Science.gov

Sample records for co2-supersaturated water injection

  1. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  2. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  3. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  4. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  5. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  6. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  7. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  8. Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

  9. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  10. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  11. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  12. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  13. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  14. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  15. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  16. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  17. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  18. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  19. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  20. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

  1. High-pressure injection injury with river water.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M I

    1978-06-01

    A case of high pressure injection and laceration of the calf with river water is reported, the first such case appearing in the literature. As with high pressure injection of grease, paint, paint thinner, mineral spirits, diesel oil, gasoline, and turpentine, this injury is a surgical emergency. All patients must be admitted for surgical debridement, irrigation, parenteral antibiotics, and observation. River water, contaminated by sewage and industrial wastes, has great irritative and infective potential. PMID:661048

  2. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  3. Study methods for disinfection water for injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Kascheev, Sergey; Polyakov, Vladimir; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Experimental results presented in this study tends to explore viruses in the water for their further decontamination under the influence of laser radiation (λ=220-390 nm). Conducted a series of experiments to study the dependence of water quality from the effects of laser radiation. Correlation between degree of survival of viruses and power density. The results showed that all the analyzed samples of water is clearing from bacteria to 98%. Preliminary tests of the prototype laboratory system UFOVI has opened up new opportunities for water sterilizing.

  4. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  5. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  6. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  7. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  8. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  9. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  10. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  11. Evaluation of centrifugal compressor performance with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L; Hamrick, Joseph T; Withee, Joseph R , Jr

    1951-01-01

    The effects of water injection on a compressor are presented. To determine the effects of varying water-air ratio, the compressor was operated at a constant equivalent impeller speed over a range of water-air ratios and weight flows. Operation over a range of weight flows at one water-air ratio and two inlet air temperatures was carried out to obtain an indication of the effects of varying inlet air temperature. Beyond a water-air ratio of 0.03 there was no increase in maximum air-weight flow, a negligible rise in peak total-pressure ratio, and a decrease in peak adiabatic efficiency. An increase in inlet air temperature resulted in an increase in the magnitude of evaporation. An analysis of data indicated that the magnitude of evaporation within the compressor impeller was small.

  12. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  13. HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

  14. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near

  15. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  16. Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

  17. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  18. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  19. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  20. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  1. On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.

    PubMed

    Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow. PMID:15610904

  2. Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

  3. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  4. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  5. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  6. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  7. [Recognition of water-injected meat based on visible/near-infrared spectrum and sparse representation].

    PubMed

    Hao, Dong-mei; Zhou, Ya-nan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yi-min; Lin, Ling; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiu-li

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposed a new nondestructive method based on visible/near infrared spectrum (Vis/NIRS) and sparse representation to rapidly and accurately discriminate between raw meat and water-injected meat. Water-injected meat model was built by injecting water into non-destructed meat samples comprising pigskin, fat layer and muscle layer. Vis/NIRS data were collected from raw meat and six scales of water-injected meat with spectrometers. To reduce the redundant information in the spectrum and improve the difference between the samples,. some preprocessing steps were performed for the spectral data, including light modulation and normalization. Effective spectral bands were extracted from the preprocessed spectral data. The meat samples were classified as raw meat and water-injected meat, and further, water-injected meat with different water injection rates. All the training samples were used to compose an atom dictionary, and test samples were represented by the sparsest linear combinations of these atoms via l1-minimization. Projection errors of test samples with respect to each category were calculated. A test sample was classified to the category with the minimum projection error, and leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted. The recognition performance from sparse representation was compared with that from support vector machine (SVM).. Experimental results showed that the overall recognition accuracy of sparse representation for raw meat and water-injected meat was more than 90%, which was higher than that of SVM. For water-injected meat samples with different water injection rates, the recognition accuracy presented a positive correlation with the water injection rate difference. Spare representation-based classifier eliminates the need for the training and feature extraction steps required by conventional pattern recognition models, and is suitable for processing data of high dimensionality and small sample size. Furthermore, it has a low

  8. Ultrastructural changes of synaptic glomeruli following intrathecal injection of distilled water to rats.

    PubMed

    Inomata, K; Taxi, J

    1988-12-01

    We attempted to identify synaptic glomeruli in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of rats by injecting distilled water into the subarachnoid space. The altered synaptic glomeruli were visualized when injecting 1.0 ml of distilled water, though the incidence of degenerative synaptic glomeruli was rare in the case of an injection of 0.5 ml or less. We assume that when the distilled water is injected, there is a sudden change in homeostatic balance in cerebrospinal fluid, following inhibition of nerve impulses in the dorsal root and the altered synaptic glomeruli. Ultrastructurally, the injection of distilled water led to a preferential degeneration of synaptic glomeruli derived from the C-fibers. PMID:3252168

  9. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection...

  10. Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23 km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

  11. Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J.

    2008-10-06

    The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  12. Flow characteristics and injectivity behavior of water-soluble polymers: Final report. [144 references

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the key properties of water-soluble polymers that affect injectivity of polymer solutions used in enhanced recovery processes. The project consisted of performing a thorough literature survey on this subject, followed by laboratory tests to assess various properties of polymer solutions. In the literature survey, laboratory and field projects were reviewed. Information from the literature survey on field projects and from experiments performed as part of this study points out that water quality is very important in the injectivity of polymer solutions. Specifically, if iron is introduced as a corrosion byproduct, the polymers can be crosslinked which can lead to severe plugging when the polymer solution is injected. For some polymers, procedures used for mixing solutions can be important. Higher solution viscosities may be obtained if emulsion polymers are inverted in a very fresh water prior to mixing with a brine water. Filterability and injectivity of some emulsion polymers are better when the polymers are dissolved in a fresher water. As expected, injectivity of xanthan gum polymers was better than for polyacrylamide polymers. For polyacrylamides, adsorption was higher on dolomite than on sandstone, but the adsorption on either media was not affected greatly by anionic charge of the polymers. Injectivity of polymer solutions may be improved by pretreatment with certain solvents or chemicals. After a loss of injectivity caused by plugging from a polymer solution, selected chemicals can provide improvement in injectivity. 155 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Mechanical instability induced by water weakening in laboratory fluid injection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.; Dautriat, J.; Sarout, J.; Delle Piane, C.; Menéndez, B.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.

    2015-06-01

    To assess water-weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous experimental studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks fully saturated either with water or with inert fluids. So far, little attention has been paid to the mechanical behavior during fluid injection under conditions similar to enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behavior of the weakly consolidated Sherwood sandstone in laboratory experiments. Our specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during loading and fluid injection to record the acoustic signature of fluid migration in the pore space and the development of damage. Calibration triaxial tests were conducted on three samples saturated with air, water, or oil. In a second series of experiments, water and inert oil were injected into samples critically loaded up to 80% or 70% of the dry or oil-saturated compressive strength, respectively, to assess the impact of fluid migration on mechanical strength and elastic properties. The fluids were injected with a low back pressure to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Our observations show that creep takes place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. The most remarkable difference is that water injection in both dry and oil-saturated samples triggers mechanical instability (macroscopic failure) within half an hour whereas oil injection does not after several hours. The analysis of X-ray computed tomography images of postmortem samples revealed that the mechanical instability was probably linked to loss of cohesion in the water-invaded region.

  14. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  15. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  16. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  17. Reducing Water/Hull Drag By Injecting Air Into Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed technique for reduction of friction drag on hydrodynamic body involves use of grooves and combinations of surfactants to control motion of layer on surface of such body. Surface contains many rows of side-by-side, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves. Dimensions of grooves and sharpnesses of tips in specific case depends on conditions of flow about vessel. Requires much less air than does microbubble-injection method.

  18. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  19. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  20. Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Stefan

    1991-07-01

    Water is injected into the gas stream for the purpose of cooling the reaction products resulting from the stochiometric combustion of hydrogen with oxygen. The penetration of the jet decisively influences the temperature profile across the flow cross section in the water vapor. The penetration of the water jet into the stream is calculated using the jet shedding model and compared with the garden hose model. Models for the evaporation of water droplets in superheated steam are developed for calculating the evaporation paths. The parameters which influence the injection and evaporation process are subjected to variation and their effects in the evaporation paths are analyzed.

  1. A comprehensive approach for stimulating produced water injection wells at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fambrough, J.D.; Lane, R.H.; Braden, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    The paper presents a three-component approach to removing damage from produced water injection wells of Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska: (1) identification of plugging material, (2) evaluation and selection of potential treatment chemicals, and (3) design and implementation of a well treatment and placement method. Plugging material was sampled anaerobically and kept frozen prior to identification and evaluation. Appropriate treatment chemicals were determined through a series of solvation, filtration, and weight-loss tests. Field treatments were designed so that the treating chemicals entered the formation under normal operating conditions, i.e., at pressures and rates similar to those present during produced water injection. A number of treatments improved injection rates and profiles, but continued injection of oil and solids-laden water caused deterioration of well performance at rates that precluded general application of the treatment at Prudhoe Bay.

  2. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  3. Simultaneous water and gas injection pilot at the Kuparuk River Field, reservoir impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.D.; Rugen, J.A.; Stoisits, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    Immiscible water-alternating-gas injection has effectively managed produced gas at the Kuparuk River Field, increasing field oil rate and recovery. Although IWAG economics are very favorable, a pilot study was undertaken to ascertain whether the separate gas injection system can be eliminated by simultaneously injecting water and gas in waterflood lines. Static mixers were found to be necessary to disperse gas in a multiphase mixture flowing through a network of pipes. However, scale-up criteria for gas dispersing static mixers in multiphase pipe networks require additional refinement. Reservoir simulation done to support the pilot project showed that simultaneous water-and-gas injection should provide better control of gas mobility than IWAG. This resulted in increased oil recovery and more steady gas production. During the typical IWAG process, the magnitude and the cyclic nature of GOR responses have caused problems for gas handling at the field facilities. During the pilot loss of injection rate was observed as the gas fraction in the injection mixture increased and the surface injection pressure was kept stable at about 2800 psi. Examination of Well 2D-16 data suggests that the observed rate loss was more likely due to the lower bottom-hole pressures than the relative permeability effects expected of two-phase flow in porous media.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  5. Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

    1980-09-16

    Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

  6. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water

  7. Radiative shielding by water mist : comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechêne, S.; Acem, Z.; Parent, G.; Collin, A.; Boulet, P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiative shielding with water curtain has been studied numerically, investigating three different possibilities of droplet injection : downward, upward and impacting on a wall to be protected. The efficiency has been evaluated based on radiation attenuation predicted considering a given incident flux attenuated when crossing the area where water is injected. For upward and downward injection, a simple water curtain is considered. For the impacting spray case, a water film streaming on the wall is considered in addition to the spray (an idealized film with constant and fixed thickness for the moment). The dynamics has been imported from an Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation and radiative transfer has been addressed with a Monte Carlo method. Results show that the upward injection performs better than the downward injection due to a favoring dynamics that increases the residence time of droplets. The impacting spray could be even more efficient owing to the possible high attenuation efficiency of films, but present results still make use of simplifications on the water film falling on the wall and present promising observations require further verification.

  8. Rapid determination of fluoride in potable waters by potentiometric flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, D.E.; Mulcahy, D.E.; O'Connell, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A potentiometric flow injection analysis system is described, enabling tap water and other fluoride-bearing matrices of low interferent level to be determined at the rate of 360 samples per hour using an electrode polished with slurried alumina. Important parameters, such as carrier stream composition, sample volume and detector cell design are discussed with respect to their system. Fluoride electrodes regenerated with silver fluoride and silver epoxy are evaluated in flow injection mode, both before and after polishing.

  9. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  10. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  11. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  12. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 μm should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  13. A probabilistic assessment of waste water injection induced seismicity in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Hauksson, E.; Ampuero, J. P.; Aminzadeh, F.; Cappa, F.; Saleeby, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recent, large increase in seismic activity within the central and eastern U.S. may be connected to an increase in fluid injection activity since ~2001. Anomalous seismic sequences can easily be identified in regions with low background seismicity rates. Here, we analyze seismicity in plate boundary regions where tectonically-driven earthquake sequences are common, potentially masking injection-induced events. We show results from a comprehensive analysis of waste water disposal wells in Kern county, the largest oil-producing county in California. We focus on spatial-temporal correlations between seismic and injection activity and seismicity-density changes due to injection. We perform a probabilistic assessment of induced vs. tectonic earthquakes, which can be applied to different regions independent of background rates and may provide insights into the probability of inducing earthquakes as a function of injection parameters and local geological conditions. Our results show that most earthquakes are caused by tectonic forcing, however, waste water injection contributes to seismic activity in four different regions with several events above M4. The seismicity shows different migration characteristics relative to the injection sites, including linear and non-linear trends. The latter is indicative of diffusive processes which take advantage of reservoir properties and fault structures and can induce earthquakes at distances of up to 10 km. Our results suggest that injection-related triggering processes are complex, possibly involving creep, and delayed triggering. Pore-pressure diffusion may be more extensive in the presence of active faults and high-permeability damage zones thus altering the local seismic hazard in a non-linear fashion. As a consequence, generic "best-practices" for fluid injections like a maximum distance from the nearest active fault may not be sufficient to mitigate a potential seismic hazard increase.

  14. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  15. Transit time of mixed high pressure injection water and primary loop water in pressurized water reactor cold legs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, B.H.; Oh, S.; Rothe, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    During an overcooling transient in a pressurized water reactor, cold water from the high pressure injection (HPI) mixes with the hot primary coolant in the cold leg. The transit time is a gauge for the assessment of the time and the velocity of the mixed flow that passes through the cold leg to the downcomer. Existing data from mixing tests at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/CREARE and EPRI/SAI facilities are analyzed. By means of models for HPI jet entrainment as well as the propagation of a gravity current, dimensionless correlations have been developed for the transit time and cold water front velocity at stagnant loop flow conditions. Based on this transit time correlation for stagnant loop flow and the limiting condition for large loop flow, a general correlation has been developed to account for the loop flow effect on transit time. These correlations unify a wide range of data obtained from five geometrically different test sections with two fluids (pure water and saline solution). In addition to the geometric factors, the governing dimensionless parameters for the transit time are the HPI jet Froude number, the Froude number for the cold-leg channel, and the ratio of loop flow to HPI flow.

  16. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  17. Direct injection of water vapor into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Malo, Alain; McLinden, Chris A.; D'Amours, Real

    2016-07-01

    While theoretical studies show that water vapor (WV) can be directly injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption, few observations of such a phenomenon exist. The Microwave Limb Sounder observed stratospheric injection of WV following the 2015 Calbuco eruption. Lower stratospheric mixing ratios exceeded 10 ppmv for a few days downwind of the injection location. Plume transport is confirmed by back trajectory modeling. Due to the short duration and limited spatial extent of the enhancement, climatic impact is expected to be negligible. This letter provides spatiotemporal analysis of a volcanogenic pulse of lower stratospheric WV as it dispersed. The inferred mass of stratospheric WV from this eruption of 2 megaton (Mt) and the rapid evanescence of the enhancement are similar to what has been observed for other eruptions, suggesting that injection by moderately explosive eruptions is not an effective mechanism for large-scale stratospheric hydration.

