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1

Fluid catalytic cracking of shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the potential of converting shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil into liquids of 100-600°F boiling range covers composition of shale oil, including its high nitrogen content and the severe conditions required for its removal prior to catalytic cracking, and test results obtained some years ago by Atlantic Richfield Co. on hydrotreating and fluid-catalytic cracking of

J. P. Gallagher; W. H. Humes; J. O. Slemssen

1978-01-01

2

Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.  

PubMed

The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands. PMID:22329146

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2011-10-01

3

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a study made to determine the feasibility of extracting the energy commodities - electricity, gas, petroleum, coke, and chemical feedstocks - from coal, oil sand, and heavy oil, heating the deposits by electric and magnetic fields. It is reported that available electrical and chemical data indicate that this process may be technically and economically

S. T. Fisher

1979-01-01

4

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01

5

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

Not Available

1992-01-01

6

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01

7

New production techniques for Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by

M. A. CARRIGY

1986-01-01

8

New Production Techniques for Alberta Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by

Maurice A. Carrigy

1986-01-01

9

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31

10

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

Not Available

1992-12-01

11

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-09-01

12

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-12-31

13

Possible New Coal and Bitumen Transportation Options for the Further Development of the Oil Sands Industry of Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great size of the potential resource of the oil sands of Alberta (traditionally placed at the equivalent of a very large 310 gigabarrels of recoverable oil) has long been a tantalizing option for the energy economy of Canada, especially now that the production of conventional light oil from the mature Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is declining at about four

John H. Walsh

14

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-09-01

15

New production techniques for Alberta oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and up-grading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. The history of oil sands technology development, the new drilling technology, and synthetic crude oil conversion are briefly described. 17 references.

Carrigy, M.A.

1986-12-19

16

Aging of Athabasca oil sand  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Athabasca oil sand collected by mining are frequently stored for long periods to ensure that research projects have available oil sand of consistent properties. This strategy is not entirely satisfactory because oil sands age after even limited exposure to oxygen. The results of a three-year aging study carried out at the Alberta Research Council are presented in this paper. During aging, the level of water soluble salts in the oil sand increased and hot water processing characteristics deteriorated. Through the DLVO and Ionizable Surface Group theories, it is demonstrated that the increase in soluble salts was sufficient to cause the fine solids particles to coagulate in the conditioning stage of the hot water process which results in poorer processibility characteristics. Based on this scenario, relative rates of aging for different grades of oil sand are estimated.

Wallace, D.; Henry, D.; Takamura, K.

1988-06-01

17

Alberta's oil sands in-situ pilots  

SciTech Connect

A brief description is given of the Alberta Oil Sands deposits and the current active pilots which are testing various recovery processes. The role of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) in these oil sands pilots is discussed, and details of six AOSTRA funded pilots in the major oil sands and heavy oil areas of Alberta are presented.

Phillips, R.S.

1981-01-01

18

Plant Response to Aqueous Effluents Derived from in-Situ Fossil-Fuel Processing. Part II. Five Grass Plant Species and Their Response to Five Produced Retort Waters: Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response...

Q. D. Skinner

1981-01-01

19

Plant Response to Aqueous Effluents Derived from in-Situ Fossil-Fuel Processing. Part III. Three Grass Species and Their Response to Omega 9 and to Five Produced Retort Waters: Oil Shale, Tar Sands and Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth respons...

Q. D. Skinner

1981-01-01

20

Alberta Oil Sands Development Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to integrative adaptive management of brownfields on Alberta's oil sands development sites is presented. In particular, the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is utilized to understand underlying development conflicts among stakeholders, which arise due to competing economic, environmental and societal objectives. The conflict model provides a formalized hypothesis-testing platform for determining responsible policies, which are those

Michele Heng; Keith W. Hipel; Liping Fang

2009-01-01

21

The Valuation of the Alberta Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta oil sands reserves represent a very valuable energy resource for Canadians. In 2007, Statistics Canada valued the oil sands at $342.1 billion, or 5 per cent Canada's total tangible wealth of $6.9 trillion. Given the oil sands' importance, it is essential to value them appropriately. In this report, we critically review the methods used by Statistics Canada in

Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault; Alexander Murray; Sharon Qiao

2008-01-01

22

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-05-01

23

Projects to expand fuel sources in western states. Survey of planned or proposed coal oil shale, tar sand, uranium, and geothermal supply expansion projects, and related infrastructure, in states west of the Mississippi River (as of May 1976)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A listing is made of fuels-related projects that are presently under construction, planned, or proposed by various companies and organizations in the Western United States. The future facilities covered fall into the following categories: coal mines and expansions to existing mines, electric powerplants and waste-to-fuel conversion plants, oil shale projects, tar sands projects, potential geothermal facilities, coal slurry pipelines, railroads

J. S. Corsentino

1976-01-01

24

Syncrude-oil from Alberta's tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic crude oil can be produced from bitumen contained in oil sands such as those located in Alberta, Canada. The most recent plant to come on stream, that of Syncrude Canada Ltd., mines the oil sand by open pit methods, recovers the bitumen using the hot water flotation process, and produces synthetic crude from bitumen by coking and hydrotreating. The

1980-01-01

25

Adding Value to Alberta's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly expanding oil sands industry and a dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry have stimulated interest in evaluating bitumen for producing a broad slate of refined products, including petrochemicals. Two industry\\/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining, and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petro- chemicals.

S. Laureshen; P. D. CLARK; M. P. DU PLESSIS

2006-01-01

26

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into

Thomas

1982-01-01

27

Correlation between refractive indices and other fuel-related physical/chemical properties of pyrolysis liquids derived from coal, oil shale, and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In the literature, characterization techniques based upon the liquid's refractive index are used with petroleum distillates to predict fuel-related properties; however, essentially nothing has been reported on the application of this technique to pyrolysis liquids. Measurements of the refractive indices of the pyrolysis liquids derived from various feedstocks (coal, oil shale, and tar sand) were made and appear to correlate well with the liquids' physical and chemical properties. The refractive indices of the pyrolysis liquids show good correlations with liquid density (correlation coefficient of 0.98), carbon and proton aromaticities (correlation coefficients of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively), and liquid carbon residue (i.e., correlation coefficient of 0.88 with the Conradson carbon residue). The above and other correlations were developed using data from at least 7 to as many as 35 discrete samples. These correlations have been used to develop empirical models. These findings demonstrate the potential of using the liquid's refractive index as a rapid technique to characterize the fuel-related properties of fossil fuel liquids generated by pyrolysis (before they are hydrogenated).

Khan, M.R. (Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))

1988-01-01

28

Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar sands at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.

Chastko, Paul Anthony

29

Gasification of oil sand coke: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled. The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter,

Edward Furimsky

1998-01-01

30

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

SciTech Connect

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

Thomas, D.D.

1982-08-31

31

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

32

Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to \\

Paul Anthony Chastko

2002-01-01

33

Environmental impact of Alberta oil sand development  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Esso Resources Canada Ltd.'s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for its Cold Lake, Alberta, oil sands project, environmental control measures will include the clustering of wells to reduce land surface disturbances; a pipeline to the North Saskatchewan River, rather than to a recreational lake, for water supplies; the use of recycling technology to reduce total water requirements by one-half;

1980-01-01

34

Hydrocarbon cyclones in hydrophilic oil sand environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon cyclone is capable of achieving a ternary split in a range of froth treatment processes in oil sand mining and extraction. A ternary split is the maximization of water and fines rejection, while producing a high hydrocarbon recovery to the overflow and a coarse rejection to underflow that approaches 100%. The hydrocarbon cyclone takes advantage of the water-wet

D. N. Madge; J. Romero; W. L. Strand

2004-01-01

35

Alberta ERCB lists active oil sands projects  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board listed all active commercial and experimental oil sands projects as of December, 1986, as shown in the accompanying table. The recovery method and the name of the field and operator of the project are given for both commercial and experimental projects in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River deposits.

Not Available

1987-03-01

36

Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program of the Governments of Canada and Alberta aims to establish baseline data on aquatic and terrestrial fauna, meteorology, and air and water quality. Air research topics include plume dispersion, chemical constitution and transformation within plumes, and the deposition of pollutants. Land system research covers subjects such as the effects of airborne emissions, soil

W. R. Macdonald; H. S. Sandhu; J. W. Bottenheim; B. Munson

1980-01-01

37

Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 109m3 of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study

Richard J. Kavanagh; B. Kent Burnison; Richard A. Frank; Keith R. Solomon; Glen Van Der Kraak

2009-01-01

38

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-09-01

39

Pyrolysis of Arroyo Grande tar sand and tar sand/oil mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrolysis experiments have been performed on Arroyo Grande tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and SAE 50 oil. Isothermal and nonisothermal tests were performed on a Du Pont model 950 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and larger scale isothermal experime...

T. F. Turner B. E. Thomas L. G. Nickerson

1989-01-01

40

Process of microbial extraction of hydrocarbons from oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the separation of hydrocarbon residues from oil and tar sands by microbiological activity. Hydrocarbon residues are released from the sands by contacting with a suspension of oxidase-synthesizing, hydrocarbonmetabolizing microorganisms.

I. Rabinovitch; H. E. Worne

1982-01-01

41

Geostatistical Modeling of McMurray Oil Sands Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The McMurray formation in the Athabasca oil sands deposits of Northern Alberta is part of the world's second largest proven crude oil reserves. The formation is characterized by stratigraphic layers that correspond to three different depositional environments: Marine, Estuarine and Fluvial facies. Resource estimation for oil sands has traditionally relied on polygonal and inverse distance schemes. These techniques are simple

Oy Leuangthong; Emmanuel Schnetzler; Clayton V. Deutsch

42

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

1993-08-01

43

The AOSTRA role in developing energy from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the role of the crown corporation AOSTRA (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority) in developing energy from the oil sands located in the northern section of Alberta. The objective of the Authority is to develop economically and environmentally acceptable technology through collaborative action by industry, university and government. This major objective is then subdivided into two

R. D. Humphreys

1979-01-01

44

Oil agglomeration of oxidized coal  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface oxidation on the oil agglomeration characteristics of coal has not been well documented, although it is known that lower rank, hydrophilic coals are more difficult to agglomerate than higher rank, hydrophobic coals. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the effect of surface oxidation, the present investigation was undertaken. Upper Freeport bituminous coal from Pennsylvania was selected for the study because it is normally hydrophobic and readily agglomerated. A surface oxidation treatment was applied to this coal to see how it would affect the agglomeration characteristics of the material. In determining these characteristics, samples of oxidized and unoxidized coal fines were suspended in water and agglomerated with pure aliphatic hydrocarbons. Both the pH of the suspension and amount of added oil were varied, and in some cases various surfactants were added to the suspension. The electrokinetic properties of the coal particles and oil droplets were also determined to gain further insight. 12 refs., 10 figs.

Sadowski, Z.; Venkatadri, R.; Druding, J.M.; Markuszewski, R.; Wheelock, T.D.

1986-01-01

45

Coal bed methane potential of the Sand Wash Basin, Green River coal region, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sand Wash Basin covers most of the Colorado portion of the Green River coal region. Significant coal beds are found in four Cretaceous formations in the basin: the Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group, the Lance Formation, and the Fort Union Formation. Individual coal beds can reach thicknesses of 36 ft in the Mesaverde, 13 ft

D. L. Boreck; C. M. Tremain; L. Sitowitz; T. D. Lorenson

1981-01-01

46

Structural investigations of Alberta oil sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

The class composition of Alberta oil sand and carbonate bitumen lies in a range of 17-26% for the saturate fraction, 18-32% for the aromatic, 44-48% for the resin and 17-21% for the asphaltene fraction. The saturate fraction is nearly devoid of eta-alkenes. However, as will be shown below, the aromatic and asphaltene fractions are quite rich in chemically bound, long-chain-alkanes, attesting to the importance of eta-alkenes in the original precursor oil. The free eta-alkenes were clearly removed from the oil by microbial degradation which left the bound alkyl moieties of the asphaltene and high molecular weight aromatic fractions relatively unchanged. The saturate fraction consists mainly of cyclic isoprenoids having 1-6 fused rings and smaller amounts of acyclic isoprenoids, and is rich in biological markers including mono-, di-, and tricyclic terpenoid hydrocarbons with isoprenoid side chains, hopanes, steranes, phytane, pristane, alkyl adamantanes, etc. A GC/MS trace of the molecular sieve 13X adduction-enriched markers is shown. The aromatic fraction consists of mono-, di-, triaromatic structures, their alkyl derivatives, mainly aromatized analogs of the biomarkers encountered in the saturate fraction, along with eta-alkyl thiophenes, eta-alkyl benzo- and di-benzothiophenes, alkyl fluorenes and polyaromatic structures, etc. Examples of Gc/MS graces showing the distribution of aromatized naphthenic biomarkers are given.

Strausz, O.P. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1988-06-01

47

Hardfacing fights wear in oil sands operation  

SciTech Connect

Wear attack is responsible for high production losses and over $40 million per year in equipment repairs and replacement costs at Syncrude`s synthetic crude oil plant near Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta. Most of this damage is caused by the fine quartz particle constituents which predominate in oil sands. It occurs in a multiplicity of forms which can be classified into three primary mechanisms: Sliding abrasive wear and sporadic impact, which affects mainly mining equipment; Slurry abrasion and erosion, which occur in bitumen extraction, separation plants, and in tailings lines; and High-temperature erosion, which is often augmented by corrosion in bitumen upgrading operations. Process streams in this area also contain fine coke particles and catalyst debris. The paper gives an overview of Syncrude`s operations in mining, extraction, and upgrading, then describes the following: wear materials and protection systems, surface engineering systems, weld deposited hardfacing, benefits, surface modification system experience, thermal spray coating experience, disk centrifuge bowls, investigation of plasma arc spraying, and combating pump erosion.

