Science.gov

Sample records for coal export development

  1. Rail Transportation A review of administrative, judicial and legislative developments affecting domestic and export coal traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.

    1983-11-01

    During the past year, several important decisions by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal courts have substantially expanded the extent of deregulation of the railroad industry. Without exception, these decisions have been adverse to the interests of shippers of coal by rail. Through the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (the ''4-R Act'') and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 Congress clearly intended and directed a substantial relaxation of government regulation of the railroad industry. However, this deregulation was focused by Congress upon those transportation markets where the availability of other transportation options protected shippers from the exercise by the railroads of monopoly power in pricing and other activities. Where shippers are ''captive'' to the railroads, Congress recognized the need for continued regulation to protect shippers against the imposition of unreasonable rates. In a series of major decisions since enactment of the Staggers Act, the ICC has whittled away the protections which Congress provided in the law to such an extent that, for practical purposes, we are approaching full deregulation, at least in the area of rail rates. Of most importance to coal shipping interests are the Commission's recent decisions (a) proposing new guidelines for establishing maximum coal rate levels, and (b) exempting export coal traffic from all aspects of regulation under the Interstate Commerce Act.

  2. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  3. Guide to federal export assistance activities applicable to the US coal and coal technologies industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The federal government provides a complete range of programs and services that can assist United States (US) coal and coal-technology firms as they expand into the foreign marketplace. These programs cover the spectrum of business export needs, which include: providing assistance in identifying target markets, locating specific business opportunities and foreign joint-venture partners, arranging business appointments, organizing trade missions, sponsoring feasibility studies, conducting trade analyses, providing financing, insuring investments, and providing in-country training and assistance. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), this Guide has been developed to address this problem. It is intended to provide coal and coal technology firms with a single reference source for identifying US government agencies, programs, and contacts that might aid in exporting. The Guide contains an in-depth discussion of the eight major agencies offering export assistance: the Agency for International Development (AID), the Departments of Commerce (DOC) and State (DOS), the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank), the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Trade and Development Program (TDP), and the Office of the US Trade Representative (USTR). In addition, this guide identifies pertinent activities performed by other federal agencies that might assist coal and coal-technologies exporters, including the Departments of Defense (DOD), Education, Energy (DOE), and Labor (DOL).

  4. Overview of United States coal export terminals. [Includes description of present coal port terminal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Existing coal export ports in the United States are in general not designed to the standards compatible with the current state of the art. The United States has a current coal export capacity in the order of 83 million tons per year. This could be increased to 138 million tons per year through a process of modernization and expansion which would take about six to eight years for full realization. Even if this expansion program took place it would not result in an overall coal export system that was economically competitive due to the fact that our export terminals are generally outmoded and cannot accommodate the large vessels engaged in the world coal trade and which can be accommodated at the major coal destination ports in Europe and Japan. In order for the United States to achieve an economically competitive posture in the world coal trade, new ports that will handle 150,000 to 250,000 DWT ships are needed. The new terminals must be designed to receive coal efficiently and minimize the demurrage costs for both railcars on the delivery side and ships on the load out side. There are port sites available in the US which could be developed to effectively handle the increased requirements. Each major new port could easily be designed to handle 20 to 50 million tons per year at ultimate capacity subject to the availability of coal from the source at a reasonable cost. New port construction is needed to satisfy the projected demand at a reasonable cost and to provide for the obsolescence of existing facilities. Decisions are needed now so that the ports will be operating 20 years from now and serve as replacements for present facilities which are becoming obsolete. The government of the United States can and must play a major role if success is to be achieved.

  5. Meeting world coal export needs through the Seaway

    SciTech Connect

    Pitre, J.F.

    1981-08-01

    The Great Lakes Shipping industry, based on experience in transporting, storing and transshipping coal, has developed an innovative and extremely efficient coal transportation system. The size of captive laker vessels has grown to a length of 1,000 ft., making them capable of carrying over 55,000 tons of coal. The length of lakers which transit the Seaway has increased to 730 ft., giving them a 30,000 ton capacity. In addition, a fuel efficient self-loading dry bulk vessel has been developed which is capable of unloading coal without shore based assistance at a rate of 6,000 tons per hour. Great Lakes coal loading ports have an actual annual throughput of 44,500 tons and a designed annual throughput of 83,500 tons. Once loaded, coal is carried out for transfer in the St. Lawrence port or directly in ocean-going Seaway size vessels. The biggest advantage of the Great Lakes alternative for export of coal to world markets is that it is a proven system that has already carried over 200 million tons of bulk products annually to their destinations. (JMT)

  6. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  7. Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

  8. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  9. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  10. Steamship operator's thoughts on national dredging situation. [For coal-exporting ports

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The present depths of US coal-exporting ports are inadequate to permit handling of large, economically-sized bulkers. Because of this, the relative appeal of US coal to importers is considerably lessened. Several solutions are offered: coal-slurry pipelines, draft-assisted delivery systems, land based top-off stations, top-off concept, and a national dredging program. Although the topping-off alternative seems to be a viable means of addressing the problem, it should not be thought of as the ANSWER, but rather as a logical, cost effective interim method. Both top-off and dredging are needed to effectively address this issue. The author concludes that no matter how difficult bringing about a national dredging program may be, it must be done, for only through dredging can we achieve full optimization of our market potential in coal export.

  11. National Energy Strategy: Technical annex 6. Clean Coal Technology Export Programs: First edition, 1991/1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Existing programs and resources within Federal agencies can be more effectively applied to CCT`s through greater coordination with little, if any, additional funding. Recommendations for that coordination are: (1) create a permanent CCT Subgroup to the Energy, Environment, and Infrastructure Working Group of the TPCC to focus interagency efforts on CCT`s. (2) Implement a one-step export assistance program for CCT`s through the CCT Subgroup. (3) Develop innovative financing packages for CCT`s crosscutting agencies. (4) Develop a Clean Coal Technology Export Information Base to support TPCC`s Trade Information Center. Assemble an ongoing information base on potential CCT projects and markets worldwide. (5) Develop an ongoing and integrated interagency program in cooperation with industry to bring US CCT`s to the attention of potential foreign customers. (6) Ensure that Federal agencies work together and with industry to develop foreign demonstrations of US CCT`s. (7) Conduct an interagency study to characterize the competitive status of the international CCT`s industry. (8) Coordinate with multilateral organizations to ensure that US technologies are properly represented in their projects.

  12. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  13. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  14. Development of dry coal feeders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonin, J. H.; Cantey, D. E.; Daniel, A. D., Jr.; Meyer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Design and fabrication of equipment of feed coal into pressurized environments were investigated. Concepts were selected based on feeder system performance and economic projections. These systems include: two approaches using rotating components, a gas or steam driven ejector, and a modified standpipe feeder concept. Results of development testing of critical components, design procedures, and performance prediction techniques are reviewed.

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterization of sediments along a Colombian shoreline impacted by coal export terminals.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Guerrero-Castilla, Angelica; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; de la Rosa, Jesus; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-11-01

    Extraction, transport and utilization of coal spread out coal dust. Nowadays, Colombia is an important producer of this mineral in South America, being the Santa Marta area one of the largest coal exporting ports in the country. The aim of this work was to assess the pollutants levels and toxicity of shoreline sediments from this place. 16 PAHs and 46 elements were measured in nine locations during dry and rainy seasons. HepG2 cells were exposed to 1% sediment extracts and mRNA expression evaluated for selected genes. PAHs levels were greater during the rainy season. The highest ∑PAHs (89.9 ng g(-1)) appeared at a site located around 300 m far from the coast line at close proximity to the area where coal is loaded into cargo vessels for international shipments, being naphthalene the most abundant PAH. At Santa Marta Bay port, ∑PAHs were 62.8 ng g(-1) and 72.8 ng g(-1) for dry and rainy seasons, respectively, with greatest levels for fluoranthene. Based on sediment standards, most stations have poor condition regarding Cr, but moderate contamination on Cu, Pb and Zn. Sediments from the port and coal transport sites, the most polluted by PAHs and metals, induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 during the dry season. Data showed the sediments from this shoreline have bioactive chemicals that determine their toxicological profile. PMID:26298075

  16. New developments in coal briquetting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, P.V.; Bosworth, G.B.; Kalb, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

  17. Developing the capabilities to make strategic export controls effective.

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, P.; Perry, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division; NNSA Office of Global Engagement and Cooperation

    2008-12-01

    The International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) of the U.S. Department of Energy has been focused for over 10 years on engaging partner countries to strengthen global efforts to prevent proliferation. This paper summarizes some of the key lessons learned regarding the development of the capabilities needed to make strategic export controls truly effective.

  18. Iron ore and coal: pricing and volume up for these key export commodities

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    Australia's huge coal and iron ore industries are booming. Up until now, the majors have benefited handsomely, but smaller players are beginning to muscle in. The article discusses development in both industries. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  19. World coal exploration and developments. [Global aspects; status and planning in indexed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Many billions of dollars are being spent annually by many nations in gathering geologic data related to individual mines and in gathering more general data needed for planning a mine or mining complex. Additional billions are being spent for drilling prospects, for opening mines, for constructing or modifying processing plants, for building railroads, for planning and constructing coal port terminals, for obtaining financing, for economic and engineering feasibility studies, and finally, for transportation, use of coal on atmospheric and water pollution. World coal trade increased 7.2% in 1981 to 275.805 million metric tons. Seven nations produced 95.3% of the exported coal. In order of decreasing tonnages the United States, Autralia, South Africa, Soviet Union, West Germany, Canada, and Poland all exceeded 9 million metric tons of coal exports. Nations importing coal included Japan, France, Canada, Italy, West Germany, Denmark, Belgium, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Netherlands, and East Germany in order of decreasing tonnages, each imported more than 6 million metric tons of coal for a total of 76.6% or 211.1 million metric tons of the 275.8 million metric tons exported. In summary, coal developments during 1982-83 were numerous despite the world-financial depression, local political and union problems, and civil disorders at many places. Hundreds of mines, power plants, processing plants, railroads, pipelines, coal export terminals, and other coal-related facilities are being conceptualized, planned, and constructed in the larger and middle sized coal-producing nations. In the so-called underdeveloped nations, similar activities are underway, largly depending each individual nation's ability to obtain financing.

  20. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  1. Definitional-mission report: Clean-coal-technology assistance project in Czechoslovakia. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental regulations in Czechoslovakia are being modified and will provide for more strict environmental guidelines for coal preparation, washing, mine desalination, and application of commercially viable and economical clean coal technologies for utilization of coal. The government of Czechoslovakia requested the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) to carry out a Definitional Mission to Czechoslovakia to define the requirements of the country and to prepare specific recommendations for follow on actions by TDP. The technical assistance package proposed to be funded by TDP includes four specific activities. These are (i) a review of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR) coal characteristics, (ii) data analysis and initial matching of clean coal technologies, (iii) an orientation visit to review selected clean coal technology projects in the U.S., and (iv) preparation of a compendium of the main coal sector requirements in Czechoslovakia and the types of technologies needed. The Definitional Mission has prepared a Scope of Work which recommends that TDP allocate a fund to finance the cost of the above technical assistance activities. It is further recommended that TDP enlist the assistance of a non-profit trade organization to provide this service to the Government of Czech Republic.

  2. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  3. Developing Export Management Competencies and Skills among Undergraduate Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Fred; Bell, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Responses of 25 Northern Ireland business students who undertook client-sponsored projects in local businesses reported increased proficiency in conducting research, improved competence in export management, development of soft skills, and better ability to apply theory to practice. (SK)

  4. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  5. Development of pressurized coal partial combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Ino, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, N.

    1995-12-31

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), an environment-friendly power generation system of high thermal efficiency, is being developed via various approaches around the world. The oxygen-blown entrained flow gasification process is a relatively simple method of producing medium calorie coal gas suitable for application to gas turbines. Various systems for this process have been developed to a demonstration level in Europe and America. Japan has actively been developing the air-blown process. However, taking stable molten slag discharge into consideration, coal must be supplied at two stages to raise the combustor temperature in ash molten part. Only two reports have been presented regarding two-stage coal supply. One is the report on an experiment with the Hycol gasifier, in which air feed ratio is varied, with coal feed fixed. The other is report on a simulation study with various gasifier coal feed ratios, conducted at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. It seems that the appropriate feed ratio has not yet been established. Through this activity, a unique furnace construction has been established, and these influences of stoichiometric air ratio, of oxygen enrichment, of char recycling and of coal types on performance have been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to apply this developed CPC techniques to a Pressurized CPC (PCPC), thereby improving the IGCC technology. For the present study, we conducted systematic experiments on the air-blown process with a two stage dry feed system, using a 7 t/d-coal bench scale PCPC test facility, operated at the pressure of 0.4 MPa, and clarified the influence of coal feed ratio on coal gasification performance. This report describes the above-mentioned bench scale test procedures and results, and also some informations about a plan of a 25 t/d-coal pilot test system.

  6. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  7. Mercury and trace element distribution in density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal: Implications for mercury reduction and preparation of export coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Connie L.; van Alphen, Chris; Koenig, Alan E.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Eight density separates of Permian Highveld (#4) coal were investigated for partitioning of Hg and trace elements. The separates include float fractions obtained in heavy media having densities of 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 g/cm3, and the sink fraction for 2.0 g/cm3. Bulk analysis of the separates shows strong (R2 ≥ 0.80) positive correlations between pyritic sulfur and mercury, and between ash yield and both pyritic sulfur and mercury. Laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of individual pyrite grains in the separates confirms association of Hg and As with pyrite as indicated by bulk analysis. Other elements detected in pyrite by LA-ICP-MS include Mn, Co, Ni, Tl, and Pb. Results for the separates allow prediction of Hg, trace elements, and ash yields expected in specific South African coal products. These range from 0.06 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 11.5% ash for the export fraction to 0.47 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 60.9% for the discard (stone) fraction (dry basis). Results show pronounced differences expected between coal used for domestic power generation and coal which is exported.

  8. Commercialization of coal diesel engines for non-utility and export power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Mayville, R.A.; Itse, D.; Kimberley, J.; Parkinson, J.

    1993-11-01

    The basic motivation behind this project is to develop coal-burning heat engine technology primarily for 10-100 MW modular stationary power applications in the late 1990`s and beyond, when oil and gas prices may return to the $5--7/MMBtu range. The fuel is a low-cost, coal-based liquid with the consistency of black paint, composed of 12-micron mean size premium 2% ash coal dust mixed 50/50 with water. The Clean Coal Diesel Plant of the future is targeted for the 10-100 MW non-utility generation (NUG) and small utility markets, including independent power producers (IPP) and cogeneration. A family of plant designs will be offered using the Cooper-Bessemer 3.8, 5.0, and 6.3 MW Model LS engines as building blocks. In addition, larger plants will be configured with an engine in the 10-25 MW class (Cooper will license the technology to other large bore stationary engine manufacturers). The reciprocating engine offers a remarkable degree of flexibility in selecting plant capacity. This flexibility exists because the engines are modular in every sense (fuel cell stacks have similar modularity). Scale-up is accomplished simply by adding cylinders (e.g., 20 vs 16) or by adding engines (4 vs 3). There is no scale-up of the basic cylinder size. Thus, there is essentially no technical development needed to scale-up the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Coal Diesel Technology all the way from 2 MW (one 6-cylinder engine) to 50 MW (eight 20-cylinder engines), other than engineering adaptation of the turbocharger to match the engine.

  9. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-16

    During the past quarter, Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were active. Data reduction continued for the characterization of raw coal samples collected from five mines located in the Powder Basin in support of the Northern States Power (NSP) King test site. Four flowsheet tests were performed at the CQDC with the Pratt and Utley coals as part of the coal cleanability characterizations being performed for the Alabama Power Company's (APC) Gaston test site. Babcock and Wilcox (B W) performed pilot-scale combustion testing of the baseline and alternate coals used for the full-scale test bums at Northern States Power's King Station. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) continued to work under ABB/CE to develop the slogging and fouling models. Work continued on the preparation of final test reports for the field tests performed at Public Service Oklahoma's Northeastern Unit 4 and Mississippi Power Company's Watson Unit 4, and plans and test schedules were developed for tests to be conducted later this year at Alabama Power Company's Gaston Unit 5 and Duquesne Light Company's Cheswick Unit 1. Task 5 and 6 activities were directed at overall CQE program definition, development of the CQE software specification, completion of the Acid Rain Advisor (ARA), and continued formulation of CQE algorithms and submodels. All laboratory analyses required for the raw-coal characterizations of the Powder River Basin coals--collected in support of the NSP King test program--were completed. Coal cleanability tests were performed with the Pratt and Utley Seam coals obtained from the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Company in support of the baseline coal test performed at APC'S Gaston Unit 5.

  10. Definitional mission for coal-bed-methane project in Turkey. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, G.E.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A Trade and Development Program (TDP) sponsored Definitional Mission visited Turkey during June 23 - July 1, 1990. The purpose of the mission was to review Turkey's coalbed methane resources and to assess the needs of Turkey to develop these resources. The mission recommends TDP should encourage the Turkish Government to conduct this initial sampling study to assess the gas content in the Turkish coal. After this study is completed, and if the gas content of the coal indicates the potential for a large gas recovery and utilization project, a detailed feasibility study should be considered. This more detailed feasibility study may be a candidate for TDP funding as this project may present opportunities for technology transfer from the U.S. to Turkey, albeit with strong competition from the German industry.

  11. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  12. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  13. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    SciTech Connect

    Suharmoko, G.R. )

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

  14. Development of a coal cleaning control system

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Barnes, R.H.; Orban, J.E.; Webb, P.R.

    1990-03-09

    The US Department of Energy selected the Battelle-Electric Power Research Institute-Science Applications International Corporation team to evaluate and develop on-line slurry ash, percent solids, and sulfur analysis instrumentation and process control technology. The project's objectives were (1) to develop an accurate, versatile, easy to use, on-line coal slurry analyzer and (2) to develop control strategies for analysis, control, and optimization of advanced and conventional coal-cleaning plant. The project's scope included (1) the installation of a slurry test loop, ash, percent solids, and sulfur instruments; (2) evaluation of instrument accuracy with various coals, under various slurry conditions; and (3) assessment of the cost and benefits to be derived from on-line analysis and control 12 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  16. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  17. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  18. Expanded development of coal in Appalachian Pennsylvania through the utilization of coal-pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that the utilization of coal-pipeline technology can promote the development of Appalachian coal resources is investigated. The necessity of developing Appalachian coal is based on the assumptions that: (1) coal is the nation's primary medium-term energy source; and (2) eastern coal resources of the Appalachian and Midwestern regions constitute a significant supply source. Coal-pipeline technology offers potential for the resolution of a major impediment to coal development in the Appalachian region: the transportation constraints of handling the rapid expansion of coal production. Specifically, the integration of the coal pipeline into existing transportation networks may serve to upgrade the region's transportation capabilities, thereby facilitating the movement of coal to market places. This could enable many Appalachian coal resources, heretofore unavailable, to become available reserves. The most important contribution of this research was the creation of an analytical tool, with which a comparative cost analysis of short-haul coal-transport modes could be made. Given the assumptions of the hypothetical scenarios and the characteristics of the Appalachian region examined in the site-specific cases, results of this analysis indicated that the employment of the coal pipeline as a feeder mode could enable significant cost reductions in the short-haul transport of coal.

  19. Application and development of coal gasification technologies in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Tian, B.; Jiang, L.

    1997-12-31

    Coal gasification is the precursor of coal conversion and utilization as an effective option to utilize coal resources reasonably and as a important component of clean coal technology. At present, coal accounts for over three fourths of primary energy production and consumption in China, and the dominate position of coal in the energy mix can not be substituted for a long time in the future. Therefore, coal gasification has a bright prospect of utilization in China. Atmospheric fixed bed coal gasification technologies using lump coal as feedstock have been used widely in different industrial subsectors. The future development of coal gasification are the fixed bed technologies using briquette as feedstock and steam/air enriched with oxygen as agent, fluidized bed technologies using pulverized coal as feedstock and entrained bed technologies using coal water mixture (coal slurry) or dry fine coal as feedstock, with the emphasis on using local coal resources and enhancing conversion and utilization of coals near coal mine areas, so that considerable social, environmental and economic benefits can be achieved.

  20. Manpower export and economic development: evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1988-06-01

    The Philippines has actively pursued a policy of labor export with the expectation that it would relieve unemployment, augment the supply of skills, and relieve pressure on the balance of payments. It was also anticipated that the inflow of overseas workers' remittances would translate into increased investment, the sine qua non for economic development. However, recent evidence casts some doubt on the extent to which these goals have been achieved. Particularly in the areas of skill formation, there appears to be a significant discrepancy between anticipated and actual outcomes. Indeed, it appears that the labor export may reduce the supply of skills available since 1) many skilled and educated workers are taking jobs requiring skill levels lower than they possess, and 2) a large majority of returning workers do not want to take up employment in those occupations reliant on the skills they used abroad. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of labor export on Philippine industries. There is some anecdotal evidence that a few industries have suffered because of a loss of key workers. In general, however, it appears that unemployment is still quite significant in those occupations most heavily represented in labor export. Despite this observation, it may still be true that labor emigration is selective of only the best workers, implying a decline in quality of the work force and possibly productivity in certain industries. The export of professional, technical, and managerial workers is another issue. Unless it can be shown that these workers are in excess supply, it is not advisable to expand the number going abroad. Although their salaries may be higher, and hence their remittances greater, their loss can impose costs on indigenous industries well in excess of a any marginal gains. Remittances from overseas workers do constitute a relatively significant source of foreign exchange. However, the translation of remittances into investment has been

  1. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  2. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  3. Experience in feeding coal into a liquefaction process development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhtar, S.; Friedman, S.; Mazzocco, N. J.; Yavorsky, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A system for preparing coal slurry and feeding it into a high pressure liquefaction plant is described. The system was developed to provide supporting research and development for the Bureau of Mines coal liquefaction pilot plant. Operating experiences are included.