  18. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

    2012-01-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

  20. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  1. Passive safety injection experiments with a large-scale pressurized water reactor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka; Anoda, Yoshinari; Asaka, Hideaki

    1995-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the ROSA-V/ Large-Scale-Test-Facility to investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a gravity-driven passive injection system for a pressurized water reactor under cold-leg small break loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The injection system, used in the tests, consisted of a tank located above the reactor vessel, an injection line, and pressure balance lines. The two tests were conducted using the same break area, corresponding to 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg cross-sectional area, and different actuation logic for the automatic depressurization system (ADS). Both experimental results showed an accumulation of hot water in the upper part of the tank due to the natural circulation, followed by a continuous water level drop, and the existence of a slightly superheated liquid layer near the water surface. Because of the differences in the ADS actuation logic, the system depressurization behavior was different between the two tests. Much larger injection rates from the tank were obtained for the test that experienced the larger depressurization rate. The liquid temperature distributions obtained from these tests were predicted well by an analytical model proposed in a previous paper.

  2. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  3. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  4. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  5. The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  6. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  7. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  8. UV dosage levels in summer: increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James G; Wilmouth, David M; Smith, Jessica B; Sayres, David S

    2012-08-17

    The observed presence of water vapor convectively injected deep into the stratosphere over the United States can fundamentally change the catalytic chlorine/bromine free-radical chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting total available inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. This chemical shift markedly affects total ozone loss rates and makes the catalytic system extraordinarily sensitive to convective injection into the mid-latitude lower stratosphere in summer. Were the intensity and frequency of convective injection to increase as a result of climate forcing by the continued addition of CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere, increased risk of ozone loss and associated increases in ultraviolet dosage would follow. PMID:22837384

  9. Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water quality and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K L; Dewhurst, R E; Penna, P

    2006-04-01

    The use of water injection dredging (WID) is increasing in the UK's inland waterways and marinas. Jets of water are injected under low pressure directly into bottom sediment creating a turbulent water-sediment mixture that flows under the influence of gravity. Many of these sediments are highly contaminated and little is known of the effects of contaminant release on water quality or the risk to biota living in both the sediment and the water column. Sediment cores were collected from Limehouse Basin, a proposed WID site in SE England and current sediment toxicity was assessed using a number of techniques. Comparison of metal data to US sediment quality guidelines indicated intermediate levels of toxicity while, calculation of acid volatile sulphide to simultaneously extracted metal ratios underestimated the potential toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms. In contrast, porewater ammonia concentrations were in excess of all published ecotoxicological guidelines and indicate serious risk to biota. Re-suspension experiments were used to mimic the effects of WID on overlying water quality and ecotoxicity tests were carried out on elutriates using Daphnia magna to examine the impacts on biota. Concentrations of a range of metals in the elutriates predict that adverse biological effects would be observed during WID, however only 10% of the elutriate samples caused an adverse effect on Daphnia. Limehouse Basin is a complex aquatic environment receiving predominantly fresh waters while the sediments have high porewater chloride concentrations reminiscent of previous tidal inputs to the basin, making the choice of test organism problematic. PMID:16271380

  10. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  11. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  12. Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion. PMID:19830416

  13. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  14. PACTEL experiments for the investigation of passive safety injection systems of advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tuunanen, J.; Munther, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    1996-07-01

    An important aspect of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) decay heat removal concerns the plant response under Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. In ALWRs, e.g. Westinghouse AP600, pump driven Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) are replaced by passive safety injection systems, which are gravity driven. It is therefore important that in such accidents, the ALWR coolant system pressure can be controlled to allow gravity fed injection to take place. The safety issue here is whether undesirable system responses could occur in any circumstances. Additionally, it is necessary to prove that the plant always depressurizes sufficiently for the ECCS to operate efficiently. Two experimental series have been carried out with the PACTEL integral test facility on the simulation of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs in accidental conditions. The safety system investigated was a passive core make-up tank (CMT), which was connected to the downcomer of the test facility. This paper starts with a short description of the PACTEL test facility and a summary of the results of the passive safety injection tests on PACTEL. Also included is a summary of the results of the computer simulations of the tests. The second part of the paper consists of a description of the planned third passive safety injection test series and the results of the pre-test simulations of the planned tests.

  15. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  16. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  17. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  18. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  19. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  20. Median Nerve Injury Due to High-Pressure Water Jet Injection: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ufuk; Unal, Aysun

    2009-08-01

    High-pressure injuries that occur accidentally are potentially destructive injuries that often affect the nondominant hands of young men. A variety of products such as paint, gasoline, grease, fuel oil, cement, thinner and solvents have been reported as destructive agents. High-pressure water jet injection injuries to soft tissues have rarely been reported. In this study, we present the first case of median nerve injury due to high-pressure water jet injection by a water spray gun. PMID:26815059

  1. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  2. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-04-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  3. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  4. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type

  5. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. PMID:26452844

  6. Economic analysis of condensers for water recovery in steam injected gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    De Paepe, M.; Huvenne, P.; Dick, E.

    1998-07-01

    Steam injection cycles are interesting for small power ranges because of the high efficiency and the relatively low investment costs. A big disadvantage is the consumption of water by the cycle. Water recovery is seldom realized in industrial practice. In this paper an analysis of the technical and economical possibilities of water recovery by condensation of water out of the exhaust gases is made. Three gas turbines are considered : the Kawasaki M1A-13CC (2.3 MWe), the Allison 501KH (6.8 MWe) and the General Electric LM1600 (17 MWe). For every gas turbine two types of condensers are designed. In the water cooled condenser finned tubes are used to cool the exhaust gases, flowing at the outside of the tubes. The water itself flows at the inside of the tubes and is cooled by a water to air cooler. In the air cooled condenser the exhaust gases flow at the inside of the tubes and the cooling air at the outside. The investment costs of the condensers is compared to the costs of the total installation. The investment costs are relatively smaller if the produced power goes up. The water cooled condenser with water to air cooler is cheaper than the air cooled condenser. Using a condenser results in higher exploitation costs due to the fans and pumps. It is shown that the air cooled condenser has lower exploitation costs than the water cooled one. Pay back time of the total installation does not significantly vary compared to the installation without recovery. Water prices are determined for which water recovery is profitable. For the water cooled condenser the turning point lies at 2.2 Euro/m; for the air cooled condenser this is 0.6 Euro/m.

  7. Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

  8. Development of a fully automated Flow Injection analyzer implementing bioluminescent biosensors for water toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+)) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor's response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri's bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5-10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

  9. Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

  10. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  11. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  14. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  15. Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

  16. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  17. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  18. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    PubMed

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology. PMID:26071865

  19. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

  20. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700

  1. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  2. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  3. Injectable polyanhydride granules provide controlled release of water-soluble drugs with a reduced initial burst.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Y; Domb, A; Langer, R

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing polyanhydride granules of an injectable size was developed. The resulting granules permitted a nearly constant release of low-molecular-weight, water-soluble drugs without an initial burst. The polyanhydrides used were poly(fatty acid dimer), poly(sebacic acid), and their copolymers. The dyes acid orange 63 and p-nitroaniline were used as model compounds for drugs. Polymer degradation and drug release for disks and variously sized granules of copolymers containing drugs, prepared by a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion method, were compared with those for devices prepared by the usual compression method. In the W/O emulsion method, a mixture of aqueous drug solution and polymer-chloroform solution was emulsified by probe sonication to prepare a very fine W/O emulsion. The powder obtained by freeze-drying of the W/O emulsion was pressed into circular disks. In the compression method, the drug was mechanically mixed with the polymer, and the mixture was compressed into circular disks. The resulting disks were ground to prepare granules of different sizes. The granules encapsulated more than 95% of the drug, irrespective of the preparation method. Both methods were effective in preparing polymer disks capable of controlled drug release without any initial burst. However, as the granule size decreased to an injectable size (diameter, < 150 microns), a large difference in the drug release profile was observed between the two preparation methods. The injectable granules obtained by the W/O emulsion method showed nearly constant drug release without any large initial burst, in contrast to those prepared by the compression method, irrespective of the drug type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8138910

  4. Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Kobylinska, Dorota Korte; Franko, Mladen; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2010-04-14

    A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390 nm. The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a two-levels, three-factor experimental design. Further optimization of manifold variables (reaction coil and injection volume) allowed us to determine silver in the range 0.050-5.0 mg L(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.050 mg L(-1). Silver is added, as biocide, to drinking water for spacecrafts. The chemical species of silver, present in this kind of sample, were characterized by a procedure based on the selective retention of Ag(+) onto a 2.2.2. cryptand based substrate followed by determination of the non-bound and bound (after elution) Ag(+) by the FIA method. The method optimized was applied to a drinking water sample provided for the launch with the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) module Jule Verne to the International Space Station (March 9, 2008). PMID:20381692

  5. Injection and Subsequent Evolution of a Water Sill in an Ice Shell: Application to Europa's Lenticulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, M.; Michaut, C.

    2014-12-01

    We study the injection and subsequent evolution of a water sill into an ice shell overlying an ocean and examine the resulting successive surface deformations. We assume that water spreads within the elastic part of the ice shell and show that the mechanical properties of ice exert a strong control on the lateral extent of the sill. At shallow depths, water makes room for itself by lifting the overlying ice layer and water weight promotes lateral spreading of the sill. In contrast, a deep sill bends the underlying elastic layer and its weight does not affect its spreading. As a result, the sill lateral extent is limited to about a few to a few tens of kilometers by the fracture toughness of ice. In that case, the sill can thicken substantially, until the feeder dyke closes, since downward flexure of the lower elastic layer provides a way of keeping the pressure high in the water source. Pits, domes, and small chaos on Europa's surface are quasi-circular features a few to a few tens of kilometers in diameter whose morphology could be explained by the subsequent evolution of such a thick sill. Indeed, cooling of the sill after emplacement warms the surrounding ice and thins the overlying elastic ice layer. As a result, preexisting stresses in the elastic part of the ice shell increase locally to the point that they may disrupt the ice above the sill (small chaos). Furthermore, disruption of the surface also allows for partial isostatic compensation of water weight, leading to a topographic depression at the surface (pit), of the order of ~102 m. Finally, complete water solidification causes expansion of the initial sill volume and results in an uplifted topography (dome) of ~102 m.

  6. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  7. Indian primacy procedures handbook for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program and the underground injection control (UIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The handbook defines primacy, the responsibilities of primacy, primacy's advantages and limitations, and how to seek primacy. Primacy is a provision in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). It allows Indian Tribes the opportunity to assume principal responsibility in the enforcement of public drinking water and/or underground injection control (UIC) regulations within the Indian Tribe's jurisdiction. To attain primacy a Tribe must have drinking water and underground injection control regulations which are at least as strict as EPA regulations, and must have an independent agency or organization within the Tribal government that has the power to enforce its regulations.

  8. Tracing and age-dating recycled waste water recharged for potable reuse in a seawater injection barrier, southern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Esser, B K; Herndon, R L; Hudson, G B

    1998-12-02

    In this report we outline an investigative approach that combines isotopic tracers and tritium-helium-3 (3H-3He) dating to directly measure groundwater mixing and ages. These data can be used to test regulatory compliance in potable water reuse projects (Davisson et al., 1998). We provide an example from a seawater injection barrier located in Orange County, California, which has been injecting advanced- treated waste water into a coastal aquifer for the past 25 years to prevent seawater intrusion. Treatment comprises lime coagulation of secondary waste effluents, followed by re-carbonation, sand filtration, and reverse osmosis. The finished water has a very low TDS (-100 mg/L), which is blended -50% with a low TDS (288 mg/L) native groundwater, making an injection water of -200 mg/L.

  9. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  10. Balanced charge injection in multilayer polymer light-emitting diode with water soluble nonconjugated polymer dispersed by ionic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Kyu; Chun, A.-Rum; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Choong-Gi; Kwon, Tae-Woo; Cho, Seong-Jin; Woo, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Jae-Gyoung; Lee, Suck-Hyun; Guo, Zhi-Xin

    2007-07-01

    The authors have fabricated highly efficient polymeric light-emitting diode (PLED) from ionic compound dispersed water soluble nonconjugated polymer, polyurethane (PU), which was used as an ultrathin hole blocking and electron injection layer (HB-EIL) on the top of commercially available blue-emitting polymer, polyfluorene. The device with HB-EIL showed a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.7%, while the one without HB-EIL showed an efficiency of 0.6%. They propose that the better performance in PLED with PU layer was due to a well balanced charge injection in emitting layer after the enhanced electron injection due to ionic compound in the insulating PU layer.

  11. Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ning-Fei; Shyy, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

  12. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    SciTech Connect

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes

  13. The Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient of Liquid Carbon Dioxide Injected Into Water Saturated Berea Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. R.; Glaser, S. D.; Morrison, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    The streaming potential coupling coefficient was determined for a liquid carbon dioxide flood of a water-saturated sample of Berea sandstone. The coupling coefficient for the rock/water case was determined both before and after each CO2 flood of three samples using a low-pressure static head method. Next, liquid CO2 was allowed to flow through each sample. As the CO2 displaced the water the coupling coefficient decreased. At longer times, when all mobile pore water was displaced, the coupling coefficient maintained a steady state, and was lower than that for water by about 10 times. The results of this testing reveal a coupling coefficient of 30 mV/0.1MPa, for 125 Ohm-m water flow through the sample, and 3.0 mV / 0.1 MPa for liquid CO2 flow. Calculated zeta potentials are -3.4 mV using water as the pore fluid and -1.7 x 10-6 mV for liquid CO2. We propose that the lower coupling coefficient for CO2 flow is primarily a result of changes in zeta potential, since changes in pore fluid resistivity and viscosity would act to increase the coupling coefficient. Zeta potential for the liquid CO2 / mineral interface is a function of the low polarity and lack of mobile ions associated with liquid CO2. We find no anomalous 2-phase liquid/gas effects, which may have augmented single-phase streaming potentials by many times. We propose that although CO2 gas may have been present for some of the higher pressure drop events, the low gas fraction (or quality) of the two-phase mixture did not lead to any significant anomalous or augmented observations. Implications of this work include spatial and temporal monitoring of CO2 injectate in subsurface reservoirs and the identification of flow paths, with the recommendation being to attempt to image the advancing CO2/water front, where the coupling coefficient is higher.