Llewellyn, R.; Tuite, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-03-01

48

Great Canadian Oil Sands experience in the commercial processing of Athabasca Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is given of the history of the Great Canadian Oil Sands (G.C.O.S.) project to recover 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil from the Athabasca Tar Sands by open pit mining, hot water extraction, coking, and hydrorefining. This paper then discusses the startup and initial operation of the G.C.O.S. plant. Emphasis is directed toward actual vs. design performance

G. F. Andrews; H. M. Lewis; E. W. Dobson

1968-01-01

49

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01

50

Hydroprocessing catalysts for heavy oil and coal  

SciTech Connect

Hydroprocessing catalysts, as described in over 230 processes covered in this book, are hydrogenation catalysts used in the upgrading of heavy crudes and coal to products expected to be in great demand as the world's primary oil supplies gradually dwindle. The techniques employed in hydroprocessing result in the removal of contaminants, the transformation of lower grade materials such as heavy crudes to valuable fuels, or the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous solids into gaseous or liquid fuel products. All of these techniques are, of course, carried out in the presence of hydrogen. Some of the brightest energy prospects for the future lie in heavy oil reservoirs and coal reserves. Heavy oils, defined in this book as having gravities of < 20/sup 0/API, are crudes so thick that they are not readily extracted from their reservoirs. However, processing of these crudes is of great importance, because the US resource alone is enormous. The main types of processing catalysts covered in the book are hydrorefining catalysts plus some combinations of the two. Catalysts for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials to gaseous or liquid fuels are also covered. The primary starting material for these conversions is coal, but wood, lignin, oil shale, tar sands, and peat are other possibilities. The final chapter describes the preparation of various catalyst support systems.

Satriana, M.J. (ed.)

1982-01-01

51

Oil sands tailings sludge solidification and bitumen recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is a forerunner in the development of oil sands mining and processing technology. At present two commercial plants, both of them surface mining operations are producing approximately 200,000 of syncrude per day. At both of these plants a hot water separation process is used.The vast amounts of tailings, consisting of bitumen, sand, fines and water, generated from the hot

B. D. Prasad Head

1988-01-01

52

Effects of biodegradation upon porphyrin biomarkers in Upper Mississippian tar sands and related oils, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Organic molecules present in oils which show a structural relationship to their biological precursors are referred to as biomarkers. These compounds are becoming widely used in oil exploration for making oil-oil, oil-source rock correlations and undertaking maturation and migration studies in basin analysis. Treibs first discovered the presence of porphyrins in oils, shales, and coals over 50 years ago. Porphyrins are predominantly derived from chlorophyll precursors present in plants and bacteria. Studies of changes in porphyrin distributions with increasing maturation due to the effects of increased time of burial and temperature have been performed. However, little is known as to how their distributions change with migration, biodegradation, or water washing of oils. In the present study, 16 tar sand samples were extracted from drill core at depths ranging from 16 to 256 ft obtained from a tar sand quarry in the Ardmore basin, Carter County, Oklahoma. Surrounding oil samples and possible source rocks have also been analyzed to determine the source of the oil in the tar sands. The effects of biodegradation on the porphyrin distributions can be discerned from the effects of migration and maturation by comparing other biomarker distributions within the sands, related oils, and suspected source rocks. Biodegradation of the tar sand samples can be observed within the alkane and other biomarker distributions. The relative effects of biodegradation on biomarkers such as alkanes, steranes, and terpanes have been well documented. By using this information, it is possible to determine the extent of biodegradation or water washing necessary to alter the porphyrin distributions.

Michael, G.E.

1987-05-01

53

Tar sand pyrolysis with product oil recycling: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Eight tests were conducted using Asphalt Ridge tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on oil yield and product distribution and to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics. A 48-hour test was conducted to measure the operating time required to reach a steady state with respect to the composition of product gas and the elemental compositions of light product oil and heavy recycle oil. A 30-hour test was conducted using Sunnyside tar sand to obtain preliminary data. The product oil samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of hydrocarbon types and to relate this distribution to that typical of various fuel types. No major operational difficulties were experienced with the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor system. Experimental results obtained from the Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands indicate that oil yields from the ROPE/copyright/ process could be greater than yields from conventional pyrolysis processes. 3 refs., 10 figs., 41 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Guffey, F.D.; Romanowski, L.J.

1987-09-01

54

Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in

Staats

1980-01-01

55

Shale oil low, tar sand high in diesel emissions  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported on the performance testing of diesel fuels derived from shale oil and from tar sands. The study compared combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions, and particulate emissions and their mutagenic activity. Shale-oil-derived diesel fuel had lower nitrogen oxide emissions than either the tar sand fuel or the control diesel fuel and also the lowest mutagenic activity. 2 figures.

Not Available

1987-03-01

56

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 2 (Conclusion). Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the large reserves of W. Canadian tar sands deposits, 35 billion bbl of oil can be recovered economically by open pit mining, dredging, hot water extraction, and fuel substitution. On heavy oil reserves in Canada, application of economically proven tertiary recovery could permit the production of 2.5 billion bbl of oil from the Lloydminster Fields and 3.7 billion

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. Wennekers

1979-01-01

57

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

58

Process of organic material extraction from bituminous sands or oil bearing sands  

SciTech Connect

A cold water diluent process for recovering oil from bituminous or conventional oil sands thereafter referred to as oil sands is described including the steps of: (a) conditioning the optionally crushed oil sand, by diluent slurrying in a rotating drum; (b) introducing the slurry into the lower part of one or successively two helical, classifier type, separators, to be scrubbed in counter-current with diluent, fed into the upper part of the separator(s) by spraying; (c) withdrawing from the lower part of the first helical separator a rich oil-diluent product; (d) refining by a conventional method, this low viscosity oil-diluent product; (e) feeding the sand, withdrawn in the upper part of the second helical separator, into a separation column to settle; (f) introducing, into the column, diluent, under the diluent-water media interface and a mixture of slightly alkaline, not dispersing clay, recycle and fresh water, and process control additives; (g) withdrawing from the column: a diluent stream with little oil in the upper part; an aqueous impurified middling, in the opposite part of diluent and water inlets and between them; a sand settled in the bottom; (h) recycling the diluent with little oil to the first scrubbing stage; (i) treating the aqueous medium by conventional method to obtain: remanent oil and diluent, if any; clarified water to recycling; a fine waste; (j) disposing, or, if necessary, finally cleaning the sand by scrubbing in a helical, classifier type, separator, in counter-current with water and with process control additives.

Stoian, A.; Panaitescu, N.; Tuliu, M.

1987-10-27

59

Impacts of Crude Oil Production from Alberta Oil Sands on the Canadian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada has the largest hydrocarbon resource potential after Saudi Arabia in the world. Most of the proven reserves of crude bitumen (? 28 billion cubic meters) are located in Alberta in the form of oil sands. At present, oil sands accounts for about 40% of the total Canadian crude oil production. This share is expected to exceed 70% by 2015.

G. R. Timilsina; J. P. Prince; D. Czamanski; N. LeBlanc

60

Mycorrhizal inoculum potentials of pure reclamation materials and revegetated tailing sands from the Canadian oil sand industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in the management of oil sand tailings used by the Canadian oil sand industry have resulted in the production of composite tailing sands (CT): a new challenging material for reclamation work. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. ×Populus nigra L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) plants were used in an 8-week

G. Bois; Y. Piché; M. Y. P. Fung; D. P. Khasa

2005-01-01

61

Tar sands and supergiant oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen very large ''tar'' deposits are estimated to contain about 2,100 billion bbl of oil in place. This is nearly as much heavy oil as the world's total discovered recoverable oil reserves. The seven largest ''tar'' deposits of the world contain 98% of the world's heavy oil; that is, these seven heavy-oil deposits contain about as much oil in place

Demaison

1977-01-01

62

Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast amount of oil sands exists in the Athabasca area, Alberta, Canada. These oil sands consist of bitumen (extra-heavy oil) and unconsolidated sand distributed from surface to a depth of 750 meters. Including conventional crude oil, the total number of proved remaining oil reserves in Canada ranks second place in the world after Saudi Arabia. For the production of

A. Takahashi; T. Nakayama; K. Kashihara; L. Skinner; A. Kato

2008-01-01

63

Tar sand pyrolysis with product oil recycling: Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight tests were conducted using Asphalt Ridge tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on oil yield and product distribution and to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics. A 48-hour test was conducted to measure the operating time required to reach a steady state with respect to the composition of product gas

C. Y. Cha; F. D. Guffey; L. J. Romanowski

1987-01-01

64

Alternative to oil: burning coal with gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph is an interdisciplinary assessment, funded in part by the American Gas Association, of the economic and environmental benefits of burning coal and natural gas mixtures in boilers originally designed for oil. It reviews US coal, natural gas, and unconventional gas sources; examines the physical basis for burning gas-coal in place of oil; analyzes the conversion costs of oil

A. E. S. Green; J. R. Jr Jones; M. J. Ellerbrock; J. M. Schwartz; S. J. Kuntz; B. Zeiler

1981-01-01

65

Low-sulfur fuel oil from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-S residual fuel oil is produced by hydroconversion of coal in an ebullated bed system without downstream processing and with a minimum amount of H, producing a fuel of high calorific value and low S content. Pulverized coal is mixed with recycle slurry oil to form a coal-oil slurry. This slurry is passed through a heater into the lower part

H. H. Stotler; M. Calderon; C. A. Johnson

1971-01-01

66

Flocculation of lime-treated oil sands tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole oil sands tailings resulting from water-based bitumen extraction processes can be co-flocculated, after treatment with slaked lime, with low dosages of a high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide. The resulting composite sand-clay particles settle and dewater rapidly to a stackable product that can be hand-squeezed to 40–83 wt% solids. The final solids content depends on the initial bitumen extraction process

H. A. Hamza; D. J. Stanonik; Michael A. Kessick

1996-01-01

67

Heavy oil components sorbed onto clay minerals in Canadian oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In siliciclastic reservoir rocks the surface-active clay minerals are presumed to be predominantly responsible for the sorption of polar oil components. In order to achieve a better insight into the nature of the oil components sorbed onto clay minerals, unconsolidated Canadian Oil Sands (Cold Lake, Athabasca) were exhaustively extracted with dichloromethane to remove the free oil. The clay minerals (grain

A. Fendel; K. Schwochau

1988-01-01

68

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultrafine coal grinding. The experimental silica is as follows: (1) design and fabrication of attrition cell; (2) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (3) batch grinding tests; (4) continuous grinding test; and (5) fracture mechanics.

Mehta, R.K.

1991-12-02

69

Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.  

PubMed

Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

2008-01-01

70

Fracturing yields oil from poorly consolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

The technique of fracturing poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs and filling them with a thick multilayer of proppant has proven successful since sustained production has been obtained from zones previously not producible. Since there was no significant difference in results when fluids of varying polymer concentrations were used, the least expensive fluid was applied. The 70/140 mesh sand used as a fluid loss additive apparently was effective and possibly less damaging than silica flour. Larger sized sand pumped at the end of treatments did not have a discernible effect on production rate, but wells treated with Clay Acid apparently produced at higher rates than wells not treated. The stimulation method described for poorly consolidated, sandstone reservoirs may be expected to be effective in areas other than the Cook Inlet of Alaska, i.e., in areas where conventional fracturing in relatively soft formations has not been successful.

Lambert, S.A.; Dolan, R.T.; Gallus, J.P.

1984-05-01

71

Method for treating oil sands extraction plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings from an oil sands hot water process extraction plant are mixed with hydrolyzed starch flocculant and transferred to a settling pond. After a residence period on the order of one year, sludge from the lower region of the settling pond is withdrawn, mixed with a hydrolyzed starch dewatering agent and transferred to a collecting pond. After a residence period

Yong

1984-01-01

72

Water quality in Alberta oil sands area noted  

SciTech Connect

A 1985 report, from Alberta Environment, summarizes water quality constituents in the Athabasca River Drainage study area and examines relationships between these constituents and changes in land formation, hydrology, and development. Regional surface water quality, drainage systems, surface water hydrology, interaction with ground water, impacts of oil sands development on hydrology, and the Athabasca River mainstream are discussed.

