studied how space/terrestrial weather may differentially influence human mortality from various causes, the 27-day mortality pattern being different whether death was from cardiac or respiratory disease, or from suicide. FH is the translator of personal information about her parents provided by NDP in German. Figuratively, he also attempts to “translate” the Dülls’ contribution in the context of the literature that had appeared before their work and after their deaths. Although the Dülls published in a then leading journal, among others (and FH had re-analyzed some of their work in a medical journal), they were unknown to academies or libraries (where FH had inquired about them). The Dülls thoroughly assembled death certificates to offer the most powerful evidence for an effect of solar activity reflected in human mortality, as did others before them. They went several steps further than their predecessors, however. They were the first to show possibly differential effects of space and/or Earth weather with respect to suicide and other deaths associated with the nervous and sensory systems vs. death from cardiac or respiratory disease as well as overall death by differences in the phase of a common 27-day cycle characterizing these mortality patterns. Furthermore, Bernhard Düll developed tests of human visual and auditory reaction time to study effects of weather and solar activity, publishing a book (his professorial dissertation) on the topic. His unpublished finding of an increased incidence of airplane crashes in association with higher solar activity was validated after his death, among others, by Tatiana Zenchenko and A. M. Merzlyi. PMID:24224144

Halberg, F.; Dull-Pfaff, N.; Gumarova, L.; Zenchenko, T. A.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Freytag, E. M.; Freytag, J.; Cornelissen, G.

2013-01-01

372

Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) tinder equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by the composition of Cl meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou (Meteoritics 9, 69-94, 1974, and Wasson and co-authors in subsequent papers) suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce the observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed, The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the formation of the chondrite parent bodies and the planets.

Cassen, Patrick; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

373

Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have persistent symptoms at 1 week and 1 month after injury. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mTBI. Methods We performed a systematic review of all randomized clinical trials evaluating any intervention initiated in an acute setting for patients experiencing acute mTBI. All possible outcomes were included. The primary sources of identification were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials, from 1980 to August 2012. Hand searching of proceedings from five meetings related to mTBI was also performed. Study selection was conducted by two co-authors, and data abstraction was completed by a research assistant specialized in conducting systematic reviews. Study quality was evaluated using Cochrane’s Risk of Bias assessment tool. Results From a potential 15,156 studies, 1,268 abstracts were evaluated and 120 articles were read completely. Of these, 15 studies fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. One study evaluated a pharmacological intervention, two evaluated activity restriction, one evaluated head computed tomography scan versus admission, four evaluated information interventions, and seven evaluated different follow-up interventions. Use of different outcome measures limited the possibilities for analysis. However, a meta-analysis of three studies evaluating various follow-up strategies versus routine follow-up or no follow-up failed to show any effect on three outcomes at 6 to 12 months post-trauma. In addition, a meta-analysis of two studies found no effect of an information intervention on headache at 3 months post-injury. Conclusions There is a paucity of well-designed clinical studies for patients who sustain mTBI. The large variability in outcomes measured in studies limits comparison between them. PMID:23924958

2013-01-01

374

Challenges to the Transition of IPMC Artificial Muscle Actuators to Practical Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion-exchange membrane metallic composites (IPMC), which were first reported in 1992, are one of the electroactive materials (EAP) with potential applications as artificial muscle actuators. The recent introduction of perfluorocarboxylate-gold composite with tetra-n-butylammonium and Lithium cations instead of sodium made the most significant improvement of the material electroactivity. Under less than 3 volts, IPMC with the new constituents is capable of bending beyond a complete loop. Taking into account the fact that IMPC materials do not induce a significant force, the authors are extensively seeking applications for these bending EAP. Some of the applications that were demonstrated include dust-wiper, catheter guide, miniature motor, robotic-gripper, micro-manipulator, etc. Generally, space applications are the most demanding in terms of operating conditions, robustness and durability, and the co-authors of this paper are jointly addressing the associated challenges. Specifically, a dust-wiper is being developed for the Nanorover's infrared camera window of the MUSES-CN mission. This joint NASA and the Japanese space agency mission, is scheduled to be launch from Kagoshima, Japan, in January 2002, to explore the surface of a small near-Earth asteroid. Several issues that are critical to the operation of IPMC are addressed including the operation in vacuum, low temperatures, and the effect of the electromechanical characteristic of the IPMC on its actuation capability. Highly efficient IPMC materials, mechanical modeling, unique elements and protective coating were introduced by the authors and are making a high probability the success of the IPMC actuated dust-wiper.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean; Oguro, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Harrison, Joycelyn; Smith, Joseph; Su, Ji

1999-01-01

375

Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

2013-12-01

376

Has large-scale named-entity network analysis been resting on a flawed assumption?  

PubMed

The assumption that a name uniquely identifies an entity introduces two types of errors: splitting treats one entity as two or more (because of name variants); lumping treats multiple entities as if they were one (because of shared names). Here we investigate the extent to which splitting and lumping affect commonly-used measures of large-scale named-entity networks within two disambiguated bibliographic datasets: one for co-author names in biomedicine (PubMed, 2003-2007); the other for co-inventor names in U.S. patents (USPTO, 2003-2007). In both cases, we find that splitting has relatively little effect, whereas lumping has a dramatic effect on network measures. For example, in the biomedical co-authorship network, lumping (based on last name and both initials) drives several measures down: the global clustering coefficient by a factor of 4 (from 0.265 to 0.066); degree assortativity by a factor of ?13 (from 0.763 to 0.06); and average shortest path by a factor of 1.3 (from 5.9 to 4.5). These results can be explained in part by the fact that lumping artificially creates many intransitive relationships and high-degree vertices. This effect of lumping is much less dramatic but persists with measures that give less weight to high-degree vertices, such as the mean local clustering coefficient and log-based degree assortativity. Furthermore, the log-log distribution of collaborator counts follows a much straighter line (power law) with splitting and lumping errors than without, particularly at the low and the high counts. This suggests that part of the power law often observed for collaborator counts in science and technology reflects an artifact: name ambiguity. PMID:23894639

Fegley, Brent D; Torvik, Vetle I

2013-01-01

377

Comment on: `The quest for a consistent signal in ground and GRACE gravity time-series', by Michel Van Camp, Olivier de Viron, Laurent Metivier, Bruno Meurers and Olivier Francis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper in question by Van Camp and co-authors [MVC] challenges previous work showing that ground gravity data arising from hydrology can provide a consistent signal for the comparison with satellite gravity data. The data sets used are similar to those used previously, that is, the gravity field as measured by the GRACE satellites versus ground-based data from superconducting gravimeters (SGs) over the same continental area, in this case Central Europe. One of the main impediments in this paper is the presentation that is frequently confusing and misleading as to what the data analysis really shows, for example, the irregular treatment of annual components that are first subtracted then reappear in the analysis. More importantly, we disagree on specific points. Two calculations are included in our comment to illustrate where we believe that the processing in [MVC] paper is deficient. The first deals with their erroneous treatment of the global hydrology using a truncated spherical harmonic approach which explains almost a factor 2 error in their computation of the loading. The second shows the effect of making the wrong assumption in the GRACE/hydrology/surface gravity comparison by inverting the whole of the hydrology loading for underground stations. We also challenge their claims that empirical orthogonal function techniques cannot be done in the presence of periodic components, and that SG data cannot be corrected for comparisons with GRACE data. The main conclusion of their paper, that there is little coherence between ground gravity stations and this invalidates GRACE comparisons, is therefore questionable. There is nothing in [MVC] that contradicts any of the previous papers that have shown clearly a strong relation between seasonal signals obtained from both ground gravity and GRACE satellite data.

Crossley, D. J.; Boy, J.-P.; Hinderer, J.; Jahr, T.; Weise, A.; Wziontek, H.; Abe, M.; Förste, C.

2014-12-01

378

Sino-Canadian Collaborations in Stem Cell Research: A Scientometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background International collaboration (IC) is essential for the advance of stem cell research, a field characterized by marked asymmetries in knowledge and capacity between nations. China is emerging as a global leader in the stem cell field. However, knowledge on the extent and characteristics of IC in stem cell science, particularly China’s collaboration with developed economies, is lacking. Methods and Findings We provide a scientometric analysis of the China–Canada collaboration in stem cell research, placing this in the context of other leading producers in the field. We analyze stem cell research published from 2006 to 2010 from the Scopus database, using co-authored papers as a proxy for collaboration. We examine IC levels, collaboration preferences, scientific impact, the collaborating institutions in China and Canada, areas of mutual interest, and funding sources. Our analysis shows rapid global expansion of the field with 48% increase in papers from 2006 to 2010. China now ranks second globally after the United States. China has the lowest IC rate of countries examined, while Canada has one of the highest. China–Canada collaboration is rising steadily, more than doubling during 2006–2010. China–Canada collaboration enhances impact compared to papers authored solely by China-based researchers This difference remained significant even when comparing only papers published in English. Conclusions While China is increasingly courted in IC by developed countries as a partner in stem cell research, it is clear that it has reached its status in the field largely through domestic publications. Nevertheless, IC enhances the impact of stem cell research in China, and in the field in general. This study establishes an objective baseline for comparison with future studies, setting the stage for in-depth exploration of the dynamics and genesis of IC in stem cell research. PMID:23468927

Ali-Khan, Sarah E.; Ray, Monali; McMahon, Dominique S.; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla

2013-01-01

379

Progression of Tokyo Guidelines and Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.  

PubMed

The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download. PMID:24334691

Mayumi, Toshihiko; Someya, Kazuki; Ootubo, Hiroki; Takama, Tatsuo; Kido, Takashi; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro

2013-12-01

380

The Exciting World of Search and Discovery: Research Experiences as part of the Undergraduate Astronomy Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active participation of undergraduates in research has been one of the cornerstones of the Astronomy & Astrophysics program at Villanova University for over 30 years. When teamed with faculty researchers and involved with interesting projects that have the full attention and commitment of the faculty, the students not only greatly benefit and learn, but are able to make significant contributions to the research project. Every effort is made to attract the student's personal commitment to research projects, starting usually during the sophomore year. It has been found that once the student's interest is enkindled, the natural curiosity of the student usually sustains that interest. After this occurs, it is possible to move away from the traditional work for a grade mentality of a student to the more satisfying and fulfilling work for pleasure and the excitement of discovery that most successful researchers experience. This shift in attitude is important because it allows the students to tap into a block of time that they have mentally set aside as ``extra-curricular.'' Many students accompany faculty on external observing runs, attend professional meetings and present papers, and co-author papers and articles. When possible during the summer months, the students work as Research Assistants and are paid by the university or from NASA or NSF grants. All of the faculty in the Astronomy Department participate in the research projects with the undergraduate students. This gives the students a choice of a wide range of research topics. Typically research projects are based on photoelectric photometry (mostly of pulsating, spotted, PMS, and eclipsing binary stars) obtained by student observations on campus or with a 0.8m APT located in Arizona. Many interesting and productive research programs on cataclysmic variables, symbiotic stars, and chromospherically active stars also utilize archival data available from IUE, HST, FUSE, RXTE and ROSAT. Since 1990 over 45 students have participated in research projects that have resulted in papers in journals or at professional meetings (such as the AAS).

Guinan, E. F.

2003-12-01

381

WRF tests on sensitivity to PBL and LSM schemes during atmospheric transition periods: validation with BLLAST case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and properties at a certain time of the atmospheric or planetary boundary layer (PBL) has a major importance in land-atmosphere interaction and exchange processes, i.e. in pollutants concentration, humidity or different energy vertical fluxes. Transition periods at this part of the troposphere are found difficult to properly interpret, as far as among all the processes taking place at that timing, it is not clearly stated the predominance of just one of them; moreover, a drastic change in the motion scales present in the lower atmosphere is sometimes produced. Atmospheric global models fail at representing transitional events in the PBL, mainly because of sub-grid scale phenomena. These micrometeorological processes require to be better simulated. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model offers a considerable amount of physical options and parameterizations, including different PBL and land surface model (LSM) schemes. This fact justifies a model experiment to evaluate its behavior and try to understand the differences in model performance for transition periods in the atmosphere, specifically when it moves on from a convective to a stratified stable structure at its lower region. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulent (BLLAST) project organized and conducted a field campaign [1] during summer 2011 in Lannemezan (France), getting together a wide amount of meteorological instrumentation. The available extensive experimental dataset from that campaign offers an excellent opportunity for model validation. Results of WRF sensitivity tests are presented, comparing simulations among themselves and validating them with the observational data. Different atmospheric variables involved in the late afternoon and evening transition processes are considered, both at surface (i.e. energy balance) and at higher levels (thermodynamic vertical structure), in order to obtain a wider view of the problem. [1] Lothon, M. and co-authors (2012): The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment. Paper 14B.1, 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and turbulence, Boston, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 12 pp.