  14. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused

  15. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  16. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  17. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  18. Geochemical changes in pore water and reservoir rock due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Farhana; Blum, Philipp; Nowak, Marcus; Haderlein, Stefan; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In response to current global warming, carbon capture and storage has been identified as one of the promising option. Thus, it can be an interim solution that is indeed a bridge to the future renewable energy without altering the present mode of energy consumption. Although large natural CO2 sinks are terrestrial eco-system and oceans, geological media or more specifically large sedimentary basins are now the most feasible options for carbon sequestration. At the study site, a former gas field (Altmark), which is located in the South of the Northeast German Basin, CO2 is planned to be injected into the reservoir with high pressure (> 50 bar) and temperature (125°C). Afterwards, CO2 dissolves into the pore water leading to acidification and follow up reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, which potentially change the porosity-permeability of the reservoir and the wetting properties of the mineral surfaces. The Altmark site was chosen due to its large storage capacity, well explored reservoir, high seal integrity due to the presence of massive salt layer (cap rock) and existing infrastructure required for enhanced gas recovery. The main objective of the current study is to quantify the CO2 trapping in aqueous solution under in situ reservoir condition. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions and to quantify the concentrations of complexing agents that might influence the concentration of total dissolved CO2 in aqueous solution over time. To observe these geochemical and hydraulic changes due to the injection of CO2, a closed system (batch system) technique is developed to study the influence of salinity, temperature, pressure and kinetics on mineral reactions. In addition to the closed system, a flow through (open) autoclave system was constructed. Water saturated sedimentary rock cores (e.g. from the Altmark site; 5cm long, 3cm diameter) are

  19. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  20. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  1. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID

  2. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images

  3. Detecting potential impacts of deep subsurface CO2 injection on shallow drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Presented here are results from one aspect of collective research conducted at Gulf Coast Carbon Center, BEG, Jackson School at UT Austin. The biggest hurdle to public acceptance of CCS is to show that drinking water resources will not be impacted. Since late 1990s our group has been supported by US DOE NETL and private industry to research how best to detect potential impacts to shallow (0 to ~0.25 km) subsurface drinking water from deep (~1 to 3.5 km) injection of CO2. Work has and continues to include (1) field sampling and testing, (2) laboratory batch experiments, (3) geochemical modeling. The objective has been to identify the most sensitive geochemical indicators using data from research-level investigations, which can be economically applied on an industrial-scale. The worst-case scenario would be introduction of CO2 directly into drinking water from a leaking wellbore at a brownfield site. This is unlikely for a properly screened and/or maintained site, but needs to be considered. Our results show aquifer matrix (carbonate vs. clastic) to be critical to interpretation of pH and carbonate (DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) parameters because of the influence of water-rock reaction (buffering vs. non-buffering) on aqueous geochemistry. Field groundwater sampling sites to date are Cranfield, MS and SACROC, TX CO2-EOR oilfields. Two major aquifer types are represented, one dominated by silicate (Cranfield) and the other by carbonate (SACROC) water-rock reactions. We tested sensitivity of geochemical indicators (pH, DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) by modeling the effects of increasing pCO2 on aqueous geochemistry, and laboratory batch experiments, both with partial pressure of CO2 gas (pCO2) at 1x105 Pa (1 atm). Aquifer matrix and groundwater data provided constraints for the geochemical models. We used results from modeling and batch experiments to rank geochemical parameter sensitivity to increased pCO2 into weakly, mildly and strongly sensitive

  4. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, C.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The 250 sq mi area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex geohydrologic system having diverse groundwater quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 ft. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding, supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Potential groundwater contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and injected into deep zones. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day (gpd) into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 ft below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gpd for 10 years. 63 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  6. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  7. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and

  8. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  9. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  10. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  11. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  12. Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

  13. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  14. Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

  15. Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    1999-07-01

    Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes

  16. Screening and evaluation of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in seawater and effluent water injection systems in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Carew, J.

    1999-11-01

    Injection water sources in Kuwait range from brackish water (TDS=4000 mg/l) through seawater (TDS = 30,000 mg/l) to high saline brines (TDS = 200,000 mg/l). Some of these water sources are highly sulfide sour and may require treatment to prevent scaling, corrosion or iron sulfide precipitation. Another particular problem in water injection systems is the uncontrolled growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which leads to increased corrosion of the process plant. Therefore, evaluation schemes were undertaken to study the relative risks of MIC in a range of Kuwait`s water sources, using a combination of field sampling and laboratory biofouling trials. Recirculating biofouling loops were set up with the appropriate site water, and inoculated with the bacteria from the system so that an active biofilm was set up on small studs. These biofouled studs were treated with proprietary biocide inhibitors under various dose rates in order to select the most appropriate control regime for particular water chemistries and process options.

  17. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  18. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Piceno, Yvette M; Reid, Francine C; Tom, Lauren M; Conrad, Mark E; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G; Fouke, Bruce W; Graff, Craig J; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24-27°C), Kuparuk (47-70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80-83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ(13)C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  19. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  20. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  1. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  2. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lenchi, Nesrine; Inceoğlu, Ozgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  3. Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  4. Sterilization of oil-field re-injection water using combination treatment of pulsed electric field and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2009-01-01

    It was necessary to sterilize the oil-field re-injection water for biocorrosion inhibition. Saprophytic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria were the three main microorganisms resulting in the microbial contamination. To enhance the sterilization efficiency of oil-field re-injection water by pulsed electric field (PEF), the combined treatment of PEF and ultrasound was explored in the study. Meanwhile, the effects of PEF, ultrasound and the combination treatment on the three bacteria inactivation were investigated. The combination treatment had higher inactivation efficiency than independent PEF as well as ultrasound. Obvious synergistic effects were also observed on the inactivation of saprophytic bacteria and iron bacteria by the combined treatment. PMID:18567526

  5. The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

  6. Wastewater injection, aquifer biogeochemical reactions, and resultant groundwater N fluxes to coastal waters: Kā'anapali, Maui, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Fackrell, Joseph K; Glenn, Craig R; Popp, Brian N; Whittier, Robert B; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-09-15

    We utilize N and C species concentration data along with δ(15)N values of NO3(-) and δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions (mineralization, nitrification, anammox, and denitrification) occurring within a subsurface wastewater plume that originates as treated wastewater injection and enters the coastal waters of Maui as submarine groundwater discharge. Additionally, we compare wastewater effluent time-series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring discharge time-series data. We find that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N loss within the groundwater plume and that chlorination for pathogen disinfection suppresses microbial activity in the aquifer responsible for N loss, resulting in increased coastal ocean N loading. Replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore biogeochemical reactions responsible for N loss within the aquifer and return N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N loading to coastal waters. PMID:27339740

  7. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

  8. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  9. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  10. Water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers as highly efficient electron transporting/injection layer in optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers (WSCPs) can be processed from water or other polar solvents, which offer good opportunities to avoid interfacial mixing upon fabrication of multilayer polymer optoelectronic devices by solution processing, and can dramatically improve charge injection from high work-function metal cathode resulting in greatly enhancement of the device performance. In this critical review, the authors provide a brief review of recent developments in this field, including the materials design, functional principles, and their unique applications as interface modification layer in solution-processable multilayer optoelectronic devices (135 references). PMID:20571672

  11. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  12. Effect of sodium bisulfite injection on the microbial community composition in a brackish-water-transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W; Caffrey, Sean M; Jack, Thomas R; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-10-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  13. Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline▿†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  14. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

    2008-07-01

    During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

  16. Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

  17. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

  18. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  19. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  20. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  1. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  2. Water/alcohol soluble electron injection material containing azacrown ether groups: synthesis, characterization and application to enhancement of electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shing; Lu, Huai-An; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Using an environmentally stable metal as the cathode in a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) is an essential requirement for its practical application. We present the preparation of a water/alcohol soluble copoly(p-phenylene) (P1) containing pendant azacrown ether and ethylene glycol ether groups as a highly efficient electron injection layer (EIL) for PLEDs, allowing the use of environmentally stable aluminum as the cathode. Multilayer PLEDs [ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PF-Green-B/EIL/Al] using P1 as EIL exhibit significantly enhanced device performance, particularly in the presence of K2CO3 or Cs2CO3. The maximum luminous power efficiency and maximum luminance of the device with Cs2CO3-doped P1 as EIL were enhanced to 9.16 lm W(-1) and 17,050 cd m(-2), respectively, compared with those without EIL (0.16 lm W(-1), 890 cd m(-2)). The turn-on voltage was also significantly reduced from 5.7 V to 3.7 V simultaneously. The performance enhancement has been attributed to improved electron injection which has been confirmed by the rise in open-circuit voltage (Voc) obtained from photovoltaic measurements. The incorporation of such an electron injection layer significantly enhances device performance for PLEDs with an environmentally stable metal as the cathode. PMID:24442208

  3. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  4. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  5. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  6. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  7. Observations of Lower Stratospheric Water Vapor Injected by Overshooting Convection During SEAC4RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. L.; Ray, E. A.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Troy, R. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Chin, K. B.; Stachnik, R. A.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Bedka, K. M.; Bui, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Several NASA ER-2 aircraft flights during the 2013 NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission sampled the UTLS region heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon (NAM). Enhanced water vapor was measured in the lower stratosphere between 160 hPa and 80 hPa over the continental United States. Here we present in-situ water vapor measurements from the improved JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) to characterize the NAM water vapor field during August and September 2013. Overshooting cloud tops are identified from a SEAC4RS overshooting top (OT) detection product that is based on infrared satellite imagery. Back-trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to overshooting cloud tops 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  8. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid. The present method allowed the determination of thiram in the concentration range of 7.5-2500 ng/mL and the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 7.5 ng/mL with sample throughput of 120/h. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 10 replicate analyses of 500 ng/mL thiram. The effects of foreign species including various anions and cations present in water at environmentally relevant concentrations and some pesticides were also investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine thiram in spiked natural waters using octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The recoveries were in the range 99 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1%. PMID:19630089

  9. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  10. Mobilization of waterflood residual oil by gas injection for water-wet conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Billiotte, J. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that mechanisms by which waterflood residual oil is mobilized and recovered during tertiary gasflooding at quasistatic rates and strongly water-wet conditions were investigated with 2D glass micromodels. Two three-phase oil/water/gas systems were used in the displacement experiments. One system had a positive spreading coefficient, the other a negative coefficient. Results for the two systems were compared to determine the differences in displacement mechanisms and oil recovery efficiency. Displacement in both systems proceeds by a double-drainage mechanism where a gas/oil displacement is always associated with an oil/water displacement. The oil/water displacement leads to coalescence and reconnection of oil blobs. Oil recovery was significantly higher for the positive spreading system. The higher displacement efficiency resulted from flow through thin but continuous oil films that always separated the oil and water phases in the positive spreading system. The absence of oil films and the possibility of direct gas/water displacements reduced oil recovery for the negative spreading system.

  11. Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: signal enhancement by water vapor injection.

    PubMed

    Mouhib, Taoufiq; Delcorte, Arnaud; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the sample surface, of H(2)O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally improved with increasing H(2)O pressure upon 12 keV Ga(+) bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly demonstrated in each case. For instance, the presence of H(2)O vapor induces an enhancement by one order of magnitude of the [M + H](+) static SIMS intensity for the antioxidant Irgafos 168 and a ∼1.5-fold increase for polymers such as poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). PMID:20864353

  12. Proton-Induced Trap States, Injection and Recombination Dynamics in Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Saunders, Timothy P; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) utilize a sensitized metal oxide and a water oxidation catalyst in order to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. Although the Faradaic efficiency of water splitting is close to unity, the recombination of photogenerated electrons with oxidized dye molecules causes the quantum efficiency of these devices to be low. It is therefore important to understand recombination mechanisms in order to develop strategies to minimize them. In this paper, we discuss the role of proton intercalation in the formation of recombination centers. Proton intercalation forms nonmobile surface trap states that persist on time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than the electron lifetime in TiO2. As a result of electron trapping, recombination with surface-bound oxidized dye molecules occurs. We report a method for effectively removing the surface trap states by mildly heating the electrodes under vacuum, which appears to primarily improve the injection kinetics without affecting bulk trapping dynamics, further stressing the importance of proton control in WS-DSPECs. PMID:27295276

  13. Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

    2010-07-15

    There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories. PMID:20602952

  14. Suppression of formation of dioxins in combustion gas of municipal waste incinerators by spray water injection.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Eiji; Shigechi, Toru; Takemasa, Takehiro; Momoki, Satoru; Arizono, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dioxins in the combustion gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are resynthesized when the combustion gas passes from the outlet exaust gas boiler to the outlet gas duct. The objective of the study was to estimate if the suppression of the formation of dioxins depends on the inlet gas temperature and diameter and/or temperature of droplet spray water using an actual incinerator operation data. The dioxin formation and/or the quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water. The evaporation rate of a spray water droplet also can be estimated using the Mizutani theory. The highest dioxin formation was found at 350 degrees C; thereafter, it decreased quickly. When an area of 500 microm for droplet-formed dioxins is defined as 100%, the values of formed dioxins for 400, 300, 200 and 100 microm droplet areas are estimated as 71, 41, 25 and 18%, respectively. It is revealed that the smaller size of droplet spray water and lower inlet gas temperature enable the decrease in dioxin formation. The decreased dioxin formation and/or the lower quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water size. PMID:18382417

  15. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, J.Z.; Geng, Z.S.; Zhang, Y.H.; Feng, J.Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, X.B.

    2016-01-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  16. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Z; Geng, Z S; Zhang, Y H; Feng, J Y; Zhu, P; Zhang, X B

    2016-03-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  17. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  18. Hot Microbubble Injection in Thin Liquid Film Layers for Ammonia-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Pratik; Zimmerman, William

    2015-11-01

    140 MT of NH3 produced p.a. barely keeps up with the global usage of this ubiquitously used commodity. NH3 manufacture & later remediation from landfill leachate to lower eco-toxicity makes further demands on the energy utilised for this ``NH3 cycle.'' Moreover, current methods for lowering eco-toxicity destroy NH3 rather than recovering it. Air stripping is a widely employed low energy industrial process used for NH3 recovery but has a long processing time- ≅24h for 60% efficiency & 100h for 95% efficiency. The solution presented herein is based on hot microbubble injection in thin liquid film layers designed to separate NH3 from NH3-H2O solutions. The transport phenomena exhibited by the microbubbles helps them separate volatile liquids effectively with negligible sensible heat transfer. This process is nearly isothermal simply because evaporation by microbubbles is controlled by internal mixing, which is fast relative to sensible heat transfer, when limited to short contact times in thin films. A 1000-3000-fold increase in mass transfer, over conventional stripping, and a 100% separation efficiency achieved in a processing time of 30 minutes is observed, potentially, if persisting with industrial scale up, resulting in a 200-fold reduction in processing time. The authors would like to acknowledge contributions from Michael Turley MEng - University of Sheffield and Richard Robinson from Viridor for their help and support as well as EPSRC Grant Number EP/K001329/1 - ``4CU''.

  19. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed. PMID:26960615

  20. Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-04-15

    This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

  1. The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W.

    1997-08-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

  2. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  3. Determination of sulphate in water and biodiesel samples by a sequential injection analysis--multivariate curve resolution method.