Not Available

1986-09-01

73

Colloidal Clay Gelation: Relevance to Current Oil Sands Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafines are predominantly delaminated colloidal clays with dimensions <0.3 ?m that exist naturally in oil sands and are released during conditioning of surface-mined ores. Critical concentrations of these ultrafines and the cations present in process water are capable of forming flocculated structures with a very high water holding capacity. During primary separation of bitumen these ultrafines are detrimental to recovery

P. H. J. Mercier; S. Ng; K. Moran; B. D. Sparks; L. S. Kotlyar; J. Kung; J. Woods; B. Patarachao; T. McCracken

2012-01-01

74

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16

75

Experimental degradation of oil in permeable sand from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation rates of light and heavy oil in permeable carbonate sands from the Gulf of Aqaba were investigated to evaluate the ability of sediments to degrade oil compounds. Silicate sands that are less permeable and different properties from carbonate sands were used for comparison. Estimates of oil degradation rates were based on oxygen consumption rates, calculated by incubating natural carbonate

Mohammad Rasheed; Tariq Al Najjar; Mohamad G. Al-Masri; Saima Mian

2011-01-01

76

The effects of oil sands wetlands on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of crude oil from oil sand produces solid (sand) and liquid (water with suspended fine particles) tailings materials, called oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). These waste materials are stored on the mine site due to a “zero discharge” policy and must be reclaimed when operations end. The liquid tailings materials are known to contain naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic

Blair D. Hersikorn; Jan J. C. Ciborowski; Judit E. G. Smits

2010-01-01

77

Nature and fate of oil sands fine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of clay suspensions produced during oil production front oil sands are described. With a composition of approximately 70 wt% water (with some unrecovered bitumen) and 30 wt% solids (>90% less than 44 {mu}m in size), these clay suspensions consolidate very slowly. Clay aggregate or floc morphology has been shown to be a function of the water chemistry and can be manipulated to produce a tailings suspension that is easier to consolidate and dewater. Commercial oil sands processing has been going on in northeastern Alberta since 1967, and in that time approximately 250 million m of this difficult to dewater clay suspension has been produced. The reclamation options for this material (mature fine tailings) on a commercial scale are also outlined. 84 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Mikula, R.J.; Kasperski, K.L. [Western Research Centre, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Burns, R.D. [Suncor Oil Sands Group, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M.D. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

78

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part III. Three grass species and their response to Omega 9 and to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands and underground coal gasification. [Basin wildrye; western wheatgrass; alkali sacaton  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. The hypothesis tested was, there is a difference between produced waters diluted by ground water and those where dilution is non-existent and their effect on plant growth. Results indicated that retort water diluted by ground water has a less toxic effect on plant species tested.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-12-01

79

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part II. Five grass plant species and their response to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; alkaligrass  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10 week growth period. Hypotheses tested were: (a) there is a difference between in situ produced waters, and (b) plant species respond differently to various retort waters. Results indicated that the stated hypotheses were true.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-11-01

80

Global Warming Damages and Canada's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social net benefit of energy investments differs from private profitability by the value of environmental damages, among other things. Estimates of damages associated with greenhouse gas emissions are obtained from the literature, ranging from $15 to $64 (C$ 2004) per tonne of carbon. These values are shown to be equivalent to $2 to $8 per barrel of crude oil

Leslie Shiell; Suzanne Loney

2007-01-01

81

Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultraline coal grinding. The project has been divided into four subgroups for bookkeeping purposes and possible ease of execution. Some of the tasks would be executed simultaneously as overlapping is inevitable. The grouping is as follows: (1) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (2) batch grinding tests; (3) continuous grinding tests; and, (4) fracture mechanics. The hardgrove indices for the four coals employed in this work have finally been determined by the personnel at the R and D Center of Drummond Coal Company using 14 [times] 28 mesh feed size materials. The values obtained for the respective coals are given in Table 1.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1992-01-01

82

Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.  

PubMed

The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR. PMID:21853326

Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

2011-08-19

83

Rotative grizzly for oil sand separation  

SciTech Connect

A grizzly assembly is described for particle size reduction of agglomerated mineral materials consisting of a mined tar sands mixture composed of particulate solids and viscous liquid hydrocarbon bitumen with or without water comprising: (a) A rotatable grizzly framework having an entrance at one end and an exit at the opposite end consisting of a series of equidistantly spaced axial baffles. Each is interconnected to an adjacent baffle by a series of parallel bars which bars are secured at either end thereof to the adjacent baffles and which are spaced to create apertures between the bars. The baffles extend inwardly toward the framework axis a greater distance than do the parallel space bars, (b) support means for rotatably holding the framework in a near horizontal position such that the framework axis slants downwardly from the entrance end to the exit end, (c) drive means to rotate the framework in the support means, (d) receiving means below the grizzly framework to receive mineral particles falling through the framework apertures, (e) cover means surrounding the grizzly framework, and (f) means to introduce heat into the interior of the grizzly framework.

Kruyer, J.

1987-01-13

84

Computing sand production under foamy oil flow in porous media via least-squares finite elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiny gas bubbles together with sand grains are produced whenever a pressure drawdown is induced in an oil well. The resulting foamy oil flow and sand production seem to enhance the production of oil under certain conditions and environments such as the heavy oil solution gas drive reservoirs in Western Canada and Venezuela. The purpose of this paper is to

Y. Liu; R. G. Wan

2006-01-01

85

Quantitative evaluation of lower Cretaceous Mannville Group as source rock for Alberta's oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western Canada sedimentary basin hosts about 12 billion bbl of conventional oil in Devonian to Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Cretaceous oil sands contain an additional 1.3 trillion bbl in place. The oil sands represent the biodegraded remnants of supergiant conventional oil deposits, the source for which has been thought to be mature rocks of the equivalent-age Mannville Group. This work

S. O. Moshier; D. W. Waples

1985-01-01

86

Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

1991-12-31

87

Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

1991-01-01

88

The Use of Stable Isotopes (C\\/C and N\\/N) to Trace Exposure to Oil Sands Processed Material in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various oil sands reclamation strategies incorporate oil sands processed material (OSPM) such as mature fine tailings (MFT), engineered tailings (consolidated tailings, CT), and tailings pond water (TPW) into reclamation components that need to develop into viable aquatic ecosystems. The OSPM will contain elevated salinity and organics such as naphthenic acids (NA) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) that can be chronically

A. J. Farwell; V. Nero; K. Ganshorn; C. Leonhardt; J. Ciborowski; M. MacKinnon; D. G. Dixon

2009-01-01

89

Alternative to oil: burning coal with gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses the economic and environmental benefits of burning coal and natural gas mixtures in boilers originally designed for oil. A grant by the American Gas Association (AGA) to the Interdisciplinary Center for Aeronomy and Atmospheric Sciences (ICAAS) to study economic and related technical aspects of converting Florida's electric utility oil boilers to gas-coal burning. An abstract of this

1981-01-01

90

Coal-oil mixture combustion. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year the main thrust of the work was towards examining specific aspects of the production, storage, and use of coal-oil mixtures (COMs) and establishing some areas in which more research is needed. The areas of stability (including the role of additives), atomization and combustion as they relate to coal-oil mixtures (COMs) were considered. The major conclusions are summarized below.

C. R. Krishna; T. A. Butcher; L. D. Spaulding

1979-01-01

91

Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF=66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF=64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF=52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72h-IC 50%<1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72h-IC 50%>37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50%=8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae. PMID:22387878

Debenest, T; Turcotte, P; Gagné, F; Gagnon, C; Blaise, C

2012-02-04

92

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26

93

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26

94

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

95

Methods of enhancing fluid communication in oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Effective steamflooding of oil sands requires fluid communication between injectors and producers. Such a communication path can be developed through a naturally occurring zone of low bitumen saturation. If a water sand with little or no bitumen saturation is encountered, high injectivity can be achieved and a steamflood can be carried out immediately. With zones having mobile water and some bitumen as well, special enhancement processes are required to prevent tar banking when steam is injected which is common in steam drive processes where cold bitumen is displaced ahead of a steam front. One way to prevent tar banking is to heat the mobility zones slowly with hot water so that hot bitumen will be displaced when steam drive is initiated. Depending upon the nature of the mobility zones, the efficiency of the enhancement process might be improved by the use of solvents such as naphtha or synthetic crudes.

Tam, E.S.; Edmunds, N.R.; Redford, D.A.

1984-04-01

96

Isolation and characterization of saturates from tar sand bitumens and thermally produced oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A desorptive Soxhlet extraction technique and a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure were used to isolate saturates from tar sand bitumens and produced oils. The oils had been thermally recovered by combustion and hot-gas injection from samples of the Asphalt Ridge and the Tar Sand Triangle deposits in Utah. The distributions of the saturates in the produced oils and in the

1986-01-01

97

Solvent extraction of oil shale or tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Oil shales or tar sands are extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula: R(N)-M(=O)(-R1)-N(-R2)-R3 where M is a carbon, sulfur or phosphorus atom, R/sup 2/ and R/sup 3/ are each a hydrogen atom or a lowe alkyl group, R and R/sup 1/ are each a lower alkyl group, another -N(-R2)-R3 group, a monocyclic arom group, or R/sup 1/ can be another -N(-R3)-M(=O)(-R1)-R(N) group or R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/ together can represent the atoms necessary to close a heterocyclic ring, and n=1 where M=phosphorus and is otherwise 0, to substantially remove the non-fixed carbon content of the oil shale or tar sands, leaving a solid residue of fixed carbon, ash minerals, and non-extractable matter.

Stiller, A.H.; Hammack, R.W.; Sears, J.T.

1983-08-02

98

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1993-07-01

99

Demetallation of waste oil with coal  

SciTech Connect

The breakdown of coal into liquid fuels has been researched extensively in order to improve upon the economics of the process. To produce liquid fuels from hydrogen deficient coal, hydrogen must be added. Weisz noted that for the most hydrogen deficient coals, it would be necessary to add 8 % by weight hydrogen to produce quality hydrocarbons. One way to decrease the cost of coal liquefaction would be to minimize the need for expensive hydrogen. By coprocessing coal with heavy petroleum resids, the resid may act as a hydrogen donor for the coal diminishing the need for additional costly hydrogen gas. In coprocessing resids with coal it has also been shown that some of the nickel and vanadium that are naturally abundant in the resid reside in the coal char and ash after coprocessing. This paper presents results of coprocessing of Illinois coal and demineralized Illinois coal with waste oils in order to determine the effect of the inorganic portion of the coal on the demetallization of automotive waste oil.

Orr, E.C.; Shao, Lian; Eyring, E.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake, City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

100

Nuclear Technology and Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy from the nuclear reactor would replace the energy supplied by natural gas, which is currently burned at these facilities. There are a number of concerns surrounding the

A. E. FINAN; K. MIU; A. C. KADAK

2006-01-01

101

Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional oil production and oil sands.  

PubMed

Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land disturbed by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energy yield of oil production is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher, (0.33-2.6, 0.61-1.2, and 2.2 5.1 PJ/ha) for conventional oil production, oil sands surface mining, and in situ production, respectively). We found that land use contributes small portions of GHGs to life cycle emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production ( <0.4% or < 0.4 gCO?e/MJ crude refinery feedstock) and small to modest portions for Alberta conventional oil (0.1-4% or 0.1-3.4 gCO?e/MJ) and surface mining of oil sands (0.9-11% or 0.8-10.2 gCO?e/MJ).Our estimates are based on assumptions aggregated over large spatial and temporal scales and assuming 100% reclamation. Values on finer spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to policy targets need to account for site-specific information, the baseline natural and anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:20949948

Yeh, Sonia; Jordaan, Sarah M; Brandt, Adam R; Turetsky, Merritt R; Spatari, Sabrina; Keith, David W

2010-11-15

102

Retention behavior of dilute polymers in oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Adequate mobility control between fluid banks is a pertinent factor in the successful application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes. Favorable mobilities can be obtained by increasing the viscosity or reducing the permeability to the displacing fluid phase. Polyacrylamide and oio-polymers have proved to be useful for these purposes. These polymers increase the water viscosity substantially at low concentrations. The resulting reduced mobility of the displacing phase suppresses the fingering phenomenon and improves piston-like displacement. However, the structural complexity of these polymers coupled with the complexity of the flow channels in the porous medium cause part of these polymers to be retained in the reservoir as the displacing fluid from advances, thereby causing a reduction in the concentration of the polymer solution and consequently a loss of mobility control. In addition to the mechanical filtering, adsorption on the grain surfaces reduce the polymer concentration in the displacing fluid. Behavior of polyacrylamide polymers has been studied extensively. Susceptibility of these polymers to salinity, pH, shear, temperature, etc., is well documented. Mechanical entrapment, retention, degradation and adsorption behavior on porous media, including fired Berea sandstone, bead packs and Ottawa sand have been reported. The present study investigates the adsorption and trapping of polymers in flow experiments through unconsolidated oil field sands. Effects of particle size and mineral content have been studied. Effect of a surfactant slug on polymer-rock interaction is also reported. Corroborative studies have been conducted to study the pressure behavior and high tertiary oil recovery in surfactant dilute-polymer systems.

Kikani, J.; Somerton, W.H.

1988-05-01

103

Apparatus for manufacturing fluid coal-oil-water fuel mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for manufacturing a coal-oil-water fuel mixture comprising a grinder for grinding coal to a relatively fine particle size, a mixer for controllably mixing the coal particle with oil, water and a high molecular weight organic mixture. These devices may be used in combination with coal cleaning apparatus for removal of ash and impurities from the coal.

Poetschke

1983-01-01

104

Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

King, S.B.