Sastre, Mariano; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio

2014-05-01

382

Platform-to-platform sample transfer, distribution, dilution, and dosing via electrothermal vaporization and electrostatic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel system for solid sample pretreatment, handling and dosing for analytical atomic spectrometry is described. A primary solid or liquid sample is vaporized in a graphite furnace and then condensed in a specially designed condensation zone. On the further transport path, the analyte aerosol can be diluted and distributed in pre-set ratios in the laboratory made flow control system. Applying a corona discharge, aerosol particulates are then quantitatively re-collected by means of intra-furnace electrostatic precipitation on the platform of another graphite furnace or by external precipitation on one or a set of platforms. This makes possible to produce a set of secondary platforms with equal analyte compositions from one individual primary sample. Such multitudes allow sequential multi-element determinations with single-element instrumentation or comparative measurements with different techniques. Furthermore, the described procedure allows external thermal sample pretreatment with preceding pyrolysis and additional vaporization, condensation, and re-precipitation that significantly reduces or removes the sample matrix. Owing to different losses, transport efficiencies of electrothermal vaporization (ETV) instrumentation depend on analyte element, matrix, vaporization temperature, ramp rate, and tube history. In order to reduce the losses and therewith such dependencies of the losses, new laboratory constructed ETV unit with analyte condensation in an axially focusing upstream convection zone has been constructed. Analytical performance of the new setup is compared with the performance of a commercial end-on flow-through ETV unit when analyzing both liquid dosed samples and certified solid reference materials. The new system shows much higher transport efficiencies that are, in addition, more uniform for elements of different volatility. The effects of chemical sample modifiers and elements supporting analyte condensation are studied. Most of the analytical measurements were carried out with a continuum source coherent forward scattering multi-element spectrometer. Comparative measurements were also carried out independently in the co-authors' laboratories with atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

Hermann, G.; Trenin, A.; Matz, R.; Gafurov, M.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.; Nagulin, K. Yu.; Frech, W.; Björn, E.; Grinshtein, I.; Vasilieva, L.

2004-05-01

383

Aerosol characterization in Northern Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Basin and Middle East from direct-sun AERONET observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an atmospheric aerosol characterization for North Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Middle East based on the analysis of quality-assured direct-sun observations of 39 stations of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) which include at least an annual cycle within the 1994-2007 period. We extensively test and apply the recently introduced graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors to track and discriminate different aerosol types and quantify the contribution of mineral dust. The method relies on the combined analysis of the Ångström exponent (?) and its spectral curvature ??. Plotting data in these coordinates allows to infer aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and fractional contribution (?) to total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and separate AOD growth due to fine-mode aerosol humidification and/or coagulation from AOD growth due to the increase in coarse particles or cloud contamination. Our results confirm the robustness of this graphical method. Large mineral dust is found to be the most important constituent in Northern Africa and Middle East. Under specific meteorological conditions, its transport to Southern Europe is observed from spring to autumn and decreasing with latitude. We observe "pure Saharan dust" conditions to show AOD>0.7 (ranging up to 5), ?<0.3 and ??<0 corresponding to ?<40% and (Rf)~0.13 ?m. Small pollution particles are abundant in sites close to urban and industrial areas of Continental and Eastern Europe and Middle East, as well as, important contributions of biomass burning are observed in the sub-Sahel region in winter. These small aerosols are associated to AOD<1, ?>1.5 and ??~-0.2 corresponding to ?>70% and Rf~0.13 ?m. Here, dust mixed with fine pollution aerosols shifts the observations to the region ?<0.75, in which the fine mode contribution is less than 40%.

Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.; Gobbi, G. P.

2009-11-01

384

27-day cycles in human mortality: Traute and Bernhard Düll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tribute to her parents by one co-author (NDP) is the fruit of a more than a decade-long search by the senior author (FH) for the details of the lives of Bernhard and Gertraud (''Traute'') Düll. These pioneers studied how space/terrestrial weather may differentially influence human mortality from various causes, the 27-day mortality pattern being different whether death was from cardiac or respiratory disease, or from suicide. FH is the translator of personal information about her parents provided by NDP in German. Figuratively, he also attempts to ''translate'' the Dülls' contribution in the context of the literature that had appeared before their work and after their deaths. Although the Dülls published in a then leading journal, among others (and FH had re-analyzed some of their work in a medical journal), they were unknown to academies or libraries (where FH had inquired about them). The Dülls thoroughly assembled death certificates to offer the most powerful evidence for an effect of solar activity reflected in human mortality, as did others before them. They went several steps further than their predecessors, however. They were the first to show possibly differential effects of space and/or Earth weather with respect to suicide and other deaths associated with the nervous and sensory systems vs. death from cardiac or respiratory disease as well as overall death by differences in the phase of a common 27-day cycle characterizing these mortality patterns. Furthermore, Bernhard Düll developed tests of human visual and auditory reaction time to study effects of weather and solar activity, publishing a book (his professorial dissertation) on the topic. His unpublished finding of an increased incidence of airplane crashes in association with higher solar activity was validated after his death, among others, by Tatiana Zenchenko and A. M. Merzlyi.

Halberg, F.; Düll-Pfaff, N.; Gumarova, L.; Zenchenko, T. A.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Freytag, E. M.; Freytag, J.; Cornelissen, G.

2013-04-01

385

Why Are Medical and Health-Related Studies Not Being Published? A Systematic Review of Reasons Given by Investigators  

PubMed Central

Objective About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. Results We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Conclusions Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low priority and fear of being rejected by journals. PMID:25335091

Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

2014-01-01

386

How Are Academic Age, Productivity and Collaboration Related to Citing Behavior of Researchers?  

PubMed Central

References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006–2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration. PMID:23145111

Milojevic, Stasa

2012-01-01

387

Involving service users in trials: developing a standard operating procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Many funding bodies require researchers to actively involve service users in research to improve relevance, accountability and quality. Current guidance to researchers mainly discusses general principles. Formal guidance about how to involve service users operationally in the conduct of trials is lacking. We aimed to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) to support researchers to involve service users in trials and rigorous studies. Methods Researchers with experience of involving service users and service users who were contributing to trials collaborated with the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health, a registered clinical trials unit, to develop the SOP. Drafts were prepared in a Task and Finish Group, reviewed by all co-authors and amendments made. Results We articulated core principles, which defined equality of service users with all other research team members and collaborative processes underpinning the SOP, plus guidance on how to achieve these. We developed a framework for involving service users in research that defined minimum levels of collaboration plus additional consultation and decision-making opportunities. We recommended service users be involved throughout the life of a trial, including planning and development, data collection, analysis and dissemination, and listed tasks for collaboration. We listed people responsible for involving service users in studies and promoting an inclusive culture. We advocate actively involving service users as early as possible in the research process, with a minimum of two on all formal trial groups and committees. We propose that researchers protect at least 1% of their total research budget as a minimum resource to involve service users and allow enough time to facilitate active involvement. Conclusions This SOP provides guidance to researchers to involve service users successfully in developing and conducting clinical trials and creating a culture of actively involving service users in research at all stages. The UK Clinical Research Collaboration should encourage clinical trials units actively to involve service users and research funders should provide sufficient funds and time for this in research grants. PMID:23866730

2013-01-01

388

Surface modification and multiple exciton generation studies of lead(II) sulfide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy is a green alternative to fossil fuels but solar technologies to date have been plagued by low conversion efficiencies and high input costs making solar power inaccessible to much of the developing world. Semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) may provide a route to efficient, economical solar devices through a phenomenon called multiple exciton generation (MEG). Through MEG, semiconductor NPs use a high-energy input photon to create more than one exciton (electron-hole pair) per photon absorbed, thereby exhibiting large photoconversion efficiencies. While MEG has been studied in many NP systems, and we understand some of the factors that affect MEG, a rigorous analysis of the NP-ligand interface with respect to MEG is missing. This dissertation describes how the NP ligand shell directly affects MEG and subsequent charge carrier recombination. Chapter I describes the motivation for studying MEG with respect to NP surface chemistry. Chapter II provides an in-depth overview of the transient absorption experiment used to measure MEG in the NP samples. Chapter III highlights the effect of oleic acid and sodium 2, 3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate on MEG in PbS NPs. The differences in carrier recombination were accounted for by two differences between these ligands: the coordinating atom and/or the secondary structure of the ligand. Because of these hypotheses, experiments were designed to elucidate the origin of these effects by controlling the NP ligand shell. Chapter IV details a viable synthetic route to thiol and amine-capped PbS NPs using sodium 3-mercaptopropane sulfonate as an intermediate ligand. With the versatile ligand exchange described in Chapter IV, the MEG yield and carrier recombination was investigated for ligands with varying headgroups but the same secondary structure. The correlation of ligand donor atom to MEG is outlined in Chapter V. Finally, Chapter VI discusses the conclusions and future outlook of the research reported in this dissertation. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Zemke, Jennifer M.

389

3min. poster presentations of B01  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a report on recommendations from ILEWG International conferences held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. Priorities for scientific investigations include: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), historical records, astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The ILEWG technology task group set priorities for the advancement of instrumenta-tion: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems. The ILEWG ExogeoLab pilot project was developed as support for instru-ments, landers, rovers,and preparation for cooperative robotic village. The ILEWG lunar base task group looked at minimal design concepts, technologies in robotic and human exploration with Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Man-Machine interface and performances. The ILEWG ExoHab pilot project has been started with support from agencies and partners. We discuss ILEWG terrestrial Moon-Mars campaigns for validation of technologies, research and human operations. We indicate how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Co-Authors: ILEWG Task Groups on: Science, Technology, Robotic village, Lunar Bases , Commercial and Societal aspects, Roadmap synergies with other programmes, Public en-gagemnet and Outreach, Young Lunar Explorers.

Foing, Bernard H.

390

How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar - an unusual type of neutron star - was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole? To reach their conclusions, the astronomers looked in detail at the extraordinary star cluster Westerlund 1 [1], located 16 000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar). From previous studies (eso0510), the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn). "If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results. Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event. A magnetar (eso0831) is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field - a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth, which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun. As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that exploded and left a magnetar remnant must have had a shorter life than the surviving stars in the cluster. "Because the lifespan of a star is directly linked to its mass - the heavier a star, the shorter its life - if we can measure the mass of any one surviving star, we know for sure that the shorter-lived star that became the magnetar must have been even more massive," says co-author and team leader Simon Clark. "This is of great significance since there is no accepted theory for how such extremely magnetic objects are formed." The astronomers therefore studied the stars that belong to the eclipsing double system W13 in Westerlund 1 using the fact that, in such a system, masses can be directly determined from the motions of the stars. By comparison with these stars, they found that the star that became the magnetar must have been at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. This proves for the first time that magnetars can evolve from stars so massive we would normally expect them to form black holes. The previous assumption was that stars with initial masses between about 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes. "These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead," says co-author Ignacio Negueruela. "Such huge mass losses before the explosion present great challenges to current theories of stellar evolution." "This therefore raises the thorny question of just how massive a star has to be to collapse to form a black hole if stars over 40 times as heavy as our Sun cannot manage this feat," concludes co-author Norbert Langer. The formation mechanism preferred by the astronomers postulates that the star that became the magnetar - the progenitor - was born with a stellar companion. As both stars evolved they would begin to interact, with energy derived from their orbital motion expended in ejecting the requisite huge quantities of mass from t