  4. Oil export policy and economic development in OPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Aperjis, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    During the 1970s, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) increased the price of their oil exports by 2000% in nominal terms. The ability of OPEC countries to increase the economic and other benefits they drew from each barrel of oil was a familiar theme of that decade. However, recent developments in the world oil market may not be so encouraging for OPEC. From 1979 to 1983, demand for OPEC crude oil decreased by almost 45%, or from 30.9 to 17.5 million barrels per day (mbd). Despite this dramatic decrease, the news on the price front has not so far been that bad for OPEC. The average OPEC oil price, which had increased from $1.80/bbl (barrel) in 1970 to $36/bbl by 1980, declined to $29/bbl by 1983. OPEC has thus defied many experts by managing to avoid a price collapse. Not surprisingly, these developments have raised arguments about the nature of OPEC and how it operates. OPEC has been characterized variously as a very tight cartel and as a loose and ineffectual organization. This paper tries to shed some light on OPEC, and especially on how the economic development objectives of influential OPEC members affect their oil policies.

  5. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  6. Export of reactive nitrogen from coal-fired power plants in the U.S.: Estimates from a plume-in-grid modeling study - article no. D04308

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Zhang, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Karamchandani, P.; Snell, H.E.

    2009-02-15

    The export of reactive nitrogen (nitrogen oxides and their oxidation products, collectively referred to as NOy) from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to the rest of the world could have a significant global contribution to ozone. Traditional Eulerian gridded air quality models cannot characterize accurately the chemistry and transport of plumes from elevated point sources such as power plant stacks. A state-of-the-science plume-in-grid (PinG) air quality model, a reactive plume model embedded in an Eulerian gridded model, is used to estimate the export of NOy from 25 large coal-fired power plants in the U. S. (in terms of NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions) in July 2001 to the global atmosphere. The PinG model used is the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with Advanced Plume Treatment (CMAQ-APT). A benchmark simulation with only the gridded model, CMAQ, is also conducted for comparison purposes. The simulations with and without advanced plume treatment show differences in the calculated export of NOy from the 25 plants considered reflecting the effect of using a detailed and explicit treatment of plume transport and chemistry. The advanced plume treatment results in 31% greater simulated export of NOy compared to the purely grid-based modeling approach. The export efficiency of NOy (the fraction of NOy emitted that is exported) is predicted to be 21% without APT and 27% with APT. When considering only export through the eastern boundary across the Atlantic, CMAQ-APT predicts that the export efficiency is 24% and that 2% of NOy is exported as NOx, 49% as inorganic nitrate, and 25% as PAN. These results are in reasonably good agreement with an analysis reported in the literature of aircraft measurements over the North Atlantic.

  7. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of research is presented on coal liquefaction. Programs include: bioprocessing of coal, University of Kentucky; materials characterization study of coal liquefaction processes, University of Kentucky; novel approaches to catalysis in coprocessing and in direct liquefaction of coal, University of Pittsburgh; liquefaction research in pyrolysis, catalysis and coal dissolution, West Virginia University; enhanced reactivity and selectivity in coal liquefaction and coprocessing systems, Auburn University; integrated liquefaction/characterization, University of Utah; basic process/resource evaluation task, center for applied energy research; and project integration and database development, University of Kentucky.

  8. Evaluation of coal feed systems being developed by the Energy Research and Development administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Luckow, W. K.; Mattson, L.; Otth, D.; Tsou, P.

    1977-01-01

    Development criteria and recommendations for coal feed system selections that include supporting data are presented. Considered are the areas of coal feed coasts, coal feed system reliability, and the interaction of the feed system with the conversion process.

  9. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  12. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  13. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE ORIGIN OF MINERAL MATTER IN COAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Dulong, F.T.; Ruppert, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify some of the various origins of mineral matter. Data developed for the Upper Freeport coal bed indicates that mineral matter other than pyrite and calcite is primarily derived from the vegetal matter that ultimately became coal. Cathodoluminesence was used to verify that the quartz in the Upper Freeport coal is dominantly authigenic and not detrital in origin. Sulfur variability in coal beds of the central Appalachian Basin was investigated stratagraphically.

  14. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  15. Development of solar coal gasification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Adinberg, R.; Epstein, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to the development and characterization of a solar-assisted coal gasification plant. Two solar receivers for steam coal gasification, both on a sub pilot scale, have been designed and set up at the Weizmann Institute`s solar facilities for tests under the conditions of highly concentrated solar radiation. In spite of the fact that chemical reactors of different types, one-tubular and the second-volumetric, have been installed in each of these receivers, they have in common the integration of a reactor and associated steam generator into one complex solar thermal system. The receiver constructed of a reaction tube coupled with a superheated steam generator provides processing of grained carbonaceous materials at temperature as high as 900--950 C with a sufficiently high rate of the syngas yield. Results from a series of the windowed reactor/receiver tests are also successful, demonstrating the suitability of this reactor for operating in a wide range of conditions required for coal gasification. Being designed in a certain degree of simplicity, that is adequate to the present stage of problem initiation, the receivers employed need to be optimized in order to achieve considerable efficiency of solar thermal power conversion into the energy of product gas. Results show that the temperature of process steam can strongly influence the system performance.

  16. Single event-driven export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and suspended matter from coal tar-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Totsche, K.U.; Jann, S.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2007-05-15

    Mobile colloidal and suspended matter is likely to affect the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the unsaturated soil zone at contaminated sites. We studied the release of mobile particles and dissolved organic matter as a function of variable climatic boundary conditions, and their effect on the export of PAHs at a coal tar-contaminated site using zero-tension lysimeters. Seepage water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particles larger than 0.7 {mu}m. The 16 Environmental Protection Agency PAHs were analyzed in the filtrate < 0.7 m and in the particle fraction. Our results show that extended no-flow periods that are followed by high-intensity rain events, such as thunderstorms, promote the mobilization of particles in the size 0.7 to 200 m. Mobilization is enforced by extended drying during summer. High particle concentrations are also associated with freezing and thawing cycles followed by either rain or snowmelt events. The export of PAHs is strongly connected to the release of particles in the 0.7- to 200-{mu}m size fraction. During the 2-yr monitoring period, up to 0.418 {mu}g kg{sup -1} PAHs were mobilized in the. ltrate (< 0.7 m) while the eightfold mass, 3.36 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, was exported with the retentate (0.7-200 {mu}m). Equilibrium dissolution of PAHs and transport in the dissolved phase seem to be of minor importance for the materials studied. Extreme singular-release events occurred in January 2003 and January 2004, when up to 55 {mu}g L{sup -1} PAHs per one single seepage event were observed within the retentate. Freezing and thawing cycles affect the PAH source materials, that is, the remnants of the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). High mechanical strain during freezing results in the formation of particles. At the onset of the thawing and following rain or snowmelt events, PAHs associated with these particles are then exported from the lysimeter.

  17. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  18. Definitional-mission report: Clean-coal-technology assistance project in Poland (final report). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    The new impending environmental law in Poland provides for strict environmental guidelines for coal preparation, washing, mine desalination, and application of commercially viable and economical clean coal technologies for utilization of coal. The government of Poland requested the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) carry out a Definitional Mission to Poland to define the requirements of the Polish authorities and to prepare specific recommendations for follow on actions by TDP. The technical assistance package proposed to be funded by TDP includes two specific activities. These are (i) an orientation visit to review selected clean coal technology projects in the U.S., and (ii) preparation of a compendium of the main coal sector requirements in Poland and the types of technologies needed. The Definitional Mission has prepared a Scope of Work which recommends that TDP allocate a fund to finance the cost of the above technical assistance activities. It is further recommended that TDP enlist the assistance of a non-profit trade organization to provide this assistance to the Polish government.

  19. Report to the Government of Jamaica coal feasibility study and financing plan. Phase 2, volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The report shows the results of a study conducted to determine the feasibility of an oil-to-coal conversion program for Jamaica`s major energy consuming facilities. This report, which is Phase II of the study, prepares the specifications for the principal equipment and develops financing and implementation plans for the project. The study is divided into two volumes. This is Volume 1 and it includes the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Selection of Preferred Option; (3) Conceptual Design; (4) Pricing of Equipment; (5) Coal Procurement; (6) Financial Analysis and Financing Plan; and (7) Project Plan.

  20. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K; Jin, Weilin; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-12-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. PMID:26631469

  1. Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

  2. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Jin, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein has been observed during mouse and human brain development and in multiple sclerosis in several studies, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation of Olig1 regulates its unique nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling during oligodendrocyte development and how the acetylation status of Olig1 modulates its distinct function in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. The current study provides a unique example of a lineage-specific transcription factor that is actively translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as the cell differentiates. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is tightly controlled by acetylation at a single

  3. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  4. Developments in coal dewatering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.G.; Davis, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Australian coal industry is characterized by efficient fines recovery, and the climate does not dictate the use of thermal drying. With the increasing trend to underground mining and hence finer ROM coal, and market pressures for reduced product moistures, dewatering issues are assuming increasing importance in the Australian coal industry. The greatest potential gains in dewatering performance undoubtedly lie in the treatment of finely sized material. This paper examines the dewatering issues which have been recognized by the Australian coal industry, and describes current Australian research in this field.

  5. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  6. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  7. Foster-Miller's development of dry coal feed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Dry coal feeder systems developed for pressurized conversion processes were carried through a laboratory scale development program. These concepts include: (1) a centrifugal solids feeder; (2) a fluidized piston feeder; (3) a linear pocket feeder; and (4) a compacted coal plug feeder. Results of laboratory model testing of all concepts are reviewed.

  8. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  9. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  10. Evaluation of ERDA-sponsored coal feed system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Luckow, W. K.; Mattson, L.; Otth, D.; Tsou, P.

    1977-01-01

    Coal feeders were evaluated based upon criteria such as technical feasibility, performance (i.e. ability to meet process requirements), projected life cycle costs, and projected development cost. An initial set of feeders was selected based on the feeders' cost savings potential compared with baseline lockhopper systems. Additional feeders were considered for selection based on: (1) increasing the probability of successful feeder development; (2) application to specific processes; and (3) technical merit. A coal feeder development program is outlined.

  11. Prospects for coal briquettes as a substitute fuel for wood and charcoal in US Agency for International Development Assisted countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Stevenson, G.G.; Shelton, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    Fuelwood shortages and potential shortages are widespread throughout the developing world, and are becoming increasingly more prevalent because of the clearing of land for subsistence and plantation agriculture, excessive and inefficient commercial timber harvesting for domestic and export construction, and charcoal production to meet rising urban demands. Further, the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the resulting deforestation are both pervasive and complex. This report focuses on the substitution of coal briquettes for fuelwood. Although substantial adverse health effects could be expected from burning non-anthracite coal or coal briquettes, a well-developed technique, carbonization, exists to convert coal to a safer form for combustion. The costs associated with briquetting and carbonizing coal indicate that ''smokeless'' coal briquettes can be produced at costs competitive with fuelwood and charcoal. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is working on implementing this energy option in Haiti and Pakistan by (1) evaluating resources, (2) assessing markets, (3) analyzing technologies, (4) studying government policy and planning, and (5) packaging the idea for the private sector to implement. 26 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Neural networks modelling of nitrogen export: model development and application to unmonitored boreal forest watersheds.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Nour, M H; Smith, D W; Prepas, E E

    2010-04-14

    In remotely located boreal forest watersheds, monitoring nitrogen (N) export in stream discharge often is not feasible because of high costs and site inaccessibility. Therefore, modelling tools that can predict N export in unmonitored watersheds are urgently needed to support management decisions for these watersheds. The hydrological and biogeochemical processes that regulate N export in streams draining watersheds are complex and not fully understood, which makes artificial neural network (ANN) modelling suitable for such an application. This study developed ANN models to predict N export from watersheds relying only on easily accessible climate data and remote sensing (RS) data from the public domain. The models were able to predict the daily N export (g/km2/d) in five watersheds ranging in size from 5-130 km2 with reasonable accuracy. Similarity indices were developed between any two studied watersheds to quantify watershed similarity and guide the transferability of models from monitored watersheds to unmonitored ones. To demonstrate the applicability of the ANN models to unmonitored watersheds, the calibrated ANN models were used to predict N export in different watersheds (unmonitored watersheds in this perspective) without further calibration. The similarity index based upon a rainfall index, a peatland index and a RS normalized difference water index showed the best correlation with the transferability of the models. This study represents an important first step towards transferring ANN models developed for one watershed to unmonitored watersheds using similarity indices that rely on freely available climate and RS data. PMID:20480825

  13. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  14. Development and Dissemination of a Manual for Developing Coal Mining Curricula. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, Elizabeth H.; Katz, D. S.

    This report describes and summarizes the purposes, activities, major findings, and recommendations of three coal-related study reports: (1) An Assessment of Employment and Training needs for Coal and Gasification Occupations, (2) A Manual for Competency-Matched Instructional Resources for Developing Coal Mining Curricula, and (3) The Preparation…

  15. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  17. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  18. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  19. The development of coal briquette for household use in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Soelistijo, U.W.; Suganal; Dauley, B.; Suprapto, S.; Sumaryono

    1994-12-31

    It is assured that coal utilization in Indonesia has played a significant role in reducing domestic oil consumption, and that domestic coal consumption continues to increase. In the meantime, Indonesian coal is used primarily to generate electricity, manufacture cement, and produce metal for industry. However, since the energy diversification policy was introduced in 1976, Indonesian coal production is poised for rapid development. Coal will function as the bridge to the future nonconventional energy use from the current conventional energy use. Coal in the form of briquettes have also been promoted as fuel in for household use since April 1993. This type of fuel is well accepted because it is smokeless, odorless, and easy to use. If all people in Indonesia use briquettes as fuel in the years between 1993 and 2000, the savings will range from US $0.57 billion to US $0.93 billion if the price is set at US $1.78 per liter of kerosene. Consequently, the use of briquettes for household use is aimed to substitute for kerosene and firewood. Moreover, this substitution will create additional multiplying effects such as increased employment and business in coal briquette making and marketing.

  20. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  1. Bio-coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

  2. Export of health services from developing countries: the case of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2008-07-01

    Although the subject of health services exports by developing countries has been much discussed, the phenomenon is still in its early stage, and its real implications are not yet clear. Given the rapid development in this area, little empirical data are available. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing reliable data on consumption of health services abroad (GATS mode 2 of international service supply). It starts by assessing the magnitude of the volume of international trade in health services. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the case of Tunisia based on an original field research. Because of the high quality of its health sector and its proximity with Europe, Tunisia has the highest export potential for health services in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. Health services exports may represent a quarter of Tunisia's private health sector output and generate jobs for 5000 employees. If one takes into account tourism expenses by the incoming patient (and their relatives), these exports contribute to nearly 1% of the country's total exports. Finally, this case study highlights the regional dimension of external demand for health services and the predominance of South-South trade. PMID:18468756

  3. THE ABC TRANSPORTER, AbcB3, MEDIATES cAMP EXPORT IN D. DISCOIDEUM DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Edward Roshan; Nam, Edward A.; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cAMP functions as a primary ligand for cell surface cAMP receptors throughout Dictyostelium discoideum development, controlling chemotaxis and morphogenesis. The developmental consequences of cAMP signaling and the metabolism of cAMP have been studied in great detail, but it has been unclear how cells export cAMP across the plasma membrane. Here we show pharmacologically and genetically that ABC transporters mediate cAMP export. Using an evolutionary-developmental biology approach, we identified several candidate abc genes and characterized one of them, abcB3, in more detail. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that AbcB3 is a component of the cAMP export mechanism in D. discoideum development. PMID:25448698

  4. Leaf development and phloem transport in Cucurbita pepo: Transition from import to export.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, R; Webb, J A

    1973-06-01

    The capacity of a growing leaf blade of Cucurbita pepo L. to import (14)C-labelled photoassimilate is lost in a basipetal direction. Import into the lamina tip stops when the blade is 10% expanded. Development of the leaf progresses linearly with time and the lamina base stops importing when the blade is 45% expanded. Export capacity also develops basipetally and follows immediately the loss of import capacity, at least in the lamina base. The small amount of material initially exported from the leaf tip is redistributed to the still-importing leaf base, delaying export from the lamina until the blade is 35% expanded. Loss of import capacity by the petiole is both basipetal and dorsoventral. The proximal, adaxial portion of the petiole is the last region to cease importing (14)C. Leaves of Beta vulgaris L. and Nicotiana tabacum L. also lose import capacity in a basipetal direction. PMID:24468909

  5. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  6. Development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, V.T.; Kutzenco, P.D.; Preston, W.J.; Brinen, J.S.; Graham, S.W.; Butensky, M.; Muchnick, T.L.; Hyman, D.

    1982-01-01

    During 1979-80, a new generation of very active, long-lived catlaysts for hydrotrating was discovered at the Stamford Research Laboratories of the American Cyanamid Company. The catalysts are based on a unique substrate prepared in bead form from a rehydratable alumina. Their spherical shape, crush strength, and abrasion resistance seem ideally suited for the ebullated bed reactors used in the H-COAL process developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI). The beads have internal pore structures that are controllable over a wider range than conventional alumina supports, leading to active catalysts that are resistant to poisoning. In September, 1981, the Department of Energy granted a 3-year contract to the American Cyanamid Company for the development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction anf for upgrading coal extracts, particularly in reactors used in the H-COAL process. Catalysts will first be screened in a batch reactor to identify promising candidated. The latter will be tested in a continuous aging reactor to evaluate their resistance to deactivation under col-liquefaction and extract upgrading conditions. Cold flow ebullation tests of catalysts of different head size are presented, along with some screening and crying of experimental catalysts. Spherical methods for examining catalysts are described.

  7. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  8. Development of a systems approach for US cherries exported to Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop a systems approach for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), that will allow export of Pacific Northwest (Washington and Oregon) and California cherries to Japan, cherries were shown to be poor hosts for codling moth. Codling moth pheromone traps were pla...

  9. Status of the development of EDS coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, G.K.; Epperly, W.R.

    1982-07-23

    This article traces the evolution and development of a modern coal liquefaction technology, the EDS (Exxon Donor Solvent) process, over a period of 15 years. During this time the technology has been advanced from laboratory experiments to a pilot plant with a coal feed rate of 250 tons per day, and findings from several areas of science and technology have been important. The process is now in the final stage of development to generate the data needed to design a plant of commercial size.

  10. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  11. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  12. Speed up the development and popularization of coal in Shanxi and Taiyuan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.; Ma, Q.; Fan, R.

    1997-12-31

    Clean coal utilization is a key step of sustainable development in China. In the period of ninth Five-Year-Plan, China will greatly enhance the development and adoption of clean coal technology, in which the industrial coal briquetting plays an important role. Compared with burning pulverized coal, burning coal briquettes in stoker boilers raises heat efficiency 10--14%, saves 15--21% of the coal, reduces particulate emission by 80--91% and SO{sub 2} by 20--36%. Consequently, development and popularization of coal briquette for boilers have been listed as one of the key projects in the ninth Five-Year-Plan. Owing to mechanized coal mining, the lump coal proportion is being reduced. On the other hand, thousands of gas producers in the small and medium scale ammonia plants increasingly demand lump anthracite. This discrepancy between supply and demand on lump coal can be resolved by coal briquetting. This paper describes the features and superiority of coal briquettes for gasification; it has uniform size, larger porosity, and higher reactivity. Some of its properties can be upgraded. Many Chinese organizations are being devoted to coal briquetting research, development and production. How to coordinate them in their efforts to form a coal briquetting industry with suitable production capacity and active market is a topic worth studying. This paper describes the current situation on briquette research, production and marketing. Some proposals to speed up the development and popularization of the coal briquettes are given.

  13. How the Dollar's Value Affects U.S. Farm Exports to Developing Countries. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report Number 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burfisher, Mary E.

    United States exports may not necessarily increase when the dollar falls on the world market. Conventional thinking is that a weaker dollar means more demand for U.S. products because they become less expensive than goods from countries with stronger currencies. However, developing countries whose export revenues are denominated in the weakening…

  14. Aquatic carbon export from peatland catchments recently undergone wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ben; Waldron, Susan; Henderson, Andrew; Flowers, Hugh; Gilvear, David

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's peat landscapes are desirable locations for wind-based renewables due to high wind resources and low land use pressures in these areas. The environmental impact of sitting wind-based renewables on peats however, is unknown. Globally, peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores. Given the topical nature of carbon-related issues, e.g. global warming and carbon footprints, it is imperative we help mitigate their degradation and maintain carbon sequestration. To do so, we need to better understand how peatland systems function with regards to their carbon balance (export versus sequestration) so we can assess their resilience and adaptation to hosting land-based renewable energy projects. Predicting carbon lost as a result of construction of wind farms built on peatland has not been fully characterised and this research will provide data that can supplement current 'carbon payback calculator' models for wind farms that aim to reinforce their 'green' credentials. Transfer of carbon from the terrestrial peatland systems to the aquatic freshwater and oceanic systems is most predominant during periods of high rainfall. It has been estimated that 50% of carbon is exported during only 10% of highest river flows, (Hinton et al., 1998). Furthermore, carbon export from peatlands is known to have a seasonal aspect with highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) found mostly in late summer months of August and September and lowest in December and January, (Dawson et al., 2004). Event sampling, where high intensity sample collection is carried out during high river flow periods, offers a better insight, understanding and estimation of carbon aquatic fluxes from peatland landscapes. The Gordonbush estate, near Brora, has an extensive peatland area where a wind farm development has recently been completed (April 2012). Investigations of aquatic carbon fluxes from this peatland system were started in July 2010, in conjunction with the start of

  15. The economic development of oil-exporting countries: The case of Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to measure the response of Iraqi development to the influx of oil-export revenues. The study employs several econometric techniques using data from 1960 to 1980. From 1960 to 1980, Iraq achieved remarkable economic growth, a high rate of investment and employment, more equitable income distribution, a favorable balance of trade, and a stabilized economy. The 1972 government takeover of oil industries and the oil price boom of 1973 brought even more unprecedented growth and prosperity to the nation. Despite this remarkable performance however, the economic structure of Iraq remains dominated by the oil-export sector. In other words, Iraq's ability to reduce its dependence on oil revenues has been constructed because home sectors were not yet developed sufficiently to provide outputs and revenues needed by the country. Recommendations include development of policies designed to link the oil export sector with the rest of the economy, to encourage more investment by the private sector, to expand and improve the productivity of the agricultural and industrial sectors, and to develop inter-nation regional cooperatives capable of expanding the market for locally produced goods.