1989-12-01

105

Effect of Salt on the Flocculation Behavior of Nano Particles in Oil Sands Fine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, two commercial plants, operating in the Athabasca region of Alberta, produce approximately 20 percent of Canada's petroleum requirements from oil sands. Surface mined oil sand is treated in a water based separation process that yields large volumes of clay tailings with poor settling and compaction characteristics. Clay particles, suspended in the pond water, interact with salts, dissolved from the

L. S. Kotylar; B. D. SPARKS; R. SCHUTFE

1996-01-01

106

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not used commercially, a nonaqueous extraction process is of great interest to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands due to its potential advantages, such as high bitumen recovery even from low grade oil sand ores and the elimination of slow settling, sludge tailings ponds with stable suspensions. While clay minerals have been characterized in water-based bitumen extraction from

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Douglas G. Ivey; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell

107

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

108

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

109

Can coal-oil mixtures make it as industrial fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of coal-oil fuels, generally in the ratio of approximately four parts coal to six parts oil, is discussed with attention to preparation, combustion, and economics. Mixtures of finely ground coal suspended in fuel oil have been used for fuel as early as 1917. Some present benefits include low cost (the mixture costs less than oil), utilization of existing

J. W. Eberle; R. H. Hickman

1978-01-01

110

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

111

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

112

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28

113

Effects of biodegradation upon porphyrin biomarkers in Upper Mississippian tar sands and related oils, southern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic molecules present in oils which show a structural relationship to their biological precursors are referred to as biomarkers. These compounds are becoming widely used in oil exploration for making oil-oil, oil-source rock correlations and undertaking maturation and migration studies in basin analysis. Treibs first discovered the presence of porphyrins in oils, shales, and coals over 50 years ago. Porphyrins

Gerald E. Michael

1987-01-01

114

Three-phase measurements of oil and gas trapping in sand packs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure the trapped saturations of oil and gas as a function of initial saturation in water-wet sand packs. We start with a water-saturated column and inject octane (oil), while water and oil are produced from the bottom. Once water production has ceased, air (gas) then enters from the top, allowing oil and gas to drain under gravity for different

Saleh K. Al Mansoori; Stefan Iglauer; Christopher H. Pentland; Martin J. Blunt

2009-01-01

115

Effect of an initial gas content on thermal EOR as applied to oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a number of physical model experiments on thermal EOR. Seven experiments were performed, three in which a ''dead'' heavy oil was used, and four in which the oil sand was saturated with methane. For oils without an initial gas content, coinjection of COâ with steam was capable of improving oil recovery over that obtained

T. W. J. Frauenfeld; R. K. Ridley; D. M. Nguyen

1988-01-01

116

The Canadian Oil Sands in the Context of the Global Energy Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Canadian Oil Sands, one of the world's largest and most challenging oil resources, have reached their potential to supply oil to world markets. This comes at a time of the peaking of conventional oil and an expansive growth in energy demand. The need to protect the environment, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will severely test Canada's ability

Eddy Isaacs

117

Coal quality in area of Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, southern Appalachian Mountains, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 coal beds of Pennsylvanian age crop out around Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These beds were deposited in barrier and fluvial environments. Few determinations of modern coal-quality data have been made for these coals, although they have been mined for more than 100 years. To evaluate their quality, 47 coal samples from

T. L. Crawford

1986-01-01

118

Nuclear Technology and Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy from the nuclear reactor would replace the energy supplied by natural gas, which is currently burned at these facilities. There are a number of concerns surrounding the continued use of natural gas, including carbon dioxide emissions and increasing gas prices. Three scenarios for the use of the reactor are analyzed:(1) using the reactor to produce only the steam needed for the SAGD process; (2) using the reactor to produce steam as well as electricity for the oil sands facility; and (3) using the reactor to produce steam, electricity, and hydrogen for upgrading the bitumen from the oil sands to syncrude, a material similar to conventional crude oil. Three reactor designs were down-selected from available options to meet the expected mission demands and siting requirements. These include the Canadian ACR- 700, Westinghouse's AP 600 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). The report shows that nuclear energy would be feasible, practical, and economical for use at an oil sands facility. Nuclear energy is two to three times cheaper than natural gas for each of the three scenarios analyzed. Also, by using nuclear energy instead of natural gas, a plant producing 100,000 barrels of bitumen per day would prevent up to 100 mega-tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year from being released into the atmosphere. (authors)

FINAN, A.E.; MIU, K.; KADAK, A.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-105 Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2006-07-01

119

Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to sand, a size fraction of what is commonly known as sediment (along with gravel, silt, and clay). An introductory section discusses the sedimentary aspects (grain size, rounding, and sorting), composition, and texture of sand. There is a virtual collection of sand specimens, sorted by location, region, or color. Each photo can be zoomed in or out and is accompanied by a brief description of the specimen. There is also a geographical index of specimens from the virtual collection which uses an interactive map to display them. An exercise is provided which uses specimens from the virtual collection to help students develop a connection between certain characteristics of sands and their environment of formation, information which can be applied to inferring the depositional environments of ancient sandstones. Other materials include a sand discovery kit, created to help teachers use sand in their classrooms, a 'Sands of the World' poster, and links to related websites. Some of these items must be purchased.

120

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

121

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

122

Proceedings of the oil shale and tar sand contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years the Oil Shale and Tar Sand Programs of the US DOE (Department of Energy) have shifted emphasis from a basic research approach to an applied research and development approach. The 38 papers and poster sessions presented here cover the following topics: oil shale processing (hydroretorting, pyrolysis, coking, cracking, and the ROPE process); tar sand processing (solvent extraction, pyrolysis, hydropyrolysis, ROPE process, and hot water processing); design of oil shale and tar sand processing plants; reaction kinetics and mathematical modeling of processes; spent shale utilization; economics; and chemical composition and analysis. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base. (CK)

Bartke, T.C. (ed.)

1990-04-01

123

Enhancing Oil Production by Helical Hydraulic Sand-Blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helical hydraulic sand-blasting slotting technology is a new development of the traditional hydraulic sand-blasting slotting technology. The original nozzle gun movement control system was replaced with a helical slid rail, and thus the application was extended to directional and horizontal wells. Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility abrasive water jet slotting sand prevention tubes. The effects of slotting

G. Li; J. Song; J. Niu; R. Tang; Z. Huang

2007-01-01

124

Experimental and modeling study of residual liquid recovery from spent sand in bitumen extraction processes from oil sands.  

PubMed

Disposing solid residue with high liquid content into the environment may impact the immediate ecosystem and its surroundings. In bitumen recovery process from oil sands, it is environmentally and economically desirable to effectively recover as much of the liquid trapped in the spent solids as possible, prior to releasing it into the environment. An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of capillary force to enhance liquid recovery by using a thin, semipermeable layer as the membrane. The results indicate that by employing a membrane at the outlet, and pressurizing the air above the sand bed, the average liquid saturation can be decreased by 50%; however, the maximum pressure applied is restricted by the physical characteristics of the membrane. A mathematical model is developed to predict the liquid saturation profile along the sand pack during transient and steady-state conditions, and results are validated against measured average saturation using two different sand types. Results suggest that more liquid can be recovered from the spent sand bed by increasing the height of the bed; however, the required time to achieve the maximum recovery is increased as well. This method can be applied to reduce the liquid content of spent sand from any process before it is disposed of, thereby reducing possible hazards which may affect the environment. PMID:23293943

Faradonbeh, Moosa Rabiei; Dong, Mingzhe; Harding, Thomas G; Abedi, Jalal

2013-01-28

125

Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil-bearing sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induced polarization model developed recently by Revil and Florsch to understand the complex conductivity of fully saturated granular materials has been extended to partial saturation conditions. It is an improvement over previous models like the Vinegar and Waxman model, which do not account explicitly for the effect of frequency. The Vinegar and Waxman model can be considered as a limiting case of the Revil and Florsch model in the limit where the distribution of relaxation times is very broad. The extended model is applied to the case of unconsolidated sands partially saturated with oil and water. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the influence of oil saturation, frequency, grain size, and conductivity of the pore water upon the complex resistivity response of oil-bearing sands. The low-frequency polarization (below 100 Hz) is dominated by the polarization of the Stern layer (the inner part of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the grains in contact with water). The phase exhibits a well-defined relaxation peak with a peak frequency that is dependent on the mean grain diameter as predicted by the model. Both the resistivity and the magnitude of the phase increase with the relative saturation of the oil. The imaginary (quadrature) component of the complex conductivity is observed to decrease with the oil saturation. All these observations are reproduced by the new model.

Schmutz, M.; Revil, A.; Vaudelet, P.; Batzle, M.; Viñao, P. Femenía; Werkema, D. D.

2010-10-01

126

Oil Sands and Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If constructed, the Keystone XL pipeline would transport crude oil (e.g., synthetic crude oil or diluted bitumen) derived from oil sands in Alberta, Canada to destinations in the United States. Because the pipeline crosses an international border, it requ...

J. L. Ramseur L. Luther N. T. Carter P. W. Parfomak R. K. Lattanzio

2013-01-01

127

Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

Soderberg, D.J.

1988-03-01

128

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-01-15

129

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power.

Rao, R.; McMain, Jr., A. T.

1981-05-01

130

Projects to Expand Fuel Sources in Western States. Survey of Planned or Proposed Coal, Oil Shale, Tar Sand, Uranium, and Geothermal Supply Expansion Projects, and Related Infrastructure, in States West of the Mississippi River (as of May 1976).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a listing of fuels-related projects that are presently under construction, planned, or proposed by various companies and organizations in the Western United States. The future facilities covered fall into the following categories: coal mine...

J. S. Corsentino

1976-01-01

131

Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia Physodes Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A microwave-assisted digestion technique followed by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analysis was used to measure concentrations of 43 elements in Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canad...

132

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Eighth quarterly report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The research efforts on the importance of a coal-sand attrition continued with work in four categories: Continuous grinding tests using steel media; fracture tests on coal samples compacted at different pressure; SEM-Image analysis of feed and ground product coal samples; zeta potential measurements of coal samples ground by different media, and flotation test of coal samples ground by different media. Results are described.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1993-08-26

133

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority: Ten years of progress  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) was established by the Government of Alberta in 1974 to promote research into the technological methods for the efficient and economic recovery and processing of bitumen and other products derived from oil sands and conventional heavy oils and for the recovery of crude oil through enhanced recovery methods. In its first 10 years of operation. AOSTRA, in cooperation with industry, has made a significant contribution to the technological base that now exists in Alberta. AOSTRA's involvement spans the complete range of oil sands and heavy oil research and development. AOSTRA's financial commitment to this work now exceeds $450 million. This paper highlights some of the more significant achievements of AOSTRA's first decade.

Turner, L.R.

1985-01-01

134

Combustion characteristics of droplets of coal\\/oil and coal\\/oil\\/water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of coal\\/oil mixtures in furnaces and boilers appears to be a viable short-to-medium range solution to partially alleviate the demand on petroleum supply with minimum combustor modifications. The present investigation first demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of the coal\\/oil mixture droplets depend intimately on the intensity of internal circulation. Rapid internal motion favors batch-distillation-type vaporization which causes the

C. K. Law; H. K. Law; C. H. Lee

1979-01-01

135

Study of pyrolysis kinetics of Alberta oil sand by thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of Alberta oil sand has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for\\u000a the study of oil sand pyrolysis characteristics. The TGA experiments were carried out at four different heating rates of 10,\\u000a 20, 30, 40 °C\\/min up to 900 °C to verify weight variation and reaction temperature. The activation energy of the thermal decomposition

Young Cheol Park; Jin-Young Paek; Dal-Hee Bae; Dowon Shun

2009-01-01

136

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

137

Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Characteristics of Oil Sands Using Ultrasound Irradiation for Shortening the Preheating Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are attractive as an energy resource. Bitumen, which is found in oil sands, has high viscosity, so that it does not flow. Most oil sands are underground and are developed with a method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Hot steam is injected underground to fluidize bitumen and promote its recovery. However, the preheating time is too long. One way of reducing running costs is by shortening the preheating time. Previous studies have found that bitumen can be extracted from oil sands efficiently by applying ultrasonic irradiation, but SAGD was not applied directly in these cases. Thus, the purpose of this study is to apply ultrasonic irradiation to SAGD, thereby shortening the preheating time of oil sands. As a model experiment for SAGD, heat transfer experiments in a sand layer made with Toyoura sand and silicone oil were conducted and the thermal effect with ultrasound was investigated.

Kamagata, Shingo; Kawamura, Youhei; Okawa, Hirokazu; Mizutani, Koichi

2012-07-01

138

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Quarterly report, May 31, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultraline coal grinding. The project has been divided into four subgroups for bookkeeping purposes and possible ease of execution. Some of the tasks would be executed simultaneously as overlapping is inevitable. The grouping is as follows: (1) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (2) batch grinding tests; (3) continuous grinding tests; and, (4) fracture mechanics. The hardgrove indices for the four coals employed in this work have finally been determined by the personnel at the R and D Center of Drummond Coal Company using 14 {times} 28 mesh feed size materials. The values obtained for the respective coals are given in Table 1.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1992-12-01

139

Coal Conversion. 1978 Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels fro...

1979-01-01

140

Do Massive Oil Sands Developments in a Northern Watershed Lead to an Impending Crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands developments in northern Alberta are land disruptions of massive proportions, with potentially major impacts on watersheds. Alberta has one of the largest known oil reserves in the world, and developments have about 25,000 sqkm of lease areas, and have approvals for plants to develop over half a million ha (or 54 townships). This is 91% the size of

S. W. Kienzle; J. Byrne; D. Schindler; P. Komers

2005-01-01

141

Experimental Investigation of Surfactant Partition in Heavy Oil\\/Water\\/Sand Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant adsorption on reservoir rocks or sands is one of the major factors that may significantly reduce the effectiveness of an alkaline\\/surfactant flood for oil recovery. It is difficult to determine the surfactant adsorption by measuring the difference between surfactant concentrations before and after adsorption when the water phase contains fine oil drops. In this study, an extraction method was

W. Zhou; M. Dong; Q. Liu; H. Xiao

2008-01-01

142

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta ...

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

143

Potential End Uses of Oil Produced by Wet Forward Combustion of Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report an evaluation is made of the potential end uses of an oil produced from Asphalt Ridge tar sand by wet forward combustion. The oil is evaluated with respect to its potential to produce a specification-grade asphalt and an aviation turbine fu...