2010-08-01

391

Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The search for the source of the solar wind has been like the hunt for the source of the Nile," said Dr. Don Hassler of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado, lead author of the paper in Science. "For 30 years, scientists have observed high-speed solar wind coming from regions in the solar atmosphere with open magnetic field lines, called coronal holes. However, only recently, with the observations from SOHO, have we been able to measure the detailed structure of this source region". The solar wind comes in two varieties : high-speed and low-speed. The low-speed solar wind moves at "only" 1.5 million kilometres per hour, while the high-speed wind is even faster, moving at speeds as high as 3 million kilometres per hour. As it flows past Earth, the solar wind changes the shape and structure of the Earth's magnetic field. In the past, the solar wind didn't affect us directly, but as we become increasingly dependent on advanced technology, we become more susceptible to its effects. Researchers are learning that variations in the solar wind flow can cause dramatic changes in the shape of the Earth's magnetic field, which can damage satellites and disrupt communications and electrical power systems. The nature and origin of the solar wind is one of the main mysteries ESA's solar observatory SOHO was designed to solve. It has long been thought that the solar wind flows from coronal holes; what is new is the discovery that these outflows are concentrated in specific patches at the edges of the honeycomb-shaped magnetic fields. Just below the surface of the Sun there are large convection cells, and each cell has a magnetic field associated with it. "If one thinks of these cells as paving stones in a patio, then the solar wind is breaking through like grass around the edges, concentrated in the corners where the paving stones meet", said Dr. Helen Mason, University of Cambridge, England, and co-author of the paper to appear in Science. "However, at speeds ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the ultraviolet light emitt

1999-02-01

392

Chandra Finds Evidence for Stellar Cannibalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence that a star has recently engulfed a companion star or a giant planet has been found using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The likely existence of such a "cannibal" star provides new insight into how stars and the planets around them may interact as they age. The star in question, known as BP Piscium (BP Psc), appears to be a more evolved version of our Sun, but with a dusty and gaseous disk surrounding it. A pair of jets several light years long blasting out of the system in opposite directions has also been seen in optical data. While the disk and jets are characteristics of a very young star, several clues -- including the new results from Chandra -- suggest that BP Psc is not what it originally appeared to be. Instead, astronomers have suggested that BP Psc is an old star in its so-called red giant phase. And, rather than being hallmarks of its youth, the disk and jets are, in fact, remnants of a recent and catastrophic interaction whereby a nearby star or giant planet was consumed by BP Psc. When stars like the Sun begin to run out of nuclear fuel, they expand and shed their outer layers. Our Sun, for example, is expected to swell so that it nearly reaches or possibly engulfs Earth, as it becomes a red giant star. "It appears that BP Psc represents a star-eat-star Universe, or maybe a star-eat-planet one," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology, who led the Chandra study. "Either way, it just shows it's not always friendly out there." Several pieces of information have led astronomers to rethink how old BP Psc might be. First, BP Psc is not located near any star-forming cloud, and there are no other known young stars in its immediate vicinity. Secondly, in common with most elderly stars, its atmosphere contains only a small amount of lithium. Thirdly, its surface gravity appears to be too weak for a young star and instead matches up with one of an old red giant. Chandra adds to this story. Young, low-mass stars are brighter than most other stars in X-rays, and so X-ray observations can be used as a sign of how old a star may be. Chandra does detect X-rays from BP Psc, but at a rate that is too low to be from a young star. Instead, the X-ray emission rate measured for BP Psc is consistent with that of rapidly rotating giant stars. The spectrum of the X-ray emission -- that is how the amount of X-rays changes with wavelength -- is consistent with flares occurring on the surface of the star, or with interactions between the star and the disk surrounding it. The magnetic activity of the star itself might be generated by a dynamo caused by its rapid rotation. This rapid rotation can be caused by the engulfment process. "It seems that BP Psc has been energized by its meal," said co-author Rodolfo (Rudy) Montez Jr., also from the Rochester Institute of Technology. The star's surface is obscured throughout the visible and near-infrared bands, so the Chandra observation represents the first detection at any wavelength of BP Psc itself. "BP Psc shows us that stars like our Sun may live quietly for billions of years," said co-author David Rodriguez from UCLA, "but when they go, they just might take a star or planet or two with them." Although any close-in planets were presumably devastated when BP Psc turned into a giant star, a second round of planet formation might be occurring in the surrounding disk, hundreds of millions of years after the first round. A new paper using observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope has reported possible evidence for a giant planet in the disk surrounding BP Psc. This might be a newly formed planet or one that was part of the original planetary system. "Exactly how stars might engulf other stars or planets is a hot topic in astrophysics today," said Kastner. "We have many important details that we still need to work out, so objects like BP Psc are really exciting to find." These results appeared in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other co-authors on the study were Nicolas Grosso

2010-09-01

393

The Los Angeles International Airport as a source of ultrafine particles and other pollutants to nearby communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air monitoring was performed in the vicinity of the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) during the spring of 2003. The purpose of this monitoring was to determine the extent of airport emissions on downwind ambient air in a mixed use neighborhood that includes residences. A mobile air monitoring platform was developed and deployed to measure ultrafine particle numbers (UFP), size distributions, particle length, black carbon (BC), oxides of nitrogen (NO x), and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH). Pollutant levels were low at a coastal site upwind of the airport, with UFP ranging between 580 and 3800 counts cm -3, oxides of nitrogen (NO x) from 4 to 22 ppb, black carbon from 0.2 to 0.6 ?g m -3, and PM-PAH ranged from 18 to 36 ng m -3. Markedly higher UFP counts, with average counts of approximately 50,000 cm -3, were observed at a site 500 m downwind of the airport, which was strongly influenced by aircraft landings and where the community interfaced with airport facilities. Black carbon, PM-PAH, and NO x levels were elevated to a lesser extent at downwind locations. Transient peaks in UFP corresponding to aircraft landings and takeoffs were evident. A maximum UFP count reached 4.8 million particles cm -3 downwind of a runway used by jet aircraft for takeoffs. Particle size distributions differed substantially between upwind and downwind locations. The particle numbers at the upwind site were dominated by particles of approximately 90 nm diameter while downwind sites were dominated by particles peaking at approximately 10-15 nm. Additional data obtained from a study of UFP levels conducted subsequently by a co-author indicates that aircraft-generated UFP persist up to 900 m from an LAX runway [Biswas, S., Fine, P.M., Geller, M.D., Hering, S.V., Sioutas, C., 2005. Performance evaluation of a recently developed water-based condensation particle counter. Aerosol Science and Technology 39, 419-427]. Considered together, these observations suggest that airport operations are associated with elevated levels of UFP much further downwind in the neighboring community than would have been predicted by prior studies of UFP from roadway-traffic.

Westerdahl, Dane; Fruin, Scott A.; Fine, Phillip L.; Sioutas, Constantinos

394

EDITORIAL: The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JET Task Force Heating is proud to present this special issue. It is the result of hard and dedicated work by everybody participating in the Task Force over the last four years and gives an overview of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the period 2008-2010 with radio frequency heating of JET fusion plasmas. Topics studied and reported in this issue are: investigations into the operation of lower hybrid heating accompanied by new modeling results; new experimental results and insights into the physics of various ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating scenarios; progress in studies of intrinsic and ion cyclotron wave-induced plasma rotation and flows; a summary of the developments over the last years in designing an ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRH) system that can cope with the presence of fast load variations in the edge, as e.g. caused by pellets or edge localized modes (ELMs) during H-Mode operation; an overview of the results obtained with the ITER-like antenna operating in H-Mode with a packed array of straps and power densities close to those of the projected ITER ICRH antenna; and, finally, a summary of the results obtained in applying ion cyclotron waves for wall conditioning of the tokamak. This issue would not have been possible without the strong motivation and efforts (sometimes truly heroic) of all colleagues of the JET Task Force Heating. A sincere word of thanks, therefore, to all authors and co-authors involved in the experiments, analysis and compilation of the papers. It was a special privilege to work with all of them during the past very intense years. Thanks also to all other European and non-European scientists who contributed to the JET scientific programme, the operations team of JET and the colleagues of the Close Support Unit in Culham. Thanks also to the editors, Editorial Board and referees of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, together with the publishing staff of IOPP, who have not only supported but also contributed very substantially to this initiative. Without their dedication this issue would not have been possible in its present form. A special word of thanks to Marie-Line Mayoral and Joelle Mailloux for their precious help and very active support in running the JET Task Force Heating over the last years. Without Joelle and Marie-Line itwould have been a much more daunting task to prepare JET operations, monitor progress during the experiments and edit the papers that are compiled here.

Ongena, Jef

2012-07-01

395

Rtop - an R package for interpolation along the stream network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical methods have a long tradition within analysis of data that can be conceptualized as simple point data, such as soil properties, or for regular blocks, such as mining data. However, these methods have been used to a limited extent for estimation along stream networks. A few exceptions are given by (Gottschalk 1993, Sauquet et al. 2000, Gottschalk et al. 2006, Skøien et al. 2006), and an overview by Laaha and Blöschl (2011). Interpolation of runoff characteristics are more complicated than the traditional random variables estimated by geostatistical methods, as the measurements have a more complicated support, and many catchments are nested. Skøien et al. (2006) presented the model Top-kriging which takes these effects into account for interpolation of stream flow characteristics (exemplified by the 100 year flood). The method has here been implemented as a package in the open source statistical environment R (R Development Core Team 2011). Taking advantage of the existing methods in R for working with spatial objects, and the extensive possibilities for visualizing the result, this makes it considerably easier to apply the method on new data sets, in comparison to earlier implementation of the method. In addition to user feedback, the package has also been tested by colleagues whose only responsibility has been to search for bugs, inconsistencies and shortcomings of the documentation. The last part is often the part that gets the least attention in small open source projects, and we have solved this by acknowledging their effects as co-authors. The model will soon be uploaded to CRAN, but is in the meantime also available from R-forge and can be installed by: > install.packages("rtop", repos="http://R-Forge.R-project.org") Gottschalk, L., 1993. Interpolation of runoff applying objective methods. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics, 7, 269-281. Gottschalk, L., Krasovskaia, I., Leblois, E. & Sauquet, E., 2006. Mapping mean and variance of runoff in a river basin. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 469-484. Laaha, G. & Blöschl, G. 2011. Geostatistics on river networks - a reviewed. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria. R Development Core Team, 2011. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, ISBN 3-900051-07-0. Sauquet, E., Gottschalk, L. & Leblois, E., 2000. Mapping average annual runoff: A hierarchical approach applying a stochastic interpolation scheme. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 45 (6), 799-815. Skøien, J.O., Merz, R. & Blöschl, G., 2006. Top-kriging - geostatistics on stream networks. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 277-287.

Skøien, J. O.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Blöschl, G.; Pebesma, E.; Parajka, J.; Viglione, A.

2012-04-01

396

Obituary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion research community and the Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors have recently lost two of their brightest lights. Dr Derek Robinson passed away on 2 December 2002 and Professor Masahiro Wakatani on 9 January 2003. The career of Dr Robinson spanned forty years. In the first decade thereof, Dr Robinson and his UK colleagues made measurements of Russian tokamaks confirming the good confinement of that system. These historic results led to the enthusiastic development of tokamaks worldwide but also set the example of truly international collaboration that made fusion research unique. In the last decade of his career, Dr Robinson became Director of the United Kingdom fusion energy research programme, actively supporting JET and other European programmes. He was a profound and articulate member of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee. He actively pursued collaboration around the globe, which he started 35 years ago. He thereby strongly promoted plasma physics research on small devices outside the industrialized countries. We appreciate the sound judgment and common sense he brought to the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board. For a large part of his life as a theoretician, Professor Wakatani was a member of the Faculty of Energy Science at Kyoto University. Like Dr Robinson, he was also closely involved with ITER both as Chair of its Confinement and Transport Expert Group and as a member of the ITER Physics Basis Editors. This group edited the landmark 1999 publication by Nuclear Fusion. Professor Wakatani authored many insightful papers on tokamak and helical toroidal plasmas. He was highly regarded as an inventive theorist and frequently called upon to participate in international workshops. Only a few weeks before his death he submitted, together with five co-authors from three ITER-parties, an extensive and in-depth review article on turbulent transport in toroidal devices to Nuclear Fusion. This manuscript promises to become a salute to the scientific excellence of a great physicist. Dr Robinson and Professor Wakatani have made major contributions to the archive literature and set high standards of excellence. The Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors will strive to assure that the journal will continue to meet and maintain these standards as fusion energy research moves ahead. We, the staff and Editorial Board members of Nuclear Fusion, will miss their help in pursuing this task. F W Perkins, Chairman of the Board of Editors F C Schüller, Editor, also on behalf of the Editors Emeriti and the Editorial Office staff members