  16. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  17. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  18. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  20. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  1. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  2. America's role in the world coal-export market. Part 2. Pacific Rim outlook. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, December 1, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Part 2 of the hearing record covers the statements of witnesses from the Western Governors' Policy Office, Pacific Rim manufacturers and utilities, and others interest in low-sulfur coal from Alaska. Inherent in the coal trade are long-standing mutual defense treaties with Taiwan, Japan, and others. Of special concern is the loss of US coal exports to Australia and Canada and the need for better policies to deal with the growing international demand for steam coal. (DCK)

  3. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Quarterly report, July 1-October 1, 1987. [Kentucky coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Research programs in coal liquefaction continued in the following areas: (1) catalytic coal liquefaction using Mo catalysts; (2) coprocessing experiments, using Maya topper long resid as a solvent for Illinois No. 6 coal using a variety of both unimodal and bimodal catalysts. The effect of agitation rate on conversion in a horizontally aligned tubing bond experiment was investigated; (3) the effect of tetrabutyltin and FeSO/sub 4/ . 7H/sub 2/O catalysts on coprocessing. A mathematical model was used to determine critical coprocessing rate constants; (4) a study of the bond cleavage reactions of benzl phenyl ethers was completed. Similar bond cleavages may be induced in coal and lead to liquid products under low severity conditions. EPR studies of Cr(V) model compounds established an unusual lineshape. Solvent extraction using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone on a high resinite coal from Utah. New NMP experimets are in progress on oil shales and tar sands. New experimental apparatus has been devised for investigating the kinetics of the extraction process; (5) collection and analysis of the eastern Kentucky coals was completed. Chemical and petrographic analyses were placed in the KECL coal data base; (6) liquefaction screening of the eastern Kentucky coals was completed. Liquefaction data is being correlated with the coal properties; (7) a new /sup 13/C NMR technique, variable angle sample spinning (VASS), show great promise for determining the average cluster size in coal. Sink/float methods are being developed to obtain gram quantities of maceral enriched (> 90%) specimens on which liquefaction studies can be made. Pyrolysis and mass spectrometry studies are being made on raw Elkhorn coal; (8) biological desulfurization studies emphasized experiments with Sulfolobus brierleyi. The growth of Sulfolobus solfataricus on casamino acids and yeast extract was investigated; (9) the CFFLS computer network/liquefaction database became operational. 4 refs., 13 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  5. Phase equilibrium data for development of correlations for coal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Darwish, N.A.; Raff, A.M.

    1991-02-01

    The overall objective of the authors' work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representations of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal-conversion processes. The objectives pursued in the present project include: (1) Measurements of binary vapor-liquid phase behavior data for selected solute gases (e.g., C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 4}) in a series of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents to permit evaluations of interaction parameters in models for phase behavior. Solubilities of the gases in the liquid phase have been determined. (2) Evaluation of existing equations of state and other models for representations of phase behavior in systems of the type studied experimentally; development of new correlation frameworks as needed. (3) Generalization of the interaction parameters for the solutes studied to a wide spectrum of heavy solvents; presentation of final results in formats useful in the design/optimization of coal liquefaction processes.

  6. Environmental implications of coal development: an interdisciplinary research team approach

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, W.T.; Brun, L.; Enz, J.; Galitz, D.S.; Li, K.; Whitman, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    In May, 1974 a team of researchers from North Dakota State University launched a project aimed at investigating The Implications of Coal Development on the Atmospheric Environment and Plant Ecosystems of Selected Sites in Western North Dakota. It was an interdisciplinary effort of four basic study areas, namely: Soils, Climatology, Engineering, and Botany. Support was provided by the US Forest Service, USDA, under a Surface Environment and Mining (SEAM) cooperative agreement with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. The investigations, which lasted 4-1/2 years, were designed to accomplish three primary objectives. First was to analyze the frequency, intensity, and duration of low-level radiation inversions in western North Dakota. The second was to determine the probable dispersion of wastes to the atmosphere from various theoretical operational levels and types of coal development in the specified area. Lastly was evaluation of the effects of probable changes in air quality on the plant ecosystems in the area.

  7. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  8. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  9. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  10. Amino Acid Export in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds Depends on UmamiT Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Müller, Benedikt; Fastner, Astrid; Karmann, Julia; Mansch, Verena; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Suter-Grotemeyer, Marianne; Rentsch, Doris; Truernit, Elisabeth; Ladwig, Friederike; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Hammes, Ulrich Z

    2015-12-01

    Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by humans and animals. They often are limiting in plant-derived foods and determine the nutritional value of a given diet. Seeds and fruits often represent the harvestable portion of plants. In order to improve the amino acid composition of these tissues, it is indispensable to understand how these substrates are transported within the plant. Amino acids result from nitrogen assimilation, which often occurs in leaves, the source tissue. They are transported via the vasculature, the xylem, and the phloem into the seeds, the so-called sink tissue, where they are stored or consumed. In seeds, several tissues are symplasmically isolated, i.e., not connected by plasmodesmata, channels in the cell walls that enable a cytoplasmic continuum in plants. Consequently, amino acids must be exported from cells into the apoplast and re-imported many times to support seed development. Several amino acid importers are known, but exporters remained elusive. Here, we characterize four members of the plant-specific UmamiT transporter family from Arabidopsis, related to the amino acid facilitator SIAR1 and the vacuolar auxin transporter WAT1. We show that the proteins transport amino acids along their (electro)chemical potential across the plasma membrane. In seeds, they are found in tissues from which amino acids are exported. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate high levels of free amino acids in fruits and produce smaller seeds. Our results strongly suggest a crucial role for the UmamiTs in amino acid export and possibly a means to improve yield quality. PMID:26628011

  11. Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

  12. Development of mercury and chloride monitors for coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Buttermore, W.H.; Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Peters, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Ames Laboratory will develop an integrated sampling and analysis system suitable for on-line monitoring of mercury (Hg) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in advanced coal-based gasifiers. The objectives of this project are to (1) summarize current technology for monitoring Hg and HCl in gaseous effluents; (2) identify analytical techniques for such determinations in high-temperature, high-pressure gases from coal-based systems for producing electrical power; (3) evaluate promising analytical approaches, and (4) produce reliable on-line monitors which are adaptable to plant-scale diagnostics and process control. For HG, the techniques selected for further consideration were atomic absorption and atomic fluorescence. For HCl, non-dispersive infrared absorption, a dry colorimetric procedure, and ion mobility spectroscopy were selected for testing in the laboratory. Results to date are described.

  13. Development of coal combustion sensitivity test for smoke detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Morrow, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the US Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The tests are conducted using a standard smoke box designed and constructed according to Underwriters Laboratories. The tests provide a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for smoldering and flaming coal combustion, based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke. With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector`s reliability can be evaluated for nearly identical smoke visibility and smoke physical characteristics. The detector`s threshold response limits and reliability need to be well defined prior to the instrument`s use as part of a mine fire warning system for improved mine safety.

  14. Coal log pipeline: Development status of the first commercial system

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The coal log pipeline (CLP) is an innovative means for long-distance transportation of coal. In the CLP concept, coal is pressed into the form of cylinders--coal logs--that are propelled by water flowing through underground pipe. A coal log pipeline has many advantages when compared to coal transport by unit train, slurry pipeline and long-distance trucking: low-cost, low energy consumption, low-water consumption, simple dewatering at pipeline exit, safe, and environmentally friendly. The coal logs travel butted together, as trains. Between the coal log {open_quotes}trains,{close_quotes} some space is allowed for valve switching. The optimum diameter of a coal log is approximately 90 to 95% the inside diameter of the pipe. The coal-to-water ratio is about 4 to 1. A 200 mm diameter CLP can transport about 2 million tonnes of coal per year. The coal logs at their destination come out of the pipeline onto a moving conveyer which transports the logs to a crusher or stock pile. Coal logs are crushed to match the size of existing fuel. The water effluent is treated and reused at the power plant; there is no need for its discharge. Coal logs can be manufactured with and without the use of binder. By using less than 2 percent emulsified asphalt as binder, no heat is required to compact coal logs. Binderless coal logs can be compacted at less than 90{degrees}C. Compaction pressures, for coal logs made with or without binder, are about 70 MPa. The coal particle size distribution and moisture content must be controlled. The economics of coal log pipeline system have been studied. Results indicate that a new coal log pipeline is cost-competitive with existing railroads for distances greater than 80 km, approximately. CLP is much more economical than coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter. This paper describes the current R&D and commercialization plan for CLP. 4 refs.

  15. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-04-26

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

  17. Steam-coal import requirements in Turkey, Egypt, Finland, and Israel: supplemental summary report to international steam coal trade analysis. (from the series market guides for steam coal exports from Appalachia)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This publication provides a review of the potential steam coal import demand for Turkey, Egypt, Finland, and Israel for 1985, 1990, and 1995. It summarizes and documents the readily available information about the issues related to steam-coal imports to the four countries. The effort was limited in scope and resources and should not be viewed as a definitive analysis.

  18. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

  19. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  20. [Development of mercury emission inventory from coal combustion in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-kun; Hao, Ji-ming; Wu, Ye; Streets, David G; Duan, Lei; Tian, He-zhong

    2005-03-01

    Mercury emission inventory by province from coal combustion in China was developed by combining fuel consumption, mercury content in fuel and emission factors after combustion in this study. The study is intended to provide an understanding of mercury transformation, transportation and deposition in atmosphere, as well as propose measures to control mercury pollution in China. Mercury emission sources were classified into 65 categories by economic sectors, fuel types, boiler types and pollution control technologies. For two different data sets of mercury content in coal the total amounts of mercury released into atmosphere in 2000 in China were estimated at about 161.6 tons and 219.5 tons, respectively. The biggest three source sectors were industry, power plants, and residential use, contributing 46%, 35% and 14% of total mercury emissions, respectively. The shares of elemental mercury (Hg0), oxidized mercury (Hg2+ ) and particulate mercury (Hgp) were 16% , 61% and 23% , respectively. The spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China is not uniform. Henan, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning and Jiangsu contributed large amounts of mercury emissions, exceeding 10t x a(- 1). PMID:16004296

  1. Coal materials handling coal feeder development, Phase I. First quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-20

    The FMA Linear Pocket Feeder (LPF) is a positive displacement feed system in which the pressure seal is developed by a set of mechanical labyrinth seals between the piston rings and the sealing tube. The pressure seal is completely independent of the type and size of coal used. The LPF can maintain a pressure difference with no coal in the system and can achieve steady state operation in less than a minute after startup. Coal flow rate can be changed while the LPF is operating at design speed and operating pressure with no effect on the LPF's performance. The LPF has the potential for operating on all types and sizes of coal as long as they are free flowing. The existing LPF will be upgraded utilizing the knowledge gained during the previous 330 hours of operation. The loading station will be redesigned to allow the infeed of coarse coal in such a manner that minimum degradation occurs during entry into the pockets of the feeder and feed of pulverized coal in a way that minimizes entrapment of air under the coal charge to allow quicker settling. Certain other proposed design changes are described also. (LTN)

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  3. Technology status and project development risks of advanced coal power generation technologies in APEC developing economies

    SciTech Connect

    Lusica, N.; Xie, T.; Lu, T.

    2008-10-15

    The report reviews the current status of IGCC and supercritical/ultrasupercritical pulverized-coal power plants and summarizes risks associated with project development, construction and operation. The report includes an economic analysis using three case studies of Chinese projects; a supercritical PC, an ultrasupercritical PC, and an IGCC plant. The analysis discusses barriers to clean coal technologies and ways to encourage their adoption for new power plants. 25 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

  5. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-22

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Report to the Government of Jamaica coal feasibility study and financing plan. Phase 2, volume 2, appendix A. Associated environmental impact assessment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The report shows the results of a study conducted to determine the feasibility of an oil-to-coal conversion program for Jamaica`s major energy consuming facilities. This report, which is Phase II of the study, prepares the specifications for the principal equipment and develops financing and implementation plans for the project. This is Volume 2 and it contains the Appendix-Associated Environmental Impact Assessment.

  7. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method to Detect Fungal Pathogens for Quarantine on Exported Cacti

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun ji; Hong, Seong Won; Kim, Hyun-ju; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2016-01-01

    Major diseases in grafted cacti have been reported and Fusarium oxysporum, Bipolaris cactivora, Phytophthora spp. and Collectotrichum spp. are known as causal pathogens. These pathogens can lead to plant death after infection. Therefore, some European countries have quarantined imported cacti that are infected with specific fungal pathogens. Consequently, we developed PCR detection methods to identify four quarantined fungal pathogens and reduce export rejection rates of Korean grafted cacti. The pathogen specific primer sets F.oF-F.oR, B.CF-B.CR, P.nF-P.nR, and P.cF-P.CR were tested for F. oxysporum, B. cactivora, P. nicotinae, and P. cactorum, respectively. The F.oF-F.oR primer set was designed from the Fusarium ITS region; the B.CF-B.CR and P.nF-P.nR primers respectively from Bipolaris and Phytophthora ITS1; and the P.cF-P.CR primer set from the Ypt1protein gene region. The quarantine fungal pathogen primer pairs were amplified to the specific number of base pairs in each of the following fungal pathogens: 210-bp (F. oxysporum), 510-bp (B. cactivora), 313-bp (P. nicotinae), and 447-bp (P. cactorum). The detection limit for the mono- and multiplex PCR primer sets was 0.1 ng of template DNA under in vitro conditions. Therefore, each primer set successfully diagnosed contamination of quarantine pathogens in export grafted cacti. Consequently, our methodology is a viable tool to screen contamination of the fungal pathogen in exported grafted cacti. PMID:26889115

  8. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method to Detect Fungal Pathogens for Quarantine on Exported Cacti.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Ji; Hong, Seong Won; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2016-02-01

    Major diseases in grafted cacti have been reported and Fusarium oxysporum, Bipolaris cactivora, Phytophthora spp. and Collectotrichum spp. are known as causal pathogens. These pathogens can lead to plant death after infection. Therefore, some European countries have quarantined imported cacti that are infected with specific fungal pathogens. Consequently, we developed PCR detection methods to identify four quarantined fungal pathogens and reduce export rejection rates of Korean grafted cacti. The pathogen specific primer sets F.oF-F.oR, B.CF-B.CR, P.nF-P.nR, and P.cF-P.CR were tested for F. oxysporum, B. cactivora, P. nicotinae, and P. cactorum, respectively. The F.oF-F.oR primer set was designed from the Fusarium ITS region; the B.CF-B.CR and P.nF-P.nR primers respectively from Bipolaris and Phytophthora ITS1; and the P.cF-P.CR primer set from the Ypt1protein gene region. The quarantine fungal pathogen primer pairs were amplified to the specific number of base pairs in each of the following fungal pathogens: 210-bp (F. oxysporum), 510-bp (B. cactivora), 313-bp (P. nicotinae), and 447-bp (P. cactorum). The detection limit for the mono- and multiplex PCR primer sets was 0.1 ng of template DNA under in vitro conditions. Therefore, each primer set successfully diagnosed contamination of quarantine pathogens in export grafted cacti. Consequently, our methodology is a viable tool to screen contamination of the fungal pathogen in exported grafted cacti. PMID:26889115

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF COAL BED METHANE UTILIZING GIS TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2003-04-01

    During the second half of the 1990's, Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period were the advancements in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies generating terra-bytes of new data for the oil and gas industry. Coupled to these accelerating initiatives are many environmental concerns relating to production wastes and water table depletion of fresh water resources. It is these concerns that prompted a vital need within the industry for the development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and mitigation strategies utilizing GIS technologies for efficient environmental protection in conjunction with effective production of CBM. This was accomplished by developing a framework to take advantage of a combination of investigative field research joined with leading edge GIS technologies for the creation of environmentally characterized regions of study. Once evaluated these regions had BMP's developed to address their unique situations for Coal Bed Methane production and environmental protection. Results of the project will be used to support the MBOGC's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement as required by the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) and by the BLM for NEPA related issues for acreage having federally owned minerals.

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  11. The Development of Power Technologies for Low-Grade Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, K.

    Beneficiation of Indian coal and operation of power plants with imported coal will improve the efficiency of power generation to some extent but they will not satisfy overall future requirements of pollution control and conservation of energy. Therefore, there is a need to adopt new clean coal technologies.

  12. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  14. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  15. Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO{sub 2} and 85% for NO{sub x} were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

  17. Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO[sub 2] and 85% for NO[sub x] were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

  18. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  19. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  20. Development of Methods of Characterizing Coal in Its Plastic State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    Coal in its plastic state (typically 400-460 C) was examined by the isothermal Gieseler plastometry of seven selected coals of widely varying plastic properties. Kinetic models were proposed for the isothermal plastometric curves. Plastic behavior was compared with a variety of laboratory analyses and characterizations of these coals, including classical coal analysis; mineral analysis; microstructural analysis (extractable fractions, surface area measurement, and petrographic analysis); and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis, thermomechanical analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry). The phenomenon of a sharp, large, poorly reproducible exotherm in the differential scanning calorimetric analysis of coking coals was examined. Several coal extrudates show mineral distribution, organic maceral composition and overall calorific value to be little affected by 800 F extrusion. Volatile matter and plastic properties are moderately reduced, and the network structure (as gauged by extractables) appears to be slightly degraded in the extrusion process.

  1. Research needs and data acquisition to apply US technology to foreign coals: Quarterly report, November 1987-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Viking Systems International (VSI) has been providing technical assistance to the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) in the development of an international database on coal resources, coal characteristics and coal conversion technologies in the countries of Asia and the Pacific Basin. In Phase I of the project, databases were developed on coal characteristics, coal resources and electric utilities. During this quarter, US coals were compared with coals from countries of Asia and Pacific Basin. The purpose of this comparison is to highlight similarities or differences between US and foreign coals, which will enable one to determine the applicability of foreign coals to US developed coal technologies and identification of potential areas for technology transfer and US products and services for export. 2 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Development of video processing based on coal flame detector system

    SciTech Connect

    He Wanqing; Yu Yuefeng; Xu Weiyong; Ma Liqun

    1999-07-01

    The principle and development of a set of pulverized coal combustion flame detection system, which is called intelligent image flame detector device based on digital video processing, is addressed in this paper. The system realizes multi-burner flame detection and processing using a distributive structure of engineering workstation and flame detectors via multi-serial-port communication. The software can deal with multi-tasks in a parallel way based on multi-thread mechanism. Streaming video capture and storage is provided to safe and playback the accidental Audio and Visual Interfaces (AVI) clips. The layer flame detectors can give the flame on/off signal through image processing. Pseudo-color visualization of flame temperature calculated from chromatic CCD signal is integrated into the system. The image flame detector system has been successfully used in thermal power generation units in China.

  3. Development of a 5 kW Prototype Coal-Based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Steven S.C.; Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz; Rismanchian, Azadeh

    2014-01-20

    The University of Akron Fuel Cell Laboratory pioneered the development of a laboratory scale coal-based fuel cell, which allows the direct use of high sulfur content coal as fuel. The initial research and coal fuel cell technology development (“Coal-based Fuel Cell,” S. S. C. Chuang, PCT Int. Appl. 2006, i.e., European Patent Application, 35 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2006028502 A2 20060316) have demonstrated that it is feasible to electrochemically oxidize carbon to CO2, producing electricity. The key innovative concept of this coal-based fuel cell technology is that carbon in coal can be converted through an electrochemical oxidation reaction into manageable carbon dioxide, efficiently generating electricity without involving coal gasification, reforming, and water-gas shift reaction. This study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reaction. A carbon injection system was developed to inject the solid fuel without bringing air into the anode chamber; a fuel cell stack was developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fuel cell stack. Further improvement of anode catalyst activity and durability is needed to bring this novel coal fuel cell to a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology, which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil.

  4. Environmental studies of materials from the H-coal liquefaction process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1982-12-01

    H-coal is a process for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce synthetic fuels. Its development has progressed from bench-scale testing through operation of a 2.7 Mg/d (3 ton/d) Process Development Unit. A large-scale H-Coal pilot plant is presently operating at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and there are plans for the construction of a commercial H-Coal liquefaction facility by the end of the decade. Two of the environmental concerns of the developing direct coal liquefaction industry are accidental spills of synthetic oils and treatment/storage of solid wastes. As a means of obtaining preliminary information on the severity of these potential impacts well in advance of commercialization, samples of product oils and solid wastes were obtained from the H-Coal Process Development Unit (PDU). These samples were subjected to a battery of rapid screening tests, including chemical characterization and bioassays with a variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Water-soluble fraction (WSFs) of H-Coal PDU oils had considerably higher concentrations of phenols and anilines and were commonly one to two orders of magnitude more toxic to aquatic organisms than WSFs of analogous petroleum crude oil. Whole H-Coal PDU oils were also more toxic to the cricket than petroleum-based oils, and some H-Coal samples showed evidence of teratogenicity. Leachates from H-Coal PDU solid wastes, on the other hand, had relatively low concentrations of selected elements and had essentially no acute toxicity to a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species. These studies indicate that environmental effects of product oil spills from a commercial H-Coal liquefaction plant are likely to be more severe than those of conventional petroleum spills. Product upgrading or special transportation and storage techniques may be needed to ensure environmentally sound commercialization of the H-Coal process.

  5. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  6. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  7. Environmental regulatory drivers for coal bed methane research and development.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.; Moses, D. O.

    2002-10-10

    In 1999, the National Petroleum Council (NPC) stated that the resource base for meeting growing natural gas demands in the United States is adequate. A significant and increasing portion of natural gas production (8% by 2015) is expected to come from coal bed methane (CBM). The NPC cautions that for this to occur, certain factors, including compliance with environmental requirements, must be addressed. Numerous federal, state, and local programs address a variety of environmental issues, including water quality and quantity, air quality, wildlife, noise, and visibility. This paper examines existing and potential environmental regulatory requirements that could affect the timely development and production of CBM resources in the United States. Such an examination can help technology developers and policy makers target areas for research and development (R&D), demonstration, and implementation to help facilitate cost-effective CBM development and production to meet the nation's natural gas demands. It can also help identify R&D areas that will give rule-making bodies the information they need to incorporate more science into the regulatory development process.