    PubMed

    del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-08-31

    A spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis (SIA-DAD) method linked to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) has been developed for sulphate determination. This method involves the reaction, inside the tubes of the SIA system, of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo (III) complex, Ba-DMSA (III), displacing Ba(2+) from the complex and forming DMSA (III). When the reaction products reach the detector a data matrix is obtained, which allows a second-order calibration to be developed. The experimental conditions (concentration and sample and reagent volumes) to obtain the highest sensitivity have been chosen applying a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The proposed sequential flow procedure permits up to 15 mg SO(4)(2-) L(-1) to be determined with a limit of detection of 1.42 mg L(-1) and it is able to monitor sulphate in samples at a frequency of 15 samples per hour. The method was applied to determine sulphate in natural and residual waters and in biodiesel. The reliability of the method was established for water samples by parallel determination using a standard turbidimetric method for sulphate in natural and residual water samples with results within statistical variation. For biodiesel samples, the method was validated comparing the concentration of some spiked samples with the expected concentration using a test-t. PMID:20800738

  4. Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

  5. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    PubMed

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. PMID:24355513

  6. Modeling Convective Injection of Water Vapor into the Lower Stratosphere in the Mid-Latitudes over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess

  7. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-01

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H2O and C produces H2 gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H2 generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N2 flow can purge H2O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H2 gas production and water temperature.

  8. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-15

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H{sub 2}O and C produces H{sub 2} gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H{sub 2} generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N{sub 2} flow can purge H{sub 2}O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H{sub 2} gas production and water temperature.

  9. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  10. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  11. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  12. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  13. Direct injection analysis of fatty and resin acids in papermaking process waters by HPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Valto, Piia; Knuutinen, Juha; Alén, Raimo

    2011-04-01

    A novel HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS (HPLC-APCI/MS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of selected fatty and resin acids typically present in papermaking process waters. A mixture of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and dehydroabietic acids was separated by a commercial HPLC column (a modified stationary C(18) phase) using gradient elution with methanol/0.15% formic acid (pH 2.5) as a mobile phase. The internal standard (myristic acid) method was used to calculate the correlation coefficients and in the quantitation of the results. In the thorough quality parameters measurement, a mixture of these model acids in aqueous media as well as in six different paper machine process waters was quantitatively determined. The measured quality parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy, clearly indicated that, compared with traditional gas chromatographic techniques, the simple method developed provided a faster chromatographic analysis with almost real-time monitoring of these acids. PMID:21360668

  14. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  15. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

  16. Novel flow injection analysis methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water.

    PubMed

    Elsuccary, S A A; Salem, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    This work describes rapid, sensitive and highly precise methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water samples, using batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques. The proposed methods are based on the selective oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) by iron(III). The absorbance of the resultant green solution of radical cation (ABTS(·+)) was monitored spectrophotometrically at λ max=415 nm. The reaction is stoichiometric with a ratio of 1:1 (Fe(III):ABTS) as determined by Job's and molar ratio methods. The proposed methods allow for the determination of Fe(III) in the ranges 0-4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 25.5 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.97%, n=7); 0 to 4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 370 µg L(-1), %RSD 1.28%, n=7) and 0 to 2.7 mg L(-1) (81.6 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.76%, n=6) for batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques, respectively. The proposed methods show high selectivity to Fe(III), as indicated by the high tolerance limits for common interfering ions. The nFIA method was applied in total iron assay in camel blood serum, whereas batch and rFIA methods were successful in the determination of total iron in municipal pipeline water and spiked groundwater. Statistical analysis indicated insignificant differences in accuracy and precision between the results obtained by the developed methods and ICP-AES or phenanthroline methods. PMID:25281080

  17. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ... syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  18. Performance comparison of several response surface surrogate models and ensemble methods for water injection optimization under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Masoud; Pan, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we defined a relatively complex reservoir engineering optimization problem of maximizing the net present value of the hydrocarbon production in a water flooding process by controlling the water injection rates in multiple control periods. We assessed the performance of a number of response surface surrogate models and their ensembles which are combined by Dempster-Shafer theory and Weighted Averaged Surrogates as found in contemporary literature works. Most of these ensemble methods are based on the philosophy that multiple weak learners can be leveraged to obtain one strong learner which is better than the individual weak ones. Even though these techniques have been shown to work well for test bench functions, we found them not offering a considerable improvement compared to an individually used cubic radial basis function surrogate model. Our simulations on two and three dimensional cases, with varying number of optimization variables suggest that cubic radial basis functions-based surrogate model is reliable, outperforms Kriging surrogates and multivariate adaptive regression splines, and if it does not outperform, it is rarely outperformed by the ensemble surrogate models.

  19. Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.

    PubMed

    Drønen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

    2014-01-01

    Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 × 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 μmol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

  20. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  1. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  2. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  3. Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determination in natural waters using Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Vieira, Heberth J; Canaes, Larissa S; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2005-02-28

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of chloride ion in natural waters. The determination of chloride was carried out by reaction with Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in an epoxy resin bead in a solid-phase reactor (SPR) and the thiocyanate ions released were determined spectrophotometrically at 480nm after complexing reaction with Fe(III). The analytical curve for chloride was linear in the concentration range from 5.6 x 10(-5) to 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-5)moll(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.2% for a solution containing 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) (n = 10). The simple manifold allows a routine analytical frequency of 100 determinations per hour. The main advantage of the developed method is the 400% reduction of the Hg waste solution generated when compared to conventional methods for chloride determination based on the same spectrophotometric reaction. PMID:18969896

  4. Efficacy of postoperative bladder irrigation with water for injection in reducing recurrence rates of non muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Nikolaos; Hastazeris, Konstantinos; Kafarakis, Vasileios; Tsimaris, Ioannis; Aspiotis, Spiridon; Stratis, Antonios; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the results of bladder irrigation with Water for Injection (WFI) after transurethral resection of bladder tumours for comparison with those for adjuvant use of BCG. A total of 239 patients (158 with single tumours, group A, and 81 with multiple tumours, group B) received continuous intravesical postoperative irrigation with WFI. Some 128 patients received intravesical irrigation with WFI, followed by weekly instillations of BCG (group C). Recurrence-free rate (RFR) and recurrence-free intervals (RFI) were recorded. RFR for those patients who received only intravesical irrigation with WFI (groups A and B) was 75.8%, 66.2% and 63.2% at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of follow up, respectively. Corresponding rates for group C were 61.7%, 55.4% and 49%. Median RFI in group B were 18, 11, 15, 15 and 12 months for Ta, T1, grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 tumours, respectively. In group C corresponding intervals were 20, 33, 8, 20 and 42 months. BCG improved RFR only in T1 (p=0.014) and grade 3 tumours (p=0.007). In conclusion, postoperative bladder irrigation with WFI could increase RFR during the first and second year of follow up. PMID:24716967

  5. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  6. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  8. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  9. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  10. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process. PMID:26203225

  11. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  12. Geomechanical simulation of the stress tensor rotation caused by injection of cold water in a deep geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Borgia, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional thermohydromechanical numerical study of the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (in California), including a detailed study of the region around one injection well from 2003 to 2012. Initially, after imposing a normal faulting stress regime, we calculated local changes in the stress regime around injection wells. Our results were compared with previously published studies in which the stress state was inferred from inverting the focal plane mechanism of seismic events. Our main finding is that changes in stress tensor orientation are caused by injection-induced progressive cooling of the reservoir, as well as by the seasonal variations in injection rate. Because of the gravity flow and cooling around a liquid zone formed by the injection, the vertical stress reduction is larger and propagates far below the injection well. At the same time, the horizontal stress increases, mostly because of stress redistribution below and above the cooling area. These two phenomena cause the rotation of the stress tensor and the appearance of a strike-slip regime above, inside, and below the cooling area. The cooling and the associated rotation of the stress regime can play a significant role in the observed long-term deepening of the microseismicity below active injection wells.

  13. Ammonium Concentrations in Produced Waters from a Mesothermic Oil Field Subjected to Nitrate Injection Decrease through Formation of Denitrifying Biomass and Anammox Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cornish Shartau, Sabrina L.; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P.; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera “Candidatus Brocadia” and “Candidatus Kuenenia,” indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters. PMID:20562276

  14. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Freshwater Injection Wells in Mitigating Ground-Water Quality Degradation at Selected Well Fields in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.

    2004-01-01

    The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina

  15. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value. PMID:26839549

  17. Development of a simultaneous analysis method for carbofuran and its three derivative pesticides in water by GC/MS with temperature programmable inlet on-column injection.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Makihata, Nobuko

    2003-12-01

    A simultaneous analytical method was examined for carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in water. Since carbofuran derivatives are hydrolyzed to carbofuran in water, the liquid-liquid extraction method was used to obtain an accurate concentration value. Moreover, since these compounds are easily decomposed at the GC/MS injection port, temperature programmable inlet on-column injection was used. By combining the two methods, a sensitive analytical method was established without hydrolysis and thermal decomposition. As a result of recovery experiments using distilled water, river water and tap water, acceptable recovery rates and favorable reproducibility were obtained. This method was used in a field investigation to determine carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in river water taken from three points of the Y river over a period of one year. Carbofuran, benfuracarb, and carbosulfan were detected and corresponded to the period when these pesticides were used in the area. Although benfuracarb and carbosulfan using traditional methods are believed to easily hydrolyze and thermally decompose during the analytical process, by using our method they can be detected. PMID:14696922

  18. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  19. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

  20. Dynamics of Electron Injection in SnO2/TiO2 Core/Shell Electrodes for Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) rely on photoinduced charge separation at a dye/semiconductor interface to supply electrons and holes for water splitting. To improve the efficiency of charge separation and reduce charge recombination in these devices, it is possible to use core/shell structures in which photoinduced electron transfer occurs stepwise through a series of progressively more positive acceptor states. Here, we use steady-state emission studies and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to follow the dynamics of electron injection from a photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl dye as a function of the TiO2 shell thickness on SnO2 nanoparticles. Electron injection proceeds directly into the SnO2 core when the thickness of the TiO2 shell is less than 5 Å. For thicker shells, electrons are injected into the TiO2 shell and trapped, and are then released into the SnO2 core on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. As the TiO2 shell increases in thickness, the probability of electron trapping in nonmobile states within the shell increases. Conduction band electrons in the TiO2 shell and the SnO2 core can be differentiated on the basis of their mobility. These observations help explain the observation of an optimum shell thickness for core/shell water-splitting electrodes. PMID:27414977

  1. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  2. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test itsapplicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, wedeveloped a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection andsubsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the producedfluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was usedto describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of thefractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rockmatrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals(K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of themetagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initialsimulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir willbecome more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with amodern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that thesechanges will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. Theeffects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhatbecause of the dissolution of matrix calcite with "dead"carbon.

  3. Water chemistry at Hontomín-Huermeces (Burgos, Spain): insights for a pre-, intra- and post-CO2 injection geochemical monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; de Elio, Javier; Delgado Huertas, António; Mazadiego, Luis Felipe; Ortega, Marcelo F.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the very first geochemical and isotopic data related to surface and spring waters and dissolved gases in the area of Hontomín-Huermeces (Burgos, Spain) are presented and discussed. Hontomín-Huermeces was selected as a pilot site for the injection of pure (>99 %) CO2. Injection and monitoring wells are planned to be drilled close to 6 oil wells completed in the 1980's. Stratigraphical logs indicate the presence of a confined saline aquifer at the depth of about 1,500 m into which less than 100,000 tons of liquid CO2 will be injected, possibly starting in 2013. The chemical and isotopic features of the spring waters suggest the occurrence of a shallow aquifer having a Ca2+(Mg2+)-HCO3- composition, relatively low salinity (Total Dissolved Solids ≈800 mg/L) and a meteoric isotopic signature. Some spring waters close to the oil wells are characterized by relatively high concentrations of NO3- (up to 123 mg/L), unequivocally indicating anthropogenic contamination that adds to the main water-rock interaction processes. The latter can be referred to Ca-Mg-carbonate and, at a minor extent, Al-silicate dissolution, being the outcropping sedimentary rocks characterized by Palaeozoic to Quaternary rocks. Anomalous concentrations of Cl-, SO42-, As, B and Ba were measured in two springs discharging a few hundreds meters from the oil wells and in the Rio Ubierna, possibly indicative of mixing processes, although at very low extent, between deep and shallow aquifers. Gases dissolved in spring waters show relatively high concentrations of atmospheric species, such as N2, O2 and Ar, and isotopically negative CO2 (<-17.7 ‰ V-PDB), likely related to a biogenic source, possibly masking any contribution related to a deep source. The geochemical and isotopic data of this study are of particular importance when a monitoring program will be established to verify whether CO2 leakages, induced by the injection of this greenhouse gas, may affect the quality of the waters

  4. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  5. Reanalysis Study of the North American Monsoon and its Effect on Convective Injection of Water Vapor from the Troposphere to the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of elevated stratospheric water vapor concentrations poses significant consequences for stratospheric ozone. With high concentrations of water vapor at low temperatures, inorganic chlorine can enter a heterogeneous chemical regime in which it becomes processed into the chlorine radical. The chlorine radical drives the catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Historically the intersection of low temperatures and high water vapor concentrations has been isolated to the polar vortexes. However, convection over the mid-latitude United States has been observed in isotopic data to inject water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere (Hanisco et al. 2007). The consequent elevated levels of stratospheric water vapor may lead to catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes thereupon resulting in increased UV exposure at the Earth's surface and increased risk to public health (Anderson et al. 2012). It is therefore critical to identify the climatology of the stratosphere that may exacerbate or mitigate the elevated water vapor conditions. Specifically we investigate the North American monsoon and its effect on perpetuating conditions of high water vapor concentrations. An analysis of relative vorticity from the ERA-interim and MERRA reanalyses over the United States from 2000 to 2013 reveal the consistent formation of the monsoon during the months of July and August and frequently June. An examination of circulation during the same time period allows us to estimate the monsoon's stability. Furthermore, using potential vorticity as a tracer we see further evidence of the monsoon's effect on keeping moist air masses over the United States. Finally, the analyzed dynamics of the North American Monsoon may explain the fact that NEXRAD observations of convective injection of water occur most strongly in the Spring months while the EOS MLS instrument detects the majority of high water vapor observations during the Summer months.