2003-02-01

397

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial improvements in HIV/AIDS research that could enhance population health. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends in Nigeria's SCI publications in HIV/AIDS from 1980 to 2006. Special attention was paid to internationally collaborated works that were identified based on the countries of the authors' affiliation. Methods A bibliometric analysis regarding Nigerian HIV/AIDS research was conducted in the ISI databases for the period of 1980 to 2006. An attempt was made to identify the patterns of the growth in HIV/AIDS literature, as well as type of document published, authorship, institutional affiliations of authors, and subject content. International collaboration was deemed to exist in an article if any co-author's affiliation was located outside Nigeria. The impact factors in the 2006 Journal Citations Reports Science Edition was arbitrarily adopted to estimate the quality of articles. Results Nigeria's ISI publications in HIV/AIDS increased from one articles in 1987 to 33 in 2006, and the articles with international collaboration increased from one articles in 1980 to 16 in 2006. Articles with international collaboration appeared in journals with higher impact factors and received more citations. A high pattern of co-authorship was found. Over 85% of the articles were published in collaboration among two or more authors. The USA, as the most important collaborating partner of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS researchers, contributed 30.8% of articles with international collaboration. Conclusion Nigeria has achieved a significant increase in the number of SCI publications and collaborations in HIV literature from 1987 to 2005. There is need to challenge the status, scientists from Nigeria should forge multiple collaborations beyond historical, political, and cultural lines to share knowledge and expertise on HIV/AIDS. PMID:18302752

Uthman, Olalekan A

2008-01-01

398

Using Mars and the Mer Mission to Teach Science: A Curriculum Designed for Teachers and Their Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning opportunities can be exceptionally successful when linked to national, newsworthy events. Planetary missions are particularly exciting in engaging teachers, and their students, because they combine the human "stories" of scientists and engineers with cutting-edge technology and new science. Planetary suface missions, such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, return beautiful and human-scale images that can virtually transport the viewer to another world. The MER mission allows children and adults to participate in the exploration of one of our nearest neighbors in space. New discoveries in the natural history of Mars have been used as the basis of a new integrated curriculum created by Museum and class-room educators designed to serve informal (family learning) and formal (classroom) audiences. The curriculum uses Mars and the MER mission as a "hook" to teach a wide range of topics that relate to all of the sciences, mathematics, social studies (history and exploration), science and society, career readiness, language and literacy, and visual arts. The curriculum, entitled "Making Tracks on Mars: Teacher Resource and Activity Guide," includes the following key features that have contributed to its success and usefulness: (1) basic information about Mars, Mars missions, and the MER mission providing teachers with the knowledge they may lack; (2) activities that follow a standardized format and include necessary information, pre-lesson preparation and post-lesson closure and extensions, and all information and/or images needed; (3) activities that cross the curriculum and can be used to address many different standards; (4) relevant state and national standards listed for each activity; (5) annotated MER image file and PowerPoint presentation for easy classroom use; (6) lists of additional Mars-related resources; (7) emphasis on local connections to the mission to enable teachers and students to feel personally connected; (8) elementary through high school classroom teachers as co-authors and co-developers of the curriculum; (9) evaluation and assessement by "pilot program" teachers; and (10) collaboration and partnership with other local and regional science education providers, such as SCORE, which provided partial funding and dissemination support, and NM MESA, a statewide organization of teachers.

Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

2006-12-01

399

Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a-?? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ??? clinoenstatite and w u ??rtzite ??? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO ?? nAl2O3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to field structural geologists to test whether interactions of these types occur in nature, and to theoreticians to reach a deeper understanding of the complex relations between phase transformations, the local state of stress and associated deformation and deformation rates. ?? 1993.

Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

1993-01-01

400

University of New Mexico-Los Alamos National Laboratory Program in Volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNM-LANL Program in Volcanology was a vision of Wolf Elston in the late 1980s. Finally established in mid-1992, the program takes advantage of the extensive volcanic record preserved in northern New Mexico, and of the unique expertise and exceptional research facilities existing at the two institutions. Courses are directed toward upper division and graduate level students. The Los Alamos participants are adjunct professors and they take an active role in creating courses, advising thesis candidates, and providing research support. The curriculum is flexible but has a core upper division class in Physical Volcanology. Other classes offered in various years have included Volcanology and Human Affairs; Magmatic and Geothermal Systems; Tectonics and Magma Generation; Volcanoes of North America; Instrumentation for Volcanology; and Advanced Igneous Petrology. Perhaps the most renowned class in the program is the Volcanology Summer Field Course offered in even numbered years. This 3.5-week class is based in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, which contains the famous Valles caldera (1.2 Ma to 50 ka). All types of calc-alkaline to alkalic domes, flows, tuffs, and intrusions, plus derivative sediments, mineralized zones, and thermal fluids are available for instructional purposes. Students are required to complete nine rigorous field exercises starting with basic instruction in pyroclastic fall, flow, and surge, then progressing towards hydrothermally altered, intracaldera resurgent dome and moat deposits in an active hot spring and fumarole system. The class is open to graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and private sector employees with special needs. Enrollment is competitive with limited financial support and limited space for 17 students. Evening lectures, study time, lodging, and meals are provided at the UNM-owned Young's Ranch built in the 1920s, nestled in a canyon flanked by orange cliffs of Bandelier Tuff. About 120 students from 12 countries have taken this class. Former students have pursued advanced degrees in the Geosciences and taken jobs with academia, research laboratories, volcanology observatories and/or the private sector. Although a degree in Volcanology is not granted, the program has supported and/or contributed to the degrees and theses of many UNM and non-UNM students. In some circumstances, thesis research can be conducted at Los Alamos while enrolled at UNM. For more information contact any of the co-authors listed above.

Goff, F.; Fischer, T.; Baldridge, W.; Wohletz, K.; Smith, G.; Heiken, G.; Valentine, G.; Elston, W.

2002-05-01

401

Synthesizing new [(SnSe)1.15]m(TSe2)n, [(SnSe)1.16]m(VSe2)n[(SnSe)1.16]p(TaSe2)q, and (SnSe)1.16(V.51Ta.49Se2) intergrowth compounds (T = V and Ta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the modulated elemental reactants synthetic technique was developed and used to synthesize several new layered compounds. Several TSe2, [(SnSe)1+y] m(TSe2)n, [(SnSe) 1+y] m(TSe2) n[(SnSe)1+y]p(T'Se 2)q, and (SnSe)1+y(V 1-xTaxSe2) layered compounds were synthesized by the new modulated elemental reactant (MER) technique with T = V, Ta, and Ti. The MER approach is a low-temperature synthesis that allows the kinetic trapping of metastable compounds, allowing a designed synthesis with control over the value of m, n, p, and q. These layered compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies. Each integer increase of m, n, p, and q resulted in a linear increase in thickness, representing the single structural units of SnSe (a Sn/Se atomic bilayer) and TSe2 (an X-T-X trilayer sandwich). All of the compounds contained preferentially oriented layering, with the layer's (00l ) plane parallel to the substrate surface. From Bragg-Brentano and in-plane X-ray diffraction studies, the layers are found to be regularly spaced along c with abrupt interfaces and contain crystallinity in their ab-plane. Many of these layered compounds were found to exhibit turbostratic disorder, a random rotational disorder that is usually present in materials made by the MER technique. The presence of turbostratic disorder was found to be dependent on the polytypes that exist in the bulk form of the TSe2 constituent. The electrical properties of the layered compounds were studied by means of temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall measurements. Interesting electrical properties were found as a result of the turbostratic disorder, including a charge density wave transition found in the [(SnSe)1.15]m(VSe2) ferecrystal. The onset temperature of the CDW transition was found to be a sensitive function of the layering sequence, increasing with higher m values. The CDW transition was attributed to the VSe2 constituent and was found in all the composite crystals that contained VSe2. It was found that the [(SnSe)1+y]m(VSe 2)n and [(SnSe)1+y] m(TaSe2)n intergrowths could be combined into an ABCB layered [(SnSe)1+y] m(VSe2)n[(SnSe) 1+y]p(TaSe2) q intergrowth, with chemical separation of the VSe2 and TaSe2 constituents. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Atkins, Ryan Elliot

402

Topics in supersymmetry breaking and gauge/gravity dualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This design-based study was the first empirical investigation of a new model of learning and instruction called Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI). In KCI, students are engaged as a learning community as they work on scaffolded inquiry activities that target specific science learning objectives. Although community-oriented approaches have been successful at the elementary level, there has been relatively little uptake of such methods at the secondary school level -- particularly in science. The pedagogical framework of KCI addresses the challenges of community models by blending established inquiry based approaches with community-oriented pedagogy. This dissertation tested the validity of KCI by designing, implementing, and empirically evaluating a curriculum based on the KCI model. This was achieved through curriculum trials involving two separate cohorts of grade-ten biology students (n = 102; n = 112). The first implementation consisted of a two-week physiology lesson that engaged students in co-authoring wiki artifacts about human system diseases, which students then used as a resource for solving medical case studies. The second implementation, an eight-week lesson on Canada's biodiversity, was a deeper application of the model, and focused on students' collaborative processes during the construction of their wiki-based knowledge repository. In both cases, the curriculum was evaluated according to its design, enactment, and learning outputs, as evidenced by students' knowledge artifacts and performance on the final exam. Technology scaffolds ensured that students focused on the physiology and biodiversity science curriculum expectations. Analyses of the data revealed that KCI engaged students in collaborative learning processes that were characteristic of a knowledge community. Additionally, final exam scores demonstrated increased learning performance when compared to those from previous years where students did not participate in KCI. The findings from this research provide the first empirical support for KCI, and demonstrate its potential for engaging secondary science students in the kinds of collaborative inquiry processes of authentic knowledge communities. This dissertation provides insight into the conditions necessary for such engagement, and contributes design recommendations for blending knowledge community and inquiry in secondary school science curriculum.

Peters, Vanessa Lynn

403

Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others -env.see-grid-sci.eu, meteo.see-grid-sci.eu and seismo.see-grid-sci.eu- are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to be accessed from EGI resources to enable future research activities by this HUC. The international climate community for IPCC has created the Earth System Grid (ESG) to store and share climate data. There is a need to interface ESG with EGI for climate studies - parametric, regional and impact aspects. Critical points concern the interoperability of security mechanism between both "organisations", data protection policy, data transfer, data storage and data caching. Presenter: Horst Schwichtenberg Co-Authors: Monique Petitdidier (IPSL), Andre Gemünd (SCAI), Wim Som de Cerff (KNMI), Michael Schnell (SCAI)

Schwichtenberg, H.

2012-04-01

404

Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex rheological medium to the application of a far-field stress imposed by plate motions. The forward models were used both to gain insight into the range of strain transients to be expected under different assumed mechanical conditions and to develop representations for strain fields that allow GPS, borehole, and other strain data to be combined in a self-consistent, yet well-determined, manner. The models also provided a basis for hypothesis testing, by which data from a strain transient well characterized by GPS and borehole observations were utilized to distinguish among competing candidates for the causative physical mechanism and the governing physical characteristics. During the three years of this project, continued to a fourth year through a no-cost extension of the grant, we published 14 papers and presented or co-authored 37 papers at national scientific meetings.

Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

405

Direct synthesis of thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles using Bunte salts as ligand precursors: investigations of ligand shell formation and core growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of ligand-protected nanoparticles have increased markedly in recent years, yet their controlled synthesis remains an under-developed field. Nanoparticle syntheses are highly specialized in their execution and often possess significant limitations. For example, the synthesis of thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with core diameters greater than 5.0 nm is difficult to achieve using existing methods. This dissertation describes the development of a synthetic strategy for thiolate-stabilized AuNPs over a wide range of core sizes using alkyl thiosulfates (Bunte salts) as ligand precursors. The use of Bunte salts permits the synthesis of larger AuNPs than can be achieved using thiols by allowing the AuNP cores to grow to larger diameters before the formation of the thiolate ligand shell. Chapter II details the development of a direct synthesis strategy using Bunte salts as ligand precursors that produces AuNPs with diameters up to 20 nm. Chapter III describes an investigation of the ligand shell formation that occurs during these syntheses. The ligand shell formation involves the adsorption of the Bunte salt to the AuNP surface, where it is converted to the thiolate. This conversion requires an excess of sodium borohydride in the synthesis of >5 nm AuNPs, but not for the synthesis of smaller AuNPs. This synthetic strategy was adapted for use in flow reactors to attain simultaneous AuNP synthesis and characterization. Chapter IV demonstrates that thiol-stabilized AuNPs can be synthesized in a microfluidic device with product monitoring provided by UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy. The development of a capillary flow reactor that permits the incorporation of new monitoring techniques is presented in Chapter V. The incorporation of Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) analysis provides quantitative in situ determinations of AuNP diameter. The combination of synthetic control and monitoring makes capillary flow reactors powerful tools for optimization of NP syntheses and monitoring NP growth. In Chapter VI, the capillary flow reactor is used in an investigation of AuNP core growth. We also review AuNP growth mechanisms and show how to differentiate these using SAXS and UV-vis analysis. In these studies, AuNP growth is unexpectedly shown to involve a coalescence mechanism. This dissertation includes previously published and co-authored material.