K. P. Thomas P. M. Harnsberger F. D. Guffey

1987-01-01

144

Suspensions in the hot water flotation process for Canadian oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Suspensions are created and must be processed during the application of the hot water flotation process to Canada`s Athabasca oil sands, a large-scale commercial application of mined oil sands technology. These suspensions are more than just two-phase dispersions, being comprised of not only solids and water but also dispersed oil and gas. As such, they form interesting petroleum industry suspensions. A review of the hot water flotation process is presented with an emphasis on the occurrence, nature, and properties of suspensions. 94 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

Shaw, R.C.; Czarnecki, J. [Edmonton Research Centre, Alberta (Canada); Schramm, L.L. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

145

Succession of soil nematodes in pine forests on coal-mining sands near Cottbus, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The succession of soil nematodes from initial planting with Pinus sylvestris seedling to about 30-year-old pine plantations on coal mining sands in the Lusatian lignite-mining district near Cottbus (Germany) was studied and compared with the nematode fauna of a 40-year-old semi-natural pine forest on naturally formed sandy soil. The initial stage was primarily characterised by a very low abundance (20×103individuals\\/m2),

Ladislav Hán?l

2001-01-01

146

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Parker, R.J. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1991-12-01

147

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. (Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Parker, R.J. (Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada))

1991-12-01

148

Coal recovery from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils: effects of oil type and concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to obtain high calorific value products from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils. These residues are mainly being disposed of in dumps, causing important economic and environmental problems. Three Spanish coal fines wastes from different coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with crude and refined sunflower and soybean oils over a wide

Marta I Alonso; Adolfo F Valdés; Rosa M Mart??nez-Tarazona; Ana B Garcia

1999-01-01

149

Economic analysis of the utilization of oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of producing and using tar-sand crude are governed to a considerable degree by the costs involved in its recovery. The principal methods used for the recovery of tar-sand crudes in the USSR are ~n 8~tu combustion and steam injection into the formation. These recovery methods have been developed to the stage of commercial testing [i, 3]. Underground and

A. M. Zeninskii; I. Kh. Yumangulova

1980-01-01

150

Combined oil gun and coal guide for power plant boilers  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses apparatus for introducing fuel into the combustion chamber of a power plant boiler. It comprises a coal guide; a coal disperser; tubular disperser support means; an oil gun; first actuator means; and second actuator means.

Wiest, M.R.

1990-08-28

151

Economic feasibility and technical considerations of oil to coal conversions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a conversion study of a utility oil-designed boiler to coal. The unit examined is Karn No. 3 at Consumers Power, which is a front-fired unit designed to burn Canadian crude oil. Topics considered include fuel conversion, coal selection, design parameters, unit modifications, NOX, unit performance, and economic feasibility. A 1980 DOE survey of oil-fired utility boilers (50 MW and larger) identified 220 boilers with a total capacity of 30,165 MW as coal-designed and burning oil. The coal should be bituminous in order to maximize coal-firing capability and reduce required retrofit work. It is determined that the economic feasibility of converting fuel types is site-specific. The discussed study did not attempt an in-depth review of firing coal-oil mixture (COM) or coal-water slurry (CWS) in the modified unit.

Dunphy, D.F.; Sirois, R.H.

1983-01-01

152

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen,

J. G. Reynolds; R. W. Crawford

1988-01-01

153

Comparisons of micronized coal, pulverized coal and No. 6 oil for gas\\/oil utility and industrial boiler firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

What minimum coal particle size is necessary for micronized coal to work What happens in the closed spaced convection passes of a gas\\/oil fired boiler when burning coal This paper details combustion research undertaken by Old Ben Coal Company and performed by Riley Stoker Research Center to answer these questions. Furnace heat flux \\/ temperature profiles are investigated and compared

E. T. Robinson; O. G. Jr. Briggs; R. D. Bessette

1988-01-01

154

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

155

Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is

I. J. Simpson; N. J. Blake; B. Barletta; G. S. Diskin; H. E. Fuelberg; K. Gorham; L. G. Huey; S. Meinardi; F. S. Rowland; S. A. Vay; A. J. Weinheimer; M. Yang; D. R. Blake

2010-01-01

156

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

157

Characterization of metalloporphyrins in Alberta oil sands and components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compositional similarities in crude oils represent a basis for correlation (oil\\/oil oil\\/source rock) studies. One class of compounds with desirable characteristics are the metalloporphyrins for which the HPLC fingerprints or the DPEP\\/Etio ratios are two parameters used to correlate oils. The DPEP\\/Etio ratio in metalloporphyrin aggregates are used to compare the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake bitumens. The same

D. Tooulakou; Filby

1986-01-01

158

Quenched nonisothermal pyrolysis of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan heavy oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quenched nonisothermal experiments were performed on Asphalt Ridge tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and Boscan oil at two heating rates. Reactions were quenched at temperatures in the range of 200-- 600°C (392--1112°F) and the nonvolatile organic products were sequentially extracted with n-heptane, toluene, and pyridine. Coke contents were determined by combustion. Kinetic analyses of the coversion of

T. F. Turner; R. R. Glaser; B. E. Thomas

1989-01-01

159

Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

2012-04-01

160

Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual [sup 14]C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual [sup 14]C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance.

Lajoie, C.A.

1991-01-01

161

Laboratory studies to characterize the efficacy of sand capping a coal tar-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Placement of a microbial active sand cap on a coal tar-contaminated river sediment has been suggested as a cost effective remediation strategy. This approach assumes that the flux of contaminants from the sediment is sufficiently balanced by oxygen and nutrient fluxes into the sand layer such that microbial activity will reduce contaminant concentrations within the new benthic zone and reduce the contaminant flux to the water column. The dynamics of such a system were evaluated using batch and column studies with microbial communities from tar-contaminated sediment under different aeration and nutrient inputs. In a 30-d batch degradation study on aqueous extracts of coal tar sediment, oxygen and nutrient concentrations were found to be key parameters controlling the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the five PAHs monitored (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), degradation rates were inversely proportional to molecular size. For the column studies, where three columns were packed with a 20-cm sand layer on the top of a 5 cm of sediment layer, flow was established to sand layers with (1) aerated water, (2) N(2) sparged water, or (3) HgCl(2)-sterilized N(2) sparged water. After steady-state conditions, PAH concentrations in effluents were the lowest in the aerated column, except for pyrene, whose concentration was invariant with all effluents. These laboratory scale studies support that if sufficient aeration can be achieved in the field through either active and passive means, the resulting microbially active sand layer can improve the water quality of the benthic zone and reduce the flux of many, but not all, PAHs to the water column. PMID:16337673

Hyun, Seunghun; Jafvert, Chad T; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C

2005-12-07

162

Effect of an initial gas content on thermal EOR as applied to oil sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the results of a number of physical model experiments on thermal EOR. Seven experiments were performed, three in which a ''dead'' heavy oil was used, and four in which the oil sand was saturated with methane. For oils without an initial gas content, coinjection of CO/sub 2/ with steam was capable of improving oil recovery over that obtained with steam alone. When an initial dissolved gas was present, coinjection of CO/sub 2/ was not beneficial. Injection of CO/sub 2/ or CH/sub 4/ slugs just before steam injection was beneficial in increasing oil recovery for experiments where an initial dissolved gas was present.

Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Ridley, R.K.; Nguyen, D.M.

1988-03-01

163

Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.  

PubMed

Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies. PMID:22667690

Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

2012-07-06

164

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of current oil sands technologies: GHOST model development and illustrative application.  

PubMed

A life cycle-based model, GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies), which quantifies emissions associated with production of diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) is developed. GHOST has the potential to analyze a large set of process configurations, is based on confidential oil sands project operating data, and reports ranges of resulting emissions, improvements over prior studies, which primarily included a limited set of indirect activities, utilized theoretical design data, and reported point estimates. GHOST is demonstrated through application to a major oil sands process, steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The variability in potential performance of SAGD technologies results in wide ranges of "well-to-refinery entrance gate" emissions (comprising direct and indirect emissions): 18-41 g CO(2)eq/MJ SCO, 9-18 g CO(2)eq/MJ dilbit, and 13-24 g CO(2)eq/MJ synbit. The primary contributor to SAGD's emissions is the combustion of natural gas to produce process steam, making a project's steam-to-oil ratio the most critical parameter in determining GHG performance. The demonstration (a) illustrates that a broad range of technology options, operating conditions, and resulting emissions exist among current oil sands operations, even when considering a single extraction technology, and (b) provides guidance about the feasibility of lowering SAGD project emissions. PMID:21919460

Charpentier, Alex D; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Bergerson, Joule A; MacLean, Heather L

2011-10-04

165

Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon  

PubMed Central

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734–7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services.

Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

2012-01-01

166

Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon.  

PubMed

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734-7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services. PMID:22411786

Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E; Schindler, David W

2012-03-12

167

Performance of Vegetable Oils as Flotation Collectors for the Recovery of Coal from Coal Fines Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to study the feasibility of using vegetable oils which are available, renewable and nonpolluting energy resources as flotation reagents for the recovery of coal from coal fines wastes. To comply with this objective, crude SOC soyabean oil and a used AB olive oil of household origin were used as collectors in the flotation of

M. I. ALONSO; C. CASTANO; A. B. GARCIA

2000-01-01

168

Santa Rosa Oil Sands Project. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous 25-barrel-per-day pilot plan to recover bitumen from tar sands was built and operated by Solv-Ex Corp. to test and develop its process for a proposed 4000 BPSD commercial plant at Santa Rosa, NM. A small test mine was opened near Santa Rosa a...

G. M. Forster

1984-01-01

169

Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay

2013-11-01

170

The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influenced waters, NAs extracted and purified from oil sands tailings waters, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a positive control. After a 7d exposure, blood, spleen, head kidney, and gill samples were removed from a subset of fish in order to evaluate the distribution of thrombocytes, B-lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and T-lymphocytes using fluorescent antibodies specific for those cell types coupled with flow cytometry. The remaining trout in each experimental tank were injected with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida and held in laboratory water for 21d and subjected to similar lymphatic cell evaluation in addition to evaluation of antibody production. Fluorescent metabolites in bile as well as liver CYP1A induction were also determined after the 7 and 21d exposure. Oil sands waters and extracted NAs exposures resulted in an increase in bile fluorescence at phenanthrene wavelengths, though liver CYP1A was not induced in those treatments as it was with the BaP positive control. Trout in the oil sands-influenced water exposure showed a decrease in B- and T-lymphocytes in blood as well as B-lymphocytes and myeloid cells in spleen and an increase in B-lymphocytes in head kidney. The extracted NAs exposure showed a decrease in thrombocytes in spleen at 8mg/L and an increase in T-lymphocytes at 1mg/L in head kidney after 7d. There was a significant decrease in antibody production against A. salmonicida in both oil sands-influenced water exposures. Because oil sands-influenced waters affected multiple immune parameters, while extracted NAs impacts were limited, the NAs tested here are likely not the cause of immunotoxicity found in the oil sands-influenced water. PMID:24036435

Leclair, Liane A; Macdonald, Gillian Z; Phalen, Laura J; Köllner, Bernd; Hogan, Natacha S; van den Heuvel, Michael R

2013-08-28

171

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed

D. ORourke; D. Kullen; L. Gierek; K. Wescott; M. Greby; G. Anast; M. Nesta; L. Walston; R. Tate; A. Azzarello; B. Vinikour; B. Van Lonkhuyzen; J. Quinn; R. Yuen

2007-01-01

172

Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be used as a case study for testing the applicability the Linearization Model approach. This model has been applied to the various world regions by D. Rutledge (Cal Tech). The regions are summed to estimate global production. The conclusion is that the world's coal resources may be much less (maybe by 10 times) than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. Several research groups, including K. Aleklett (Uppsala), the Energy Watch Group and the Institute of Energy (IFE) and have independently reached the same conclusion. Simulations by D. Rutledge of atmospheric CO2 levels, using these values of ultimate oil and coal production as an input, suggest that atmospheric CO2 could reach maximum concentrations as low as 450 ppm. While some of these conclusions are controversial, available data clearly suggest that resource limitation should be given serious consideration in future climate change scenarios. There are also serious implications for economic recovery and energy security as well.

Murray, J. W.

2009-05-01

173

Quenched nonisothermal pyrolysis of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan heavy oil mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Quenched nonisothermal experiments were performed on Asphalt Ridge tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and Boscan oil at two heating rates. Reactions were quenched at temperatures in the range of 200-- 600{degree}C (392--1112{degree}F) and the nonvolatile organic products were sequentially extracted with n-heptane, toluene, and pyridine. Coke contents were determined by combustion. Kinetic analyses of the coversion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan coprocessing mixtures show remarkable similarities. A kinetic fit to data from both Asphalt Ridge and Boscan oil coprocessing tests was performed with the result being a good fit to all the data. The shapes of the soluble, nonvolatile product concentrations indicate a series reaction scheme leading to the formation of coke and pyridine-soluble material. For the Asphalt Ridge tar sand, both heptane and toluene solubles decompose to form pyridine solubles and coke. For the Boscan oil/tar sand mixtures, heptane solubles form toluene solubles which form pyridine solubles and coke. 6 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Turner, T.F.; Glaser, R.R.; Thomas, B.E.