  6. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  7. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  8. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  9. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  10. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  11. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  12. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  13. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  14. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  15. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  16. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  17. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  18. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  19. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  20. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  1. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  3. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  5. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  6. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  8. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  9. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  10. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  11. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  12. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  13. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  15. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  17. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  18. On-line separation for the speciation of mercury in natural waters by flow injection-cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jon; Raposo, Juan Carlos; Larreta, Joana; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Inorganic mercury and methylmercury are determined in natural waters by injecting the filtered samples onto a low cost commercial flow injection system in which an anion exchange microcolumn is inserted after the injection loop (FIA-IE). If hydrochloric acid is used as the carrier solution, the HgCl4(2-) species (inorganic mercury) will be retained by the anion exchanger while the CH3HgCI species (methylmercury) will flow through the resin with negligible retention. Four anion exchangers and seven elution agents were checked, in a batch mode, to search for the best conditions for optimal separation and elution of both species. Dowex M-41 and L-cysteine were finally selected. Mercury detection was performed by cold vapour-electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry (HG-ETAAS). Both systems were coupled to perform the continuous on-line separation/detection of both inorganic mercury and methylmercury species. Separation and detection conditions were optimized by two chemometric approaches: full factorial design and central composite design. A limit of detection of 0.4 microg L(-1) was obtained for both mercury species (RSD < 3.0% for 20 microg L(-1) inorganic and methylmercury solutions). The method was applied to mercury speciation in natural waters of the Nerbioi-lbaizabal estuary (Bilbao, North of Spain) and recoveries of more than 95% were obtained. PMID:15537077

  19. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  20. Investigation of parameter estimation and impact of injection rate on relative permeability measurements for supercritical CO2 and water by unsteady-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is a promising option for mitigating climate changes. To predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a deep reservoir, relative permeability of supercritical CO2 and water of the reservoir rock is one of the most fundamental and influential properties. For determining the relative permeability, we employed the unsteady state method, in which the relative permeability is determined based on history matching of transient monitoring data with a multi-phase flow model. The unsteady-state method is relatively simple and short, but obviously its accuracy strongly depends on the flow model assumed in the history matching. In this study, we conducted relative permeability measurements of supercritical CO2-water system for Berea sandstone with the unsteady-state method under a reservoir condition at a 1km depth (P= 9.5MPa, T = 44˚C). Automatic history matching was performed with an inversion simulator iTOUGH2/ECO2N for multi-phase flow system of supercritical CO2, NaCl, and water. A sensitivity analysis of relative permeability parameters for CO2 and water was carried out to better understand the uniqueness and the uncertainty of the optimum solution estimated by the history matching. Among the parameters of the Corey-type curve employed in this study, while the end-point permeability could be optimized in a limited range, the other parameters were correlated and their combinations were not unique. However it was found that any combination of these parameters results in nearly identical shapes of the curve in the range of CO2 saturation in this study (0 to 60%). The optimally estimated curve from the unsteady-method was well comparable with those from the steady-state method acquired in the previous studies. Our experiment also focuses on the impact of injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability, as it is known that the injection rate could have a significant effect on fluid distribution such as viscous fingering with

  1. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of microbial responses to three in situ source removal remedial technologies including permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), six-phase heating (SPH), and steam injection (SI) was performed at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The investigatio...

  2. Preliminary Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling Study on Changes in Water Chemistry Induced by CO2 Injection at Frio Pilot Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.; Benson, S.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio ~{!0~}C~{!1~} sandstone layer at a depth of 1500 m over a period of 10 days. The pilot, located near Dayton, Texas, employed one injection well and one observation well, separated laterally by about 30 m. Each well was perforated over 6 m in the upper portion of the 23-m thick sandstone. Fluid samples were taken from both wells before, during, and after the injection. Following CO2 breakthrough, observations indicate drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in concentrations of HCO3- (100 to 3000 mg/L), in Fe (30 to 1100), and dissolved organic carbon. Numerical modeling was used in this study to understand changes of aqueous HCO3- and Fe caused by CO2 injection. The general multiphase reactive geochemical transport simulator TOUGHREACT was used, which includes new fluid property module ECO2N with an accurate description of the thermophysical properties of mixtures of water, brine, and CO2 at conditions of interest for CO2 storage. A calibrated 1-D radial well flow model was employed for the present reactive geochemical transport simulations. Mineral composition used was taken from literatures relevant to Frio sandstone. Increases in HCO3- concentration were well reproduced by an initial simulation. Several scenarios were used to capture increases in Fe concentration including (1) dissolution of carbonate minerals, (2) dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, (3) de-sorption of previously coated Fe. Future modeling, laboratory and field investigations are proposed to better understand the CO2-brine-mineral interactions at the Frio site. Results from this study could have broad implication for subsurface storage of CO2 and potential water quality impacts.

  3. Vertical-deformation, water-level, microgravity, geodetic, water-chemistry, and flow-rate data collected during injection, storage, and recovery tests at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, September 1995 through September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Ikehara, Marti E.; Howle, James F.

    2001-01-01

    A series of freshwater injection, storage, and recovery tests were conducted from September 1995 through September 1998 to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California. The tests used two production wells at a well field located in the southern part of the city of Lancaster. Monitoring networks were established at or in the vicinity of the test site to measure vertical deformation of the aquifer system, water-level fluctuations, land-surface deformation, water chemistry, and injection well flow rates during water injection and recovery. Data presented in this report were collected from a dual extensometer; 10 piezometers; 1 barometer; 27 active or abandoned production wells; 31 gravity stations; 124 bench marks; 1 permanent and 1 temporary continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) station; 3 tiltmeters; and 2 electromagnetic flowmeters from September 1995 through September 1998. This report discusses the location and design of the monitoring networks and the methods used to collect and process the data, and presents the data in tables and graphs.

  4. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  5. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  6. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  7. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  8. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  9. Direct aqueous injection LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of water for 11 chloro- and thiomethyltriazines and metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Mayer, Thomas J; Yokley, Robert A

    2008-04-23

    A multianalyte method is reported for the determination of atrazine, simazine, propazine, and their respective dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites; ametryn and prometryn and their respective dealkylated thiomethyltriazine metabolites; and S-metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in deionized, ground, surface, and finished drinking water. Water samples are analyzed using direct aqueous injection (DAI) liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). No preanalysis sample manipulation is required other than transfer of a small portion of sample to an injection vial. The lower limit of the method validation is 0.050 microg/L (ppb) for all analytes except 2,4-diamino-6-chloro- s-triazine (didealkylatrazine, DDA, or G-28273). For this compound the LLMV is 0.50 microg/L (ppb). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) for all water types for all analytes ranged from 95 to 101% (4.5-11%). The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160. PMID:18373350

  10. Use of computed tomography-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium to identify the origin of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Otake, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichi; Inoue, Mikihiro; Koike, Yuhki; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Contrast lymphangiography is a useful technique to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in the patient with chylous ascites. Conventional lymphangiography with lipid-soluble contrast material carries the disadvantage of complications, such as oil emboli and lymphedema. The authors report a successful case of computed tomography (CT)-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium into a lower limb lymphatic vessel to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in a pediatric patient with refractory primary chylous ascites. The patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ligation of the leaking site and recovered well. This novel technique offers superior potential for preoperative assessment and the planning of laparoscopic repair. PMID:26993687

  11. Aquifer Biogeochemistry and N Flux to Coastal Waters from Injected Wastewater Effluent in Kā´anapali, Maui, Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fackrell, J.; Glenn, C. R.; Popp, B. N.; Whittier, R. B.; Dulaiova, H.

    2015-12-01

    We utilized N and C species concentration data along with δ15N values of dissolved NO3- and δ13C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions occurring within a subsurface plume originating from underground wastewater effluent injection at Lahaina Wastewater Reclamation Facility (LWRF) and discharging at several nearby submarine springs. Additionally, we compared LWRF time series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring time series data to assess correlation between input and output variables. We found that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N attenuation within the effluent plume and that chlorination of injected effluent for disinfection purposes may suppress microbial activity responsible for this N attenuation, resulting in increased N loading to the coastal ocean. The replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore the biogeochemical reactions responsible for the N loss in the aquifer and return of N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N flux to coastal waters.

  12. Development of a sequential injection-square wave voltammetry method for determination of paraquat in water samples employing the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luciana B O; Infante, Carlos M C; Masini, Jorge C

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the development and optimization of a sequential injection method to automate the determination of paraquat by square-wave voltammetry employing a hanging mercury drop electrode. Automation by sequential injection enhanced the sampling throughput, improving the sensitivity and precision of the measurements as a consequence of the highly reproducible and efficient conditions of mass transport of the analyte toward the electrode surface. For instance, 212 analyses can be made per hour if the sample/standard solution is prepared off-line and the sequential injection system is used just to inject the solution towards the flow cell. In-line sample conditioning reduces the sampling frequency to 44 h(-1). Experiments were performed in 0.10 M NaCl, which was the carrier solution, using a frequency of 200 Hz, a pulse height of 25 mV, a potential step of 2 mV, and a flow rate of 100 µL s(-1). For a concentration range between 0.010 and 0.25 mg L(-1), the current (i(p), µA) read at the potential corresponding to the peak maximum fitted the following linear equation with the paraquat concentration (mg L(-1)): i(p) = (-20.5 ± 0.3)C (paraquat) - (0.02 ± 0.03). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 and 7.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery studies using spiked water samples that were also analyzed by molecular absorption spectrophotometry after reduction of paraquat with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium. No evidence of statistically significant differences between the two methods was observed at the 95% confidence level. PMID:20084371

  13. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  14. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  15. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  16. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  17. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  18. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  19. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  20. Pore-scale interfacial dynamics during gas-supersaturated water injection in porous media - on nucleation, growth and advection of disconnected fluid phases (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Ioannidis, M.

    2010-12-01

    Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas bubbles occur when injecting supersaturated aqueous phase into water-saturated porous media. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) has potentially significant applications in remediation of soils contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids and in enhanced oil recovery. Pore network simulations indicate the formation of a region near the injection boundary where gas phase nuclei are activated and grow by mass transfer from the flowing supersaturated aqueous phase. Ramified clusters of gas-filled pores develop which, owing to the low prevailing Bond number, grow laterally to a significant extent prior to the onset of mobilization, and are thus likely to coalesce. Gas cluster mobilization invariably results in fragmentation and stranding, such that a macroscopic region containing few tenuously connected large gas clusters is established. Beyond this region, gas phase nucleation and mass transfer from the aqueous phase are limited by diminishing supply of dissolved gas. New insights into SWI dynamics are obtained using rapid micro-visualization in transparent glass micromodels. Using high-speed imaging, we observe the nucleation, initial growth and subsequent fate (mobilization, fragmentation, collision, coalescence and stranding) of CO2 bubbles and clusters of gas-filled pores and analyze cluster population statistics. We find significant support for the development of invasion-percolation-like patterns, but also report on hitherto unaccounted for gas bubble behavior. Additionally, we report for the first time on the acoustic emission signature of SWI in porous media and relate it to the dynamics of bubble nucleation and growth. Finally, we identify the pore-scale mechanisms associated with the mobilization and subsequent recovery of a residual non-aqueous phase liquid due to gas bubble dynamics during SWI.

  1. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. PMID:25435219

  2. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  3. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and 6-chloronicotinic acid in environmental water with direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Noestheden, Matthew R; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, David

    2016-06-21

    An efficient, high throughput and cost-effective direct aqueous injection approach for the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and a common metabolite in environmental water has been described here. The method determines eight neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam) and 6-chloronicotinic acid (a common metabolite of the first generation neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and thiacloprid) without any sample enrichment/cleanup steps. The method detection limits are 2-8 ng/L for the neonicotinoids and 93 ng/L for 6-chloronicotinic acid. The performance of the QTRAP(®)5500 mass spectrometer was compared against a 4000QTRAP(®), and a QTRAP(®)6500, to provide insights for future method transfer among different generations of instrumentations. Critical mass spectrometric parameters such as collision energy were quite consistent among the three instruments evaluated. However, increased chemical background levels for some target compounds on the more sensitive instruments were observed. The application of differential ion mobility spectrometry combined with tandem mass spectrometry was demonstrated to have great potential in reducing chemical background and/or isobaric interferences inherited in sample matrices. This ISO 17025 accredited method was employed to quantitate neonicotinoids in Ontario stream water samples. Good correlation for analytical results of this direct aqueous injection approach and a previously published solid phase extraction approach warrant high confidence in data quality. PMID:27188316

  4. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  5. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  6. Safe havens and rough waters: Networks, place, and the navigation of risk among injection drug-using Malaysian fishermen

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke S.; Choo, Martin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among Malaysian fishermen is ten times that of the general population. Fishing boats are a key place where drug use occurs, but we know little about how these environments shape HIV risk behaviour. Utilizing Rhodes’ ‘risk environment’ framework, we assessed drug use contexts and how characteristics of place associated with fishing and fishermen’s social networks served as key axes along which drug use and HIV risk behaviour occurred. Methods Data were collected during 2009–2011 in Kuantan, a fishing port on the eastern coast of Malaysia, and include 28 in-depth interviews and 398 surveys collected using RDS. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of occupational, network and risk environment characteristics on unsafe injection behaviour and access to clean needles/syringes; qualitative data were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Drug injecting was common and occurred on boats, often with other crewmembers. Captains and crewmembers were aware of drug use. Unsafe injection practices were significantly associated with having a larger proportion of drug injectors in network (OR = 3.510, 95% CI = 1.053–11.700) and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR = 2.777, 95% CI = 1.018–7.576). Size of fishermen network (OR = 0.987, 95% CI = 0.977–0.996), crewmembers’ knowledge of drug use (OR = 7.234, 95% CI = 1.430–36.604), and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.025–0.720) predicted access to clean needles/syringes. Qualitative analyses revealed that occupational culture and social relationships on boats drove drug use and HIV risk. Conclusions While marginalized in broader society, the acceptance of drug use within the fishing community created occupational networks of risk. Fishing boats were spaces of both risk and safety; where drug users participated in the formal economy, but also where HIV risk behaviour occurred. Understanding the interplay between social networks and

  7. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    David, A R; McCormack, T; Worsfold, P J

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line copper-cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l(-1) NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l(-1) with a 260 microl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported. PMID:18924837

  8. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  9. Fundamental insights on impact of non-condensible gas evolution from coating pyrolysis and intentional injection on molten-aluminum water explosion onset during direct-chill casting

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Gulec, K.

    1998-05-01

    Explosive interactions between molten aluminum and water are being studied with a focus on fundamentals to determine what causes robust-enough triggers for explosion onset, to determine the extent of protection provided from various coatings and to develop a fundamentally-based simple, cost-effective novel methodology for prevention. The workscope includes experimentation and mathematical modeling of the interactions between molten metals and water at various different coated and uncoated surfaces. Phenomenological issues related to surface wettability, gas generation from coatings, charring of coatings, inertial constraint, melt temperature, water temperature, external shocks are being investigated systematically to gage their relative impact on the triggerability of surface-assisted steam explosions. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was designed and constructed as a rapid-turnaround, cost-effective, and safe means to address these phenomenological issues. Data from SETS tests have indicated that, non-condensible gas (NCG) generation during paint pyrolysis plays a predominant role in explosion prevention. This paper describes results of studies on impact of deliberate NCG injection on explosion prevention, via molten melt drops free-falling into water, as well as from tests using the SETS facility for studying entrapment induced explosive boiling. SETS is also being used to obtain information on time-varying and integral amounts of NCGs generated from various paints. Relevant data are presented. Results of investigations, taken together provide compelling evidence on the positive role NCGs play on explosion prevention.