Lohse, Samuel E.

406

Final Report for Phase I Northern California CO2 Reduction Project  

SciTech Connect

On June 8, 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory released a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA 0000015) with the title, Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO{sub 2} Use. C6 Resources (C6), an affiliate of Shell Oil Company, responded with a proposal for Technology Area 1: Large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects from industrial sources. As DOE Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) Contractors, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL) proposed to collaborate with C6 and perform technical tasks, which C6 included in the C6 proposal, titled the Northern California CO{sub 2} Reduction Project. The proposal was accepted for Phase I funding and C6 received DOE Award DEFE0002042. LLNL and LBNL each received Phase I funding of $200,000, directly from DOE. The essential task of Phase I was to prepare a proposal for Phase II, which would be a five-year, detailed technical proposal, budget, and schedule for a complete carbon capture, transportation, and geologic storage project, with the objective of starting the injection of 1 million tons per year of industrial CO2 by the end of FY2015. LLNL and LBNL developed technical proposals (and DOE Field Work Proposals [FWPs]) for many aspects of the geologic testing and CO{sub 2} monitoring that were included in the C6 Phase II proposal, which C6 submitted by the deadline of April 16, 2010. This document is the Final Report for LLNL's Phase I efforts and is presented in two parts. Part 1 is the complete text of the technical proposal provided to C6 by LLNL and LBNL for inclusion in the C6 Phase II proposal. Because of space limitations, however, C6 may not have included all of this information in their proposal. In addition to developing the proposal presented below, LLNL's Bill Foxall and Laura Chiarmonte, in collaboration with LBNL, undertook preliminary technical work evaluating the potential for induced seismicity in Solano County. Part 2 presents technical work preformed during Phase I in the development of a preliminary Certification Framework: Leakage Risk Assessment for CO{sub 2} Injection at the Montezuma Hills Site, Solano County, California, co-authored by LLNL and LBNL collaborators.

Wagoner, J

2010-10-26

407

Which articles and which topics in the forensic sciences are most highly cited?  

PubMed

Forensic science is a multidisciplinary field, which covers many branches of the pure, the applied and the biomedical sciences. Writing-up and publishing research findings helps to enhance the reputation of the investigators and the laboratories where the work was done. The number of times an article is cited in the reference lists of other articles is generally accepted as a mark of distinction. Indeed, citation analysis has become widely used in research assessment of individual scientists, university departments and entire nations. This article concerns the most highly cited papers published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences (JFS) between 1956 and 2005. These were identified with the help of Web-of-Science, which is the on-line version of Science Citation Index, produced by Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (Thomson ISI) with head offices in Philadelphia, USA. This database tracks, among other things, the annual citation records of articles published in several thousand scientific journals worldwide. Those JFS articles accumulating 50 or more citations were identified and rank-ordered according to the total number of citations. These articles were also evaluated according to the name of first author, the subject category of the article, the country of origin and the pattern of co-authorship. This search strategy located 46 articles cited between 50 and 292 times since they first appeared in print. The most highly cited paper by far was by Kasai, Nakamura and White (USA and Japan) concerning DNA profiling and the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in forensic science. Some forensic scientists appeared as first author on two to three highly cited articles, namely Wetli (USA), Budowle (USA) and Comey (USA). When the highly cited articles were sub-divided into subject category, 15 were identified as coming from toxicology, closely followed by criminalistics (14 articles), pathology (nine articles), physical anthropology (five articles), forensic psychiatry (two articles) and one from odontology. The number of co-authors on these highly cited articles ranged from one to nine and the names of some investigators appeared on as many as four highly cited papers. The vast majority of papers originated from US laboratories although five came from Japan, two each from Sweden and Canada and there was also a joint USA-Swiss collaboration. The Thompson ISI citation databases provide unique tools for tracking citations to individual articles and impact and citation records of scholarly journals. PMID:16686268

Jones, A W

2005-01-01

408

The Ultraviolet Albedo of Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large set of ultraviolet images of Ganymede have been acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope over the last 15 years. These images have been used almost exclusively to study Ganymede’s stunning auroral emissions (Feldman et al. 2000; Eviatar et al. 2001; McGrath et al. 2004; Saur et al. 2011; McGrath et al. 2013), and even the most basic information about Ganymede’s UV albedo has yet to be gleaned from these data. We will present a first-cut analysis of both disk-averaged and spatially-resolved UV albedos of Ganymede, with focus on the spatially-resolved Lyman-alpha albedo, which has never been considered previously for this satellite. Ganymede's visibly bright regions are known to be rich in water ice, while the visibly dark regions seem to be more carbonaceous (Carlson et al., 1996). At Lyman-alpha, these two species should also have very different albedo values. References Carlson, R. and 39 co-authors, Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: Results from Galileo’s initial orbit, Science, 274, 385-388, 1996. Eviatar, A., D. F. Strobel, B. C. Wolven, P. D. Feldman, M. A. McGrath, and D. J. Williams, Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J, 555, 1013-1019, 2001. Feldman, P. D., M. A. McGrath, D. F. Strobel, H. W. Moos, K. D. Retherford, and B. C. Wolven, HST/STIS imaging of ultraviolet aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J, 535, 1085-1090, 2000. McGrath M. A., Lellouch E., Strobel D. F., Feldman P. D., Johnson R. E., Satellite Atmospheres, Chapter 19 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon, Cambridge University Press, 2004. McGrath M. A., Jia, Xianzhe; Retherford, Kurt; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim, Aurora on Ganymede, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgra.50122, 2013. Saur, J., S. Duling, S., L. Roth, P. D. Feldman, D. F. Strobel, K. D. Retherford, M. A. McGrath, A. Wennmacher, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2011, abstract #SM23D-08, 2011.

McGrath, Melissa; Hendrix, A.

2013-10-01

409

Four Big-Telescope Planetary Astronomers of the 1920's at Mount Wilson, Yerkes, and Lick Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to current mythology, many professional astronomers tried to do planetary research before World War II, as Ronald Doel and I have previously emphasized. Their difficulty was that once the known planets had been studied with the biggest and best telescopes, spectrographs, and radiometers there was little more they could do until some new instrumental development came along, and these were rare in those years. Two astronomers who observed planets in the 1920's were Frank Ross, of the Yerkes Observatory faculty, with the Mount Wilson 60- and 100-inch telescopes, and William H. Wright, at Lick, with its 36-inch Crossley reflector, which he considered a big telescope. Both were keenly interested in photographic emulsions (Ross had been a research physicist at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory), and when fast new panchromatic films and plates became available in the 1920's they quickly applied them to photographing the planets. Robert J. Trumpler, also at Lick, used its 36-inch refractor in a combination of photographic (in the yellow and red spectral regions) and visual observing to map and describe Martian surface features. All three of them began planetary observing at the close opposition of Mars in 1924; they were all mainline scientists who ultimately were elected to the National Academy of Sciences. All three of them were doing descriptive work, seeing what was there, and none of them had any theoretical ideas to check or disprove. Francis G. Pease, more of a telescope designer and engineer at Mount Wilson, also used its 60- and 100-inch reflectors, chiefly to take photographs of the planets for illustrations in books and magazines. They all used fine-grain photographic plates, but seeing was a problem they could not overcome. Examples of their planetary photographs, papers, and letters will be posted. Ross and Trumpler dropped out of planetary astronomy after 1928, but Wright and Pease continued in it for many years. An interesting sidelight is that Gerard P. Kuiper, as a young postdoc at Lick, co-authored his first planetary paper in English with Wright (on Mars).

Osterbrock, D. E.

2002-12-01

410

Electromagnetic information theory and subspace-based signal processing applications in imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the dissertation investigates the information-theoretic characterization, via Shannon's information capacity, of wave radiation and wireless propagation systems. Specifically, this part of the dissertation derives, from the fundamental physical point of view of Maxwell's equations describing electromagnetic fields, the Shannon information capacity of space-time wireless channels formed by electromagnetic sources and receivers in a known background medium. The theory is developed first for the case of sources working at a fixed frequency and is expanded later to the more general case of temporally bandlimited systems. In the bandlimited case we consider separately the two cases of time-limited and essentially bandlimited systems and of purely bandlimited systems. The developments take into account the physical radiated power constraint in addition to a constraint in the source L2 norm. Based on such radiated power and current L2 norm constraints we derive the Shannon information capacity of canonical wireless and antenna systems in free space, for a given additive Gaussian noise level, as well as an associated number of degrees of freedom resulting from such capacity calculations. The derived results also illustrate, from a new information-theoretic point of view, the transition from near to far fields. The second part of the dissertation describes a novel technique for the shape reconstruction of extended scatterers from the measurement of the scattering or response matrix based on prior work co-authored by the present author. These previous results are shown to be related to the concepts of angles and distances between subspaces and are used to propose new imaging and shape reconstruction approaches of the support of a unknown extended scatterer assuming the exact scattering theory. Initially we present a modification of the conventional MUSIC imaging approach that avoids the need to determine the numerical rank of the scattering matrix. Then we consider a different problem where given a grid we try to determine whether each of the points of the grid is inside the support of the scatterer or not. In this last application we consider two approaches: one based on the modified MUSIC imaging and the other based on the level set method.

Gruber, Fred K.

411

Low frequency electromagnetic signals in the atmosphere caused by geodynamics and solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the composed structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) forcing on the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in a lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors’ detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain effect of location of the future seismic epicenter area (obtained by Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. from Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci. and co-authors) as the result of the magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. We believe that the biosphere effects of forcing on the atmosphere may not be ignored. We formulate the result of our measurements with the system of micro-voltmeters: low-frequency EM disturbances of the atmosphere caused by solar activity (namely, geomagnetic storms with the geomagnetic index values K = 5 and K = 6), are decreasing temporarily the coherence of oscillations of the electric potentials of different points on the surface of a head, i.e. the coherence of the human brain EM processes. We are grateful to Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. and participants of the scientific seminars and conferences in IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute, Russian Acad. Sci., for discussions and researchers of the IZMIRAN observatory for data about the K index dynamics.

Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

412

The National Adult Inpatient Survey conducted in the English National Health Service from 2002 to 2009: how have the data been used and what do we know as a result?  