  8. Quarterly Coal Report, April-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks in the United States. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. This issue shows detailed quarterly data for April-June 1985, aggregated quarterly historical and projected data for 1980 through 1986, and aggregated annual historical and projected data for 1960 through 1995. All data for 1984 and previous years are final. All 1985 data are preliminary and subject to revision. During the first and second quarters of 1985, the US coal industry continued to return to normal operations after the threat of a strike by US coal miners in 1984. For the first 6 months of 1985 the industry showed the following developments: Coal production was only 2.4% less than in the same period of 1984, when it reached a record January-June total. Coal exports were 10.0% higher than their 1984 level for the same time period. The United States imported 52.3% more coal than it did in the first 6 months of 1984, chiefly from Colombia. Domestic coal consumption reached a record-setting level for January-June, 3.6% greater than the previous record in 1984.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  11. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  13. Distribution, mechanism, and significance of the export of substances from the developing fruits of peas

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the G2 line of peas (Pisum sativum L.) senescence and death of the apical bud occurs only in long days (LD) in the presence of fruits. Removal of the fruits prevents apical senescence. One possible reason for the senescence-inducing effect of fruit is that the fruits produce a senescence-inducing factor which moves to the apical bud and is responsible for the effect. For this to be possible there must be a transport mechanisms by which the material may move form the pods to the apex. The goal of this study was to determine the characteristics of pod export and elucidate the nature of the exported material. To examine the extent of fruit export, pods were labelled via photoassimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ at various ages and under either LD or short days (SD). For both photoperiods, less label was found to be exported to the apical bud during the onset of irreversible apical senescence than at other times. In addition, pods exported more of the total label fixed when grown under SD conditions, and more of the amount exported reached the apical bud in SD. Thus, the quantitative data do not support the idea of specific export of targeted senescence-inducing compounds.

  14. Western coal marketing days

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

  15. Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.

    1992-04-28

    The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.

  16. Heme exporter FLVCR is required for T cell development and peripheral survival.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mary; Funkhouser, Scott A; Chiu, Edison Y; Phelps, Susan R; Delrow, Jeffrey J; Cox, James; Fink, Pamela J; Abkowitz, Janis L

    2015-02-15

    All aerobic cells and organisms must synthesize heme from the amino acid glycine and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate succinyl CoA for incorporation into hemoproteins, such as the cytochromes needed for oxidative phosphorylation. Most studies on heme regulation have been done in erythroid cells or hepatocytes; however, much less is known about heme metabolism in other cell types. The feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor (FLVCR) is a 12-transmembrane domain surface protein that exports heme from cells, and it was shown to be required for erythroid development. In this article, we show that deletion of Flvcr in murine hematopoietic precursors caused a complete block in αβ T cell development at the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive stage, although other lymphoid lineages were not affected. Moreover, FLVCR was required for the proliferation and survival of peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These studies identify a novel and unexpected role for FLVCR, a major facilitator superfamily metabolite transporter, in T cell development and suggest that heme metabolism is particularly important in the T lineage. PMID:25582857

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW-EMISSION, HIGH-EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the third year's efforts in a program to develop criteria for extending the applicability of low-emission, high-efficiency coal burners. For the small-scale fuel studies, 28 coals covering all ranks were tested under a wide variety of conditions to ascertain ...

  18. A Manual of Competency Matched Instructional Materials for Developing Coal Mining Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Douglas S.; Oglesby, Elizabeth H.

    To assist in the development of secondary level coal mining curricula, this report identifies sixty-four competencies considered by coal mining companies and instructors to be of major or moderate importance. Also, four tables are used to aid curriculum planners. Table 1 contains occupational competencies ranked in importance for the secondary…

  19. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  20. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  1. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  2. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    inferred from their physical and chemical properties. The developed porosity of the activated carbon was a function of the oxygen content, porosity and H/C ratio of the parent unburned carbon feedstock. It was observed that extended activation times and high activation temperatures increased the porosity of the produced activated carbon at the expense of the solid yield. The development of activated carbon from unburned carbon in fly ash has been proven to be a success by this study in terms of the higher surface areas of the resultant activated carbons, which are comparable with commercial activated carbons. However, unburned carbon samples obtained from coal-fired power plants as by-product have high ash content, which is unwanted for the production of activated carbons. Therefore, the separation of unburned carbon from the fly ash is expected to be beneficial for the utilization of unburned carbon to produce activated carbons with low ash content.

  4. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    The DOE Coal Liquefaction Research Needs (COLIRN) Panel reviewed, developed, and assessed R and D needs for the development of coal liquefaction for the production of transportation fuels. Technical, economics, and environmental considerations were important components of the panel's deliberations. The panel examined in some depth each of the following technologies: direct liquefaction of coal, indirect liquefaction via conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas, pyrolysis, coprocessing of combined coal/oil feedstocks, and bioconversion of coal and coal-derived materials. In this assessment particular attention was given to highlighting the fundamental and applied research which has revealed new and improved liquefaction mechanisms, the potentially promising innovative processes currently emerging, and the technological and engineering improvements necessary for significant cost reductions. As the result of this assessment, the COLIRN panel developed a list of prioritized research recommendations needed to bring coal liquefaction to technical and economic readiness in the next 5--20 years. The findings and the research recommendations generated by the COLIRN panel are summarized in this publication. 107 figs., 63 tabs.

  5. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale. PMID:26669722

  6. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  7. Coal-log pipeline system development. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    One of the four tasks of the contract awarded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program, US Department of Energy, is to test and demonstrate a small model of the injection system for coal logs. Because the injection system works in a coordinated manner with the pumping and ejection systems, it is difficult to separately demonstrate them. Consequently, it was decided to broaden the scope of this task to build and test an entire system of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline) including the injection system (intake), the pumping system and the ejection system. Such a demo unit will also allow us to test a complete system of CLP, a task that must be done sooner or later. Additional costs for constructing this demonstration CLP system are provided by the CLP Consortium which, at present, consists of nine companies. One purpose of this test program is to determine the optimal conditions necessary for the fabrication of binderless coal logs. An earlier literature review indicated that the moisture content, temperature, compaction pressure, and maximum coal particle size will have the greatest influence on the quality of compacted coal logs. Consequently, the test program described in last quarter's report was design to investigate these variables. In the coal log extrusion experiment, Powder River Basin coal dried and with 5 wt % asphalt was extruded from 1.6 in., 1.7 in. and 2 in. diameter dies continuously and at various speeds. The extrusion temperature was 300 {degrees}F. Coal log formation was still not satisfactory but extrusion improves as die diameter was decreased. This achievement now allows conditions of temperature, asphalt concentration, speed and die conditions to be explored in future experiments. The literature review in this progress report update focuses on reports published by the International Briquetting Association during 1953 to 1961. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-28

    This report describes progress on three fronts of the project. First in studies to elucidate optimal growing conditions for the consortia of coal degraders employed indicates that best growth occurs with 0. 2% w/v Shefton T. Secondly in comparing the biodegradative properties of the coal degraders, isolates identified as Mic-1 and Mic-4 were the best performers. And lastly bioreactors studies in batch mode are related.

  9. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  10. Development of techniques for evaluation of coal-waste leachate problems. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Michalovic, J.G.; Fisher, J.C.

    1983-07-15

    A study was conducted to develop techniques to assess coal-waste leachate problems. A review of current literature and a survey of governmental agencies was performed to determine the state-of-the-art and the amount of information available with respect to coal-refuse piles. It was found that the existing data were somewhat limited with respect to the quantity and quality of leachate produced from refuse piles. An in depth study of two coal refuse sites was performed that focused on leachate characteristics based on physical and chemical composition of the refuse piles. A laboratory leaching test was developed using coal refuse sampled at the sites that allowed an evaluation of the coal refuse from the quality of leachate generated.

  11. Illinois coal reserve assessment and database development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Treworgy, C.G.; Prussen, E.I.; Justice, M.A.; Chenoweth, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal of Illinois is 105 billion short tons. This estimate is an increase from the 78 billion tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal, as of January 1, 1994. The new estimate arises from revised resource calculations based on recent mapping in a number of countries, as well as significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining. The new estimate for identified resources is 199 billion tons, a revision of the previous estimate of 181 billion tons. The new estimates incorporate the available analyses of sulfur, heat content, and rank group appropriate for characterizing the remaining coal resources in Illinois. Coal-quality data were examined in conjunction with coal resource mapping. Analyses of samples from exploration drill holes, channel samples from mines and outcrops, and geologic trends were compiled and mapped to allocate coal resource quantities to ranges of sulfur, heat content, and rank group. The new allocations place almost 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of Illinois in the two lowest sulfur categories, in contrast to none in the previous allocation used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The new allocations also place 89% of the demonstrated reserve base in the highest sulfur category, in contrast to the previous allocation of 69% in the highest category.

  12. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  13. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 14, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-17

    This is the fourteenth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-FC22-90PC89663, ``Development of a Coal Quality Expert.`` The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from July 1 through September 30, 1993. Five companies and five host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and ABB/CE to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program category of ``Advanced Coal Cleaning.`` The 51-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance; and (2) develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inactive bench-scale tests.

  14. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in of the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favored by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic, raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. ?? 1993.

  15. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  16. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  17. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-16

    During the past quarter, Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were active. Data reduction continued for the characterization of raw coal samples collected from five mines located in the Powder Basin in support of the Northern States Power (NSP) King test site. Four flowsheet tests were performed at the CQDC with the Pratt and Utley coals as part of the coal cleanability characterizations being performed for the Alabama Power Company`s (APC) Gaston test site. Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) performed pilot-scale combustion testing of the baseline and alternate coals used for the full-scale test bums at Northern States Power`s King Station. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) continued to work under ABB/CE to develop the slogging and fouling models. Work continued on the preparation of final test reports for the field tests performed at Public Service Oklahoma`s Northeastern Unit 4 and Mississippi Power Company`s Watson Unit 4, and plans and test schedules were developed for tests to be conducted later this year at Alabama Power Company`s Gaston Unit 5 and Duquesne Light Company`s Cheswick Unit 1. Task 5 and 6 activities were directed at overall CQE program definition, development of the CQE software specification, completion of the Acid Rain Advisor (ARA), and continued formulation of CQE algorithms and submodels. All laboratory analyses required for the raw-coal characterizations of the Powder River Basin coals--collected in support of the NSP King test program--were completed. Coal cleanability tests were performed with the Pratt and Utley Seam coals obtained from the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Company in support of the baseline coal test performed at APC`S Gaston Unit 5.

  18. Development of the technology of using mechanically activated microgrinded coals for firing and lighting of coal boilers of acting thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Popov, V. I.; Chernova, G. V.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Chernetskaya, N. S.; Markova, V. M.; Churashev, V. N.; Yusupov, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    A new technology of using the microgrinded coals in power boilers as well as the results of experimental studies and numerical modeling of microgrinding processes, preparing the air-dust mixture, and combustion of mechanically activated coals are presented. Pilot combustion of microgrinded coals on a firing stand with a power of 5 MW using disintegrator mills showed the possibility of reaching the stable autothermal combustion mode for coals with various degrees of metamorphism. Using mathematical modeling, the design solution for a two-step burner, which provides a stable high level of temperatures of the air-dust mixture at the output from the second step as well as makes it possible to minimize the cost for the production of mechanically activated coal, is suggested. These results indicate the possibility to develop burners intended for using mechanically activated coal, involving the replacement of the highly reactive liquid fuel used for firing the combustion chambers.

  19. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  20. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B.

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Low-rank coal drying technologies current status and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Wu, Z.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their vast reserves, low-rank coals are considered undesirable because their high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Their high moisture content, greater tendency to combust spontaneously, high degree of weathering, and the dusting characteristics restrict widespread use of such coals. The price of coal sold to utilities depends upon the heating value of the coal. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals (LRC) is an important operation. Furthermore, LRC can be used cost effectively for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction processes. This article provides an overview the diverse processes both those that utilize conventional drying technologies and those that are not yet commercialized and hence in need of RD. Relative merits and limitations of the various technologies and the current state of their development are presented. Drying characteristics of low-rank coal as well as factors affecting drying characteristics of coal samples are also discussed.

  2. Recent technology advances in the KRW coal gasification development program

    SciTech Connect

    Haldipur, G.B.; Bachovchin, D.; Cherish, P.; Smith, K.J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an update of the technological advances made at the coal gasification PDU during 1982 and 1983. These process improvements have resulted in higher carbon conversion efficiency, greater operational simplicity and enhanced potential for low grade or highly reactive feedstocks such as subbituminous coals and lignites. Process and component performance data are presented on the following topics: Application of advanced non-mechanical fines recycle techniques in a pressurized fluidized bed process, Demonstration of fines consumption and 95+% carbon conversion in recent tests, including results of a successful 15 day process feasibility test; and, Techniques to produce low carbon containing (less than 5%) ash agglomerates from highly reactive feedstocks, such as Wyoming subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite.

  3. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON PRODUCTS FROM LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the production of carbon fibers from low-rank coal (LRC) tars. To this end, the effect of demineralization on the tar yields and composition was investigated using high-sodium and high-calcium lignites commonly mined in North Dakota. These coals were demineralized by ion exchange with ammonium acetate and by cation dissolution with nitric acid. Two types of thermal processing were investigated for obtaining suitable precursors for pitch and fiber production. Initially, tars were produced by simple pyrolysis of the set of samples at 650 C. Since these experiments produced little usable material from any of the samples, the coals were heated at moderate temperatures (380 and 400 C) in tetralin solvent to form and extract the plastic material (metaplast) that forms at these temperatures.

  5. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of the pick cutting hoads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telementry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder.

  6. Development of a Phenomenological Model for Coal Surry Atomization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1997-10-30

    Task I - Extensional Viscometer A contracting flow extensional viscometer was re-designed after serious problems were encountered with the extensional measurements of viscoelastic samples with extensive testing. Task 2 - TesUM Testing using the improved design of the extensional viscometer was performed using simulated fluids, i.e. corn syrup/ water, corn syrup/ water + 0.5% xanthan gum, and corn syrup/ water + 1% xanthan gum. Testing has begun using Upper Freeport coal. Analysis of the Upper Freeport coal is provided in Table 1. Testing should be completed over the next month.

  7. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R. M.; Winsor, R. E.; Ryan, III, T. W.; Schwalb, J. A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.

    1991-11-01

    The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Development of mercury control technology for coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, D.C.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    The emission of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) from various industrial processes has emerged as a major environmental issue that was singled out for particular attention in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In particular, mercury emissions are the subject of several current EPA studies because of concerns over possible serious effects on human health. Some of those emissions originate in the combustion of coal, which contains trace amounts of mercury, and are likely to be the subject of control requirements in the relatively near future. Data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at operating electric-power plants have shown that conventional flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies are not very effective in controlling emissions of mercury in general, and are particularly poor at controlling emissions of elemental mercury. This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on improving the capture of mercury in flue gas through the use of dry sorbents and/or wet scrubbers. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing elemental mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon; chemically treated mineral substrates have the potential to be developed into effective and economical mercury sorbents; sorbents treated with different chemicals respond in significantly different ways to changes in flue-gas temperature.

  10. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. Monthly technical progress report, June 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W.R.

    1980-07-01

    High pressure bottoms recycle operations were conducted on the 50 pounds/day Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) with Texas lignite from the Big Brown mine. Results indicate that significant conversion, yield and unit operability advantages can be obtained with Big Brown lignite by operating in the bottoms recycle mode, as compared to coal only operation. Yield data obtained from the one ton-per-day Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant (CLPP) showed that the C/sub 4/-1000/sup 0/F distillate yield was approximately 44% based on dry, ash-free coal compared to 47% for Wyoming subbituminous coal. No unusual coal-specific problems were noted. Preliminary results from liquefaction of neat bottoms on the Once Through Coal Liquefaction Unit (OTCLU) showed significantly higher (C/sub 4/-1000/sup 0/F) liquid make and 1000/sup 0/F/sup +/ conversion for single pass CLPP bottoms when compared with equilibrium CLPP recycle bottoms. Work began on an engineering screening study to determine the impact of high pressure bottoms recycle on the relative economics of various bottoms processing options. A screening study was undertaken to evaluate various methods of calculating the Required Initial Selling Price (RISP) of coal liquids. Heat and material balances were completed to simulate high pressure vacuum bottoms recycle operations at ECLP within the fuel gas treating and DEA regeneration areas of the plant. A research guidance study was initiated to select preferred bottoms recycle operating conditions for subsequent CLPP operations with Wyoming (Wyodak mine) coal. Fluid bed combustion of vacuum bottoms to supply high-level process heat provides incentives comparable to hybrid boilers, another direct combustion option. Research and development on coal slurry fired heaters, conducted by outside organizations, is currently being reviewed.

  11. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  12. Annual bulletin of coal statistics for Europe 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains data on developments and trends involving solid fuels in the countries of Europe and in the United States, Canada, and the Soviet Union. It provides a balance sheet of solid forms of energy and details on the production, employment, and productivity of labor for hard coal mines and for brown coal mines. Also documented are imports and exports of solid fuels by country and the world production of solid fuels.

  13. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  14. COAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC FUELS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a portion of a comprehensive, long term EPA program to evaluate the environmental effects of energy systems that produce gaseous and liquid fuels from coal. The technologies being assessed include low-, medium-, and high-Btu gasification and liquefaction. One...

  15. 75 FR 37756 - Request for Public Comment To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... organizations submitting comments to the Federal Register (FR) notice on the TPCC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Export Strategy to Support the NEI (FR Doc. 2010-12982), comments received in response to that... and implementation of U.S. trade policy. See FR notices at...

  16. Developments in co-pyrolysis of coal waste blends

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, P.; Srogl, J.

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the process conditions of co-pyrolysis of solid organic wastes with bituminous coal son the yields and properties of the products, on the basis of both data in the literature and results obtained by the authors. Co-pyrolysis of solid organic wastes with bituminous coal represents one of the possible solutions for their intelligent exploitation. Co-pyrolysis of plastic wastes and other solid organic wastes with bituminous coal that has a high content of volatile combustible matter, performed at low temperatures (300 to 500 C, with a maximum ratio of waste to coal of 5:1), yields a satisfactory amount (30 to 45%) of stable saturated oils suitable for further use. However, the hydrogen transfer rate is rather low. High-temperature co-pyrolysis of solid organic wastes performed at a low heating rate corresponding to the process conditions of coking (3 C/min) and with a large ratio of coal to waste produces coke for heating as a smokeless fuel with a lower ash content and a higher reactivity, hydrocarbon mixtures as a substitute for deficient heating oils, and mixed gas with possibilities for various applications. The yields are satisfactory: 70 to 75% mixed coke, 10 to 12% mixed gas, and 7 to 8% mixed tar and raw benzol. With regard to the character of present industrial installations, this alternative for conversion of solid organic wastes appears relevant. For future exploitation of the wastes in question, the variants of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis at low temperature must also be considered.

  17. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  18. Coal-log pipeline system development. Fifth quarterly report, August 25, 1991--November 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  19. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  20. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  1. Development of a Universal Safety Behavior Management System for Coal Mine Workers

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jizu; LI, Yuejiao; LIU, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application. Methods: Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees. Results: The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character. Conclusion: The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment. PMID:26258088

  2. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development. Final report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-31

    Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a fuel for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-fueled locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-fueled diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-fueled diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-fueled diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) fuel, successful testing of CWS fuel in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS fuel was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  5. Coal operators prepare for a prosperous new year

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Results are given of the Coal Age 2008 annual Forecast Survey of 17 coal mining executives which reinforces that 2008 could be a very good year. Coal operators are planning to invest in new equipment, development and new coal mine start-ups, based on a number of demand- and supply-side fundamentals. 71% of those surveyed thought coal production in 2008 would increase from 2007 levels and US exports are expected to climb due to the weak dollar. If the tax credit on synfuels expires on 31 December 2007 production of coal synfuel will likely cease. Asked about expensive planned purchases, companies answers ranged from $80,000 for an underground scoop to $500 m for a new mine installation. However, most producers admit they will not be able to operate at full capacity. 7 figs.

  6. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of pick cutting loads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telemetry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder. The design of components in the test data system were finalized, the required instruments were assembled, the instrument system was evaluated in an above-ground simulation test, and an underground test series to obtain tape recorded sensor data was conducted.

  7. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  8. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

  9. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  10. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  12. Recent Development in Determining Spontaneous Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coals and Its Correlation with Intrinsic Parameters of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Santosh Kumar; Panigrahi, Durga Charan

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a new electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation. Experiments have also been carried out for proximate and ultimate analyses of coal. Susceptibility index obtained from wet oxidation potential was correlated with intrinsic parameters of coal. It has been found that susceptibility index bears a good correlation with moisture content, volatile matter, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon content of coal.