1989-08-01

174

Investigation in the use of heavy oils (and derivatives) to process coal  

SciTech Connect

Results of studies to determine the effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, and reaction time on the extent of coal conversion and on product distribution are reported. Various solvents, e.g. Athabasca bitumen, were used to solubilize coal, and conversion yields under noncatalytic and catalytic hydrogenation conditions indicated that conversion increased from 10 to 24% in coal solvation to 30 to 40% in the catalytic hydrogenation. Conversion studies with Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. (GCOS) bitumen and coker gas oil showed that the conversion yield constantly increased with increasing temperature for coal/bitumen processing while reaching a maximum yield at 400/sup 0/C and then dropping dramatically to near zero conversion for coal/coker gas oil conversion. Optimum conversion conditions were established to be reaction for 60 min at 400/sup 0/C at a pressure of approximately 1000 psig. Analyses of solid, liquid, and gases are presented for samples used in studies of the different process parameters. (BLM)

Moschopedis, S.E. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton); Hawkins, R.W.; Speight, J.G.

1981-01-01

175

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01

176

Study on the adhesion behavior of wheel\\/rail under oil, water and sanding conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the adhesion behavior of wheel\\/rail under oil, water and sanding conditions using a JD-1 wheel\\/rail simulation facility, which consists of a small wheel roller serving as locomotive or rolling stock wheel and a large wheel roller serving as rail. The results indicate that the adhesion coefficient of wheel\\/rail decreases remarkably under oil

W. J. Wang; H. F. Zhang; H. Y. Wang; Q. Y. Liu; M. H. Zhu

2011-01-01

177

SAGD Reservoir Characterization Using Geostatistics: Application to the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is important because of the vast reserves accessible with this production mechanism. The Athabasca Oils Sands, also known as the McMurray Formation, is located in northern Alberta near Fort McMurray. The McMurray Formation contains an estimated one-trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place or one-quarter of Canada's total oil reserves; however, only 10% is economically

Jason A. McLennan; Clayton V. Deutsch

178

Low-cost chemical cuts sand problems in heavy oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patented, low-cost calcium hydroxide treatment reduces sand movement in oil fields by strengthening the bonding effects of formation clay. Field results from 108 well treatments in the Getty Oil Company's Kern River field indicate the treatment is effective with both linear and solid string completion. The process is compatible with the 400-500°F steam used in thermal stimulation of wells.

Charles

1976-01-01

179

Questionable Coverage: Canadian Online News Media And The Representation Of The Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most pressing environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming, have been discussed, examined and contested in online news media. However, little research has been completed on the reporting styles of Canadian media, and in particular, Canadian online news media’s coverage of the oil sands. This paper examines media content and discusses the concept of media

Josh Willard

2011-01-01

180

Treatment of pulp mill and oil sands industrial wastewaters by the partial spray freezing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spray freezing process, a natural freezing technology, was used to treat pulp mill effluent and oil sands tailings pond water. The wastewaters froze partially or completely (i.e. with or without runoff generation) during the spraying operation. Greater than 60% impurity reduction in the spray ice was obtained when 30% of the total volume of the sprayed water was released

W. Gao; D. W. Smith; D. C. Sego

2004-01-01

181

Variation in toxicity response of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Athabasca oil sands coke leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coke from the Athabasca (Alberta, Canada) oil sands operations may someday be integrated into reclamation landscapes. It is hypothesized that the metals associated with the solid coke may leach into the surrounding environment. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to characterize the toxicity and chemistry of coke leachates collected from two field lysimeters (i.e. shallow lysimeter and deep

Naveen Puttaswamy; Dominique Turcotte; Karsten Liber

2010-01-01

182

Quantifying land use of oil sands production: a life cycle perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the inclusion of land use in life cycle assessment are not well established. Here, we describe an approach that compares land disturbance between spatially compact and diffuse activities that contribute to the life cycle of a single product, in this case synthetic crude from Alberta’s oil sands. We compare production using surface mining and in situ extraction technologies.

Sarah M Jordaan; David W Keith; Brad Stelfox

2009-01-01

183

The Impact of Emission Compliance Costs on Investment in Alberta's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A net present value model with simulation analysis and a binomial real options model are developed to examine the impact of changes in emission compliance costs on the decision to invest in a representative steam assisted gravity drainage project in Alberta's oil sands. The project used in this analysis is found to generate positive returns when emission compliance costs increase

Pearce William Shewchuk

2010-01-01

184

Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

2012-08-23

185

Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

2008-01-01

186

Biwetted ultrafine solids and structure formation in oil sands fine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high water holding capacity of oil sands fine tailing has been attributed to the presence of ultrafine (<0.2 ?m) clay fractions. On the basis of hydrophobic character two major types of ultrafines are recognized: biwetted, associated with a significant coverage or organic matter and preferentially hydrophilic solids. The effect of biwetted solids on the colloidal stability of ultrafine clays

Luba S. Kotlyar; Bryan D. Sparks; John Woods; C. Edward Capes; Robert Schutte

1995-01-01

187

Factors that affect the degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands wastewater by indigenous microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of wastewater generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands is believed to be due to naphthenic acids (NAs). To determine the factors that affect the rate of degradation of representative NAs in microcosms containing wastewater and the acute toxicity of treated and untreated wastewater, the effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and phosphate addition on

June W. S. Lai; Linda J. Pinto; Eberhard Kiehlmann; Leah I. Bendell-Young

1996-01-01

188

Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The product size depicted by the median size and d{sub 90} as well as the corresponding specific energy for the series of tests with silica sand and steel shot respectively are given in Table 3. It is obvious from these results that the products from both systems have a similar degree of fineness. but the silica sand system uses a relatively lower specific energy than the steel shot system. Depending on the experimental conditions, the energy input ratio of the steel and sand media systems varies between 1.3 to 5. Such a difference in energy input is expected due to the difference in the specific gravity of the two media particularly where equal volume of the media is used and no dramatic changes in the slurry rheology occurs during the grinding operation. The energy consumption for both the silica sand and steel shot systems increase with increasing stirring speed as well as decreasing slurry density. Since the corresponding influence on the product fineness is minimal, it is more economical to employ relatively low stirring speeds and high pulp densities. The feed particle size seems to have only a small influence on the product size in the range studies.

Not Available

1992-01-01

189

Pyrite suppression in oil agglomeration of coal  

SciTech Connect

The oleophilicity of pyrite frequently interferes with the separation of coal and pyrite in aqueous suspensions by selective agglomeration with oil. To solve this problem, a search has been conducted for suitable agglomeration suppressants for oleophilic pyrite, and a number of promising materials have been found. Of special interest is a group of organic compounds which is the subject of this report. These compounds contain both sulfhydryl group (-SH) and a hydrophilic group such as a carboxyl or sulfonic acid group. Thioglycolic acid (HSCH{sub 2}COOH) is an example. This material has been used to suppress the recovery of pyrite in froth flotation systems where particle separation is also controlled by surface properties. For the present study, both high-grade mineral pyrite and coal-derived pyrite were sulfurized by treatment with a freshly acidified solution of sodium sulfide which made the pyrites highly oleophilic. The treated pyrites were used subsequently to test a number of potential agglomeration suppressants. The effect on agglomeration was determined by monitoring changes in the turbidity of an agitated pyrite suspension as increasing amounts of heptane were introduced. A decrease in turbidity was indicative of agglomeration, whereas an increase in turbidity was indicative of particle an/or oil dispersion. Additional experiments were conducted in which an artificial mixture of Illinois No. 6 coal and sulfurized mineral pyrite was agglomerated with heptane after being conditioned with a pyrite suppressant. The agglomerates were recovered by screening and then analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the suppressant. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Drzymala, J.; Markuszewski, R.; Wheelock, T.D.

1991-01-01

190

An airborne assessment of atmospheric particulate emissions from the processing of Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign, two NASA research aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, were outfitted with extensive trace gas (the DC-8) and aerosol (both aircraft) instrumentation. Each aircraft spent about a half hour sampling air around the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities near Ft. McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The DC-8 circled the area, while the P-3B flew directly over the upgrading plants, sampling close to the exhaust stacks, then headed downwind to monitor the aerosol as it aged. At short range, the plume from the oil sands is a complex mosaic of freshly nucleated ultrafine particles from a SO2 and NO2-rich plume, fly ash and soot from industrial processes, and dust from dirt roads and mining operations. Shortly downwind, organic aerosol appears in quantities that rival SO4=, either as volatile organic vapors condense or as they react with the H2SO4. The DC-8 pattern allowed us to integrate total flux from the oil sands facilities within about a factor of two uncertainty that spanned values consistent with 2008 estimates from reported SO2 and NO2 emissions. In contrast, CO fluxes exceeded reported regional emissions, due either to variability in production or sources missing from the emissions inventory. The conversion rate of SO2 to aerosol SO4= of ~6% per hour is consistent with earlier reports, though OH concentrations are insufficient to accomplish this. Other oxidation pathways must be active. Altogether, organic aerosol and black carbon emissions from the oil sands operations are small compared with the forest fires present in the region during the summer. The oil sands do contribute significant sulfate and exceed fire production of SO2 by an order of magnitude.

Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C. S.; Kapustin, V.; Brekovskikh, V.; Jimenez, J.-L.; Cubison, M. J.

2013-08-01

191

New insights into halocarbon emissions in boreal regions: Forest fires and Alberta oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest fires and Alberta oil sands represent two major co-located trace gas emission sources within the boreal ecosystem. During the airborne ARCTAS mission in summer 2008, UC-Irvine performed the most comprehensive characterization of halocarbon emissions from boreal forest fires to date. In summer 2008 and 2010 we also performed the first independent characterizations of halocarbon emissions from Alberta's oil sands industry. In both cases the measurements were made using whole air sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis using electron capture detection and mass spectrometer detection. In the case of boreal forest fires, of 26 speciated halocarbons that were measured, only the simplest halocarbons were emitted from the fires (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, 1,2-C2H4Cl2, C2H5Cl and CH2Br2) (Simpson et al., 2011). These compounds were released in relatively small quantities and together they represented <0.3% of the total carbon released from boreal forest fires in the form of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Even though CH3Cl was the most abundantly emitted halocarbon, its average global emission from boreal forest fires (0.011 ± 0.003 Tg yr-1) was very small compared to its global source budget. The poly-chlorinated compounds CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CH3CCl3 were not released from the fires. In the case of the Alberta oil sands, based on airborne measurements during the ARCTAS mission, 15 of 26 measured halocarbons were statistically enhanced over the oil sands compared to local background values (Simpson et al., 2010). The short-lived solvents C2HCl3, C2Cl4, C2H5Cl and CHCl3 were the most strongly enhanced halocarbons, with maximum values that were 1.5-34× the local background. A subsequent ground-based study in 2010 detected even stronger halocarbon enhancements downwind of upgraders and tailings sand at the oil sands surface mining sites. For example C2HCl3 and CHBrCl2 mixing ratios were up to 60-85× the local background values. Long-lived halocarbons such as HFC-152a, HFC-134a, HCFC-142b and HCFC-22 were also elevated downwind of the mining and upgrading operations. Together these results suggest that boreal forest fires are a relatively minor halocarbon source, and that halocarbon emissions from the Alberta oil sands industry require further investigation.

Simpson, I. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Marrero, J.; Rowland, F. S.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Blake, D. R.

2011-12-01

192

Gulf/Aostra Surmont Project - south Athabasca oil sands deposit, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

In September 1979, Gulf Canada Resources Inc. and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority entered into an agreement to determine the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of recovering bitumen from oil sands utilizing a system of horizontal wells and a steam recovery process. Two methods of access to the bitumen-bearing formation were to be considered: wells drilled from the surface and whipstocked to the horizontal, and wells drilled from tunnels located either above, within, or below the pay zone. It is believed that a horizontal well system is more cost effective, will have better recoveries, and have less environmental impact than a vertical well system. The project site is located ca. 330 km northeast of Edmonton, Alta, in the southern extent of the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The oil-bearing, lower Cretaceous McMurray formation occurs at a depth of 275 m and ranges in thickness from 64 to 87 m. Gross oil pays range in thickness from 25 to 43 m.

Glenday, K.S.; Lenox, T.R.

1982-05-01

193

Air quality over the Canadian oil sands as seen from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada contain the second largest reserve of oil globally. However, only recently has extraction of the oil and sand mixture and its conversion into synthetic crude become economically viable. This energy intensive process generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. As part of a larger effort by Environment Canada to better understand air quality in the region, a multi-satellite examination of trace gases and aerosols has been undertaken. This presentation will discuss the methodologies used to investigate this intense but spatially-small source as well as initial findings including high-resolution maps, recent trends, and satellite-derived emissions of some key pollutants. These results will be placed in a global context through comparisons with other point sources.

McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; Pommier, M.

2012-04-01

194

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

PubMed

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2013-07-08

195

Combustion characteristics of Occidental coal-oil mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Occidental Petroleum Corporation developed coal-oil mixture (COM) as a means for partial conversion of oil-burning equipment to coal. Subscale combustion tests were performed by KVB to determine the effect of COM compositional variables and firing parameters on combustion performance. COM compositional variables examined included coal and oil type, coal/oil ratio, coal grind size, and COM water and stabilizing additive content. Operational parameters include furnace heat release rate, furnace excess oxygen, and atomization quality. Flame stability, combustion efficiency, particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and NO/sub x/ reduction via staging were evaluated. These data were used to establish a COM formula and guidelines for commercial use. The subscale results are compared to the performance data from the initial firing trials in a 135,000 lb/hr boiler at the Occidental Chemical Company in White Springs, Florida. 4 references, 14 figures, 9 tables.

Knell, E.W.; Mansour, M.N.