PubMed Central

Background When it was initiated in 2001, England's national patient survey programme was one of the first in the world and has now been widely emulated in other healthcare systems. The aim of the survey programme was to make the National Health Service (NHS) more "patient centred" and more responsive to patient feedback. The national inpatient survey has now been running in England annually since 2002 gathering data from over 600,000 patients. The aim of this study is to investigate how the data have been used and to summarise what has been learned about patients' evaluation of care as a result. Methods Two independent researchers systematically gathered all research that included analyses of the English national adult inpatient survey data. Journals, databases and relevant websites were searched. Publications prior to 2002 were excluded. Articles were also identified following consultation with experts. All documents were then critically appraised by two co-authors both of whom have a background in statistical analysis. Results We found that the majority of the studies identified were reports produced by organisations contracted to gather the data or co-ordinate the data collection and used mainly descriptive statistics. A few articles used the survey data for evidence based reporting or linked the survey to other healthcare data. The patient's socio-demographic characteristics appeared to influence their evaluation of their care but characteristics of the workforce and the. At a national level, the results of the survey have been remarkably stable over time. Only in those areas where there have been co-ordinated government-led campaigns, targets and incentives, have improvements been shown. The main findings of the review are that while the survey data have been used for different purposes they seem to have incited little academic interest. Conclusions The national inpatient survey has been a useful resource for many authors and organisations but the full potential inherent in this large, longitudinal publicly available dataset about patients' experiences has not as yet been fully exploited. This review suggests that the presence of survey results alone is not enough to improve patients' experiences and further research is required to understand whether and how the survey can be best used to improve standards of care in the NHS. PMID:22436670

2012-01-01

413

Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications  

SciTech Connect

Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800?C) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is also affiliated with the University of Tennessee as an adjunct professor. He is a co-author of more than 200 publications. His research interests include porous materials and their functionalization, new ionic liquids for chemical separation and materials synthesis, sol-gel synthesis and molecular imprinting of inorganic materials, and catalysis by nanomaterials especially gold nanocatalysts.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

414

Study of Multi-Scale Cloud Processes Over the Tropical Western Pacific Using Cloud-Resolving Models Constrained by Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect

Clouds in the tropical western Pacific are an integral part of the large scale environment. An improved understanding of the multi-scale structure of clouds and their interactions with the environment is critical to the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations, understanding the consequences of model biases, and providing a context for interpreting the observational data collected over the ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Three-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs) are powerful tools for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations. However, a significant challenge in using CRMs in the TWP is that the region lacks conventional data, so large uncertainty exists in defining the large-scale environment for clouds. This project links several aspects of the ARM program, from measurements to providing improved analyses, and from cloud-resolving modeling to climate-scale modeling and parameterization development, with the overall objective to improve the representations of clouds in climate models and to simulate and quantify resolved cloud effects on the large-scale environment. Our objectives will be achieved through a series of tasks focusing on the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ARM data. Our approach includes: -- Perform assimilation of COSMIC GPS radio occultation and other satellites products using the WRF Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation system to represent the tropical large-scale environment at 36 km grid resolution. This high-resolution analysis can be used by the community to derive forcing products for single-column models or cloud-resolving models. -- Perform cloud-resolving simulations using WRF and its nesting capabilities, driven by the improved regional analysis and evaluate the simulations against ARM datasets such as from TWP-ICE to optimize the microphysics parameters for this region. A cirrus study (Mace and co-authors) already exists for TWP-ICE using satellite and ground-based observations. -- Perform numerical experiments using WRF to investigate how convection over tropical islands in the Maritime Continent interacts with large-scale circulation and affects convection in nearby regions. -- Evaluate and apply WRF as a testbed for GCM cloud parameterizations, utilizing the ability of WRF to run on multiple scales (from cloud resolving to global) to isolate resolution and physics issues from dynamical and model framework issues. Key products will be disseminated to the ARM and larger community through distribution of data archives, including model outputs from the data assimilation products and cloud resolving simulations, and publications.

Dudhia, Jimy

2013-03-12

415

A Science-Driven Photojournalistic Documentation of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. The intended outcomes of the work - the photographs, reportage and publications - are based on the principles of scientific accuracy, a journalistic approach, strong photographic skills, long-term observations, science literacy, education, documentation for policy makers and inspiration to others. During the course of this project the team of photojournalist and public health toxicologist visited, interviewed and/or had correspondence with more than 150 scientists in the field on every continent. Hundreds more have influenced and informed the work. World View of Global Warming has tested the idea that climate change can be more easily understood by the public and government officials through photographs which accurately and engagingly depict the locations and the scientists involved in research, communities responding to impacts of climate change and innovations for mitigation. Use of the photographs by scientists to further their own work and outreach was an immediate and continuing result, including use in journals, reports, textbooks and conferences. This presentation will demonstrate the many uses of photography in climate change communications and discuss how scientists and educators can more effectively interact with the public and media and artists. The website for this project was established in 2002 and now has more than 100 pages of photographs and information. It is strictly non-commercial and documented. Wide and repeated publication indicates the value of the project's climate communication: Exhibition at the Boston Museum of Science (2013), the National Academy of Sciences and the American Assn. for the Advancement of Science and other venues; extended use by the United Nations, UNFCCC, World Meteorological Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President; two original books (one for middle schools with a co-author); publication in hundreds of magazines, textbooks and public interest websites; use during university, government and civic seminars and scientific meetings; and distribution among and use by Congressional offices. Most recently the project inspired films about youth involvement in citizen science and climate change education; and co-developed Apps for the iPad and iPhone which graphically show climate-driven changes in repeat photographs and maps. Financial support for this work has come principally from publication fees and grants from small foundations and individuals (via Blue Earth Alliance of Seattle).

Braasch, G.; Rothlein, J. E.

2013-12-01

416

A systematic review of cluster randomised trials in residential facilities for older people suggests how to improve quality  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reviews of cluster randomised trials have been critical of the quality of the trials reviewed, but none has explored determinants of the quality of these trials in a specific field over an extended period of time. Recent work suggests that correct conduct and reporting of these trials may require more than published guidelines. In this review, our aim was to assess the quality of cluster randomised trials conducted in residential facilities for older people, and to determine whether (1) statistician involvement in the trial and (2) strength of journal endorsement of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement influence quality. Methods We systematically identified trials randomising residential facilities for older people, or parts thereof, without language restrictions, up to the end of 2010, using National Library of Medicine (Medline) via PubMed and hand-searching. We based quality assessment criteria largely on the extended CONSORT statement for cluster randomised trials. We assessed statistician involvement based on statistician co-authorship, and strength of journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement from journal websites. Results 73 trials met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 (27%) reported accounting for clustering in sample size calculations and 54 (74%) in the analyses. In 29 trials (40%), methods used to identify/recruit participants were judged by us to have potentially caused bias or reporting was unclear to reach a conclusion. Some elements of quality improved over time but this appeared not to be related to the publication of the extended CONSORT statement for these trials. Trials with statistician/epidemiologist co-authors were more likely to account for clustering in sample size calculations (unadjusted odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 26.0) and analyses (unadjusted OR 3.2, 1.2 to 8.5). Journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement was not associated with trial quality. Conclusions Despite international attempts to improve methods in cluster randomised trials, important quality limitations remain amongst these trials in residential facilities. Statistician involvement on trial teams may be more effective in promoting quality than further journal endorsement of the CONSORT statement. Funding bodies and journals should promote statistician involvement and co-authorship in addition to adherence to CONSORT guidelines. PMID:24148859

2013-01-01

417

Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

Malony, Allen D.

2007-05-08

418

A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

Bourqui, Michel

2014-05-01

419

Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM  

PubMed Central

A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, “Mongolism” was changed to Down’s syndrome; “Australia” antigen to HBsAg; “Mexican” Swine flu to H1N1; “GRID” (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-?-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. “Geographical” and “racial” names giving must be replaced by “scientific” names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all authors, especially the lead author, to the final draft of a paper and include this in their guidelines for paper submissions. PMID:21694981

Singh, Ajai R.

2011-01-01

420

SIOExplorer: Overview, Initial Results and Next Steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data, documents and images from 795 expeditions by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) since 1903 are becoming web-accessible for both education and research through the new SIOExplorer project (http://SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu), which is a collection in the overall NSF-funded National Science Digital Library (www.nsdl.org). The collaborative effort includes researchers at SIO, computer scientists from the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), and archivists and librarians from the UCSD Library. The co-authors of this paper tested a shipboard prototype during a Floating Digital Library Workshop from New Zealand to Samoa on R/V Melville in March, 2002. General purpose tools have been developed to automate collection development, manage metadata, and geographically search the library, as discussed in other presentations in this session. In the initial year of operation, the biggest challenge has been wrestling with the volume and variability of data and documents. Shipboard sensors, data volumes, and organizational structures have evolved greatly over the decades, particularly with 244 multibeam expeditions since 1982. Considerable success came after introducing the concept of a Canonical Cruise Data Structure (CCDS) with nine basic categories that seem to capture the essential characteristics of data practices since the 1960's. Automatic software pulls data into the CCDS from diverse source directories and media, guided by a template with rules for priority and filenames. Almost all metadata are harvested automatically into simple "metadata interchange format" (.mif) files, one for each "arbitrary digital object" (ADO) in the CCDS. The metadata are placed in an Oracle database, and the associated data are managed by the SDSC Storage Resource Broker on various disk and automatic tape silo systems. The system is extensible to various domains and data types, including geochemistry, image archives, multibeam bathymetry, reports and publications. A Java Metadata Object Browser and Editor (MOBE) expands or hides the complexity for each domain, as needed. A prototype interactive CruiseViewer with both Java and html approaches will be demonstrated. As the second year of the project begins, greater emphasis will be placed on search and display tools. At-risk data on shipboard magnetic tapes will be migrated to RAID systems and tape silos. Public outreach will begin at the Birch Aquarium and other locations. A workshop will be held at Scripps in September 2003, coinciding with the hosting of the Oceans 2003 meeting and the 100th Anniversary of SIO. These efforts are supported by the NSF NSDL and ITR programs and by SIO institutional funds.

Miller, S. P.; Helly, J. J.; Africa, M.; Peckman, U.; Day, D.; Clark, D.

2002-12-01

421

Will Titan lose its veil?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil. If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

Dimitrov, V.

2007-08-01

422

TG13: Updated Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) were first published in the Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. The fundamental policy of TG07 was to achieve the objectives of TG07 through the development of consensus among specialists in this field throughout the world. Considering such a situation, validation and feedback from the clinicians' viewpoints were indispensable. What had been pointed out from clinical practice was the low diagnostic sensitivity of TG07 for acute cholangitis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. In June 2010, we set up the Tokyo Guidelines Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) and started the validation of TG07. We also set up new diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria by retrospectively analyzing cases of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, including cases of non-inflammatory biliary disease, collected from multiple institutions. TGRC held meetings a total of 35 times as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad. On June 9 and September 6, 2011, and on April 11, 2012, we held three International Meetings for the Clinical Assessment and Revision of Tokyo Guidelines. Through these meetings, the final draft of the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) was prepared on the basis of the evidence from retrospective multi-center analyses. To be specific, discussion took place involving the revised new diagnostic criteria, and the new severity assessment criteria, new flowcharts of the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, recommended medical care for which new evidence had been added, new recommendations for gallbladder drainage and antimicrobial therapy, and the role of surgical intervention. Management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were introduced for effective dissemination with the level of evidence and the grade of recommendations. GRADE systems were utilized to provide the level of evidence and the grade of recommendations. TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates adapted for clinical practice. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The bundles for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis are presented in a separate section in TG13. Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html. PMID:23307006

Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Solomkin, Joseph S; Pitt, Henry A; Gomi, Harumi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Miura, Fumihiko; Gouma, Dirk J; Garden, O James; Büchler, Markus W; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Itoi, Takao; Gabata, Toshifumi; Higuchi, Ryota; Okamoto, Kohji; Hata, Jiro; Murata, Atsuhiko; Kusachi, Shinya; Windsor, John A; Supe, Avinash N; Lee, SungGyu; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yamashita, Yuichi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu

2013-01-01

423

Complexity in scalable computing.  

SciTech Connect

The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra-node multithreading, non-blocking inter-node message passing, and a dedicated communications thread to facilitate concurrent communications and computations. On a quantum chemistry problem, they spawn multiple computation threads and communication threads on each node and use one-sided communications between nodes to minimize wait times. They reduce software complexity by evolving a multi-threaded factory pattern in C++ from a working, message-passing program in C.

Rouson, Damian W. I.