  13. New Zealand coal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in conjunction with partners from some 50 countries, is developing an integrated electronic database of coal-quality information the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). Information is provided for samples representing prominent coal beds in all of the major coal-producing countries, as well as coals from many of the smaller producers. This Fact Sheet summarizes coal-quality and coal-resource information for New Zealand. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Development of geotechnical models for verification of in situ coal conversion impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Kempka, T.; Schlüter, R.; Ziegler, M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In situ coal conversion combined with geological carbon dioxide storage in converted coal seams is currently discussed on an international level having led to different preparatory studies and world-wide political activities. During the power generation process from synthesis gas produced by in situ coal conversion, carbon dioxide can be removed prior or subsequent to synthesis gas conversion in a combined cycle plant by application of advanced carbon capture technologies. Exploited fields can serve as storage deposits for carbon dioxide produced during the processes of in situ coal conversion and power generation. Currently, different experimental studies are being carried out at the laboratories of the RWTH Aachen University and the DMT GmbH & Co. KG to investigate medium to low volatile bituminous coals and anthracites from German mining areas considering their applicability for in situ conversion and as subsequent carbon dioxide storage media. This involves the analysis of mineralogical, petrological and geotechnical properties of coals and surrounding rocks such as: CO2/N2 sorption experiments, permeability and porosity tests considering the roof pressure development as well as geotechnical tests (uniaxial compression tests, oedometer, shear tests, triaxial tests, etc.) with regard to in situ conversion parameters. These experimental results are used for parameterizing numerical geotechnical models and other models. The geotechnical models are based on geological information (stratigraphy and geologic structure from borehole data and seismic, engineering geological maps, GIS, etc.). They will be influenced by the designed gasification processes simulating geomechanic response to the combined process. Further studies using these models involve: calculating and estimating ground subsidence resulting from in situ coal conversion; investigating and predicting geotechnical impacts resulting from CO2 storage into converted coal seams; validating the simulation

  15. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal--Task 4.4: Development of supercritical fluid extraction methods for the quantitation of sulfur forms in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Current analytical methods are inadequate for accurately measuring sulfur forms in coal. This task was concerned with developing methods to quantitate and identify major sulfur forms in coal based on direct measurement (as opposed to present techniques based on indirect measurement and difference values). The focus was on the forms that were least understood and for which the analytical methods have been the poorest, i.e., organic and elemental sulfur. Improved measurement techniques for sulfatic and pyritic sulfur also need to be developed. A secondary goal was to understand the interconversion of sulfur forms in coal during thermal processing. This task had as its focus the development of selective extraction methods that will allow the direct measurement of sulfur content in each form. Therefore, selective extraction methods were needed for the major sulfur forms in coal, including elemental, pyritic, sulfatic, and organic sulfur. This study was a continuation of that of previous analytical method development for sulfur forms in coal which resulted in the successful isolation and quantitation of elemental and sulfatic sulfur. Super- and subcritical extractions with methanol or water with and without additives were investigated in an attempt to develop methods for pyritic and organic sulfur forms analysis in coal. Based on these studies, a sequential extraction scheme that is capable of selectively determining elemental, sulfatic, pyritic and two forms of organic sulfur is presented here.

  16. Allocating Capacity for Export-Oriented Apparel Production in a Developing Country Using Multi-Item Newsboy Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohafiqul, Kader Md.; Narita, Hirohisa; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient method to allocate capacity for export-oriented production of apparels using multi-item newsboy problem in developing countries. Export oriented apparel production in developing countries is fully make-to-order. In this article we describe a method that prescribes three-way solutions depending on the firm’s own capacity. Leasing out of capacity is applied when the firm’s capacity is higher than that required for production demand. In an opposite situation, the firm subcontracts or employs overtime to meet the production requirement. In case of unavailability of subcontract production the firm has to adjust its production order with available capacity. Three factors to represent the probability of leasing, overtime and subcontracting have been used in the model. This helps the decision maker to analyze favorable or worse situation planning. Some previously developed heuristics have been modified to solve the constrained problem. A numerical example illustrates the validity of the model and shows that one of the heuristics performs better than all the previous when the resource is scarcer.

  17. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  18. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon exports from 4 Venezuelan rivers: effects of developing world urbanization on coastal carbon delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Perez, T.; Giuliante, A.; Rasse, R. J.; Hockaday, W. C.; Barnes, R. T.; Hernandez, J.; Donoso, L.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical rivers play an increasingly important role in the delivery of riverine material to the coasts, and South America is the single largest source of all forms of dissolved organic matter to the ocean [Harrison et al., 2005]. Like much of the developing world, South American countries are urbanizing rapidly, a process that is likely to alter the characteristics and amount of carbon exported by rivers to the coasts. Compounding the measurement challenges are issues of basin size: small rivers release disproportionately large amounts of material to the ocean, but monitoring individual small basins is typically challenging, especially in the tropics. Here we present 4 years of monthly measurements of DOC and POC export from the four South American rivers that drain into the Cariaco Basin: the Tuy, Unare, Neverí, and Manzanares. Three of these rivers (Tuy, Neverí, and Manzanares) are mountainous, sharing the same geologic parent material and ecosystem, but varying in degree of urbanization. The Tuy drains Caracas (> 4 million people), and is significantly impacted by untreated wastewater. The Neverí and Manzanares host small cities at their mouths (3-400,000 people). Wastewater from Cumaná, at the mouth of the Manzanares, is released offshore, reducing its impact on the river's carbon cycle. The Unare is a flat river draining an ecosystem dominated by agriculture and savannah. In this presentation we will discuss the effects of tropical urbanization on the carbon export from small, mountainous rivers, focusing on delivery of DOC and POC to the coasts.

  19. Brain drain, illegal migration and capital exports from less developed economies: a neoclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1985-01-01

    This model shows that LDC's brain drain triggers emigration of unskilled labor and capital exports, skilled workers and agricultural capitalists gain, unskilled workers and industrial capitalists lose, and demodernization of the economy results. Demodernization of the economy occurs when labor force and output of the industrial sector decrease, and employment and production in agriculture increase. The problem analyzed in this model is what happens to the incomes of those who are left behind when some of the skilled workers migrate abroad. The results show that with the exodus of both skilled labor and capital, the marginal productivity of unskilled workers in industry also falls below the unskilled wage. Although one would expect a brain drain to result in gains for those skilled workers who remain in the source country, and for the capital owners who receive unskilled workers as a result of emigration, the losers are the unskilled workers and the capitalists in the sector where the migrants worked. PMID:12267428

  20. Development of coal-feeding systems at the Morgantown Energy Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Systems for feeding crushed and pulverized coal into coal conversion reactor vessels are described. Pneumatic methods for feeding pulverized coal, slurry feeders, and coal pumps, methods for steam pickup, and a method for drying a water-coal slurry in a steam fluidized bed subsequent to feeding the coal into a reactor vessel are included.

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  3. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  4. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

    2012-02-26

    The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  6. The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.

    1995-08-01

    It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

  7. Progressive massive fibrosis developing after brief coal dust exposure: evaluation with CT scanning and radionuclide angiocardiography.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Raval, B; Ahmad, D

    1980-01-01

    Two patients are described who developed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) after exposure to coal dust for only four and seven years, respectively, in Belgian coal mines in the post-war period. It seems likely from consideration of epidemiological data that these men were exposed to massive concentrations of coal dust during their time in the mines. In one patient in a computerized tomography scan clearly showed the extent of the PMF and brought out the degree of calcification in the center of the masses. Radionuclide angiocardiographic evaluation showed depressed right ventricular function which is probably a result of pulmonary hypertension, and also showed marked distortion of the pulmonary vascular bed. It is believed that these are the first reported instances of CT scanning and radionuclide angiocardiography in this condition. PMID:7354409

  8. Coal slurry pump development: fossil energy annual summary, technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.S.

    1980-10-30

    This is a twenty-four month program on Coal Slurry Pump Development being conducted for the Department of Energy, Division of Coal Conversion, under Contract DE-AC03-79ET14842. The program consists of two phases. In the first phase an experimental prototype of a two-stage, high-pressure, centrifugal slurry pump will be fabricated and assembled into a test unit. In the second phase the experimental pump will be delivered to a DOE field test facility for initial testing in hot oil and for subsequent testing in an actual coal-oil slurry environment. During the program, Rocketdyne will supply technical support and coordination on test facility interfact requirements and for testing of the experimental pump to evaluated hydraulic, mechanical, material and operational performance characteristics.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  10. Evaluating R and D options under uncertainty. Volume 1. Pulverized-coal development strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Borison, A.B.; Judd, B.R.; Morris, P.A.; Walters, E.C.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative framework was developed for examining the appropriate emphasis for research funding aimed at improving electrical power generation technologies. The methodology explicitly considers the multiple objectives of research, the uncertainty in research outcomes, and the market use of an improved technology in the context of other competitive power generation technologies. The methodology was applied in EPRI's Coal Combustion Systems (CCS) Division to the current pulverized coal technology. The application addressed the relative advantages and overall benefits of incremental funding in three general research areas: capital cost, reliability, and performance. The analysis concludes that the benefits of incremental funding in the capital cost area appear to dominate the benefits in the reliability and performance areas. Furthermore, the net expected value of incremental pulverized coal research funding is high. These results are demonstrated to hold over a wide range of assumptions.

  11. Ability of Lactococcus lactis To Export Viral Capsid Antigens: a Crucial Step for Development of Live Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Dieye, Yakhya; Hoekman, Arjan J. W.; Clier, Florence; Juillard, Vincent; Boot, Hein J.; Piard, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Thefood grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is a potential vehicle for protein delivery in the gastrointestinal tract. As a model, we constructed lactococcal strains producing antigens of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). IBDV infects chickens and causes depletion of B-lymphoid cells in the bursa of Fabricius and subsequent immunosuppression, morbidity, or acute mortality. The two major IBDV antigens, i.e., VP2 and VP3, that form the viral capsid were expressed and targeted to the cytoplasm, the cell wall, or the extracellular compartment of L. lactis. Whereas VP3 was successfully targeted to the three compartments by the use of relevant expression and export vectors, VP2 was recalcitrant to export, thus confirming the difficulty of translocating naturally nonsecreted proteins across the bacterial membrane. This defect could be partly overcome by fusing VP2 to a naturally secreted protein (the staphylococcal nuclease Nuc) that carried VP2 through the membrane. Lactococcal strains producing Nuc-VP2 and VP3 in various bacterial compartments were administered orally to chickens. The chickens did not develop any detectable immune response against VP2 and VP3 but did exhibit an immune response against Nuc when Nuc-VP2 was anchored to the cell wall of lactococci. PMID:14660377

  12. Economic and Social Impacts of Coal Development in the 1970's for Mercer County, North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll (Thomas E.) Associates, Washington, DC.

    In addition to providing an information base for North Dakota decision makers faced with immediate coal development plans in Mercer County, this study is also designed to serve as a prototype for similar studies incorporating the format and assumptions of the Old West Regional Commission's "Procedures Manual". The investigation is limited to the…

  13. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  14. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  15. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  16. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  17. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

    2012-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel

  18. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  19. Zimbabwe's coal reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

  20. America's role in the world coal export market. Part 4. America's coal ports. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the Committee on Energy and Natural Reosurces, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, September 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Part 4 of the hearing record continues an examination of the need to improve coal ports and port projects, specifically those on the East Coast, and the role of local and state governments and of private industry in this effort. The 13 witnesses include representatives of the Corps of Engineers and the Department of Commerce for the administration, private shipping and exporting concerns, and the Port Authorities of Virginia, New York and New Jersey, and the City of New York. Two witnesses from Canada testified on behalf of Canada Steamship Lines. The major legislative concern is the removal of obstacles to channel and shore preparation, which the administration would accomplish by reducing the federal role, and expediting modernization. (DCK)

  1. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  2. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  3. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  4. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed

  5. The World Coal Quality Inventory: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, S.J.; Willett, J.C.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    National and international policy makers and industry require accurate information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding international import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. Unfortunately, the information needed is generally proprietary and does not exist in the public domain. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in conjunction with partners in about 60 countries, is developing a digital compilation of worldwide coal quality. The World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) will contain coal quality information for samples obtained from major coal beds in countries having significant coal production, as well as from many countries producing smaller volumes of coal, with an emphasis on coals currently being burned. The information that will be incorporated includes, but is not limited to, proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur-form data; major, minor, and trace element analysis; and semi-quantitative analyses of minerals, modes of occurrence, and petrography. The coal quality information will eventually be linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that shows the coal basins and sample locations along with geologic, land use, transportation, industrial, and cultural information. The WoCQI will be accessible on the USGS web page and new data added periodically. This multi-national collaboration is developing global coal quality data that contain a broad array of technologic, economic, and environmental parameters, which should help to ensure the efficient and environmentally compatible use of global coal resources in the 21st century.

  6. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Development of a remote coal dust deposition rate monitor. Open file report, 15 September 1978-31 August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Runstadler, P.W.; Dutta, P.K.; Hatfield, R.W.; Tenenbaum, R.

    1983-12-01

    The report describes the design, development, and manufacture of a monitoring system to continuously monitor the buildup of float coal dust and rock-dusting materials in coal-mine workings. Ten dust sensors and two readout and switch-station units were built, performance tested, and calibrated.

  8. Colstrip, Montana: The Fiscal Effects of Recent Coal Development and an Evaluation of the Community's Ability to Handle Further Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Maxine C.; White, Randle V.

    Much of the coal development in eastern Montana has occured in or is proposed for sparsely settled Rosebud County, which includes the Colstrip elementary and high school districts. Between fiscal 1966 and 1975, the population growth resulting from coal activities has brought about a 68% real increase in Rosebud County expenditures. Increase in…

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    Work completed produced the criteria for additional engineering analysis, computation and detailed experimental benchscale testing for areas of uncertainty. The engineering analysis, computation, bench-scale testing and component development was formulated to produce necessary design information to define a commercially operating system. In order to produce the required information by means of bench-scale testing and component development, a uniform coal sample was procured. After agreement with DOE, a selected sample of coal from those previously listed was secured. The test plan was developed in two parts. The first part listed procedures for engineering and computational analyses of those deficiencies previously identified that could be solved without bench scale testing. Likewise, the second part prepared procedures for bench-scale testing and component development for those deficiencies previously identified in Task 3.

  10. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  11. Development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal extracts. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, V.T.; Kutzenco, P.D.; Preston, W.J.; Brinen, J.S.; Graham, S.W.; Butensky, M.; Muchnick, T.L.; Hyman, D.

    1982-01-01

    Cold flow ebullation tests to determine the ranges of operability of bead catalysts continued. Data reported show the effects of higher catalyst density, wider particle size distributions, and higher fluid viscosity on ebullation of bead catalysts. A relation for determining limiting diameters in a liquid-solid fluidized bed was developed. Correlation of the three-phase data is being investigated. The CSTR Catalyst Aging Test Unit is described. The system operates under computer control. High pressure hydrogen and coal slurry are fed continuously to a one-liter stirred autoclave. High pressure nitrogen for inerting and flush oil are used in the event of an interlock shutdown. The product is passed to a 3-gallon collection vessel or to a smaller sampling vessel during material balance periods. The gas disentrains from the mixture and is scrubbed. Analytical techniques to be used in the course of the catalyst testing program were evaluated. H-COAL PDU products and SRC-II Heavy distillate were analyzed. Standard deviations for many of the procedures were determined. Specific methods are summarized. Development of surface analytical techniques to study coal liquefaction catalysts focused on used Amocat 1A catalysts from coal run 10 at the H-COAL Pilot Plant. Preliminary results of analysis by ESCA and x-ray microprobe are given.

  12. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    PubMed

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes. PMID:25114358

  13. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  14. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  18. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Successive development of soil ecosystems at abandoned coal-ash landfills.

    PubMed

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Yu, Jun; Rakhmonkulova, Shakhnoza; Kodirov, Obidjon; Barness, Gineta; Kersten, Michael; Steinberger, Yosef

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the present study was to determine the effect of the native vegetation on the successive development of the soil ecosystem at abandoned coal-ash landfills of the Angren coal-fired power plant in Uzbekistan. Two different landfills (one not in use for 3 years, termed newer, and the other not in use for 10 years, termed older) with different degrees of vegetation cover were chosen to assess the time and vegetation effects on soil biota and habitat development. The soil biotic structure, including soil microorganisms and soil free-living nematode communities, was investigated both at open plots and under different native plants at the coal-ash landfill area. The observed soil microorganisms were found to be the most important component of the observed ecosystems. Total abundance, biomass, species, trophic and sexual diversity of soil free-living nematodes, along with fungi and organic-matter content, were found to be correlated with trace metals. The nematode trophic and species abundance and diversity increased from the newer toward the older coal-ash landfills. The sex ratio of the nematode communities was found to be dependent on the environmental conditions of the study area, with the males being the most sensitive nematode group. All applied ecological indices confirmed that open landfill plots distant from plants are the most unfavorable areas for soil biota. In that respect, the native plants Alhagi maurorum Desv. and Tamarix sp. were found to be important environmental components for the natural remediation of a soil ecosystem in the coal-ash landfill area. PMID:24676936

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  1. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  2. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. Simulated changes in ground-water levels related to proposed development of Federal coal leases, San Juan Basin New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of coal-related ground-water withdrawals on potentiometric surfaces of aquifers in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, were estimated. A previously published steady-state finite-difference digital model was converted to a transient-state model by changing boundary conditions and adding storage coefficients. No calibration of the transient-state model was attempted. Predicted drawdowns with a minimum amount of coal development combined with other kinds of development were as great as 2,000 feet. As much as 300 feet of additional drawdown were simulated for the maximum amount of coal development. Drawdowns near pumping wells are not predicted. (USGS)

  4. Coal slurry lobby loses again: but believes time is on its side

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1980-10-11

    Time favors the Slurry Transport Association's attempts to overcome railroad and railroad-union opposition and gain legislative support for coal-slurry pipelines. The long-standing support for railroads in Congress has so far successfully blocked the efforts of a coalition of slurry lobbyists to develop an alternative method of coal transport. Pipeline sponsors seek eminent domainright to cross railroad rights-of-way, but the railroads feel they cannot afford to lose even 20 percent of their profitable coal freight. At issue is whether coal should guarantee a monopoly to the railroads at the expense of national energy needs, policies which mandate coal substitution for oil and gas, and coal exports. Union lobbyists impress legislators with the impact of pipelines on employees even though Congress recently deregulated the railroads. (DCK)

  5. Potential hydrologic effects of developing coal and other geoenergy resources in Oregon: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sidle, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Geoenergy resources in Oregon, in addition to coal, include noncommercial deposits of oil shale, natural gas, and geothermal heat. Commercial quantities of natural gas were discovered at Mist in northwestern Oregon in 1979. Gas presently is being produced from five wells and additional exploratory drilling is underway. More than 2 million acres of Oregon land is under lease for petroleum and natural gas exploration, mostly in the Astoria embayment-Willamette syncline, central (Oregon) Paleozoic-Mesozoic basin, and eastern Tertiary nonmarine basin. The Cascade Range and eastern Oregon contain sizable resources of geothermal heat, of which a small part has been developed for space heating at Klamath Falls and Lakeview. Thirteen Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's) comprising 432,000 acres have been identified, 422,000 acres are currently leased for geothermal development. KGRA's judged to have potential for generation of electrical power are Newberry Crater, Crump Geyser, and Alvord Desert. No adverse hydrologic effects have been noted to date from coal or other geoenergy exploration or development in Oregon, and no effects are expected if federal and state regulations are adhered to. The southwestern Oregon coals would have to be mined by underground methods. Potential hydrologic impacts would be local increases in sedimentation, turbidity, and mineralization of surface and ground water. Water-quality degradation, including both thermal pollution and increased concentrations of dissolved minerals, could result from geothermal development. Other potential problems include land subsidence and consumptive use of water associated with both coal and geothermal development. 53 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.

  7. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  8. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  9. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  10. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  12. Development of low-temperature thermochemical conversion reactors for coal power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Bogatova, T. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.; Gordeev, S. I.; Khudyakova, G. I.; Osipov, P. V.; Abaimov, N. A.; Chernyavskii, N. V.; Shul'man, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    The main principles applied in developing a technology for low-temperature thermochemical conversion of brown coals to obtain fuel gas and semicoke intended for being fired in two-fuel power installations are considered on the basis of a set of experimental and calculated investigations. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data obtained using other methods and with the results of previous industrial tests.

  13. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process); 14th Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-28

    Reported here is the progress on the Development of Biological Coal Gasification for DOE contract No. DE-AC21-90MC27226 MOD A006. Task 1, NEPA Compliance and Updated Test Plan has been completed. Progress toward Task 2, Enhanced Methane Production, is reported in the areas of bacterial strain improvement, addition of co-substrates, and low cost nutrient amendment. Conclusions reached as a result of this work are presented. Plans for future work are briefly outlined.

  14. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  16. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  17. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  18. Coal daily by fax

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    COAL Daily lets you quickly and easily track U.S. coal market developments, including spot coal prices and market and business news. The Btu-, quality- and location-specific prices and analyses reflect the large investment to systematically collect accurate coal market price data Fieldston has made.

  19. Export Earnings from the Overseas Student Industry: How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrell, Bob; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Education is regularly publicised as Australia's third-largest export behind coal and iron ore. Although it cannot be disputed that education is a major export, the published figures are inflated because of three broad factors. First, estimates of student expenditure on goods and services in Australia are based on students with different…

  20. Shotcreting technology in coal mining -- Development, practice, and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past years a large number of pit bottoms, underground crossings of main roads, and roadways headed in rock has been substantially stabilized by shotcreting, generally combined with strata bolting techniques. In contrast to conventional tunnelling practice, mining requires consideration to be given to substantially higher strata pressures and temperatures. The latter have considerable influence on the material-specific properties of shotcrete. The shotcrete blends in mining are different in terms of approved aggregates and additives. The handling techniques and the selected shotcreting technique, in turn, control the strength-mechanical properties in dry shotcreting as well as in wet shotcreting. The development of novel hydraulically setting mortars with consideration of environmental aspects is not completed yet.

  1. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Shaver, R.D.