  10. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Roberta B.; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters. PMID:23390422

  11. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  12. Performance of J33-A-27 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. III; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Modified Compressor with Water Injection at Design Equivalent Speed of 11,800 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withee, Joseph R., Jr.; Beede, William L.; Ginsburg, Ambrose

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of water injection on the over-all performance of a modified J33-A-27 turbojet-engine compressor at the design equivalent speed of 11,800 rpm. The water-air ratio by weight was 0.05. With water injection the peak pressure ratio increased 9.0 per- cent, the maximum efficiency decreased 15 percent (actual numerical difference 0.12), and. the maximum total weight flow increased 9.3 percent.

  13. Comparative hemolytic activity of undiluted organic water-miscible solvents for intravenous and intra-arterial injection.

    PubMed

    Mottu, F; Stelling, M J; Rüfenacht, D A; Doelker, E

    2001-01-01

    In humans, nonaqueous solvents are administered intravascularly in two kinds of situations. They have been used in subcutaneous or intramuscular pharmaceutical formulations to dissolve water-insoluble drugs. The need for these vehicles had increased in recent years, since the drug development process has yielded many poorly water-soluble drugs. The use of water-miscible nonaqueous solvents in therefore one of the approaches for administering these products as reference solutions useful in formulation bioequivalence studies. The intravascular use of organic solvents has also gained importance owing to a new approach for the treatment of cerebral malformations using precipitating polymers dissolved in water-miscible organic solvents. At present, the solvent most commonly used for the liquid embolics to solubilize the polymers is dimethyl sulfoxide, which exhibits some local and hemodynamic toxicities. In order to find new, less toxic vehicles for pharmaceutical formulations for the intravenous and intra-arterial routes and for embolic materials, 13 water-miscible organic solvents currently used (diluted with water) for pharmaceutical applications, were evaluated in this study. Their hemolytic activity and the morphological changes induced when mixed with blood (1:99, 5:95, 10:90 solvent:blood) were estimated in vitro. From these data, the selected organic solvents could be subdivided into four groups depending on their hemolytic activity: very highly hemolytic solvents (ethyl lactate, dimethyl sulfoxide), highly hemolytic solvents (polyethylene glycol 200, acetone), moderately hemolytic solvents (tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, glycerol formal, ethanol, Solketal, glycofurol) and solvents with low hemolytic activity (propylene glycol, dimethyl isosorbide, diglyme). PMID:11212416

  14. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  15. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  16. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  17. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  18. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  19. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  20. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  1. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  2. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  3. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  4. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  5. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  6. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  7. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  8. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  9. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  10. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  11. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  12. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  14. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  15. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  16. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  17. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  18. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  19. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  20. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  1. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  2. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  3. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  4. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  5. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  6. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes with needles attached, and alcohol swab pads. Throw away needles, syringes, and vials ...

  7. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  8. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  9. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  10. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  11. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  12. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  14. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  15. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  16. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  17. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  18. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  19. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  20. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  1. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  2. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  3. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  4. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  5. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  6. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a person ... Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that developed in people who were in a ...

  7. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  8. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent ... tissues that may be caused when an anthracycline chemotherapy medication such as daunorubicin (Daunoxome, Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Doxil), ...

  9. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  10. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid ... a class of medications called anthracenediones. Mitoxantrone treats MS by stopping certain cells of the immune system ...

  11. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexrazoxane injection or any other medications.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  13. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  14. Exenatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... month. Exenatide extended-release solution is injected once weekly at any time of day without regard to ... you remember it and then continue your regular weekly schedule. However, if there are less than 3 ...

  15. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  16. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH; a rare inherited condition that ...

  17. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  18. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  19. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  20. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment.You may receive methylprednisolone injection in a hospital or medical facility, or you may be given ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  1. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have.You may receive ampicillin injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  2. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, burning on urination, worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  3. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  4. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  5. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  6. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  7. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  8. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  9. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  10. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat in the stomach area in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body ... injection is in a class of medications called human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works ...

  11. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  12. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  13. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to ... stomach pain sudden weight loss paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes shortness of breath ...

  14. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. ...

  15. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for CML and can no longer benefit from these medications or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is ... side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: ...

  16. Basiliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  17. Metoclopramide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms include ... When metoclopramide injection is used to treat slowed stomach emptying due to diabetes, it may be given up ...

  18. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation

  19. Intrathymic Injection.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  20. Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

  1. Analysis of Androgenic Steroids in Environmental Waters by Large-volume Injection Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Backe, Will J.; Ort, Christoph; Brewer, Alex J.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    A new method was developed for the analysis of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids and their selected metabolites in aquatic environmental matrices using direct large-volume injection (LVI) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 108% for analytes with well-matched internal standards. Precision, quantified by relative standard deviation (RSD), was less than 12%. Detection limits for the method ranged from 1.2 to 360 ng/L. The method was demonstrated on a series of 1-hr composite wastewater influent samples collected over a day with the purpose of assessing temporal profiles of androgen loads in wastewater. Testosterone, androstenedione, boldenone, and nandrolone were detected in the sample series at concentrations up to 290 ng/L and loads up to 535 mg. Boldenone, a synthetic androgen, had a temporal profile that was strongly correlated to testosterone, a natural human androgen, suggesting its source may be endogenous. An analysis of the sample particulate fraction revealed detectable amounts of sorbed testosterone and androstenedione. Androstenedione sorbed to the particulate fraction accounted for an estimated five to seven percent of the total androstenedione mass. PMID:21391574

  2. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  3. Rapid determination of chromium(VI) in electroplating waste water by use of a spectrophotometric flow injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dong; Fu, Dayou; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Jigang

    2008-11-01

    A new rapid and sensitive FI method is reported for spectrophotometric determination of trace chromium(VI) in electroplating waste water. The method is based on the reaction of Cr(VI) with sodium diphenylamine sulfonate (DPH) in acidic medium to form a purple complex ( λmax = 550 nm). Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve is linear in the range 0.04-3.8 μg m l -1 at a sampling rate of 30 h -1. The detection limit of the method is 0.0217 μg m l -1, and the relative standard deviation is 1.1% for eight determinations of 2 μg ml -1 Cr(VI). The proposed method was applied to the determination of chromium in electroplating waste water with satisfactory results.

  4. Atomization, drop size, and penetration for cross-stream water injection at high-altitude reentry conditions with application to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooderum, P. B.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Atomization, drop size, and penetration data are presented for cross stream water injection at conditions simulating high altitude reentry (low Weber number, high static temperature, high Knudsen number, and low static pressure). These results are applied to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights. Two primary breakup modes are considered, vapor pressure or flashing and aerodynamic atomization. Results are given for breakup boundaries and mean drop size for each of these atomization mechanisms. Both standard and flight orifice geometries are investigated. The data were obtained in both a static environment and in conventional aerodynamic facilities at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 8. The high temperature aspects of reentry were simulated in a Mach 5.5 cyanogen-oxygen tunnel with total temperature of 4500 K.

  5. Using Sequential Injection Analysis to Improve System and Data Reliability of Online Methods: Determination of Ammonium and Phosphate in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Carsten; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2007-01-01

    This article summarises the advantages of the sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the online determination of nutrients in coastal waters. It concentrates on techniques to improve the reliability of the gained data by continuously monitoring one or more standards and on the advantages of online standard additions and offline determination of manually collected samples with the online SIA system. These measures are advantageous during method development and validation and can be used to verify the system performance on a regular base to reduce the amount of erroneous results. No changes in the flow system are necessary and the sample throughput is only slightly reduced. These techniques have been applied to a SIA system which is able to simultaneously determine ammonium and phosphate at a rate of more than 100 samples per hour each and detection limits (3σ) of 0.06 μM and 0.05 μM. Results from a campaign in summer 2005 are shown. PMID:17671610

  6. Dna synthesis in the urinary-tract epithelium of the rat induced by laparotomy and by intraperitoneal injection of distilled water, physiological saline and lycopodium spores.

    PubMed Central

    Herbertson, B. M.; King, A. J.; Allen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated thymidine labelling index (LI) of the epithelium of the ureters and urinary bladder of young male Wistar rats is substantially increased 18 h after a simple laparotomy incision. A similar highly significant increase (P less than 0.001) has been observed after a single i.p. injection of various materials, including (a) distilled water, (b) 0.5% glycogen in physiological saline, and (c) 1% suspension of lycopodium spores in physiological saline. In each instance an aseptic inflammatory response develops in the peritoneal cavity. Reasons are given supporting the concept that a mitogen is produced from a constituent of the inflammatory exudate in the peritoneal cavity and that the factor reaches the affected epithelium by direct diffusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7150509

  7. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). PMID:21397903

  8. Development of a bar adsorptive micro-extraction-large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method for pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental water matrices.

    PubMed

    Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F

    2012-01-01

    The combination of bar adsorptive micro-extraction using activated carbon (AC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (PS-DVB) sorbent phases, followed by liquid desorption and large-volume injection gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, under selected ion monitoring mode acquisition, was developed for the first time to monitor pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in environmental water matrices. Assays performed on 25 mL water samples spiked (100 ng L(-1)) with caffeine, gemfibrozil, triclosan, propranolol, carbamazepine and diazepam, selected as model compounds, yielded recoveries ranging from 74% to 99% under optimised experimental conditions (equilibrium time, 16 h (1,000 rpm); matrix characteristics: pH 5, 5% NaCl for AC phase; LD: methanol/acetonitrile (1:1), 45 min). The analytical performance showed good precision (RSD < 18%), convenient detection limits (5-20 ng L(-1)) and excellent linear dynamic range (20-800 ng L(-1)) with remarkable determination coefficients (r(2) > 0.99), where the PS-DVB sorbent phase showed a much better efficiency. By using the standard addition methodology, the application of the present analytical approach on tap, ground, sea, estuary and wastewater samples allowed very good performance at the trace level. The proposed method proved to be a suitable sorption-based micro-extraction alternative for the analysis of priority pollutants with medium-polar to polar characteristics, showing to be easy to implement, reliable, sensitive and requiring a low sample volume to monitor PPCPs in water matrices. PMID:22076312

  9. Dioctyl sulfosuccinate analysis in near-shore Gulf of Mexico water by direct-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Johnson; Schroeder, David L; Zintek, Lawrence B; Schupp, Caitlin R; Kosempa, Michael G; Zachary, Adam M; Schupp, George C; Wesolowski, Dennis J

    2012-03-30

    Dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) was a major component of the dispersants most used in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill incident response. This analytical method quantifies salt water DOSS concentrations to a reporting limit of 20 μg/L, which was below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) 40 μg/L DOSS Aquatic Life Benchmark. DOSS in Gulf of Mexico water samples were analyzed by direct-injection reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation with 50% acetonitrile (ACN) enabled quantitative transfer of DOSS and increased DOSS response 20-fold by reducing aggregation. This increased sensitivity enabled the detection of a confirmatory transition over the calibration range of 10-200 μg/L. U.S. EPA Region 5 and Region 6 laboratories analyzed hundreds of near-shore surface Gulf of Mexico water samples, none contained more than the 20 ppb reporting limit. The matrix spike DOSS/deuterated surrogate (DOSS-D34) correlation of determination varied with mobile phase modifier (ammonium formate R(2)=0.95 and formic acid R(2)=0.27). Using ammonium formate, DOSS-D34 accurately measured DOSS matrix effect. The near-shore sodium concentrations varied more than 10,000-fold, but were not strongly correlated with DOSS recovery. DOSS detection by LC-MS/MS enabled rapid analysis which was valuable in guiding incident response. PMID:22365569

  10. Suspect screening and target quantification of multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water based on large-volume injection liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2014-04-01

    The ever-growing number of emerging micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals requests rapid and sensitive full-spectrum analytical techniques. Time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (TOF-HRMS) is a promising alternative for the state-of-the-art tandem mass spectrometry instruments because of its ability to simultaneously screen for a virtually unlimited number of suspect analytes and to perform target quantification. The challenge for such suspect screening is to develop a strategy, which minimizes the false-negative rate without restraining numerous false-positives. At the same time, omitting laborious sample enrichment through large-volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography (LVI-UPLC) avoids selective preconcentration. A suspect screening strategy was developed using LVI-UPLC-TOF-MS aiming the detection of 69 multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water without the a priori availability of analytical standards. As a novel approach, the screening takes into account the signal-intensity-dependent accurate mass error of TOF-MS, hereby restraining 95 % of the measured suspect pharmaceuticals present in surface water. Application on five Belgian river water samples showed the potential of the suspect screening approach, as exemplified by a false-positive rate not higher than 15 % and given that 30 out of 37 restrained suspect compounds were confirmed by the retention time of analytical standards. Subsequently, this paper discusses the validation and applicability of the LVI-UPLC full-spectrum HRMS method for target quantification of the 69 pharmaceuticals in surface water. Analysis of five Belgian river water samples revealed the occurrence of 17 pharmaceuticals in a concentration range of 17 ng L(-1) up to 3.1 μg L(-1). PMID:24633561

  11. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda

    2015-06-15

    Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and

  12. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. PMID:25085815

  13. Experimental study on rock-water interaction due to CO2 injection under in-situ P-T condition of the Altmark gas reservoir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, F.; Blum, P.; Nowak, M.; Haderlein, S.; Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 sequestration in depleted gas reservoir is an economically feasible option to mitigate global warming. The Altmark gas reservoir, located in the western part of the northeast German basin, was selected for enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injecting CO2. Under reservoir conditions (50 bars and 125°C), the injected CO2 has very high solubility leading to subsequent dissolution and precipitation of minerals of the surrounding rock matrix. Therefore, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry sandstone sample from the Altmark reservoir was mounted in an autoclave system and flushed by a pre-equilibrated mixture of water saturated with CO2 at a constant flow rate at 50 bars and 125°C. The experiment was conducted for 100 hours during which fluid samples were collected at regular intervals and analyzed by Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). pH was also measured in partially de-gassed samples. Fluid analysis showed an increased concentration of Ca and SO4 at the beginning of the reaction time indicating the early dissolution of anhydrite. However, the Ca/SO4 molar ratio (>1) proved the dissolution of both calcite and anhydrite. The source of Na and K could be the dissolution of feldspars (albite and K-feldspar). Low concentrations of these two elements reflect the lower solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of feldspar minerals. Moreover, trace amounts of Mn, Mg, Zn, Cu and Fe might be derived from the dissolution of trace minerals in the sandstone. Besides, thermodynamic calculations of mineral saturation indices enabled an evaluation of the CO2-water-rock interactions and highlighted the dissolution of the Ca-bearing minerals in the studied solution.