2008-12-01

424

Use of Generics--A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuoliene, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Ines; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

2010-01-01

425

SMART-1 New Results from 2009-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present highlights and new SMART-1 results published or obtained in 2009-2010 that are relevant for lunar science and future exploration, in relation with subsequent missions and future landers. SMART-1 is the first of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology [1,2,3]. Its prime objective has been achieved to demonstrate Solar Electric missions (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The SMART-1 spacecraft was launched in 2003, as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger, and reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. New SMART-1 lunar science and exploration results since 2009 include: - Multiangular photometry of Mare regions allowing to model scattering in planetary regoliths - The study of specific regions at different phase angles allowed to detect variations in regolith roughness - Lunar North and South polar maps and repeated high resolution images have been obtained, giving a monitoring of illumination to study potential sites relevant for future exploration. This permitted to identify SMART-1 peaks of quasi-eternal light and to derive their topography. - The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E 1, the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the LCROSS impact, and to prepare subsequent landers and future human activities and lunar bases. References: [1] Foing, B. et al (2001) Earth Moon Planets, 85, 523 . [2] Racca, G.D. et al. (2002) Earth Moon Planets, 85, 379. [3] Racca, G.D. et al. (2002) PSS, 50, 1323. [4] Grande, M. et al. (2003) PSS, 51, 427. [5] Dunkin, S. et al. (2003) PSS, 51, 435. [6] Huovelin, J. et al. (2002) PSS, 50, 1345. [7] Shkuratov, Y. et al (2003) JGRE 108, E4, 1. [8] Foing, B.H. et al (2003) Adv. Space Res., 31, 2323. [9] Grande, M. et al (2007) PSS 55, 494. [10] Pinet, P. et al (2005) PSS, 53, 1309. [11] Josset J.L. et al (2006) Adv Space Res, 37, 14. [12] Foing B.H. et al (2006) Adv Space Res, 37, 6. Co-authors: B.H. Foing, B. Grieger, D. Koschny, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, V. Kaydash, Y. Shkuratov, K. Muinonen, U. Mall, A. Nathues, B. Kellett, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, P. Cerroni, M.C. de Sanctis, M.A. Barucci, S. Erard, D. Despan, V. Shevchenko, S. Peters, A. Borst, F. Bexkens, M. Almeida, D. Frew, J.Volp, D. Heather, SMART1 Science Technology Working Team, ESTEC/SRE-S, postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, NL, Europe

Foing, Bernard

2010-05-01

426

Water: Where, What, Why, How?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in groups of 2-3 are charged with making posters that explain the role of water in key processes within selected Earth environments. Each group will be given a poster board. Student groups will chose from a list of possible environments: 1) upper mantle; 2) role of water in the asthenosphere; 3) hydrothermal systems at spreading centers; 4) water in subducting slabs to ~100 km; 5) arc magma generation; 6) water in subducting deep slabs; 7) water in the lower mantle (reactions with metallic iron to form hydrous phases); 8) water in the mantle transition zone; 9) continental basins; 10) upper crust/ground water; 11) mid-continental crust; 12) water in fault zones; 13) interaction of climate and tectonics; 14) origin of Earth's water. [By the end of the semester I should know student well enough that I can help guide students toward topics of appropriate interest/difficulty as necessary]. Posters will include: a) a concise statement of: the environment, and the key process(es) in which water plays a role (I prefer that the students stick to one major process if possible); b) concept maps/logic diagrams as a means to organize the key questions, processes, information, 'knowns', and unknowns; c) figures/illustrations to elucidate key concepts; d) concise text to guide the reader through the poster; e) unanswered questions/concerns; f) one or two key references; g) a complete list of references. Posters will be displayed on a public location in on campus. (We have a wonderful extra-wide hallway/alcove the Department of Geological Sciences that serves this purpose). Each student will view each of the class posters and submit a written evaluation of each poster. Evaluation will follow specific items including content, clarity, value of visuals, and creativity. To focus students' evaluation we will have an evaluation form that is consistent throughout the semester, used for all poster project activities. (past experience tells me the form will evolve). Evaluations will be signed, and all evaluations will be shared with the co-authors of the appropriate poster. As a class we will have a guided group discussion of the individual environments and the connections between environments. Poster authors will help guide discussion/answer questions during the discussion of their environment. The discussion will take place instead of a final exam, but during the scheduled exam time (2 hours). Beginning reference materials: I am in the process of gathering appropriate reference material to get students started. A preliminary list follows:

Hansen, Vicki

427

X-ray scatter tomography using coded apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work proposes and studies a new field of x-ray tomography which combines the principles of scatter imaging and coded apertures, termed "coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging" (CAXSI). Conventional x-ray tomography reconstructs an object's electron density distribution by measuring a set of line integrals known as the x-ray transform, based physically on the attenuation of incident rays. More recently, scatter imaging has emerged as an alternative to attenuation imaging by measuring radiation from coherent and incoherent scattering. The information-rich scatter signal may be used to infer density as well as molecular structure throughout a volume. Some scatter modalities use collimators at the source and detector, resulting in long scan times due to the low efficiency of scattering mechanisms combined with a high degree of spatial filtering. CAXSI comes to the rescue by employing coded apertures. Coded apertures transmit a larger fraction of the scattered rays than collimators while also imposing structure to the scatter signal. In a coded aperture system each detector is sensitive to multiple ray paths, producing multiplexed measurements. The coding problem is then to design an aperture which enables de-multiplexing to reconstruct the desired physical properties and spatial distribution of the target. In this work, a number of CAXSI systems are proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated. One-dimensional "pencil" beams, two-dimensional "fan" beams, and three-dimensional "cone" beams are considered for the illumination. Pencil beam and fan beam CAXSI systems are demonstrated experimentally. The utility of energy-integrating (scintillation) detectors and energy-sensitive (photon counting) detectors are evaluated theoretically, and new coded aperture designs are presented for each beam geometry. Physical models are developed for each coded aperture system, from which resolution metrics are derived. Systems employing different combinations of beam geometry, coded apertures, and detectors are analyzed by constructing linear measurement operators and comparing their singular value decompositions. Since x-ray measurements are typically dominated by photon "shot" noise, iterative algorithms based on Poisson statistics are used to perform the reconstructions. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

MacCabe, Kenneth P.

428

The decrease of dopamine D2/D3 receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in Parkinson's disease: A preliminary autoradiographic study with the selective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist [3H]raclopride and the novel CB1 inverse agonist [125I]SD7015  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) modulate synaptic neurotransmission by participating in retrograde signaling in the adult brain. Increasing evidence suggests that cannabinoids through CB1Rs play an important role in the regulation of motor activities in the striatum. In the present study, we used human brain samples to examine the relationship between CB1R and dopamine receptor density in case of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Post mortem putamen, nucleus caudatus and medial frontal gyrus samples obtained from PD patients were used for CB1R and dopamine D2/D3 receptor autoradiography. [125I]SD7015, a novel selective CB1R inverse agonist, developed by a number of the present co-authors, and [3H]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 antagonist, were used as radioligands. Our results demonstrate unchanged CB1R density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus of deceased PD patients, treated with levodopa (l-DOPA). At the same time dopamine D2/D3 receptors displayed significantly decreased density levels in case of PD putamen (control: 47.97 ± 10.00 fmol/g, PD: 3.73 ± 0.07 fmol/g (mean ± SEM), p < 0.05) and nucleus caudatus (control: 30.26 ± 2.48 fmol/g, PD: 12.84 ± 5.49 fmol/g, p < 0.0005) samples. In contrast to the putamen and the nucleus caudatus, in the medial frontal gyrus neither receptor densities were affected. Our data suggest the presence of an unaltered CB1R population even in late stages of levodopa treated PD. This further supports the presence of an intact CB1R population which, in line with the conclusion of earlier publications, may be utilized as a pharmacological target in the treatment of PD. Furthermore we found discrepancy between a maintained CB1R population and a decreased dopamine D2/D3 receptor population in PD striatum. The precise explanation of this conundrum requires further studies with simultaneous examination of the central cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems in PD using higher sample size. PMID:22421165

Farkas, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Jia, Zhisheng; Harkany, Tibor; Palkovits, Mikles; Donohou, Sean R.; Pike, Victor W.; Halldin, Christer; Mathe, Domokos; Csiba, Laszlo; Gulyas, Balazs

2014-01-01

429

Consequences and potential problems of operating room outbursts and temper tantrums by surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background: Anecdotal tales of colorful temper tantrums and outbursts by surgeons directed at operating room nurses and at times other health care providers, like residents and fellows, are part of the history of surgery and include not only verbal abuse but also instrument throwing and real harassment. Our Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Nancy Epstein, has made the literature review of “Are there truly any risks and consequences when spine surgeons mistreat their predominantly female OR nursing staff/colleagues, and what can we do about it?,” an assigned topic for members of the editorial board as part of a new category entitled Ethical Note for our journal. This is a topic long overdue and I chose to research it. Methods: There is no medical literature to review dealing with nurse abuse. To research this topic, one has to involve business, industry, educational institutions, compliance standards and practices, and existing state and federal laws. I asked Dr. Rosanne Wille to co-author this paper since, as the former Dean of Nursing and then Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at a major higher educational institution, she had personal experience with compliance regulations and both sexual harassment and employment discrimination complaints, to make this review meaningful. Results: A review of the existing business practices and both state and federal laws strongly suggests that although there has not been any specific legal complaint that is part of the public record, any surgeon who chooses to act out his or her frustration and nervous energy demands by abusing co-workers on the health care team, and in this case specifically operating room personnel, is taking a chance of making legal history with financial outcomes which only an actual trial can predict or determine. Even more serious outcomes of an out-of-control temper tantrum and disruptive behavior can terminate, after multiple hearings and appeals, in adverse decisions affecting hospital privileges. Conclusions: Surgeons who abuse other health care workers are in violation of institutional bylaws and compliance regulations and create a hostile environment at work which adversely affects efficient productivity and violates specific State and Federal laws which prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. PMID:22905323

Jacobs, George B.; Wille, Rosanne L.

2012-01-01

430

Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE). Therefore, we confirm that SMOS is a very valuable source of data, which is going to be used on regional studies related to the climate in Poland. 1. Collow, T.W., A. Robock, J. B. Basara, and B. G. Illston (2012), Evaluation of SMOS retrievals of soil moisture over the central United States with currently available in situ observations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09113, doi:10.1029/2011JD017095. 2. Bircher, S., Skou, N., Jensen, K. H.,. Walker, J. P and Rasmussen L. (2012), A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1445-1463, doi:10.5194/hess-16-1445-2012

Usowicz, Jerzy; ?ukowski, Mateusz; S?omi?ski, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogus?aw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech

2013-04-01

431

Engineering interfaces at the micro- and nanoscale for biomolecular and nanoparticle self-assembled devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lot of interest in developing nanoparticle-based electronic devices. These devices rely on single-electron charging effects and offer advantages in size and performance over traditional transistors. Two significant challenges to the development of nanoparticle electronics are to (a) arrange the particles into useful device structures and (b) characterize the structures of these arrays. We developed methods for arranging nanoparticies in one- and two-dimensional arrays, and have developed a new tool for characterization of nanostructures on SiO2. In order to characterize nanoparticle structures on SiO2, we have designed substrates for TEM that are composed of a Si grid that supports electron transparent SiO2 membrane windows. These grids are easily fabricated in large batches using standard microelectronic processing techniques and can be chemically processed in the same manner as a Si wafer. Two-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles were patterned on SiO2 using photolithography to pattern the oxide with a monolayer of Hf(IV), which is known to bind phosphoric acids. After removal of the photoresist, the chemically patterned surface is exposed to a solution of phosphoric acid-stabilized nanoparticles which selectively bind to the Hf(IV) patterned regions. EPMA analysis of the patterns shows that both Hf and Au are isolated within the patterned regions, and SEM images of these surfaces show that the particles form dense arrays on Hf(IV) modified Si. This assembly technique will allow facile integration of nanoparticle devices with current Si processing methods. One-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles were assembled into device structures using DNA as a scaffold to direct the array. DNA is first aligned on SiO 2, then the substrate is exposed to thiocholine-stabilized nanoparticles, which bind selectively to the DNA through electrostatic interactions. We have shown by TEM that nanoparticles deposited on DNA maintain their core size, and the interparticle spacing in these arrays is dictated by the length of the nanoparticle ligand shell. By controlling the surface chemistry of SiO 2 and Au, we contacted isolated arrays of nanoparticles. These devices exhibit electrical properties consistent with theoretical treatments of nanoparticle arrays. "These advances will be useful in developing complex electronic circuits that take advantage of single-electron charging effects. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Kearns, Gregory Justin

432

The South African National Collection of Fungi: celebrating a centenary 1905-2005  

PubMed Central

The international acronym PREM denotes the South African National Collection of Fungi, which houses approximately 60 000 specimens. The collection includes material from outside South Africa and contains representatives of all the major groups of fungi excluding the yeasts and pathogens of larger animals and man. The name PREM was derived from the city in which the collection is situated, Pretoria (PRE), and the M defines the collection as being mycological. The background information and historical facts presented in this paper are based on an unpublished manuscript, prepared by the co-author and then head of the collection A.P. Baxter, for the 90th celebration of PREM. The collection was established in 1905, when South Africa was still a British colony. The vision and hard work of the earlier scientists associated with it paved the way for the establishment of a number of present-day national research bodies. One of these, the Plant Protection Research Institute, is currently the custodian of the collection. Over time activities at PREM were influenced by socio-economic and political events, and most recently, the South African government's commitment to international biodiversity initiatives. Although the basic goals and needs to maintain PREM remained intact throughout, various phases in terms of research focus can be recognised over the past century. In the early days the emphasis was on collecting and recording of fungi, then pioneering research was done on mycotoxins and later there was an increased demand for public-good services and innovation. Since the 1980's sophisticated molecular techniques have aided in the discovery of true phylogenetic relationships of fungi, a fundamental field of systematics, that was previously impossible to explore by any other means. Against these advances, the value of reference collections is often questioned. New technologies should, however, not be pursued in isolation from other relevant factors. Improvement of agricultural practices, knowledge sharing and the protection and conservation of biota will always be important. Even so, the success and future of natural history collections depends on continued support from governing bodies, appreciation for our biological heritage and on inputs from the scientific community. PMID:18490968

Rong, Isabella H.; Baxter, Alice P.