    1989-10-15

    During the present report period, our framework for correlating saturation properties using the scaled-variable-reduced coordinate approach was used to develop a correlation for saturated liquid densities of pure fluids at temperatures from the triple point to the critical point. The new correlation results in precise representation of liquid densities of diverse chemical species with average errors of 0.12% when two adjustable parameters are used to characterize each substance. In addition, the proposed model compares favorably with the modified Rackett and the Hankinson-Thomson correlations with the added advantages of covering the full saturation range and obeying scaling-law behavior in the near-critical region. Although the approach is essentially empirical, the results obtained suggest an underlying physical significance for the model parameters and show an excellent potential for generalized predictions. This is demonstrated by the results given here for saturated liquid densities where fully generalized predictions yield average errors of less than 1.0%.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  3. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  4. Development of a coal combustion product (CCP) database system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, E.M.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    Nearly 90 million tons of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced annually in the United States. The value of CCPs is well established by research and commercial practice; however, only 25% of these products are utilized. The objective of this project was to develop a computer program containing a database of advanced analytical and comprehensive engineering information on CCPs, accessible through a user-friendly interface. Version 1.0 of the ACAA CCP Data Manager was specifically designed to: perform multiple-criteria queries to produce a set of sample for in-depth study; view and print standard test reports, such as C618 reports; compare and contrast analytical results in graphs and tables; graph utilization information by application and region; and save data to a file for use in other computer applications, such as spreadsheet programs. The program was designed to contain descriptive information about a given CCP sample, including sample formation data (material type, sample location, fuel type, collection device etc.), combustion system design data (steam generator type, furnace type, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control information, ash-handling configurations), test data (chemical, mineralogical, and physical characterization data), and utilization potential of the CCP. The location of the plant is identified by region. The database has been initially populated with information on over 800 CCP samples, taken from the Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC). An installation package and user`s guide was developed for unlimited distribution by the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA).

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  6. Policies for transfer of technology to developing countries: the case of Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamakhramah, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries constitute a particular case among the developing countries. Two main characteristics contribute to this position: (1) availability of financial resources to purchase needed technology, particularly for surplus countries; (2) scarcity of labor, entrepreneurship and managerial skills. This study proposes policy measures for these countries which would serve their national economic, social, and political goals given the above characteristics. The treatment of the subject contains three main aspects: (1) the social, cultural and institutional factors affecting transfer of technology; (2) the strategies which these countries can follow to achieve better methods of technology transfer. These include technology assessment, technology bargaining, research and development and information; (3) economic and industrial policies regarding foreign direct investment, licensing agreements and management contracts as alternative mechanisms for acquisition of foreign technology. Transfer of technology was found to be influenced by other factors beyond financial costs and factors of production. These factors include the scale of production or product technology, the size of domestic markets, accessibility to international markets, local technological infrastructure, absorptive capacity and government regulations regarding foreign direct investment.

  7. Deficiency in the mRNA export mediator Gle1 impairs Schwann cell development in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Seytanoglu, A; Alsomali, N I; Valori, C F; McGown, A; Kim, H R; Ning, K; Ramesh, T; Sharrack, B; Wood, J D; Azzouz, M

    2016-05-13

    GLE1 mutations cause lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1), a severe autosomal recessive fetal motor neuron disease, and more recently have been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The gene encodes a highly conserved protein with an essential role in mRNA export. The mechanism linking Gle1 function to motor neuron degeneration in humans has not been elucidated, but increasing evidence implicates abnormal RNA processing as a key event in the pathogenesis of several motor neuron diseases. Homozygous gle1(-/-) mutant zebrafish display various aspects of LCCS, showing severe developmental abnormalities including motor neuron arborization defects and embryonic lethality. A previous gene expression study on spinal cord from LCCS fetuses indicated that oligodendrocyte dysfunction may be an important factor in LCCS. We therefore set out to investigate the development of myelinating glia in gle1(-/-) mutant zebrafish embryos. While expression of myelin basic protein (mbp) in hindbrain oligodendrocytes appeared relatively normal, our studies revealed a prominent defect in Schwann cell precursor proliferation and differentiation in the posterior lateral line nerve. Other genes mutated in LCCS have important roles in Schwann cell development, thereby suggesting that Schwann cell deficits may be a common factor in LCCS pathogenesis. These findings illustrate the potential importance of glial cells such as myelinating Schwann cells in motor neuron diseases linked to RNA processing defects. PMID:26921650

  8. Capital and the state in regional economic development: the case of the coal industry in central Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines theories of development policy to assess their relevance for the problems of persistently poor regions within advanced capitalist societies. The central premises of three sets of theories are explored using a multi-method approach that combines quantitative analysis of the impact of growth in the coal industry in rural Kentucky between 1960 and 1980, and qualitative analysis of the perspectives of coal industry executives on development in the coal fields. Theories are categorized into neoclassical, redistributionist and critical paradigms because this typology clarifies the differences in the role of capital and the state in development strategies. Results of analyses of economic and social change in rural Kentucky challenge neoclassical development theory. Greater economic growth in coal counties did not bring greater social progress. The analysis supports the redistributionist and critical theorists' thesis that widespread distribution of economic benefits is important to development. Counties with better distribution of income and work had better conditions in 1980, and coal counties have the greatest economic inequality. Comments of coal industry executives confirm the critical theorists' argument that capital resists State policies to redistribute economic surplus for investment in development.

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 262 with Black Thunder subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16`` catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  10. Potential for economic coal development in upper coal member of Menefee Formation, Torreon Wash area, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, E.C.; Roybal, G.H.

    1989-09-01

    In the southeastern part of the San Juan basin, the transgressive La Ventana member of the Cliff House Sandstone represents a near-vertical buildup of barrier-beach sands during a period when sediment supply was in approximate balance with subsidence and shore-marginal environments migrated landward/seaward over a limited horizontal distance. Recognition of these conditions leads to speculation regarding a corresponding back-barrier accumulation of coal-bearing strata. Using logs from both the project-sponsored drill holes and commercial oil and gas tests, the workers have compiled an 8.5-mi stratigraphic cross section oriented normal to the depositional strike. This cross section illustrates the laterally changing relationships between the La Ventana and the upper Menefee. At the north (seaward) end, the interval is principally sandstone with thin tongues of coal-bearing shale and siltstone. Southward the barrier beach sand units split, thin, and give way to increasing numbers of coal-bearing intervals. Five major La Ventana sandstone tongues and a corresponding number of upper Menefee tongues alternate through an interval of about 650 ft. The number of individual coal beds ranges from 3 to 18, and thicknesses range from about 1 to 8 ft.

  11. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  12. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  14. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  15. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  16. Bataan naphtha cracker project. Final report prepared for PNOC Petrochemical Development Corporation (PPDC). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The study, conducted by Chem Systems, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency. The final report determines the feasibility of an ethylene/polyethylene facility in the Philippines. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Technical Description; (3) Implementation Plan; (4) Feasibility Study; (5) Licensor Status; (6) Recommended Contract Principles; (7) Recommended Olefins Pricing Basis; (8) Clarifications/Discussion of Issues; (9) Appendix.

  17. Development of Foxtrot offshore gas field Cote d'Ivoire. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In December 1991, a definitional mission investigated a project to develop a natural gas field located offshore Cote d'Ivoire, and whether a grant to the Ivorian government should be made for the study. However, before the mission could be conducted, the character of the project changed from one which was primarily a gas-development venture to a power generation project in which the energy source was natural gas. It was concluded that the expanded project changed the focus of the definitional mission. In the project's original formulation in which the World Bank was to be the main lender, it was clear that U.S. firms would have an opportunity to bid on significant portions of the project due to the Bank's standard requirement for competitive bidding. But after French industrial and financial groups joined in the expanded project, it was not clear that a sufficient opportunity would still exist for the involvement of U.S. firms in the overall project. Therefore, the mission was modified to first assess the business and financial aspects of the project before making a decision on a mission to Cote d'Ivoire to conduct a technical review of the proposed development of the offshore gas field.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  19. Technical proposal: Groundwater development feasibility study of the Chisumbanje area, Zimbabwe. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The document is the second volume of a final report for Phase II of a feasibility study conducted for the Regional Water Authority (RWA) of Zimbabwe. The report documents the second phase of a study to assess the feasibility of developing groundwater for irrigation of the Chisumbanje area. This phase of the study included installation of test boreholes in several locations. The volume encompasses the technical scope of work and addendum. The following subjects are discussed in the volume: geographic setting; concepts for successful location of groundwater; and technical approach to the project. A proposed scope of work, schedule and project liaison are presented.

  20. Development a New Classification for Assessing the Coal Mine Mechanization / Opracowanie nowej klasyfikacji dla oceny mechanizacji w kopalniach węgla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Hosseini Seyed; Reza, Mikaeil; Mohammad, Ataei; Khalokakaei, Reza

    2013-03-01

    The coal mine mechanization is important to achieve optimum quality and maximum efficiency of coal production. Mechanization is an objective that can result in significant cost reductions and higher levels of profitability for underground mines. The potential of coal mine mechanization depends on some important factors Such as seam inclination and thickness, geological disturbances, seam floor conditions and roof conditions. These factors should be considered in coal mine mechanization analysis. In this study, the new classification was developed with the respect to the mentioned factors. Using this system the coal seam mechanization index (CSMi) of several types of coal seams was evaluated and classified into five categories; very good, good, medium, low and very low. As a case study, the mechanization of the Takht coal seams in Golestan area of Iran was investigated using this new classification system. The results show a low potential for mechanization in most of the Takht coal seams

  1. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity.

  2. Development study: Boiler plant and cogeneration. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-29

    This study, conducted by Sebesta Blomberg and Associates, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of PICOP Resources, Inc. The report assesses the feasibility of modernizing the power plant serving the Plywood, Paper, and Wood Products plant located in Bislig, Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to document the general condition of the power plant and the steam and electric infrastructure at the facility, identify cost reduction measures, identify methods to eliminate use of pulp and board quality wood as fuel resources, and to identify a structure of owning and operating the power plant which would reduce the capital required by PICOP. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Letter of Introduction; (2) Table of Contents; (3) Introduction; (4) Scope of Study; (5) Executive Summary; (6) Description of Existing Conditions; (7) Base Economic Model; (8) Description of Alternatives; (9) Conclusion and Recommendations; (10) Appendix.

  3. The potent lever of toil: nursing development and exportation in the postcolonial Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brush, Barbara L

    2010-09-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health. PMID:20634458

  4. The Potent Lever of Toil: Nursing Development and Exportation in the Postcolonial Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health. PMID:20634458

  5. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  6. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 261 with Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R & D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

  7. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

  8. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  9. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  11. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  12. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Sheluker, S.D.; Ayala, R.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppm in coal gas streams at temperatures in the 480 degree C to 750 degree C range and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations (fixed-, moving-, and fluidized-bed reactors), obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  13. An update on the development of an improved performance refractory material for slagging coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Cynthia A.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Severe slag attack of high temperature materials that line coal gasifiers used in the production of chemicals, liquid fuels, and/or electricity result in their unacceptably short lifetimes, lasting anywhere from 3 months to 24 months. Lengthening of this short service life to increase gasifier reliability and increase on-line availability of a gasifier is viewed as critical for greater technology acceptance and utilization. A phosphate containing high chrome oxide refractory has been developed by the Albany Research Center of DOE and scaled up by an industrial producer of refractories for plant trials. An update of this material and its properties will be presented.

  14. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  15. Research and development of rapid hydrogenation for coal conversion to synthetic motor fuels (riser cracking of coal). Final report, April 1, 1976-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D. A.; Beeson, J. L.; Oberle, R. D.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of the program described was to develop a noncatalytic process for the hydropyrolysis of lignite and coal to produce high-octane blending gasoline constituents, methane, ethane, and carbon oxides. The process would operate in a balanced plant mode, using spent char to generate process hydrogen by steam-oxygen gasification. The technical program included the construction and operating of a bench-scale unit (5-10 lb/hr), the design, construction, and operation of a process development unit (PDU) (100 lb/hr), and a final technical and economic assessment of the process, called Riser Cracking of Coal. In the bench-scale unit program, 143 runs were made investigating the effects of pressure, temperature, heating rate, residence time, and particle size, processing North Dakota lignite in hydrogen. Some runs were made in which the hydrogen was preheated to pyrolysis temperatures prior to contact with the coal, and, also, in which steam was substituted for half of the hydrogen. Attempts to operate the bench-scale unit at 1200 psig and 1475/sup 0/F were not successful. Depth of carbon conversion was found to be influenced by hydrogen pressure, hydrogen-to-coal ratio, and the severity of the thermal treatment. The composition of hydrocarbon liquids produced was found to change with severity. At low severity, the liquids contained sizable fractions of phenols and cresols. At high severity, the fraction of phenols and cresols was much reduced, with an attendant increase in BTX. In operating the PDU, it was necessary to use more oxygen than was planned to achieve pyrolysis temperatures because of heat losses, and portions of hydrocarbon products were lost through combustion with a large increase in carbon oxide yields. Economic studies, however, showed that selling prices for gasoline blending stock, fuel oil, and fuel gas are competitive in current markets, so that the process is held to warrant further development.

  16. Assessing the cumulative impacts of surface mining and coal bed methane development on shallow aquifers in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, K.

    1997-12-31

    Large scale surface coal mining taken place along the cropline of the Wyodak-Anderson coal seam since approximately 1977. Groundwater impacts due to surface mining of coal and other energy-related development is a primary regulatory concern and an identified Office of Surface Mining deficiency in the Wyoming coal program. The modeled aquifers are the upper unit (coal) of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation. A regional groundwater model covering 790 square miles was constructed using MODFLOW, to simulate the impacts from three surface coal mines and coal bed methane development occurring downdip. Assessing anisotropy of the coal aquifer, quality checking of in situ aquifer tests and database quality control were precursors to modelling. Geologic data was kriged to develop the structural model of the aquifers. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to facilitate storage, analysis, display, development of input modelling arrays and assessment of hydrologic boundaries. Model output presents the predicted impacts of likely development scenarios, including impacts from coal bed methane development and surface coal mining through anticipated life of mining, and surface mining impacts independent of gas development.

  17. K2S-activated carbons developed from coal and their methane adsorption behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan-Yan; Yang, Wen; Chu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to prepare various activated carbons by K2S activation of coal with size fractions of 60-80 meshes, and investigate the microporosity development and corresponding methane storage capacities. Raw coal is mixed with K2S powder, and then heated at 750 °C-900 °C for 30 min-150 min in N2 atmosphere to produce the adsorbents. The texture and surface morphology are characterized by a N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical properties of carbons are confirmed by ultimate analysis. The crystal structure and degree of graphitization are tested by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. The relationship between sulfur content and the specific surface area of the adsorbents is also determined. K2S activation is helps to bring about better development of pore texture. These adsorbents are microporous materials with textural parameters increasing in a range of specific surface area 72.27 m2/g-657.7 m2/g and micropore volume 0.035 cm3/g-0.334 cm3/g. The ability of activated carbons to adsorb methane is measured at 298 K and at pressures up to 5.0 MPa by a volumetric method. The Langmuir model fits the experimental data well. It is concluded that the high specific surface area and micropore volume of activated carbons do determine methane adsorption capacity. The adsorbents obtained at 800 °C for 90 min with K2S/raw coal mass ratios of 1.0 and 1.2 show the highest methane adsorption capacities amounting to 106.98 mg/g and 106.17 mg/g, respectively.

  18. Development, testing, and application of a multi-well numerical coal seam degasification simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of mathematical formulations and numerical developments equipped with finite-difference approximation to simulate the simultaneous flow of gas and water in a coal seam and a tight gas formation is presented. The simulator employs a multi-dimensional, multi-phase formulation in rectangular coordinates and has options to accommodate a number of vertical wells as well as horizontal wells. For the vertical wells the model is able to handle the simulation of post-fracture performance through either horizontally or vertically fractured wells. Mining activity is also included to investigate methane emission at the mine working faces. Furthermore, options exist to include a number of impermeable geological barriers within the system. The transport of gas in coal seams can be formulated using a dual transport approach. In this approach, flow through macropores can be modeled with Darcy's law through the pressure field whereas flow through micropores can be modeled with Fick's law of diffusion through the concentration field. The combination of these two transport mechanisms extends the application range of these models to tight gas sand reservoirs. This is achieved by the exclusion of the kinetic sorption model. This quasi-steady state kinetic sorption model is included to represent the desorption of methane from coal grains. The developed numerical model has been tested and verified by using hypothetical reservoirs with increasing degrees of complexity and by history matching against the actual field data. Also, performance of the unconventional gas reservoir models has been compared against the performance of conventional gas reservoir models.

  19. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  20. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  1. Vegetation and soil condition development on spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmachova, B.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses both soil and vegetation development on mine spoil heaps of different age, as well as some environmental factors that are involved. The course of natural plant succession fired and unfired mine spoil heaps and the dominant species of several developmental stages (plant communities) are examined. Mainly, the exposure of slopes and the surface temperature are considered in studying the vegetation of spoil heaps. Anemochoral terophytes and hemicryptophytes dominate on south to west slopes in the first stages of development; development of vegetation on north and east slopes is different. Anemochoral phanerophytes dominate in the first developmental stages. Later, the plant cover includes high herbs and grasses, and the tree layer exhibits zoochoral tree species. The final stage on the spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is probably the Betulo-Quercetum Tx. 1937 community with complete stratification. The study area, an underground mining area in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, lies in the south part of the Silesian Basin. From a phytogeographical point of view, this area is identified as the Ostrava basin--the 83rd district of the Mesophyticum capraticum--phytogeographical province, with the flora of the upper hill country belt (gradus supracollinus).

  2. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  3. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  4. Task 4.4 - development of supercritical fluid extraction methods for the quantitation of sulfur forms in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Development of advanced fuel forms depends on having reliable quantitative methods for their analysis. Determination of the true chemical forms of sulfur in coal is necessary to develop more effective methods to reduce sulfur content. Past work at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) indicates that sulfur chemistry has broad implications in combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coal-cleaning processes. Current analytical methods are inadequate for accurately measuring sulfur forms in coal. This task was concerned with developing methods to quantitate and identify major sulfur forms in coal based on direct measurement (as opposed to present techniques based on indirect measurement and difference values). The focus was on the forms that were least understood and for which the analytical methods have been the poorest, i.e., organic and elemental sulfur. Improved measurement techniques for sulfatic and pyritic sulfur also need to be developed. A secondary goal was to understand the interconversion of sulfur forms in coal during thermal processing. EERC has developed the first reliable analytical method for extracting and quantitating elemental sulfur from coal (1). This method has demonstrated that elemental sulfur can account for very little or as much as one-third of the so-called organic sulfur fraction. This method has disproved the generally accepted idea that elemental sulfur is associated with the organic fraction. A paper reporting the results obtained on this subject entitled {open_quote}Determination of Elemental Sulfur in Coal by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Atomic Emission Detection{close_quote} was published in Fuel (A).

  5. Quarterly coal report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report provides information about U.S. coal production, distribution; exports, imports, prices, consumption, and stocks. Data on coke production is also provided. This report presents data for April 1996 thru June 1996.

  6. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which

  7. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  9. Consortium for coal log pipeline research and development. Final technical progress report, August 10, 1993--August 9, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to conduct intensive research and development of the Coal Log Pipeline (CLP). Specifically, the R & D was to concentrate on previously neglected and insufficiently studied aspects of CLP which were deemed significant. With improvements in these areas, CLP could be implemented for commercial use within five years. CLP technology is capable of transporting coal logs for long distances. The many potential advantages of CLP over truck and railroad transportation include: lower freight costs, less energy consumption, less air pollution, decreased environmental problems, increased safety, and improved reliability. Previous studies have shown that CLP is advantageous over slurry pipeline technology. First, CLP uses one-third the water required by a coal slurry pipeline. Second, CLP provides easier coal dewatering. Third, the CLP conveying capacity of coal is twice as much as a slurry transport line of equal diameter. In many situations, the cost for transporting each ton of coal is expected to be less expensive by CLP as compared to other competing modes of transportation such as: truck, unit train and slurry pipeline.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  11. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  12. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-08-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le}10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 2.4 Duct Heater and Gas Turbine Integration.

  13. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  14. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 29, August-November, 1978. Volume VI. Process development unit studies. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of seven SRC-II runs on Process Development Unit P99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal. Four of these runs (Runs 41-44) were made feeding coal from the Robinson Run Mine and three (Runs 45-47) were made feeding a second shipment of coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. This work showed that both these coals are satisfactory feedstocks for the SRC-II process. Increasing dissolver outlet hydrogen partial pressure from approximately 1300 to about 1400 psia did not have a significant effect on yields from Robinson Run coal, but simultaneously increasing coal concentration in the feed slurry from 25 to 30 wt% and decreasing the percent recycle solids from 21% to 17% lowered distillate yields. With the Powhatan coal, a modest increase in the boiling temperature (approximately 35/sup 0/F) at the 10% point) of the process solvent had essentially no effect on product yields, while lowering the average dissolver temperature from 851/sup 0/F to 842/sup 0/F reduced gas yield.

  15. Development of Highly Reactive Nanometer Fe-Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, James A.; Linehan, John C.; Matson, Dean W.; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes research involving the liquefaction of coal and the removal of oxygen from coal product constituents. Subbituminous Coal and early stage coal liquefaction products contain a substantial fraction of hydroxy-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (phenols). An important reaction for upgrading of coal-derived organic materials is to remove oxygen groups. This paper describes the hydro-deoxygenation of naphthols and the liquefaction of subbituminous Wyodak coal using a catalyst prepared by in-situ sulfidation of nanometer scale 6-line iron ferrihydrite. The FeS catalyst enables the conversion of naphthol in substantial yields to tetralin and naphthalene at 400 degrees C in 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. The kinetics and procedures to observe coal liquefaction and hydro-deoxygenation, and the effects of in-situ sulfidation on conversion kinetics are described.

  16. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase I of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). It is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/airheater where steam and gas turbine air are indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and then a pilot plant with integrated pyrolyzer and char combustion systems will be tested. In this report, progress in the pyrolyzer pilot plant preparation is reported. The results of extensive laboratory and bench scale testing of representative char are also reported. Preliminary results of combustion modeling of the char combustion system are included. There are also discussions of the auxiliary systems that are planned for the char combustion system pilot plant and the status of the integrated system pilot plant.

  17. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    York Tsuo

    2000-12-31

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The detail of syngas cooler design is given in this report. The final construction work of the CFB pyrolyzer pilot plant has started during this quarter. No experimental testing was performed during this quarter. The proposed test matrix for the future CFB pyrolyzer tests is given in this report. Besides testing various fuels, bed temperature will be the primary test parameter.

  18. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  20. Quarterly coal report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, imports, exports, prices, and consumption. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports are also provided. This report presents compiled data for April thru June, and historical data for 1987 thru the first quarter of 1995.