  14. Determination of specific yield and water-table changes using temporal microgravity surveys collected during the second injection, storage, and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, November 1996 through April 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Phillips, Steven P.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging the ground-water system in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted a series of injection, storage, and recovery tests between September 1995 and September 1998. A key component of this study was to measure the response of the water table to injection, which was difficult because the water table averaged 300 feet below land surface. Rather than install many expensive piezometers, microgravity surveys were conducted to determine specific yield and to measure the development of a ground-water mound during the injection of about 1,050 acre-feet of fresh water into an alluvial-aquifer system. The surveys were done prior to, during, and near the end of a 5-month injection period (November 12, 1996, to April 17, 1997). Results of the surveys indicate increases in gravity of as much as 66 microgals between a bedrock reference station and 20 gravity stations within a 1-square-mile area surrounding the injection site. The changes were assumed to have been caused by changes in the ground-water elevation. Gravity and ground-water levels were measured simultaneously at an existing well (7N/12W-34B1). The coupled measurements were used to calculate a specific yield of 0.13 for the alluvial aquifer near the well. To determine the gravitational effect of the injection mound on the gravity measurements made near well 7N/12W-34B1, a two-dimensional gravity model was used. Results of the model simulation show that the effect on gravity associated with the mass of the injection mound was minor and thus had a negligible effect on the calculation of specific yield. The specific yield of 0.13, therefore, was used to infer water-level changes at other gravity stations within the study area. The gravity-derived water-level changes were compared with simulated water

  15. Screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated waters using a spectrophotometric sequential injection lab-on-valve methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes the development of a µSI-LOV method for the simultaneous screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated water samples. To attain the biparametric determination, dithizone was chosen as the spectrophotometric reagent as it forms a colored complex with both metal ions, at different pH conditions. The cadmium determination was attained in strong alkaline conditions (pH≈12); the lead determination was calculated by the difference with the determination of both metals in mild alkaline conditions (pH≈8). The colored complex was measured at 550 nm and the method presented a LOD of 34 μg L(-1) for cadmium and 56 μg L(-1) for lead, with a sample consumption of 20 µL per assay and a determination rate of 55 h(-1). The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by FAAS. The developed method was efficiently applied to the screening of cadmium and lead in marine port waters. PMID:26078171

  16. Two-Phase Model of Liquid-Liquid Interactions With Interface Capturing: Application to Water Assisted Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luisa; Lanrivain, Rodolphe; Zerguine, Walid; Rodriguez-Villa, Andrès; Coupez, Thierry

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, a two phase model to compute liquid-liquid flows is presented. We consider that one phase is a highly viscous thermodependent liquid (polymer phase), whereas the second one is a low viscosity low temperature fluid (water). The first part of this paper concerns capture of the interface between the water and the polymer (or determination of the phase field function). Classical VOF and Level set techniques have been implemented and were ameliorated using mesh adaptation techniques. To accurately determine the velocity field, a two-phase formulation is considered, based in the theory of mixtures, and we introduce a scalar parameter, the phase fraction quantifying the presence of each phase in each point of the computational domain. A friction type coupling between both phases is retained. Using the mixed finite element method within an eulerian framework, we calculate in a single system the whole kinematic variables for both liquids (velocity and pressure of each phase). Results are shown, for 2D and 3D parts.

  17. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO2 presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 °C and in an inert atmosphere (N2). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 μmol/kg of CO2, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of development of the method, it

  18. Permeability enhancement due to cold water injection: A Case Study at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.; Ortiz, J.; Iglesias, E.; Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca )

    1989-04-01

    Pressure transient buildup and falloff data from 3 wells at the Los Azufres geothermal field have been evaluated to determine the extent to which cold water infection increases the permeability of the near-bore reservoir formation. Simultaneous analysis of the buildup and falloff data provides estimates of the permeability-thickness of the reservoir, the skin factor of the well, and the degree of permeability enhancement in the region behind the thermal front. Estimates of permeability enhancement range from a factor of 4 to 9, for a temperature change of about 150{degree}C. The permeability enhancement is attributed to thermally induced contraction and stress-cracking of the formation. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mean recoveries of most analytes (223 of 229) were within data-quality objectives of 100±30 percent at spike concentrations above method detection levels (MDLs) in all four matrices. The calculated MDLs ranged from 1 to 103 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for 182 analytes analyzed in the ESI positive mode, and from 2 to 106 ng/L for 42 analytes analyzed in the ESI negative mode. Five analytes had MDLs between 100 and 250 ng/L. The stability studies in reagent water demonstrated that the largest number of the pesticide compounds (227 of 229) were stable after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, so these were selected as the practical holding time and storage temperature for routine sample processing. The use of antimicrobial reagent citric acid to adjust the sample pH to about 4 also resulted in lower recoveries of some analytes, so it should not be used as a routine sample preservative.

  20. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that causes loss of the ability to see straight ahead and may make it more ... used to treat macular edema after retinal vein occlusion (an eye disease ...

  1. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in a class of medications called microtubule inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.

  2. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  4. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sudden wave of mild or intense body heat) decreased sexual ability or desire leg or joint pain breast pain pain, itching, swelling, or redness at the place where injection was given difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  5. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  6. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  7. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: allergy shots (a series of injections given regularly to prevent the body from developing ...

  8. Famotidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Famotidine injection is in a class of ...

  9. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a class of ...

  10. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  11. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be given to you two times a day for 2 to 3 weeks, and then once a day, 5 to 7 days of each week.Your dose of ganciclovir will ... may give you several doses (enough for a day's supply) of premixed ganciclovir injection solution at one ...

  12. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  13. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  14. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Dulaglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  15. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Liraglutide injection also slows the emptying of the ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  16. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Albiglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  17. Cardiovascular effects of selected water-miscible solvents for pharmaceutical injections and embolization materials: a comparative hemodynamic study using a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Alexandre; Mottu, Florence; Chapot, René; Zhang, Jong Qi; Jordan, Olivier; Rüfenacht, Daniel A; Doelker, Eric; Merland, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Generally, organic water-miscible solvents are used intravascularly (both intravenously and intra-arterially) for preparing two types of formulations, namely, pharmaceutical injections of poorly soluble drugs and precipitating liquid embolic polymeric materials for the minimally invasive treatment of aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or tumors, by arterial route. Although several of such solvents have been used in both drug delivery and interventional radiology, their safety profile is a concern. In particular, there is a lack of comparative investigations of their cardiovascular effects when injected intra-arterially. We selected 13 non-aqueous water-miscible solvents based on their capacity to solubilize drugs or embolic polymeric materials, and on their described use, at least diluted with water, in pharmaceutical formulations. Their in vivo hemodynamic toxicity in male adult sheep after infra-renal aorta catheterization has been estimated with respect to the arterial and venous pressures, as well as the heart rate. Saline solution was used as a control. Three different volumes (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL) were infused rapidly. An increase in arterial pressure and concomitant decrease in venous pressure, which we considered as signs of a cardiovascular toxicity, were observed to a differing extent for all organic solvents. Changes in heart rate were negligible. Based on the intensity of arterial pressure change after a 1-mL infusion, a classification of the toxicity of the solvents following intra-arterial infusion is proposed: Solvents devoid of significant cardiovascular toxicity: dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), Glycofurol 75, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200), diglyme. Solvents with moderate cardiovascular toxicity: tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA), ethanol, acetone, Solketal, glycerol formal, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Solvents with marked cardiovascular toxicity: propylene glycol, ethyl lactate, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Emphasis is put on the relative

  18. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  19. [Estimation of absorbed dose of beta radiation into the critical tissues by a single injection of tritiated water].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Yamamoto, H; Hatakeyama, S; Dohi, S; Kunugita, N

    1988-12-01

    The biological effects of tritium in humans need to be clarified, because the chances of humans becoming exposed to tritium beta radiation may increase with the development of the nuclear fusion reactor. To evaluate the biological effects of tritium, it is necessary to estimate exactly the absorbed dose from the tritium beta rays in the tissue. In many reports, the absorbed dose of HTO in the tissues is estimated from the tritium content in body fluid and dose calculations are customarily based upon the water content of soft tissues, which is taken to be 0.7 to 0.8. However, these methods may not show the exact absorbed dose in the organs. In the present study, the radioactivity of the critical tissues was measured directly using a sample oxidizer and the absorbed dose was calculated from the radioactivity of tritium in the tissues. Details on the method for calculation of the absorbed dose in tissues of the mouse is shown in this report. The results suggest that the absorbed dose should be obtained from the radioactivity in the tissues. PMID:3212298

  20. Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2013-11-15

    A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

  1. Intraperitoneal Injection into Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kinkel, Mary D.; Eames, Stefani C.; Philipson, Louis H.; Prince, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  2. Intraperitoneal injection into adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Mary D; Eames, Stefani C; Philipson, Louis H; Prince, Victoria E

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  3. Sequential injection kinetic spectrophotometric determination of quaternary mixtures of carbamate pesticides in water and fruit samples using artificial neural networks for multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ning; Fan, Shihua

    2009-12-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of a quaternary carbamate pesticide mixture consisting of carbofuran, propoxur, metolcarb and fenobucarb using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The procedure was based upon the different kinetic properties between the analytes reacted with reagent in flow system in the non-stopped-flow mode, in which their hydrolysis products coupled with diazotized p-nitroaniline in an alkaline medium to form the corresponding colored complexes. The absorbance data from SIA peak time profile were recorded at 510 nm and resolved by the use of back-propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms for multivariate quantitative analysis. The experimental variables and main network parameters were optimized and each of the pesticides could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg mL -1, at a sampling frequency of 18 h -1. The proposed method was compared to other spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbamate pesticides, and it was proved to be adequately reliable and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four pesticide residues in water and fruit samples, obtaining the satisfactory results based on recovery studies (84.7-116.0%).

  4. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  5. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  6. Multiresidue method for the analysis of five antifouling agents in marine and coastal waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Agüera, A; Piedra, L; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2000-08-11

    A simple multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of five pesticides, commonly used as active ingredients in antifouling paints, in seawater samples. The pesticides studied were: chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile), dichlofluanid (N-dimethyl-N-phenylsulphamide), Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothazolin-3-one), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert.-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine) and TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole). The analytes were extracted from 200 ml water samples, using solid-phase extraction. A copolymer with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was used as sorbent yielding good recoveries (82-95%) for most compounds except dichlofluanid and Sea-Nine 211 (<60%). Large volume injection (10 microl) gas chromatography and electron impact ionization MS (selected ion monitoring mode) detection enabled these compounds to be identified and quantified at the 1.2-3.0 ng/l level. Analysis of samples performed in three marinas in Almería (Spain) revealed the presence of Irgarol 1051 in all the cases, at concentration levels between 25 and 450 ng/l. PMID:10985557

  7. An on-line spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water, orange juice, and orange peel samples using multi-channel flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Goudarzi, N; Ghochani Moghadam, A; Amin, A H

    2015-10-01

    In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 μg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour. PMID:25985122

  8. The biofilm property and its correlationship with high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide degradation in a water injection pipeline of Daqing oilfield.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Biofilms increase dragging force for liquid transportation, cause power consumption, and result in equipment corrosion in polymer-flooding oilfields. To reveal the responsible microorganisms for biofilm formation and stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide (PAM), a biofilm, developed on the sieve of a piston plunger pump in a water transport and injection pipeline with partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in Daqing Oilfield, was collected and analyzed by molecular microbiology, chemical and physical methods. Diverse bacterial groups (11 families) were detected in the biofilm, including Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Bacteriovoracaceae, Campylobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIII and Moraxellaceae. Three archaeal orders of methanogens including Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Thermoplasmatales were also detected separately. HPAM was degraded into lower molecular weight polymers and organic fragments with its amide groups hydrolyzed into carboxylic groups by the microorganisms. The microenvironment of the biofilm contained diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, correlating with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and HPAM biodegradation. The results are helpful to provide information for biofilm control in oil fields. PMID:26595898

  9. Cadmium determination in natural water samples with an automatic multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a flow-through screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, C; Laglera, L M; Alpizar, M J; Calvo, J; Arduini, F; Cerdà, V

    2012-07-15

    Heavy metals, as cadmium, attract a rising attention in environmental studies due to their increasing release by human activities and acute toxicity. In situ analytical methods are needed to minimize current uncertainties caused by the transport and conservation of samples. Here, we present the completely automatic determination of Cd in natural waters using a newly developed screen printed electrode sensor (SPE), inserted in a homemade purpose-built flow cell coupled to a Multi-Syringe Flow Injection Analysis system (MSFIA). The working electrode of SPEs was constituted by a carbon film modified with Nafion. Cd was plated on an in situ bismuth film and determined using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Different chemical conditions of deposition and stripping were studied. A sample/acetic buffer mixture was found to be a well suited medium to form the Bi film and perform the analysis. Cd was quantified via calibration by on line standard additions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.79μgL(-1), well below the limit stipulated by the European directive (5μgL(-1)). Good sample throughput (14h(-1)) and low consumption of reagent and sample (1.3mL) were also obtained in line with previous works in Cd flow analysis. PMID:22817941

  10. On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2009-06-30

    A simple, sensitive and powerful on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system was developed as an alternative approach for on-line metal preconcentration and separation, using extraction solvent at microlitre volume. The potentials of this novel schema, coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), were demonstrated for trace copper and lead determination in water samples. The stream of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 2.0% (v/v) xylene (extraction solvent) and 0.3% (m/v) ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (chelating agent) was merged on-line with the stream of sample (aqueous phase), resulting a cloudy mixture, which was consisted of fine droplets of the extraction solvent dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. By this continuous process, metal chelating complexes were formed and extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The hydrophobic droplets of organic phase were retained into a microcolumn packed with PTFE-turnings. A portion of 300 microL isobutylmethylketone was used for quantitative elution of the analytes, which transported directly to the nebulizer of FAAS. All the critical parameters of the system such as type of extraction solvent, flow-rate of disperser and sample, extraction time as well as the chemical parameters were studied. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for copper and lead was 560 and 265, respectively. For copper, the detection limit and the precision (R.S.D.) were 0.04 microg L(-1) and 2.1% at 2.0 microg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, while for lead were 0.54 microg L(-1) and 1.9% at 30.0 microg L(-1) Pb(II), respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples. PMID:19376348

  11. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-03-01

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate – 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. PMID:25604004

  12. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  15. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  16. HIBISCUS and SCOUT-AMMA: Water Vapor And Ice Particles In The Tropical Lower Stratosphere Above Overshooting Continental Convective Systems. Part A. Evidence Of Water Injection Above The Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, S.; Korshunov, L.; Pommereau, J.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Larsen, N.