2006-01-01

433

Eight-dimensional methodology for innovative thinking about the case and ethics of the Mount Graham, Large Binocular Telescope project.  

PubMed

This paper introduces the Eight Dimensional Methodology for Innovative Thinking (the Eight Dimensional Methodology), for innovative problem solving, as a unified approach to case analysis that builds on comprehensive problem solving knowledge from industry, business, marketing, math, science, engineering, technology, arts, and daily life. It is designed to stimulate innovation by quickly generating unique "out of the box" unexpected and high quality solutions. It gives new insights and thinking strategies to solve everyday problems faced in the workplace, by helping decision makers to see otherwise obscure alternatives and solutions. Daniel Raviv, the engineer who developed the Eight Dimensional Methodology, and paper co-author, technology ethicist Rosalyn Berne, suggest that this tool can be especially useful in identifying solutions and alternatives for particular problems of engineering, and for the ethical challenges which arise with them. First, the Eight Dimensional Methodology helps to elucidate how what may appear to be a basic engineering problem also has ethical dimensions. In addition, it offers to the engineer a methodology for penetrating and seeing new dimensions of those problems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the Eight Dimensional Methodology as an analytical tool for thinking about ethical challenges to engineering, the paper presents the case of the construction of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mount Graham in Arizona. Analysis of the case offers to decision makers the use of the Eight Dimensional Methodology in considering alternative solutions for how they can proceed in their goals of exploring space. It then follows that same process through the second stage of exploring the ethics of each of those different solutions. The LBT project pools resources from an international partnership of universities and research institutes for the construction and maintenance of a highly sophisticated, powerful new telescope. It will soon mark the erection of the world's largest and most powerful optical telescope, designed to see fine detail otherwise visible only from space. It also represents a controversial engineering project that is being undertaken on land considered to be sacred by the local, native Apache people. As presented, the case features the University of Virginia, and its challenges in consideration of whether and how to join the LBT project consortium. PMID:15152849

Berne, Rosalyn W; Raviv, Daniel

2004-04-01

434

Watching a 'New Star' Make the Universe Dusty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, and its remarkable acuity, astronomers were able for the first time to witness the appearance of a shell of dusty gas around a star that had just erupted, and follow its evolution for more than 100 days. This provides the astronomers with a new way to estimate the distance of this object and obtain invaluable information on the operating mode of stellar vampires, dense stars that suck material from a companion. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 22/08 Dust shells around a nova Although novae were first thought to be new stars appearing in the sky, hence their Latin name, they are now understood as signaling the brightening of a small, dense star. Novae occur in double star systems comprising a white dwarf - the end product of a solar-like star - and, generally, a low-mass normal star - a red dwarf. The two stars are so close together that the red dwarf cannot hold itself together and loses mass to its companion. Occasionally, the shell of matter that has fallen onto the ingesting star becomes unstable, leading to a thermonuclear explosion which makes the system brighter. Nova Scorpii 2007a (or V1280 Scorpii), was discovered by Japanese amateur astronomers on 4 February 2007 towards the constellation Scorpius ("the Scorpion"). For a few days, it became brighter and brighter, reaching its maximum on 17 February, to become one of the brightest novae of the last 35 years. At that time, it was easily visible with the unaided eye. Eleven days after reaching its maximum, astronomers witnessed the formation of dust around the object. Dust was present for more than 200 days, as the nova only slowly emerged from the smoke between October and November 2007. During these 200 days, the erupting source was screened out efficiently, becoming more than 10,000 times dimmer in the visual. An unprecedented high spatial resolution monitoring of the dust formation event was carried out with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), extending over more than 5 months following the discovery. The astronomers first used the AMBER near-infrared instrument, then, as the nova continued to produce dust at a high rate, they moved to using the MIDI mid-infrared instrument, that is more sensitive to the radiation of the hot dust. Similarly, as the nova became fainter, the astronomers switched from the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes to their larger brethren, the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes. With the interferometry mode, the resolution obtained is equivalent to using a telescope with a size between 35 and 71 metres (the distance between the 2 telescopes used). The first observations, secured 23 days after the discovery, showed that the source was very compact, less than 1 thousandth of an arcsecond (1 milli-arcsecond or mas), which is a size comparable to viewing one grain of sand from about 100 kilometres away. A few days later, after the detection of the major dust formation event, the source measured 13 mas. "It is most likely that the latter size corresponds to the diameter of the dust shell in expansion, while the size previously measured was an upper limit of the erupting source," explains lead author Olivier Chesneau. Over the following months the dusty shell expanded regularly, at a rate close to 2 million km/h. "This is the first time that the dust shell of a nova is spatially resolved and its evolution traced starting from the onset of its formation up to the point that it becomes too diluted to be seen", says co-author Dipankar Banerjee, from India. The measurement of the angular expansion rate, together with the knowledge of the expansion velocity, enables the astronomer to derive the distance of the object, in this case about 5500 light-years. "This is a new and promising technique for providing distances of close novae. This was made possible because the state of the art facility of the VLTI, both in terms of infrastructure and management of the observations, allows one to schedule such observations," says co-author Markus Wittkowski from ESO. Moreover, the q

2008-07-01

435

Obituary: Ralph Robert Robbins, Jr., 1938-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ralph Robert Robbins, Jr., died on 2 December 2005, in Kyle, Texas. His wife, Maria Elena Robbins, his daughters Julia Robbins Kelso and Stephanie Juarez Balles, his son Matthew Juarez, and five grandchildren survive him. Bob was on the faculty at the University of Texas from 1968 until his retirement in 2003. Bob was born in Wichita, Kansas, on 2 September 1938, the only son of Mildred and Ralph Robert Robbins, Sr. Guided by his high school's policy to provide a practical education to children of working-class parents, Bob began high school with a heavy dose of vocational courses until the results of a test indicated his special talent in mathematics. He was awarded a full scholarship to Yale University, graduating magna cum laude in mathematics in 1960. He won the Warner Prize in Mathematics at Yale that year. He received his Ph.D. in 1966 with a dissertation entitled "The Triplet Spectrum of Neutral Helium in Expanding Nebulae" from the University of California at Berkeley. His interest in college teaching was ignited at this time through summer teaching positions at San Mateo California Junior College and the Ohio State University. Following a year at Texas as a McDonald Observatory Post-doctoral Fellow, Bob taught for a year in the physics department of the University of Houston before returning to the University of Texas at Austin as an Assistant Professor of Astronomy in 1968. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1972. Bob's research in the early 1970s on theoretical studies of helium was of vital importance to astronomers for over three decades. These pioneering calculations became vital to observational astronomers in the mid-1990s as interest grew in the primordial helium produced by the Big Bang. Bob's interest and influence in education was international in scope. In the summers 1968-1970, he was a government consultant in Mathematics in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He consulted with the government that was preparing a master plan for technical education. While teaching all the mathematics instructors of the polytechnic institutes of the country, he co-authored a textbook "Polytechnic Mathematics." Bob also was active for many years in Commission 46 of the International Astronomical Union, including compiling overviews of educational materials available in English for over a decade and serving on the organizing committee for several international meetings. In the 1970s, Bob and William Jefferys refined their view of how introductory astronomy should be taught — pioneering a "minds-on, hands-on" approach that emphasized "learning by doing" even in the non-science majors courses. This innovative work in astronomy education led to several co-authored books: a general-level textbook (Discovering Astronomy), a book to accompany upper-division laboratory courses (Modern Astronomy: an Activities Approach), and a workbook for college teachers (Effective Astronomy Teaching and Student Reasoning Ability). Bob also popularized self-paced astronomy courses that demanded in-depth understanding from students as well as requiring observations of the sky and small experiments. Bob was named a Piper Professor in 1972, a statewide award that recognized his teaching excellence. For many years Bob served both as an American Astronomical Society Shapley Visiting Lecturer and as a National Science Foundation Chautauqua lecturer, thus bringing his expertise to colleges and college instructors across the nation. Bob was fascinated with not only how undergraduate students learn, but also how people of past civilizations learned about astronomy and used it in their lives and rituals. Bob's colleague William Jefferys recalled a 1967 Spring Break trip: "We got into Bob's white and purple Dodge and went to Mexico with a large tent, big enough for the party of six. We camped on the beach and by the side of the road, got royally bitten by mosquitoes, suffered a broken spring and flat tire on the car (both of which were fixed in Mexico, but the tire expired just as we reentered the US).

Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jefferys, William H.; Lambert, David L.

2007-12-01

436

FOREWORD: Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Eklund grew up in Southern California and attended the University of California at Berkeley, majoring in physics. After working for one year at the Lockheed Missile and Space Company in Sunnyvale, California, he left to pursue graduate studies at Purdue University. There he carried out PhD research in strongly correlated electron and phonon systems under the supervision of J M Honig and L L van Zandt. Peter joined the group of Millie and Gene Dresselhaus at MIT in 1974 as a Postdoctoral Fellow after one year as an instructor at the University of Kentucky. At MIT, he continued work on strongly correlated systems in collaboration with Professor David Adler (who had an adjoining office), but for the most part he got excited about sp2 carbon systems and graphite intercalation compounds, a new research direction which the Dresselhaus group had started one year before Peter's arrival at MIT. Over the next 35 years Peter, Millie and Gene co-authored over 50 research articles, several review articles, and a big nine-hundred-and-fifty page book. In 1974, they saw graphite intercalation compounds as a long-neglected research direction of great promise. They studied these new materials together over the next 16 years, focusing on their optical spectroscopy. Their pioneering vibrational spectroscopy studies provided a means to characterize the fundamental properties of carbon materials. Optical spectroscopy became a centerpiece in the research portfolios of all three, both when they were together at MIT and after Peter left for the University of Kentucky in 1977 to start his independent career as an Assistant Professor of Physics. Peter became a full Professor at Kentucky in 1986. He continued to work with Millie and Gene and also acquired an ever-expanding network of students, postdocs and collaborators. As each new carbon nanostructure emerged—graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and most recently graphene—Peter was at the cutting edge, leading the charge forward. His work on fullerenes, starting around 1988, culminated in a book co-authored with Millie and Gene in 1996, The Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes [1]. Through careful sample handling and analysis, his group at Kentucky discovered the mechanism of photo-polymerization in fullerenes. In 2000, Peter co-edited the research monograph Fullerene Polymers and Fullerene Polymer Composites with A M Rao, a former student [2]. His group at Kentucky also performed the first definitive Raman study of the phonons responsible for superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene compounds. Peter was awarded the prestigious University of Kentucky Research Professorship for his contributions to graduate education and research discoveries in carbon materials. In the summer of 1991, Peter held early discussions with his two long-time collaborators on the possibility of carbon nanotubes. These discussions inspired a talk by Millie at a fullerene workshop the next day concerning the possible existence of single-walled carbon nanotubes [3]. The first papers by Iijima on the synthesis of multiwalled nanotubes appeared soon thereafter [4]. In 1994, Peter measured an early Raman spectrum on a sample containing just 1% of single-walled tubes. On the basis of this early work, he convinced Rick Smalley to provide him with a proper sample of single-walled carbon nanotubes in 1996; this is the sample on which the highly cited single-walled carbon nanotube Raman spectrum was taken [5]. Carbon nanotubes then became a central focus of the Eklund group. Peter, Millie and Gene worked together on many aspects of carbon nanotubes, including the study of infrared-active modes, Raman active modes, Raman spectra for single-walled nanotubes, and the differences in the Raman spectra of semiconducting and metallic tubes. In 2009 they combined efforts to investigate phonons in graphene. Peter was also an entrepreneur. He started a company, CarboLex, to make and sell nanotubes in large quantities, thereby giving industrial support to advancing fundamental science. He co-found

Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Gene F.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

2010-08-01

437

Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "fi