  1. Development of Mercury and Hydrogen Chloride Emission Monitors for Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    G. Norton; D. Eckels; C. Chriswell

    2001-02-26

    The gas conditioning issues involved with coal gasification streams are very complex and do not have simple solutions. This is particularly true in view of the fact that the gas conditioning system must deal with tars, high moisture contents, and problems with NH{sub 3} without affecting low ppb levels of Hg, low levels (low ppm or less) of HCl, or the successful operation of conditioner components and analytical systems. Those issues are far from trivial. Trying to develop a non-chemical system for gas conditioning was very ambitious in view of the difficult sampling environment and unique problems associated with coal gasification streams. Although a great deal was learned regarding calibration, sample transport, instrumentation options, gas stream conditioning, and CEM design options, some challenging issues still remain. Sample transport is one area that is often not adequately considered. Because of the gas stream composition and elevated temperatures involved, special attention will need to be given to the choice of materials for the sample line and other plumbing components. When using gas stream oxidation, there will be sample transport regions under oxidizing as well as reducing conditions, and each of those regions will require different materials of construction for sample transport. The catalytic oxidation approach worked well for removal of tars and NH{sub 3} on a short term basis, but durability issues related to using the catalyst tube during extended testing periods still require study.

  2. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This report is the twenty-first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-77ET10069 for EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development Phase V. A detailed comparison of RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields has been initiated. This study builds off previous yield modeling results, which found that RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields were generally consistent given the scatter of the data, although some differences were noted. These pilot unit yield differences have now been quantified, and operating/configurational differences which account for some of them have been identified. Preliminary yield comparison results after correcting for these known process differences between the pilot plants indicate that: RCLU and CLPP yields are generally consistent; ECLP's conversion is about 5 lb/100 lb DAF coal lower than RCLU/CLPP at comparable operating conditions; and work has been initiated to define the EDS slurry preheater feed system design (based on slurry distributor manifold guidelines and coking correlation predictions, which influence furnace pass control issues such as slurry flow measurement). EDS hydrotreated naphtha showed a low level of systemic toxicity to rats exposed to the vapor six hours per day, five days per week for thirteen weeks.

  3. Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

  4. Gate road development at Southern Ohio Coal Company-Meigs Division

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, N.L.; Latham, J.W. III

    1996-12-31

    Southern Ohio Coal Company`s (SOCCo) Meigs Division, a part of American Electric Power`s Fuel Supply Division, is located in the southeastern Ohio counties of Meigs and Vinton, and consists of two large underground mines and a central coal preparation plant. The division began mining the 54-inch Clarion 4A seam in the early 1970`s, with three underground mines, which first used conventional mining, but changed to continuous mining after only a few years. Longwall mining began in 1978 at the Meigs No. 2 Mine. In 1989, Meigs No. 1 and Raccoon No. 3 Mines were interconnected underground, with the combined mine being named Meigs No. 31. A longwall was installed in Meigs No. 31 in September 1989. The Meigs Division operated three longwalls until 1993, but then reduced to two longwalls (one at each mine) and five continuous miner sections, which are used solely to develop main entries and gateroads for the longwalls. Longwall panel size has steadily increased through the years, growing from the initial 500 ft. wide by 5000 ft. long panels to the present panels which range from 900 to 1100 ft. wide by 10,000 to 13,000 ft. long.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  7. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with

  8. Coal materials handling/coal feeder development, Phase I. 2nd quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-27

    The essential objective of Phase I of our program is to demonstrate extended capabilities for the Linear Pocket Feeder (LPF). This requires extensive modification of both our test facility and the LPF. At this time we estimate that delays in modifications will prevent our testing the LPF until at least mid-May, a month and a half later than originally scheduled. However, we have reviewed our test plan and facility operation in detail and conclude that testing can probably be completed by the end of August as originally proposed, and that the program is not jeopardized in any other way. In fact, our projected delay in specified testing is due in part to our initial testing - crude but successful, with pulverized coal (PC). On the strength of this success, we are attempting to go immediately to an LPF and feed system that is fully modified for PC. A status report task by task is given.

  9. Trends in aluminium export from a mountainous area to surface waters, from deglaciation to the recent: effects of vegetation and soil development, atmospheric acidification, and nitrogen-saturation.

    PubMed

    Kopácek, Jirí; Hejzlar, Josef; Kana, Jirí; Norton, Stephen A; Porcal, Petr; Turek, Jan

    2009-11-01

    We reconstructed the history of terrestrial export of aluminium (Al) to Plesné Lake (Czech Republic) since the lake origin approximately 12,600 year BC, and predicted Al export for 2010-2050 on the basis of previously published and new data on mass budget studies, palaeolimnological data, and MAGIC modelling. We focused on three major Al forms; ionic Al (Al(i)), organically-bound Al (Al(o)), and particulate Al hydroxide [Al(OH)(3)]. In early post-glacial time, Plesné Lake received high terrestrial export of Al, but with a minor proportion of Al(OH)(3) (4-25 microM), and concentrations of Al(i) and Al(o) were negligible. Since the forest and soil development ( approximately 9900-9000 year BC), erosion has declined and soil organic acids increased export of Al(o) from soils. The terrestrial Al(o) leaching ( approximately 7.5 microM) persisted throughout the Holocene until the industrial period. Then, Al(i) concentrations continuously increased (up to 28 microM in the mid-1980s) due to atmospheric acidification; the Al(i) leaching was mostly associated with sulphate. The proportion of Al(i) associated with nitrate has been increasing since the beginning of lake recovery from acidification after approximately 1990 due to reduction in sulphur deposition and nitrogen-saturation of the catchment, leading to persistent nitrate leaching. Currently, nitrate has become the dominant strong acid anion and the major Al(i) carrier. Al(o) (5.5 microM) is predicted to dominate Al concentrations around 2050, but the predicted Al(i) concentrations ( approximately 4 microM) are uncertain because of uncertainty associated with the future nitrate leaching and its effect on soils. PMID:19793616

  10. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The objective of Phase I of the program for the development of a retrofit pulse coal combustor for industrial applications was to design, fabricate, test and evaluate advanced chamber designs at the laboratory-scale utilizing several fuels (Task 1). The activities were structured to provide design criteria for scaling up to the pilot-scale level for the demonstration of a pulse combustor fired with coal-water mixtures for industrial boiler and process heater retrofit applications. The design data and information acquired during Task 1 of the initial phase was to develop scale-up design criteria for scaling the laboratory-scale design to pilot-scale including interface requirements for the field demonstration. The scale-up pilot unit design was to be sufficiently developed to allow fabrication of the unit for testing in the existing test facility upon DOE exercising its option for the follow-on activities of this program. These follow-on activities (Phase II) included the fabrication, test, and engineering evaluation of the pilot-scale combustor as well as technical and laboratory test support activities for reducing the technical risks and costs of development at the pilot-scale. Based on the information, test, data and technical support activities, a retrofit combustor system was to be designed for field demonstration. An additional effort was added to the contract by modification A005. This modification added a Phase IA in place of the original Task 2 of Phase I activity. This interim phase consisted of three technical tasks described in previous quarterly reports. Phase II was initiated in April 1989.

  11. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  12. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  14. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V.

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  15. Development of Natural Alkalinity in Appalachian Deep Coal Mine Discharges, Irwin Syncline, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, E. M.; Winters, W. R.; Winters, W. R.; Capo, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    dissolution. The discharges in the southwestern sub-basins, however, exhibit a significant excess of sodium relative to chloride that correlates with increasing alkalinity. Modeling results are consistent with the development of net alkaline waters as a result of limestone dissolution enhanced by subsurface cation exchange reactions with coal overburden clay minerals such as illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite. The data suggest these processes occur in deeper sub-basins (overburden thickness greater than 100 m), dominated by groundwaters derived from neighboring mine pools with minimum infiltration of surface waters; this is corroborated by calculated infiltration rates for these sub-basins. [1]Weaver, T. J., Capo, R.C., Hedin, R. S., 1997, Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Prog., v. 29, A-321. [2]Winters, W.R., Capo, R.C., Wolinsky, M.W., Weaver, T.J., Hedin, R.S., 1999, Proc. 16th Ann. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., sect. 6-5, p. 1-36. [3]Parkhurst, D.L. and Appelo, C.A.J., 1999, USGS Water Res. Invest. Rept. 99-4259, 326 p.

  16. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.; Heintz, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  17. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  18. An approach to development of an information geomechanical structural model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Yushkin, V.F.; Kiril'tseva, N.A.; Izotov, A.S.

    2006-05-15

    The geographic information system designed at the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry for the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and the non-linear geomechanics researches undertaken at the Institute of Mining has served the basis for analyzing the hierarchical structure of geological faults in the Anzherskiy economic district (Kemerovo Region). The analysis is performed by a new canonical scale for structural-hierarchical representations with base root 2, where A and x are the normalized functionally related values. The recommendations are given on how to utilize the geoinformation system of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in order to obtain a graphical-analytical representation and a system analysis of experimental geomechanical data.

  19. Coal prep `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The proceedings of Coal Prep `95 - the 12th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference, held May 2-4, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. The Conference covered such topics as chemicals for coal preparation, quality control, coal cleaning, operations, and research and development. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 24 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  2. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  3. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  4. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  5. Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Rauh, V.A.; Xie, J.; Perera, F.

    2008-05-15

    Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH-DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH-DNA adducts (specifically benzo(a)pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang.

  6. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char

  7. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  8. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Analysis of the arch-fired burner continued during this quarter. Unburned carbon and NOx performance are included in this report. Construction commenced this quarter to modify the CETF

  9. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  10. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL SPINEL REFRACTORIES FOR USE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Armstrong, Beth L; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Work has been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturer (Minteq International, Inc.), academic research partner (Missouri University of Science and Technology) and end users to employ novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels found in industries such as aluminum, chemical, glass, and pulp and paper. The objective of the project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3 spinel structured unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. As part of the four-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments. Additionally, work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against corrosion attack of the refractory brick and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the development of these materials, along with preliminary results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment.

  12. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 6, Develop rms velocity functions and apply mute and normal movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desktop, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language utilized by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report presents computer programs used to develop rms velocity functions and apply mute and normal moveout to a 12-trace seismogram.

  13. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW EMISSION, HIGH EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS: SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, describing the second year's effort under this contract, concerns the development of criteria for the evaluation and applicability of low-emission, high efficiency coal burners. The report describes progress in three major areas: (1) bench scale studies, (2) distribut...

  16. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  17. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  18. Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh

    This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.

  19. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  4. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A.

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW EMISSION, HIGH EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the first year's effort on this contract. Experimental studies were conducted at three scales to determine the influence of coal properties on NOx emissions. In addition, the use of sorbents to reduce SOx emissions from coal flames was investigated. Be...

  6. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P.

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  8. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  9. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  10. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  11. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 5. 8, Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization. Topical report, January--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, B.A.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1995-10-01

    The scope of work for this task was limited to the development of a general process to evaluate coal fly ash for use in applications beyond cement and concrete. Two coal fly ash samples were evaluated for appropriateness in structural fill as an example of how to use alternative classification protocol as ash use standards are developed for the industry. The goal of this project is to develop a classification system for fly ash based on parameters that relate to performance specification of engineering and construction applications. The new classification system will provide a means of evaluating the suitability of coal ash for use in certain products that currently have no reality-based standards or classifications. Recent work by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee E50 on Pollution Prevention has proposed a standard practice for use of coal ash for structural fill applications. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) coal ash researchers have worked on preparing this standard practice, and the development of criteria for the coal ash to be used in this application will facilitate the use of this standard once approved by ASTM. A preliminary flowchart for classification criteria was developed and is shown in figure 1.

  12. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi[sup 2] in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi[sup 2] previously reported.

  13. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi{sup 2} in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi{sup 2} previously reported.

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  15. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  16. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  18. Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Ayala, R.

    1996-12-31

    The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

  19. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  20. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  1. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  2. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This task is the actual demonstration of the advanced froth flotation technology. All previous work has led to this task. ICF KE technicians and process engineers from the team will operate the plant over a 10 month period to demonstrate the capability of the technology to remove 85% of the pyritic sulfur from three different test coals while recovering at least 85% of the as-mined coal`s energy content. Six major subtasks have been included to better define the overall work scope for this task. The ICF KE team will test the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, the Illinois No. 6 seam and the Upper Freeport seam; the team will operate the circuit in a continuous run; the team will analyze all samples generated in those runs and will develop a plan to store and dispose of the coal and refuse products. All laboratory data generated will be accessible to all team members and the DOE. The test program for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal began during March 1, 1993. An arrangement has been made between ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICF KE) and American Electric Power (AEP), who is the host for the DOE POC facility. The arrangement calls for AEP to purchase the raw coal and use the clean coal generated by the DOE POC facility. This arrangement permits the processing of raw coal at a very minimal cost of purchasing the raw coal.

  4. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate, that in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial stage of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine. 9 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  6. Developments in steam generator design for combustion of hog fuel and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P.J.; Lutes, I.G.

    1982-05-01

    The cofiring of coal and hog fuel in industrial steam generators is a feasible alternative that provides greater fuel flexibility to the operator. Equipment specifically designed to be suitable for both fuels is readily available.

  7. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  8. Development of a multisegment coal mill model using an evolutionary computation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.L.; Wang, J.; Wu, Q.H.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a multisegment coal mill model that covers the whole milling process from mill startup to shutdown. This multisegment mathematical model is derived through analysis of energy transferring, heat exchange, and mass flow balances. The work presented in the paper focuses on modeling E-type vertical spindle coal mills that are widely used in coal-fired power plants. An evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using the on-site measurement data. The identified parameters are then validated with different sets of online measured data. Validation results indicate that the model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of coal mill dynamics and can be used for prediction of the mill dynamic performance. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  9. Potential hydrologic effects of developing coal and other geo-energy resources of Oregon; a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Oregon has several hundred million tons of good-quality minable coal. Because of the dip of the coal beds, the only economical method of mining would be by underground methods. In addition, minor occurrences of low-quality coal have been noted at more than 20 sites in both western and northeastern Oregon. About 2 million acres are now under lease for petroleum and gas exploration across the State. Natural gas was discovered in northwestern Oregon in 1979, and current production is about 17 million cubic feet per day from five wells. Thirteen Known Geothermal Resource Areas in several parts of the State cover 432,000 acres, and more than 420,000 acres are under lease for geothermal exploration. No hydrologic impacts have been noted from exploration and production of coal or other geoenergy resources in Oregon. (USGS)

  10. Development of a centrifugal float-sink procedure for gravimetric evaluation of ultrafine coals: Part 1, The effects of surface-property-related parameters on fine-coal separations

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report traces the development of a centrifugal float-sink technique for determining the washability analyses of fine coal having top sizes finer than 14 mesh. All testing was performed on the Upper and Lower Kittanning bed coals only. The efforts of other researchers attempting to utilize the centrifuge for float-sink testing ultrafine coal are reviewed briefly. Exploratory test data from PETC are presented to show the effect of surfactant additions, reverse float-sink testing, and preheating of samples on the yield/ash relationships. The results of a 33-test partial factorial design used to evaluate five variables at five levels and their effects on the yield/ash relationship as depicted by an efficiency index are presented, along with follow-up tests showing the importance of lower solids concentration and higher reagent dosage. Coal moisture content and reagent dosage had the most significant effect on the yield/ash relationship. 12 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  12. EDS coal liquefaction process development, Phase V. Engineering design study of an EDS Illinois bottoms fired hybrid boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company and was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report is the second of two reports by Combustion Engineering, Inc. on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program and covers the results of an engineering design study of a Hybrid Boiler firing the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from processing Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. The function of the Hybrid Boiler is to heat the coal slurry feed for an EDS coal liquefaction plant by a process coil in the convection section and to generate high pressure steam in the radiant section. The Hybrid Boiler design developed in this phase of the program is based on the results of a laboratory characterization program (reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-112), on Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s extensive experience as a designer and supplier of steam generating equipment, and on Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s experience with the design and operation of process heaters.

  13. Development of phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization. Quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.

    1996-10-01

    Atomization tests on simulated fluids are being performed. For each sample tested, {Delta}P{sub c} is being determined as described in the last quarterly report. The results will be reported when the coal slurry testing is completed for comparative purposes. The viscoelastic properties on the simulated fluids and coal water slurries are being determined using the Adelphi Stresstech Viscometer. A discussion of viscoelastic properties and their relationship to atomization is presented.

  14. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Eighth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-28

    This report describes progress on three fronts of the project. First in studies to elucidate optimal growing conditions for the consortia of coal degraders employed indicates that best growth occurs with 0. 2% w/v Shefton T. Secondly in comparing the biodegradative properties of the coal degraders, isolates identified as Mic-1 and Mic-4 were the best performers. And lastly bioreactors studies in batch mode are related.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  17. The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The investigation of various Two-Stage Liquefaction (TSL) process configurations was conducted at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility between July 1982 and September 1986. The facility combines three process units. There are the liquefaction unit, either thermal (TLU) or catalytic, for the dissolution of coal, the Critical Solvent Deashing unit (CSD) for the separation of ash and undissolved coal, and a catalytic hydrogenation unit (HTR) for product upgrading and recycle process solvent replenishment. The various TSL process configurations were created by changing the process sequence of these three units and by recycling hydrotreated solvents between the units. This report presents a description of the TSL configurations investigated and an analysis of the operating and performance data from the period of study. Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal Wyodak Clovis Point Mine coal were processed. Cobalt-molybdenum and disposable iron-oxide catalysts were used to improve coal liquefaction reactions and nickel-molybdenum catalysts were used in the hydrotreater. 28 refs., 31 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Do coal consumption and industrial development increase environmental degradation in China and India?

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed to explore the relationship between coal consumption, industrial production, and CO2 emissions in China and India for the period of 1971-2011. The structural break unit root test and cointegrating approach have been applied. The direction of causal relationship between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality test. Our results validate the presence of cointegration among the series in both countries. Our results also validate the existence of inverted U-shaped curve between industrial production and CO2 emissions for India, but for China, it is a U-shaped relationship. Coal consumption adds in CO2 emissions. The causality analysis reveals that industrial production and coal consumption Granger cause CO2 emissions in India. In the case of China, the feedback effect exists between coal consumption and CO2 emissions. Due to the importance of coal in China and India, any reduction in coal consumption will negatively affect their industrial value added as well as economic growth. PMID:25277709

  19. Languages and the Export Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, D. E.

    The improvement of language skills and intercultural understanding among Australians for the purpose of increasing their country's ability to develop a strong export economy is explored. It is argued that a formidable language teaching system in education is vital to the strengthening of Australia's international reputation in world markets.…

  20. Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Alley, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  1. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  2. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  4. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  5. Energy Crunch is Stimulant for Coal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Presents views of the first International Coal Research Conference, involving problems facing reconversion to a coal-based energy economy, organization and funding of coal research units, development of new techniques for mining and using coal; and transportation of coal products to users. (CC)

  6. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  8. Piedmont Export Expansion Program Monograph: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ralph W., Jr.; Peniche, Eduardo A.

    The Piedmont Export Expansion Program (PEEP) was developed to increase the number of businesses in central Virginia entering or expanding export trade; to increase the utilization of the services of Central Virginia Community College's (CVCC's) Cross-Cultural and Foreign Language Resource Center by area export businesses; to increase the number of…

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  10. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  11. Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

  12. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  13. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  16. Development of a Rapid Assessment Method for Quantifying Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C. D.; Karathanasis, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies designed to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed coal mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. However, quantifying new carbon (carbon that has been added to soil through recent biological processes) on reclaimed mine soils have proven to be difficult due to carbonates and coal particles present in the reclaimed coal mine spoils. Visible coal particles can be removed, but the microscopic coal dust particles remain. Additionally, with the advent of carbon trading on the stock market, rapid quantification of newly sequestered carbon has proven to be elusive. The focus of this project is to assess the potential of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid, simple and direct method for differentiating and quantifying new carbon from old carbon (carbon of geologic origin) on reclaimed coal mine sites and provide a standard procedure for determining carbon sequestered in soil sinks. Thermogravimetry is a physico-chemical technique where the weight change is measured and recorded during the incremental heating of the soil sample over a temperature range of 25 to 1000 ° C. Grass litter and limestone were used as representative organic and inorganic carbon fractions, while coal was used to differentiate the old and new carbon within the organic fraction. Recoveries of mixtures at the 95 % confidence interval were found to be 94.49 ± 4.23 % (coal) , 93.67 ± 2.11 % (litter) , and 108.88 ± 2.88 % (limestone) respectively. Each of the above components appeared as distinct separate peaks on the thermograph, with litter appearing between 260 to 390 ° C, coal 425 to 480 ° C, and limestone 640 to 740 ° C. Overlapping peaks for the organic carbon represented by the grass litter may be indicative of cellulose and lignin fractions. Ongoing work in this area is

  17. Study of the export potential of the Bolivian Power Sector. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was conducted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a review of export potential and to assess the ability of the Bolivian power sector to provide these exports economically and with financially viable projects. The study includes technical, economic, and financial analyses of export power stations alternatives. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) The Bolivian Power Sector; (3) Market Assessment for Brazil; (4) Market Assessment for Argentina; (5) Market Assessment for Export; (6) Market Assessment for Peru; (7) Project Selection; (8) Transmission Plans for Power Export; (9) Delivered Natural Gas Costs; (10) Power Plant Characteristics; (11) Economic Screening of Export Power Station Options; (12) Project Financing; (13) Conclusions and Recommendations.

  18. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 21, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate.

  19. Clastic diversion by fold salients and blind thrust ridges in coal-swamp development

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.U. ); Belt, E.S. ); Lyons, P.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Abrupt shifts from single widespread coal swamps to coarse siliciclastic alluvial channel deposits occur in at least five coal beds and zones within the Pennsylvania Allegheny Formation. One of these, the Upper Freeport coal zone, was deposited over and area at least 200 {times} 200 km with a spacing of alluvial channels one-half to possibly one-fifth that of the immediately overlying coarse clastics. All these shifts occured next to the rising Appalachian orogen, far from the eustatic effects of a marine shoreline. Recent models relating coal-swamp formation to isostatic warping of orogenic forelands by tectonic loads surely apply to this environment, but they seem to need an additional, more delicate mechanism to produce such abrupt but widespread switches in grain size and drainage spacing. The authors propose that irregularities in the advancing front folds and blind thrusts caused temporary geomorphic diversions into the recessed areas and allowed a widespread coal swamp to form in the sedimentary shadow of the salients, a shadowing process that is occurring today in the central Zagros Mountains of Iraq and Iran.