    2006-12-01

    The possible impact of meso-scale convective systems (MCS) on water vapor in the lower stratosphere has been explored by a series of six backscatter / ozone / H2O soundings in August 2006 from Niamey (13N, 2E) in West Africa using the backscatter instrument of the University of Wyoming, an ECC ozone cell and a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, all flown on the same balloon. All profiles downwind or next to MCS show saturation, sometimes supersaturation (5-6 ppm H2O), and cirrus clouds at the tropopause at 16-16.5 km around 78°C, surmounted by highly variable H2O layers up to 19 km, a broad minimum between of 4.2 ppm 19-21 km and then almost constant mixing ratio (5.5-6 ppm) from 22 to 31 km. The frequent moist layers between the tropopause and 19 km suggest that water could penetrate the stratosphere up to at least 450 K potential temperature levels. The locations of the MCS potentially responsible for water injection upwind are explored from satellite pictures combined with backward trajectories.

  17. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  18. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J. T.; Phillips, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    In May and July, 1997, a consortia of operators and service companies conducted a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker, 1997). Microseismic data were collected and processed for six hydraulic fracture treatments in two wells (3 completion intervals per well) (Mayerhofer et al., 2000). One well was completed with gel-proppant treatments in which a viscous crosslink gel was injected to entrain high concentrations of sand proppant into formation. The second well was completed using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs). Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost. Mayerhofer and Meehan (1998) suggest two possible reasons why waterfracs are successful: (1) Induced shear displacement along natural and hydraulic fractures results in self-propping (shear dilation enhanced by fracture branching, proppant and spalled rock fragments), and (2) Fracture extension and cleanup is easier to achieve with low-viscosity fluids. With improved source location precision and focal mechanism determination (fracture plane orientation and sense of slip), we have reexamined the Cotton Valley data, comparing the seismicity induced by water and gel-proppant treatments at common depth intervals. We have improved the location precision and computed focal mechanism of microearthquakes induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas. Conventional gel-proppant treatments and treatments using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs) were monitored. Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost (Mayerhofer and Meehan, 1998). Comparison of the seismicity induced by the two treatment types show similar distributions of

  19. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-03-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast.

  20. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics ('water pills') including amiloride (in Hydro-ride), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyazide, Dyrenium, in Maxzide); erythromycin ( ... or growth of extra tissue on the gums acne uncontrollable shaking of a part of your body ...

  1. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  2. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to

  3. The use of anion-exchange disks in an optrode coupled to a multi-syringe flow-injection system for the determination and speciation analysis of iron in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Pons, Carmen; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

    2005-03-31

    A combination of multi-syringe flow-injection analysis (MSFIA) technique with an optical fibre reflectance sensor for the determination of iron in water samples has been developed in this work. Anion-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) disks have been used as solid phase. Ammonium thiocyanate has been chosen as chromogenic reagent for Fe(III). The complex Fe[SCN](6)(3-) is retained onto the SPE disk and spectrophotometrically detected at 480nm. The complex is eluted with 0.25moll(-1) hydrochloric acid in 75% ethanol. Total iron can be determined by oxidising Fe(II) to Fe(III) with hydrogen peroxide. A mass calibration was run within the range of 0.4-37.5ng. The detection limit (3s(b)/S) was 0.4ng. The repeatability (RSD), calculated from 9 replicates using 0.5ml injections of a 25microgl(-1) concentration, was 3.6%. The repeatability between five anion-exchange disks was 5.4%. An injection throughput of 7 injections per hour for a sampling volume of 1ml has been achieved. The applicability of the proposed methodology in natural water samples has been proved. The properties of anion-exchange and chelating SPE disks have been studied and compared. PMID:18969983

  4. Elotuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a powder to be mixed with sterile water and given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a healthcare setting. It is usually given once every week for the first 2 cycles (each cycle is a 28 day treatment period) ...

  5. Automated continuous monitoring of inorganic and total mercury in wastewater and other waters by flow-injection analysis and cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    An automated continuous monitoring system for the determination of inorganic and total mercury by flow-injection analysis followed by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method uses a typical flow-injection manifold where digestion and reduction of the injected sample takes place. Mercury is removed by aeration from the flowing stream in a specially designed air-liquid separator and swept into a silica cell for absorption measurement at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. A calibration curve up to 10 μg Hg ml-1 using three different path length cells is obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 μg Hg ml-1. The sampling rate of an injection every 3 min produces 20 results per hour from a flowing stream. PMID:18925201

  6. Comparative Study Between The Alternative Used By The IMP Type Pecussion Drills And The Version Using Fluid Elements Regarding The Supplying, Command And Automatic Adjustment Systems Of The Injection Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2015-12-01

    Starting from analyzing of an existing solution regarding the injection water feeding system for the pneumatic rotating and percussion drilling installations, which is included in the structure of the perforator installation (IMP-1or IMP-2), the paper presents part of a research regarding an original solution of the automatic command and regulate with monostable fluidic elements, with different physical nature jets. This solution is applicable to this drilling installations type, made in Romania.

  7. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. Lance water injection tests adjacent to the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, B.; Myer, L.; Moridis, G.; Cook, P.; James, A.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    A pilot-scale field demonstration of waste isolation using viscous- liquid containment barriers has been planned for the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The 281-3H basin is a shallow retention/seepage basin contaminated mainly by radionuclides. The viscous-liquid containment barrier utilizes the permeation of liquid grout to either entomb the contaminants within a monolithic grout structure or to isolate the waste by drastically reducing the permeability, of the soils around the plume. A clear understanding of the hydrogeologic setting of the retention basin is necessary for proper design of the viscous liquid barrier. To aid in the understanding of the hydrogeology of the 281-3H retention basin, and to obtain critical parameters necessary for grout injection design, a series of tests were undertaken in a region immediately adjacent to the basin. The objectives of the LWIT were: 1. To evaluate the general performance of the Lance Injection Technique for grout emplacement at the site, including the range and upper limits of injection pressures, the flow rates applicable for site conditions, as well as the mechanical forces needed for lance penetration. 2. To obtain detailed information on the injectability of the soils immediately adjacent to the H-area retention basin. 3. To identify any high permeability zones suitable for injection and evaluate their spatial distribution. 4. To perform ground penetrating radar (GPR) to gain information on the structure of the soil column and to compare the results with LWIT data. This report will focus on results pertinent to these objectives.

  10. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  11. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  12. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  13. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  14. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  15. A novel method for the rapid determination of polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactants in water and sediment using large volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ross, Andrew R S; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-19

    Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactants have been used in many glyphosate-based herbicide formulations for agricultural, industrial and residential weed control. The potential for release of these compounds into the environment is of increasing concern due to their toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Current methods for analysis of POEA surfactants require significant time and effort to achieve limits of quantification that are often higher than the concentrations at which biological effects have been observed (as low as 2 ng mL(-1)). We have developed a rapid and robust method for quantifying the POEA surfactant mixture MON 0818 at biologically relevant concentrations in fresh water, sea water and lake sediment using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Water samples preserved by 1:1 v/v dilution with methanol are analyzed directly following centrifugation. Sediment samples undergo accelerated solvent extraction in aqueous methanol prior to analysis. Large volume (100 μL) sample injection and multiple reaction monitoring of a subset of the most abundant POEA homologs provide limits of quantification of 0.5 and 2.9 ng mL(-1) for MON 0818 in fresh water and sea water, respectively, and 2.5 ng g(-1) for total MON 0818 in lake sediment. Average recoveries of 93 and 75% were achieved for samples of water and sediment, respectively spiked with known amounts of MON 0818. Precision and accuracy for the analysis of water and sediment samples were within 10 and 16%, respectively based upon replicate analyses of calibration standards and representative samples. Results demonstrate the utility of the method for quantifying undegraded MON 0818 in water and sediment, although a more comprehensive method may be needed to identify and determine other POEA mixtures and degradation profiles that might occur in the environment. PMID:26343437

  16. Microemulsion method for improving the injectivity of a well

    SciTech Connect

    Prukop, G.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a method for improving the injectivity of an injection well for water or gas injection into an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by the injection well. It comprises injecting into an underground hydrocarbon formation through an injection well a sufficient amount of a solvent-in-water microemulsion to treat the formation within a radial distance of about 5 to about 100 feet from the injection well, the solvent-in-water microemulsion comprising about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of an alkoxylated linear alcohol having about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms in the linear alcohol moiety and an average of about 5 to about 12 alkoxylate groups, about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of an alkylbenzene sulfonate having an alkyl chain of about 8 to about 20 carbon atoms, about 1% to about 10% by weight of an ethylene glycol alkylether solvent, and water.

  17. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age; episodes of symptoms in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... When corticotropin repository injection is used to treat multiple sclerosis, it is usually injected once a day for ...

  18. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  19. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  20. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  1. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  3. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  4. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  5. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  9. Injection of lightning-produced NOx, water vapor, wildfire emissions, and stratospheric air to the UT/LS as observed from DC3 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Schwartz, M. J.; Barth, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    During the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment in summer 2012, airborne measurements were performed in the anvil inflow/outflow of thunderstorms over the Central U.S. by three research aircraft. A general overview of Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon in situ measurements (CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, and black carbon) is presented. In addition, a joint flight on 29 May 2012 in a convective line of isolated supercell storms over Oklahoma is described based on Falcon, National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream-V (NSF/NCAR-GV), and NASA-DC8 trace species in situ and lidar measurements. During DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state's history were burning, which strongly influenced air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Lofted biomass burning (BB) plumes were frequently observed in the mid- and upper troposphere (UT) in the vicinity of deep convection. The impact of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) and BB emissions was analyzed on the basis of mean vertical profiles and tracer-tracer correlations (CO-NOx and O3-NO). On a regular basis DC3 thunderstorms penetrated the tropopause and injected large amounts of LNOx into the lower stratosphere (LS). Inside convection, low O3 air (~80 nmol mol-1) from the lower troposphere was rapidly transported to the UT/LS region. Simultaneously, O3-rich stratospheric air masses (~100-200 nmol mol-1) were present around and below the thunderstorm outflow and enhanced UT-O3 mixing ratios significantly. A 10 year global climatology of H2O data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder confirmed that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  10. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  11. Selective determination of estrogenic compounds in water by microextraction by packed sorbents and a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prieto, A; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Paschke, A; Sellergen, B; Schillinger, E; Schrader, S; Möder, M

    2011-10-01

    A fully automated protocol consisting of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-derivatization-GC-MS) was developed to determine endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and natural and synthetic hormons in river and waste water samples. During method optimization, the extraction parameters as ion strength of the water sample, the MEPS extraction regime, the volume of organic solvent used for the elution/injection step, the type of elution solvents and the selectivity of the sorbents were studied. For optimum in-port-derivatization, 10 μL of the derivatization reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triufloroacetamide with 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) was used. 17β-Estradiol-molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and silica gel (modified with C-18) sorbents were examined for the enrichment of the target analytes from water samples and the obtained results revealed the high selectivity of the MIP material for extraction of substances with estrogen-like structures. Recovery values for most of the analytes ranged from 75 to 109% for the C18 sorbent and from 81 to 103% for the MIP material except for equilin (on C18 with only 57-66% recovery). Precision (n=4) of the entire analysis protocol ranged between 4% and 22% with both sorbents. Limits of detection (LODs) were at the low ngL(-1) level (0.02-87, C18 and 1.3-22, MIP) for the target analytes. PMID:21843673

  12. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  13. On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS).

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Chandrasekaran, K; Karunasagar, D

    2010-04-15

    A simple and efficient method for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in waters and fish tissues was developed using a micro-column filled with polyaniline (PANI) coupled online to flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS) system. Preliminary studies indicated that inorganic and methyl mercury species could be separated on PANI column in two different speciation approaches. At pH <3, only iHg could be sorbed and almost no adsorption of MeHg was found (speciation procedure 1). If the sample solution pH is approximately 7, both MeHg and iHg species could be sorbed on the PANI column. Subsequently both the Hg species were selectively eluted with 2% HCl and a mixture of 2% HCl and 0.02% thiourea respectively (speciation procedure 2). The adsorption percentage of iHg on the PANI column was unchanged even with acidity of the sample solution increased to 6 mol L(-1). Therefore, an acidic solution (5 mol L(-1) HCl), used for ultra-sound assisted extraction of the mercury species from biological samples, was used directly to separate MeHg from iHg in the fish tissues (tuna fish ERM-CE 463, ERM-CE 464 and IAEA-350) by PANI column using speciation procedure 1. The determined values were in good agreement with certified values. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 2.52 pg and 3.24 pg for iHg and MeHg (as Hg) respectively. The developed method was applied successfully to the direct determination of iHg and MeHg in various waters (tap water, lake water, ground water and sea-water) and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 96-102% for both the Hg species. PMID:20188947

  14. 40 CFR 144.11 - Prohibition of unauthorized injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of unauthorized injection. 144.11 Section 144.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.11 Prohibition of unauthorized injection. Any...

  15. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  16. Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, Wildfire Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke plumes in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and wildfire emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  17. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Protection Division, Source Water Protection Branch (6WQ-S), 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202- 2733. FOR... Company for one Class I injection well located at Borger, Texas. The company has adequately demonstrated... exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection well No. WDW-325 at the Borger Texas facility,...

  18. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., Texas 75202- 2733. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Dellinger, Chief Ground Water/ UIC Section... Environmental Services Company for two Class I injection wells located at Pasadena, Texas. The company has..., into Class I hazardous waste injection wells No. WDW- 397 and WDW-398 at the Agrifos Pasadena...

  19. A case study: bulk organic matters and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water by enhanced direct injection-well groundwater recharge system.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Xuzhou, Cheng; Meng, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of artificial groundwater recharge approach named enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir), consisting of short-term artifical vadose treatment and long-term aquifer treatment, is put forward and demonstrated in Beijing. The results reveal that granular activated carbon (GAC) could remove bulk organic matters with the DOC value decrease from 6.0 mg/L to 4.6 mg/L. The short-term vadose treatment of EnDir exhibited additional organic carbon removal and effective nitrification. DOC and AOX values were reduced to 4.1 mg/L and 56.8 microg/L respectively. Ammonia-N of 3.81 mg/L was converted into equivalent nitrate-N. The long-term aquifer treatment offers favorable denitrification and lower nitrate-N content in the aquifer. The bulk parameters of DOC, SUVA, AOX and ammonia-N detected in the monitoring wells are as the same level as that of local groundwater. Brief financial analysis demonstrated the promising economic aspects of EnDir system in Beijing. PMID:19657170

  20. Simulated afterburner performance with hydrogen peroxide injection for thrust augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, Allen J; Grobman, Jack S

    1956-01-01

    Combustion performance of three afterburner configurations was evaluated at simulated altitude flight conditions with liquid augmentation to the primary combustor. Afterburner combustion efficiency and stability were better with injection of high-strength hydrogen peroxide than with no injection or with water injection. Improvements were observed in afterburner configurations with and without flameholders and in a short-length afterburner. At a peroxide-air ratio of 0.3, combustion was stable and 85 to 90 percent efficient in all configurations tested. Calculated augmented net-thrust ratios for peroxide injection with afterburning were approximately 60 percent greater than those for water injection.