  20. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  1. Economics and a novel voltage conversion technique associated with exporting Wyoming's energy by HVDC transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaili

    Wyoming is by far the largest coal producing state in the US, but local utilization is extremely low. As much as 92% of Wyoming's coal is shipped to the other states and is mainly consumed by their electricity producers. Coal accounts for more than 50% of the US electricity generation and is one of the least expensive energy sources. Wyoming could utilize its coal better by exporting electricity instead of exporting the coal only in its raw form. Natural gas is another important energy resource in Wyoming but local utilization is even lower. As a result of the development in coalbed methane fields, natural gas production in Wyoming is almost in pace with its coal production. In addition to constructing more new pipelines, new transmission lines should be considered as an alternative way of exporting this energy. Because of their enormous electricity market sizes and high electricity prices, California, Texas and Illinois are chosen to be the target markets for Wyoming's electricity. The proposed transmission schemes use High Voltage DC (HVDC) lines, which are suitable for long distance and cross-system power transmission. Technical and economic feasibilities are studied in details. The Wyoming-California scheme has a better return of investment than both the Wyoming-Texas and the Wyoming-Illinois schemes. A major drawback of HVDC transmission is the high level of harmonics generated by the converters. Elaborate filtering is required at both the AC and the DC sides. A novel pulse-multiplication method is proposed in the thesis to reduce the harmonics from the converter source. By introducing an averaging inductor, the proposed method uses less thyristors to achieve the same high-pulse operation as the existing series scheme. The reduction of thyristors makes the switching circuit more reliable and easier to control and maintain. Harmonic analysis shows that the harmonic level can be reduced to about one third of the original system. The proposed method is also

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  3. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  4. Component development in support of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.; Sivy, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed in North America to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. If coal is to remain the fuel of choice for this new and replacement power generation, the plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants. To address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), with subcontracts to Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE and C), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler System`` (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). In Phase 1, completed in 1994, a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for the control of emissions, and a review of boiler design options were performed. In phases 2 and 3 currently underway, research and development continues to resolve design uncertainties at the pilot and subsystem scale. A preliminary design for a Proof-Of-Concept (POC) Demonstration Facility has also been completed. Results of these activities will be presented in this paper.

  5. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Fluidized bed combustion of low-grade coal and wastes: Research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Vinogradov, L.M.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization of fuel as single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin, leather sewage sludge and Belarussian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. It is found that the devolatilization process depends on moisture and ash contents in fuel and on the external heat and mass transfer rate. The char combustion occurs largely in the intermediate region. Kinetic parameters of the devolatilization and char combustion are obtained. A low-capacity fluidized bed boiler suitable for combustion of coal and different wastes is described.

  7. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  8. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mamuya, Simon HD; Bråtveit, Magne; Mashalla, Yohana; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies of miners have been carried out in African countries; most are from South Africa, where the working conditions are assumed to be better than in the rest of Africa. Several studies have focused on respiratory disorders among miners, but development workers responsible for creating underground road ways have not been studied explicitly. This is the first study assessing the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. Results Workers from the development group had the highest dust exposure, with arithmetic mean of 10.3 mg/m3 for current respirable dust and 1.268 mg/m3 for quartz. Analogous exposure results for mine workers were 0.66 mg/m3 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively; and for other development workers were 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.10 mg/m3, respectively. The workers from the development section had significantly higher prevalence of the acute symptoms of dry cough (45.7%), breathlessness (34.8%) and blocked nose (23.9%). In addition, development workers had significantly more chronic symptoms of breathlessness (17.0%) than the mine workers (6.4%) and the other production workers (2.4%). The highest decile of cumulative exposure to respirable dust was significantly associated with cough (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.06, 7.97) as were cumulative exposure to quartz and cough (OR = 2.87, CI 1.05, 7.88), compared with the reference

  11. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  12. Global prospects for US coal and coal technologies. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development and the Subcommittee on International Scientific Cooperation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, July 21, 23, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The US Government has pursued development of more environmentally acceptable means of burning coal with considerable vigor since the mid-1970s. DOE's fossil-energy R and D efforts, coupled with the clean-coal-technology demonstrations of recent years, provide a strong research and technology base for commercialization of US coal technologies in the international marketplace. The status of US coal technology is important in terms of the US capacity to supply the world with increasing amounts of coal. Yet, this country faces significant competition in overseas coal markets. It is believed that US development of clean-coal hardware can give American coal marketing overseas a real shot in the arm. The hearing on July 21 presented representatives of the Departments of Energy and Commerce and the National Coal Association, the chairman the recent. National Coal Council study, and an equipment manufacturers panel as witnesses. The July 23 hearing included perspectives on US competitiveness in coal and coal technologies from four representatives of industry and trade, as well as a public policy witness.

  13. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  16. Portland General Electric Beaver synfuels project a coal gasification combined cycle methanol facility development program

    SciTech Connect

    Skov, E.R.; Yott, R.A.; Clancy, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Beaver coal gasification facility is currently undergoing preliminary engineering and feasibility analysis. Based on the existing 600 MW (nominal) Beaver combined cycle generating station and the adjacent plant site, which is eminently suitable for receiving and storage of subbituminous coal from either Alaska or Wyoming, a non-integrated CGCC facility combined with a methanol plant for increased utilization of the plant facilities and capital investment looks attractive for the 1987 time frame and forward. The CGCC facility would be environmentally benign since the gasification process inherently permits removal of essentially all sulfur, metals and particulate matter. The association with a methanol plant permits a high utilization factor of the overall CGCC-methanol facility. The beaver coal gasification facility will produce 60 billion Btu/day of MBG equivalent to about 300MWe, plus 1,750 Ton/D methanol, 10 million SCP/D SNG, nd 90 Ton/Day ammonia from about 11,000 Ton/Day subbituminous coal. The products are forecast to be competitively marketed in the region. The project could be implemented on a six year schedule, and a preliminary economic evaluation indicated that the products can be competitive with gas and oil for the 1988 time frame and beyond. 6 refs.

  17. VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

  18. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  19. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  20. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  1. Development of a model of entrained flow coal gasification and study of aerodynamic mechanisms of action on gasifier operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    Problems requiring solution in development of modern highly efficient gasification reactor of a promising high power integrated gasification combined-cycle plant are formulated. The task of creating and testing a numerical model of an entrained-flow reactor for thermochemical conversion of pulverized coal is solved. The basic method of investigation is computational fluid dynamics. The submodel of thermochemical processes, including a single-stage scheme of volatile substances outlet and three heterogeneous reactions of carbon residue conversion (complete carbon oxidation, Boudouard reaction and hydrogasification), is given. The mass loss rate is determined according to the basic assumptions of the diffusion-kinetic theory. The equations applied for calculation of the process of outlet of volatile substances and three stages of fuel gasifi-cation (diffusion of reagent gas toward the surface of the coal particle, heterogeneous reactions of gas with carbon on its surface, and homogeneous reactions beyond the particle surface) are presented. The universal combined submodel Eddy Dissipation/Finite Rate Chemistry with standard (built-in) constants is used for numerical estimates. Aerodynamic mechanisms of action on thermochemical processes of solid fuel gasification are studied, as exemplified by the design upgrade of a cyclone reactor of preliminary thermal fuel preparation. Volume concentrations of combustible gases and products of complete combustion in the syngas before and after primary air and pulverized coal flows' redistribution are given. Volume concentrations of CO in syngas at different positions of tangential secondary air inlet nozzle are compared.

  2. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural gas. However, opportunities to add new energy exports in the form of power generation are limited by insufficient transmission capacity. This fact sheet summarizes results from a recent analysis conducted by NREL for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority (WIA) that estimates jobs and economic development activity that could occur in Wyoming should the market support new investments in power generation and transmission in the state.

  3. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-10

    Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural gas. However, opportunities to add new energy exports in the form of power generation are limited by insufficient transmission capacity. This fact sheet summarizes results from a recent analysis conducted by NREL for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority that estimates jobs and economic development activity that could occur in Wyoming should the market support new investments in power generation and transmission in the state.

  4. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  5. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  6. Virginia coal production: impacts and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Jr, W R

    1983-06-01

    Virginia's coal sales have been largely for metallurgical (coking) applications. The met coal market is facing a serious decline. Those suppliers with long-term contracts believe they will not be affected unless force majeure (coercive power) is imposed. Long-term projections, based on a worldwide recovery of the steel industry and the changing technology and economics of steel making, suggest that future sales will be flat. Based on studies of market trade-preferences, evidence suggests that Australia will displace the Unted States as the leading exporter of met coal. The possible requirement that US coal-burning utilities reduce sulfur dioxide effluents may lead to met coal being burned in steam boilers as a measure to avoid installing the more costly flue-gas scrubbers. This requirement, if it becomes law, would improve sales prospects for the central Appalachian coal market. Coal slurries to replace fuel oil in commercial and utility boilers and clean fine coal for chemical feed stocks are other potential new markets totaling 200 million tons per year. In any event, the Virginia coal market is presently an erratic buyers market with more production capacity than demand, and a growing sensitivity to prices resulting from the unstable world economic situation. Our coal suppliers, because of rising mine, railroad, port, and shipping costs, now charge the highest worldwide delivery prices which will make Virginia a residual supplier and possibly vulnerable to more foreign imports. A coal slurry pipeline which will reduce the delivered cost of Virginia's coal and make it more competitive with eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia coal, of similar quality, will assist the state in maintaining its market share as the market recovers. Although it will not increase the world-market share exported from Hampton Roads, it may increase Virginia's share of that market from 22.8% to 50%.

  7. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  8. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  9. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  10. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  13. Development of High Activity, Coal-Derived, Promoted Catalytic Systems for NOx Reduction at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Calo

    1998-05-01

    This project is directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction mechanisms on coal-derived, activated carbon supports at low temperatures. Promoted carbon systems offer some potentially significant advantages for heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction. These include: low cost; high activity at low temperatures, which minimizes carbon loss; oxygen resistance; and a support material which can be engineered with respect to porosity, transport and catalyst dispersion characteristics.

  14. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  15. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  16. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  17. Catalytic hydrogenation of high volatility bituminous coal and various coal extracts: final report for 1986-1987. SOMED (School of Mines and Energy Development) project. Faculty research report

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Model compounds, naphthalene, quinolines, and isoquinoline (possible extracts of coal) were selectively hydrogenated to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro products by a Ziegler-type catalyst (I) made of cobalt stearate and triethyl aluminum (1:2 molar ratio) in hexane solvent and temperatures as low as 22/sup 0/C and hydrogen pressure of 700-800 psi. It was established that a hydrogen pressure greater than 300 psi is crucial for hydrogenation to occur. The important feature of the Ziegler catalyst is that it works best at low temperatures, moderate pressures, and short reaction times, most unusual for a Ziegler catalyst. A sample of solvent-refined coal (SRC) (less than .9% sulfur) was previously liquefied at 90 degree C and hydrogen pressure of 800 psi in a period of 24 h. In this, a sample of Illinois No. 6 high-volatility bitiminous coal (a high-sulfur coal, 5.8% S) was treated with catalyst (I) under the same conditions as applied for SRC. Analysis indicated a 10% conversion for the high-sulfur coal.

  18. Development and application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques to the characterization of coal and oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of application programs for infrared spectroscopy has been an ongoing proposition for a number of years. This development, however, was accelerated with the advent of Fourier transform infared (FT-IR) instruments and their built-in mini-computers. The uses and pitfalls of several of these routines are discussed in this thesis. A least-squares curve resolving program has been developed and the use of this program is also discussed. The analysis of complex, multicomponent polymeric materials, such as coal and oil shale, by conventional infrared spectroscopy has been a difficult problem. The use of FT-IR spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these types of materials is discussed. A characterization of oil shale from the Mahogany Zone of the Green River Formation has been obtained by FT-IR. A quantitative analysis of the mineral component by FT-IR spectroscopy is shown to be comparable to that obtained by x-ray diffraction when considering broad mineral types, i.e., carbonates. Methods for the FT-IR analysis of the organic component, both from the whole shale and from kerogen specimens, have been refined. There is a good correlation between the intensity of alkyl bands and Fisher assay yields. An assessment is made of the applicability of extinction coefficients obtained from paraffins to their use in quantitative analysis in oil shales. A quantitative analysis of OH content in coal by FT-IR is comparable to that done by other methods (i.e., chemical and NMR). An analysis is also made of the various types of OH groups in coal.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Urbina, R.H.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Harris, G.; Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT; Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA )

    1989-08-15

    The primary goal of this project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu yield, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. Large quantities of coal samples have been procured from six major seams. Samples of the same coals are also to be supplied to the University of Pittsburgh for selective agglomeration research. A second objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals are to be collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered coals. Work is divided into 8 tasks: (1) project work plan; (2) coal procurement and weathering; (3) coal characterization; (4) standard beneficiation test; (5) grinding studies; (6) surface modification studies; (7) exploratory R D and support; and (8) task integration and project management. 8 refs., 50 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S.

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  1. The World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, Robert B.; Lovern, Vivian S.

    2001-01-01

    The Issue Policymakers around the world require accurate information on coal, particularly information on coal properties and characteristics, to make informed decisions regarding the best use of indigenous resources, international import needs and export opportunities, domestic and foreign policy objectives, technology transfer opportunities, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues.

  2. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  3. The US Export-Import Bank: No evidence of financing restricted chemical exports to Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelowitz, A.I.; Watson, J.E.; Wood, S.E.; Logan, D.L.; Hinojosa, S.L.

    1991-09-01

    The authors have reviewed U.S. Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) transactions involving chemicals exported to Iraq from January 1987 to August 1990. Specifically, the authors examined (1) whether there was any evidence that the Eximbank financed the export of dual-use chemicals to Iraq and (2) what the Eximbank`s role was in monitoring and controlling chemical exports. Results are based primarily on a review of documents provided to them by the Eximbank. They did not verify the Eximbank data or corroborate it with the records of the banks or exporters involved in the transactions. There was no evidence in the documents they reviewed to suggest that the Eximbank financed the export of dual-use chemicals (chemicals with both commercial and military applications that could be used for chemical weapons) -- as defined by the Department of Commerce -- to Iraq between January 1987 and August 1990. There were approximately 190 transactions between Iraq and the Eximbank during this period. They focused their review on the eight transactions involving pesticides and related products. The Eximbank has no responsibility or authority for monitoring or controlling the export of chemicals or any other commodities: the Departments of Commerce and State and the US Customs Service share those responsibilities. Nevertheless, the Eximbank has recently developed specific procedures to review applications for financing chemical exports. However, such procedures were not in place when the Eximbank approved the applications for seven of eight pesticide transactions that occurred between January 1987 and August 1990.

  4. Assessment of the components of the Kalimantan and Sulawesi power development project: Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-31

    This report, conducted by Utility Consulting was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The report concerns a power development project on the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. This is TDA Volume 2, the main text (Report Volume 1), and it includes the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Transmission line and substation investment plan; (3) The distribution component; (4) Telecommunications; (5) PLN information systems; and Appendix: Figures and tables.

  5. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S.

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  7. Rail coal transportation under the Staggers Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stagger's Act of 1980 offered railroads the opportunity to accelerate growth along with the coal industry in efforts to increase market for both the product (coal) and the service provided. It provides for cost recovery indexing allowing railroads to stay abreast of inflation and flexibility in setting and changing rates. It also allows railroads to enter directly into contract agreements with shippers. Railroads have used extreme caution in implementing these liberties so that the coal industry would not be severely impacted by these changes. They could have raised rates by as much as 52.3% under the new guidelines, but only raised them by 31.6% in the Eastern market and by 21.3% for export coal. The president of CSX Railroads stresses the symbiotic relationship existing between railroads and the coal industry. He suggests that separate sectors of the coal industry stop pointing fingers at one another and join hands to solve coal's competitive problems in the overseas export market. He calls for the formation of a blue-ribbon panel representing all of the parties with a stake in coal to implement such a cooperative effort. (DMC)

  8. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boil systems. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The first test run of the Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) was completed on December 6. Riley was unable to witness or set up independent sampling equipment for NO{sub x} and precursor measurement for this run. A second run which we witnessed, but did not sample, was completed December 17. This was conducted almost entirely near SR = 1.0 while Textron investigated temperature-load relationships to address concerns from Run 1. A third run was completed over the December holiday break on Dorchester coal to address concerns Textron had about the Illinois test coal. All subsequent tests will use the Illinois coal. Boiler, firing system design. Elevation drawings were developed for dry wall-fired, conventional U-fired slagging, and TVC fired slagging units. We are investigating the feasibility of modifying a conventional U-fired design for low-NOx operation as an alternative to the TVC. The approach taken to I date for NOx reduction in existing U-fired units is to retrofit with delayed-mixing burners with staging air at various places, similar to the approach with dry fired units. The concept of staged fuel addition or reburning for the U-fired system is being examined as a potential combustion NOx control approach. This concept has high potential due to the high temperature and long residence time available in the stagger. Some field trials with coke oven gas reburn produced very low NOx results. Modeling of this concept was identified as a priority task. The model development will include matching field data for air staging on slagging units to the predictions. Emissions control. Selection of an SO2 control process continues to be a high priority task. Sargent & Lundy completed a cost comparison of several regenerable processes, most of which have NOx control potential as well: Active coke, NOXSO, copper oxide, SNOX, ammonia (for SO only, ammonium sulfate byproduct), and a limestone scrubber for comparison.

  9. The development of a combustion system for B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivy, J.L.; Kaufman, K.C.; McDonald, D.K.

    1997-07-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been leading a team in the development of an advanced coal-fired low emission boiler system (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new pulverized coal (PC) powered generating system equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The objectives of the program are to achieve continuous NO{sub x} emissions below 0.2 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu with a specified design coal, through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. The SO{sub 2} limit for the project has been set at 0.1 lb SO{sub 2}/MBtu, with a particulate emission limit of 0.01 lb particulate/MBtu. The net plant efficiency is specified to be at least 42% (HHV), while overall the cost of electricity must not increase relative to a conventional plant meeting cur-rent NSPS. The B&W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. To meet this goal, B&W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems. Phase I of the LEBS program began with a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques. Through engineering analysis, pilot-scale testing, and numerical modeling in Phases I and II, a near full-scale 100 MBtu/hr advanced NO{sub x} emissions control system was designed, fabricated, and tested. Further experimental testing and numerical modeling has continued to refine the LEBS concept.

  10. Development and evaluation of supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry for polar and high-molecular-weight coal components: Technical progress report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Smith, R.D.

    1988-02-01

    This program, Development and Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Polar and High-Molecular-Weight Coal Components, is aimed at the development of new analytical technologies for the characterization of previously intractable complex mixtures. The specific goals of this program are twofold: (1) to develop and evaluate a combined high-resolution, capillary column, supercritical fluid chromatograph/high-performance mass spectrometer (SFC/MS) that is capable of analyzing high-molecular-weight materials, such as polar and heavy-end components found in coal conversion processes; and (2) to use this system to develop and evaluate analytical technology applicable to coal process development technology. Studies have been conducted to characterize the performance of the supercritical fluid chromatograph-mass spectrometer interface, and several modifications have been made to the probe, ion source, and associated hardware to improve performance and operator safety. Methods have been developed that allow the mass calibration of the magnetic sector mass spectrometer to 1400 daltons using desorption chemical ionization. Methodologies have been improved for fabricating capillary columns with bonded, crosslinked stationary phases suitable for use with polar fluids. Coal-derived materials and fossil-fuel-derived sediments have been investigated with supercritical fluid chromatograph/mass spectrometry and supercritical fluid extraction/mass spectrometry. Microbore packed columns coupled to a modified mass spectrometer interface allowed the chemical class fractionation of relatively polar complex mixtures derived from coal liquefaction. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development for coal fluids. Final report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.; Tong, J.; Shaver, R.D.; Bader, M.S.; Twomey, D.W.

    1994-03-03

    Under continued support from DOE, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for predicting the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with the supercritical solutes hydrogen, methane, ethane, CO, and CO{sub 2}. During the course of this project, solubility data were obtained on twenty-two binary mixtures of CO, hydrogen, or nitrogen in a series of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (decane, eicosane, octacosane, hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, decalin, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene). The measurements were conducted at temperatures from 310 to 433 K, pressures to 22 MPa, and solute mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.30. Estimated errors of the measured gas solubilities in the selected solvents are less than 0.001. Specific accomplishments of this project included (a) upgrading our experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and phase densities; (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development; (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of coal-fluid mixtures, and the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations.

  12. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  13. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  14. Feasibility study for the development of groundwater for irrigation in the Chisumbanje area. Final report. Phase 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The document is the first volume of a final report for Phase II of a feasibility study conducted for the Regional Water Authority (RWA) of Zimbabwe. The report documents the second phase of a study to assess the feasibility of developing groundwater for irrigation of the Chisumbanje area. This phase of the study included installation of test boreholes in several locations. Information about site selection and borehole installations are presented in the volume as well as the test findings. Several alternative methods of development are discussed.

  15. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  16. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  17. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  18. Farewell, king coal!

    PubMed

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies. PMID:26856364

  19. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  20. Development of remote sensing techniques for assessment of hydrologic conditions in coal mining regions of Appalachia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, C. D.; Higer, A. L.; Coker, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    In December of 1974 the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, and the Water Resources Division, United States Geological Survey (USGS), acquired photographic, thermal, and multispectral data over the Cumberland region of eastern Tennessee. This data was effectively used to delineate ground water sources, and surface water runoff into river systems in the Cumberlands. The data, coupled with an overview of the area from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS), could be useful in determining hydrologic conditions in coal mining regions of the Appalachians.