1983-01-01

196

Saturation dependence of the quadrature conductivity of oil-bearing sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the complex conductivity of oil-bearing sands with six distinct oil types including sunflower oil, silicone oil, gum rosin, paraffin, engine oil, and an industrial oil of complex composition. In all these experiments, the oil was the non-wetting phase. The in-phase (real) conductivity follows a power law relationship with the saturation (also known as the second Archie's law) but with a saturation exponent n raging from 1.1 to 3.1. In most experiments, the quadrature conductivity follows also a power law relationship with the water saturation but with a power law exponent p can be either positive or negative. For some samples, the quadrature conductivity first increases with saturation and then decreases indicating that two processes compete in controlling the quadrature conductivity. One is related to the insulating nature of the oil phase and a second could be associated with the surface area of the oil / water interface. The quadrature conductivity seems to be influenced not only by the value of the saturation exponent n (according to the Vinegar and Waxman model, p = n - 1), but also by the surface area between the oil phase and the water phase especially for very water-repellent oil having a fractal oil-water interface.

Schmutz, M.; Blondel, A.; Revil, A.

2012-02-01

197

Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers.  

PubMed

Essential oils are one of nature's most precious gifts with surprisingly potent and outstanding properties. Coniferous oils, for instance, are nowadays being used extensively to treat or prevent many types of infections, modify immune responses, soothe inflammations, stabilize moods, and to help ease all forms of non-acute pain. Given the broad spectrum of usage of coniferous essential oils, a fast, safe, simple, and efficient sample-preparation method is needed in the estimation procedure of essential oil components in fresh plant material. Generally, the time- and energy-consuming steam distillation (SD) is applied for this purpose. This paper will compare SD, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and the sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as isolation techniques to obtain aroma components from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). According to the obtained data, SSDM is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil composition of conifers. Moreover, SSDM requires small organic solvent amounts and a short extraction time, which makes it an advantageous alternative procedure for the routine analysis of coniferous oils. The superiority of SSDM over MSPD efficiency is ascertained, as there are no chemical interactions between the plant cell components and the sand. This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components. PMID:22083917

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczy?ska, Natalia B

2011-11-01

198

Heavy and tar sand oil deposits of Europe  

SciTech Connect

Several hundred heavy and extra-heavy oil and natural bitumen occurrences from 26 European countries (including European Turkey and the western borderlands of the USSR) were compiled. The definitions used for heavy crude oils and natural bitumens, as proposed by or prepared with the UNITAR/UNDP information center, were applied. Information on stratigraphy, lithology, and depth as well as on gravity, viscosity, and gas and water content, is given. Deposits are characteristically distributed along the flanks of the basins or within the separating uplifts. Nevertheless, they are found from the surface down to depths of 3000 m (9800 ft). Up to now, big accumulations have been exploited in Albania and Sicily, but they have been discovered also in the British North Sea, France, Spain, and West Germany. In carbonates, they were mostly encountered in fractures of synsedimentary or tectonic origin. The accumulations are the result of either intrusion of immature heavy oil from a source rock or of the immigration of mature oil, which was biodegraded afterward. In many cases, there have been at least two separate migration/accumulation events. In some cases paleoseepages did supply a source rock with asphaltic material or became an effective seal of a later hydrocarbon accumulation.

Cornelius, C.D.

1984-09-01

199

Microbial methanogenesis in subsurface oil and coal.  

PubMed

It is now clear that active methanogens are present in the deep-subsurface. This paper reviews microbial population structures and the biodegradation of organic compounds to methane in situ within oil reservoirs and coal deposits. It summarizes our current knowledge of methanogenes and methanogenesis, fermenters, synthrophs and microbial metabolism of complex organic compounds in these two widely occurring organic-rich subsurface environments. This review is not intended to be an exhaustive report of microbial diversity. Rather, it illustrates the similarities and differences between the two environments with specific examples, from the nature of the organic molecules to the methanogenic metabolic pathways and the structure of the microbial populations to demonstrate that widely diverging microbial populations show surprisingly similar metabolic capabilities. PMID:23872511

Meslé, Margaux; Dromart, Gilles; Oger, Philippe

2013-07-19

200

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

SciTech Connect

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One consisted of a 50/40/10 (weight) coal/oil/water mixture, and the other was a 65/35 coal/water slurry stabilized with modified corn starch. The emphasis was placed on the coal/water slurry. Firings were conducted in a one MMBTUH experimental furnace constructed and instrumented for the purpose. A specially designed swirl burner/atomizer was developed for use with the coal/water slurry. Both slurries were burned successfully. Numerous firings were performed of up to one-half duration each. In the case of the coal/water slurry a small amount of gas assist was usually used, although this was eliminated in several shorter duration tests. Thermochemical calculations for coal/water slurries are presented. The presence of water in the slurry represents a relatively small energy penalty. A slurry made from a good coal will have a calorific value in the range of 10,000 Btu/lb. The heat required to vaporize the water of a 70/30 mixture is only about 300 Btu/lb slurry, or about 3 percent. Analysis of the results led to the conclusion that significant improvement in the burning maybe achievable, possibly to the point where combustion rates would be comparable to those of heavy oil. Because of the availability of coal, its cost advantage relative to oil, and especially because of the ease of handling of a liquid fuel, coal/water slurry appears to have considerable potential as a future fuel.

McHale, E.T.

1980-05-01

201

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10

202

Waste oils utilized as coal liquefaction solvents on different ranks of coal  

SciTech Connect

Solvent plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction. The solvent acts as a medium to transport hydrogen, as a heat transfer medium, as an additional reactant along with the coal, as a coal dissolution medium, and as the medium to transport coal liquefaction products away from the coal matrix. Recent investigations of coprocessing coal with solid waste materials (plastics, rubbers, cellulose) to raise the hydrogen content of the coal products with a concomitant decreased need for the addition of hydrogen gas have involved reacting solid waste plastics and solid waste rubbers directly with coal with little preparation other than grinding or shredding the waste material. (An indirect benefit to coprocessing waste with coal is that less waste must be disposed of in landfills or by incineration.) Dry mixing of coal and waste materials may be the most cost effective method for coprocessing waste with coal because there is less preparation of the waste material. However, the metals, anti oxidants, carbon black, and plasticers present in the waste materials make some preparation of the reactants necessary. A possible pretreatment of the waste materials would be a vacuum pyrolysis of the waste materials that would produce cleaner oils. To examine this issue, we have recently carried out coal liquefaction experiments in which coals of different ranks were reacted with oils obtained by the vacuum pyrolysis of waste materials, specifically plastics and rubber tires. We have also used waste automotive oils to determine whether the automotive oil is effective, and whether trace heavy metals found in the waste automotive oil can be scavenged by the coal.

Orr, E.C.; Yanlong Shi; Jing Liang; Weibing Ding; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-12-31

203

Bioremediation of Oil from Polluted Wastewater Using Sand Biofilm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight bacteria were isolated from grease-oily industrial wastewater, only 4 bacterial isolates found to have the ability to degrade oil and grease in contaminating wastewater. These isolates were identified according to morphological and biochemical tests as, Pseudomonas sp. (L1), P. diminuta (L2), P. pseudoalcaligenes (L3), and Escherichia sp. (L5). Bacterial isolates were tested individually or in combination using synthetic aqueous

M. H. El-Masry; Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Nawal I. W. El-Adl

2004-01-01

204

Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in coprocessing coal with hydrogen rich waste materials in order to produce liquid transportation fuels has given rise to interesting twists on standard coal liquefaction. In general, coprocessing coal with a waste material has been approached with the idea that the waste material would be mixed with the coal under liquefaction conditions with little or no preliminary processing of the waste material other than shredding into smaller size particles. Mixing the waste material with the coal would occur in the primary stage of liquefaction. The primary stage would accomplish the dissolution of the coal and breakdown of the waste material. The products would then be introduced into the secondary stage where upgrading of product would occur. This paper describes the usefulness of oil derived from pyrolysis of waste rubber tires as a reactant in coal coprocessing or coal liquefaction.

Orr, E.C.; Shi, Yanlong; Ji, Qin; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-12-31

205

Enhanced transport of colloidal oil droplets in saturated and unsaturated sand columns.  

PubMed

Colloidal-sized triacylglycerol droplets demonstrated enhanced transport compared to ideal latex colloid spheres in both saturated and unsaturated quartz sand columns. Oil droplets (mean diameter 0.74 ± 0.03 ?m, density 0.92 g cm(-3), ?-potential -34 ± 1 mV) were injected simultaneously with latex microsphere colloids (FluoSpheres; density 1.055 g cm(-3), diameters 0.02, 0.2, and 1.0 ?m, ?-potentials -16 ± 1, -30 ± 2, and -49 ± 1, respectively) and bromide into natural quartz sand (?-potential -63 ± 2 mV) via short-pulse column breakthrough experiments. Tests were conducted under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Breakthrough of oil droplets preceded bromide and FluoSpheres. Recovery of oil droplets was 20% greater than similarly sized FluoSpheres in the saturated column, and 16% greater in the 0.18 ± 0.01 volumetric water content (VWC) unsaturated column. Higher variability was observed in the 0.14 ± 0.01 VWC column experiments with oil droplet recovery only slightly greater than similarly sized FluoSpheres. The research presents for the first time the direct comparison of colloidal oil droplet transport in porous media with that of other colloids, and demonstrates transport under unsaturated conditions. Based on experimental results and theoretical analyses, we discuss possible mechanisms that lead to the observed enhanced mobility of oil droplets compared to FluoSpheres with similar size and electrostatic properties. PMID:21950652

Travis, Micheal J; Gross, Amit; Weisbrod, Noam

2011-10-11

206

Effect of some coal gasification and tar sand process waters on the viability of indicator bacteria of fecal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to determine if a spill of either coal gasification or tar sand process waters could have detrimental effects on the numbers of indicator bacteria in receiving waters. The objectives were (i) to determine the effect of mixing process waters with natural waters on the numbers of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci after storage of these mixtures

2009-01-01

207

Toxicity of seawater and sand affected by the Prestige fuel-oil spill using bivalve and sea urchin embryogenesis bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the toxicity of seawater and sand sampled from an area of the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula), highly impacted by the Prestige fuel-oil spill, was attempted by using marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays with bivalves and sea urchins. Water samples were frozen and toxicity testing was delayed until the reproductive season of the sea urchins. Sand samples were

Ricardo Beiras; Liliana Saco-álvarez

2006-01-01

208

Applicability of clean technology of conical spouted bed for thermal remediation of sand polluted by oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conical spouted bed combustor that operates from the spouted bed regime to dilute spouted bed regime (jet spouted bed) has been used in the thermal remediation of sand from Arminza beach polluted with oil from Prestige spill. Experimental study on operation in a pilot plant combustor has been carried out with beds consisting of sand with different water weight

M. J. San Jose; S. Alvarez; L. B. Lopez; I. Garcia

2011-01-01

209

High Temperature Corrosion During Combustion of Gas, Coal and Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanism of high temperature corrosion caused by combustion of gas, coal and oil is surveyed by literature. Fuels are subdivided into three groups according to their combustion products, namely, those free from sulfur and ashes, those containing sulfur b...

A. Rahmel

1976-01-01

210

Nuclear Power Aspects in an Oil and Coal Producing Country.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago are described. Resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, some hydro and geothermal power, and some radioactive minerals. The possible use of...

J. Iljas

1977-01-01

211

Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast amount of oil sands exists in the Athabasca area, Alberta, Canada. These oil sands consist of bitumen (extra-heavy oil) and unconsolidated sand distributed from surface to a depth of 750 meters. Including conventional crude oil, the total number of proved remaining oil reserves in Canada ranks second place in the world after Saudi Arabia. For the production of bitumen from the reservoir 200 to 500 meters in depth, the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) method (Steam Injection EOR) has been adopted as bitumen is not movable at original temperatures. It is essential to understand the detailed reservoir distribution and steam chamber development extent for optimizing the field development. Oil sands reservoir characterization is conducted using 3D seismic data acquired in February 2002. Conducting acoustic impedance inversion to improve resolution and subsequent multi-attribute analysis integrating seismic data with well data facilitates an understanding of the detailed reservoir distribution. These analyses enable the basement shale to be imaged, and enables identification to a certain degree of thin shale within the reservoir. Top and bottom depths of the reservoir are estimated in the range of 2.0 meters near the existing wells even in such a complex channel sands environment characterized by abrupt lateral sedimentary facies changes. In March 2006, monitoring 3D seismic data was acquired to delineate steam-affected areas. The 2002 baseline data is used as a reference data and the 2006 monitoring data is calibrated to the 2002 seismic data. Apparent differences in the two 3D seismic data sets with the exception of production related response changes are removed during the calibration process. P-wave and S-wave velocities of oil sands core samples are also measured with various pressures and temperatures, and the laboratory measurement results are then combined to construct a rock physics model used to predict velocity changes induced by steam-injection. The differences of the seismic responses between the time-lapse seismic volumes can be quantitatively explained by P-wave velocity decrease of the oil sands layers due to steam-injection. In addition, the data suggests that a larger area would be influenced by pressure than temperature. We calculate several seismic attributes such as RMS values of amplitude difference, maximum cross correlations, and interval velocity differences. These attributes are integrated by using self-organization maps (SOM) and K-means methods. By this analysis, we are able to distinguish areas of steam chamber growth from transitional and non-affected areas. In addition, 3D P-SV converted-wave processing and analysis are applied on the second 3D data set (recorded with three-component digital sensor). Low Vp/Vs values in the P-SV volume show areas of steam chamber development, and high Vp/Vs values indicate transitional zones. Our analysis of both time-lapse 3D seismic and 3D P-SV data along with the rock physics model can be used to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively the rock property changes of the inter-well reservoir sands in the field.

Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

2008-12-01

212

The Significance of Tax Incentives in Attracting Foreign Investment: Lessons from the Canadian Oil Sands Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tax incentives have been used by countries to stimulate foreign investment. Few countries doubt the effectiveness of tax incentives. Canada and Indonesia are among the many countries that offer tax incentives to attract investors. While Canada has a long history of using tax incentives to foster the development of the Alberta oil sands, Indonesia is just embarking on this strategy, especially in promoting foreign investment in remote areas. Drawing on the Canadian development of the Alberta oil sands, this thesis asks what lessons Indonesia can learn from that experience in relying on tax incentives to develop the industry. This thesis acknowledges that there are many important differences between Canada and Indonesia. Since most countries speak of using tax incentives to finance their petroleum industries, it is worth examining at least one instance of that strategy and see whether Indonesia can extract any thing of value from this examination.

Febriana, Restika

213

Sovent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery for In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under

Norman Munroe

2009-01-01

214

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

2003-02-07

215

Picturing environmental risk: The Canadian oil sands and the National Geographic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Geographic Magazine photographic essay on the Canadian oil sands presents an excellent case study of how environmental risk is communicated visually. The images express an inherent tension between nature-as-sublime and nature-as-resource, and mobilize various discourses related to environmental degradation and resource management. Through a specifically visual approach to the communication of risk, this article provides theoretical insight into

Chaseten Remillard

2011-01-01

216

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

2003-02-07

217

Application of thermal techniques in the recovery of heavy minerals from oil-sand tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal techniques, namely, thermogravimetry (TG), simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DTA-FTIR) and thermomagnetometry, were used to examine the thermal behaviour of heavy-mineral tailings generated in oil-sand steam processing operations. The results will be used in the selection and optimization of a thermal process to remove residual bitumen in the tailings and recover the contained titanium and zirconium values.

Shaheer A. Mikhail; Anne-Marie Turcotte; Colin A. Hamer

1996-01-01

218

Organic matter accumulation in western boreal saline wetlands: A comparison of undisturbed and oil sands wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructing landscapes after open pit mining of the Canadian oil sands presents enormous challenges. Freshwater peatlands dominate the pre-disturbance landscape; however, elevated salinity in the post-disturbance landscape will exclude the use of many freshwater vegetation species for reclamation. Successful reclamation will require plants to grow and accumulate peat despite elevated salinity. We evaluated the potential of salt-tolerant plants to accumulate

Marsha Trites; Suzanne E. Bayley

2009-01-01

219

Legacy of a half century of Athabasca oil sands development recorded by lake ecosystems.  

PubMed

The absence of well-executed environmental monitoring in the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has necessitated the use of indirect approaches to determine background conditions of freshwater ecosystems before development of one of the Earth's largest energy deposits. Here, we use highly resolved lake sediment records to provide ecological context to ?50 y of oil sands development and other environmental changes affecting lake ecosystems in the region. We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within lake sediments, particularly C1-C4-alkylated PAHs, increased significantly after development of the bitumen resource began, followed by significant increases in dibenzothiophenes. Total PAH fluxes in the modern sediments of our six study lakes, including one site ?90 km northwest of the major development area, are now ?2.5-23 times greater than ?1960 levels. PAH ratios indicate temporal shifts from primarily wood combustion to petrogenic sources that coincide with greater oil sands development. Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines for PAHs have been exceeded since the mid-1980s at the most impacted site. A paleoecological assessment of Daphnia shows that this sentinel zooplankter has not yet been negatively impacted by decades of high atmospheric PAH deposition. Rather, coincident with increases in PAHs, climate-induced shifts in aquatic primary production related to warmer and drier conditions are the primary environmental drivers producing marked daphniid shifts after ?1960 to 1970. Because of the striking increase in PAHs, elevated primary production, and zooplankton changes, these oil sands lake ecosystems have entered new ecological states completely distinct from those of previous centuries. PMID:23297215

Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Wang, Xiaowa; Evans, Marlene S; Smol, John P

2013-01-07

220

A method of correlating wind data between two stations with application to the Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of hourly wind data from two stations, Fort McMurray and Mildred Lake, in the Alberta Oil Sands area are examined by means of contingency tables of simultaneous occurrences of various wind?speed class and wind?direction combinations. Statistical calculations with the tabulated data show that in 1974–75 the same wind?speed class occurred simultaneously 49% of the time, and the same

John L. Walmsley; David L. Bagg

1978-01-01

221

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-aqueous bitumen extraction process was studied where only toluene and heptane, with no water additions, were used to extract bitumen from two Alberta oil sands ore samples. One sample had a high bitumen (13.5wt.%) and low fine (5.3wt.%<45?m) contents, while the other sample had an intermediate bitumen (10.5wt.%) and high fine (23.3wt.%) contents. Bitumen recovery and product quality were

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell; Douglas G. Ivey

222

Microwve inducdd catalytic decomposition of some alberta oil sands and bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of oil sands materials and upgrading of bitumens present a variety of problems for conventional technologies.\\u000a This article describes a preliminary study of the concept of using microwave induced catalytic techniques to decompose the\\u000a complex and viscous hydrocarbon compounds contained in these materials to allow efficient extraction of volatile and economically\\u000a useful organic products such as C2 and

M. C. Depew; S. Lem; J. K. S. Wan

1991-01-01

223

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. First quarterly report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultrafine coal grinding. The experimental silica is as follows: (1) design and fabrication of attrition cell; (2) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (3) batch grinding tests; (4) continuous grinding test; and (5) fracture mechanics.

Mehta, R.K.

1991-12-02

224

Filtering coal liquids: cleaning of coal oils by filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major task with the development of coal liquefaction processes is the removal of solids (unsolved residual coal, mineral components, and catalyst) from the hydrogenation products. Depending on the characteristics of these hydrogenation products, various cleaning processes were suggested and tried out. However, the separation of solids from coal hydrogenation products obtained from the extraction process presents more problems. In

I. Romey; R. Pass

1981-01-01

225

Case for synthetic pipeline gas from coal and oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasts of natural-gas demand are compared with projection of supply, and high probability of need for supplemental sources exists, beginning about 1980. Present processes for conversion of coal and oil shale to pipeline gas are evaluated, and technical feasibility for several is shown. Mine-mouth conversion of coal to utility gas is demonstrated as a much more economical energy source for

1968-01-01

226

Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago are described. Resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, some hydro and geothermal power, and some radioactive minerals. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is discussed. A number of studies have suggested the use of coal and

J. Iljas

1977-01-01

227

Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.  

PubMed

We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE-cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc-in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

Kelly, Erin N; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Short, Jeffrey W; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C

2010-08-30

228

Metabolism of BTEX and naphtha compounds to methane in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Naphtha, comprising low molecular weight aliphatics and aromatics (C3-C14), is used as a diluent in processing of bitumen from oil sands. A small fraction (<1%) is lost to tailings waste and incorporated into mature fine tailings (MFT). BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and whole naphtha were assessed for biodegradation under methanogenic conditions using MFT from an oil sands tailings settling basin. MFT spiked with 0.05-0.1% w/v of BTEX compounds produced up to 2.1 (+/-0.1) mmol of methane during 36 weeks of incubation. Metabolism of 0.5-1.0% w/v naphtha in MFT yielded up to 5.7 (+/-0.2) mmol of methane during 46 weeks of incubation. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that BTEX degraded in the sequence: toluene > o-xylene > m- plus p-xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene. Only 15-23% of whole naphtha, mainly n-alkanes (in the sequence: nonane > octane > heptane) and some BTEX compounds (toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene), was metabolized. Other naphtha constituents, such as iso-paraffins and naphthenes, remained unchanged during this period. These results suggest that the microbial communities in the MFT can readily utilize certain fractions of unrecovered naphtha in oil sands tailings and support methanogenesis in settling basins. Current study findings could influence extraction process, MFT management, and reclamation options. PMID:17438786

Siddique, Tariq; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Foght, Julia M

2007-04-01

229

Pretreatment of coal and recycle oil for direct liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program is being conducted by the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research, Sandia National Laboratories, LDP Associates and CONSOL Inc. to improve current coal liquefaction technology by physical and chemical pretreatments of the coal and recycle oil. These pretreatment steps include: (1) agglomeration of the coal with ash-containing recycle oil to simultaneously reject coal ash and recycle-oil ash, (2) fluid coking of the distillation bottoms (ash-purge) stream and recycle of the coker overhead, (3) dewaxing of the distillate portion of the recycle oil, and (4) low-severity hydrotreatment of the coker overhead and dewaxed oil using hydrogen from an in-situ water-gas shift reaction. These pretreatment steps will remove the ash and unconverted coal, reducing the ash load in the system and simultaneously recovering the maximum amount of organics. Dewaxing and hydrotreatment will yield a high-quality recycle oil distillate. These pretreatment steps are being evaluated technically and economically to develop an improved conceptual liquefaction process. The baseline process to which the improved process will be compared is the Two-Stage Liquefaction Process as it was practiced at the Wilsonville, AL, USA Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility.

Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Burke, F.P. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States); Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01

230

Quantitative evaluation of lower Cretaceous Mannville Group as source rock for Alberta's oil sands  

SciTech Connect

The Western Canada sedimentary basin hosts about 12 billion bbl of conventional oil in Devonian to Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Cretaceous oil sands contain an additional 1.3 trillion bbl in place. The oil sands represent the biodegraded remnants of supergiant conventional oil deposits, the source for which has been thought to be mature rocks of the equivalent-age Mannville Group. This work shows, however, that the known Mannville rocks alone are incapable of generating the required volume of hydrocarbons. The volume of hydrocarbons generated in the Mannville beneath central Alberta was calculated by combining measured geochemical and geologic data with Lopatin's method for thermal maturation. Original hydrocarbon-generative capacity of the Mannville rocks was calculated from geochemical analyses of immature samples. Using average values for total organic carbon (TOC) (1.3%) and Rock-Eval hydrogen index (100 mg HC/g TOC), maximum hydrocarbon generation per unit volume of source rock was calculated. The maturation model was then employed to estimate the extent to which maximum yield has actually been achieved. Total volume of source rock in the basin was obtained from isopach maps of Mannville shale. Multiplication of actual oil generation per unit volume by source rock volume gave a generated volume of 450 billion bbl. These calculated values are exceedingly optimistic, however, because they ignore inefficiencies in expulsion and migration. 10 figures, 2 tables.

Moshier, S.O.; Waples, D.W.

1985-02-01

231

Claim coal\\/oil\\/water mix is cheaper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of coal, oil, and water can compete successfully with fuel oil as an industrial boiler fuel, according to the manufacturer, CoaLiquid Inc. The mixture is stabilized by sound vibrations with an ultrasonic process. No boiler modifications are required and, while there is a need for some pollution control, there is no fly ash or residual problem. DOE disagrees

1979-01-01

232

H-Coal-Pilot-Plant Startup-Oil Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bench-unit program simulated the Catlettsburg H-Coal Pilot Plant start-up procedure in Run 6, which used catalytic cracker slurry oil, an aromatic petroleum oil. The program was designed to explore the reasons for Pilot Plant operational difficulties...

1982-01-01

233

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

234

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

235

Three-phase measurements of oil and gas trapping in sand packs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the trapped saturations of oil and gas as a function of initial saturation in water-wet sand packs. We start with a water-saturated column and inject octane (oil), while water and oil are produced from the bottom. Once water production has ceased, air (gas) then enters from the top, allowing oil and gas to drain under gravity for different times. Finally water is then injected from the bottom to trap both oil and gas. The columns are sliced and the fluids analyzed using gas chromatography. We find that for high initial gas saturations more gas can be trapped in the presence of oil than in a two-phase (gas/water) system. The residual gas saturation can be over 20% compared to 14% in two-phase flow [Al Mansoori SK, Iglauer S, Pentland CH, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ. Measurements of non-wetting phase trapping applied to carbon dioxide storage. Energy Procedia 2009;1(1):3173-80]. This is unlike previous measurements on consolidated media, where the trapped gas saturation is either similar or lower to that reached in an equivalent two-phase experiment. For lower initial gas saturation, the amount of trapping follows the initial-residual trend seen in two-phase experiments. The amount of oil trapped is insensitive to initial gas saturation or the amount of gas that is trapped, again in contrast to measurements on consolidated media. More oil is trapped than would be predicted from an equivalent two-phase (oil/water) system, although the trapped saturation is never larger than the maximum reached in two-phase flow (around 11%) [Pentland CH, Al Mansoori SK, Iglauer S, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ. Measurement of non-wetting phase trapping in sand packs. In: SPE 115697, proceedings of the SPE annual technical conference and exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA; 21-24 September 2008]. These initially surprising results are explained in the context of oil layer stability and the competition between snap-off and piston-like advance. In two-phase systems, displacement is principally by cooperative piston-like advance with relatively little trapping, whereas in consolidated media snap-off is generally more significant. However, oil layer collapse events during three-phase waterflooding rapidly trap the oil which acts as a barrier to direct water/gas displacement, except by snap-off, leading to enhanced gas trapping.

Al Mansoori, Saleh K.; Iglauer, Stefan; Pentland, Christopher H.; Blunt, Martin J.

236

Partitioning and bioaccumulation of metals from oil sands process affected water in indigenous Parachlorella kessleri.  

PubMed

This paper studies the partitioning and bioaccumulation of ten target metals ((53)Cr, Mn, Co, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, As, (88)Sr, (95)Mo and Ba) from oil sands tailings pond water (TPW) by indigenous Parachlorella kessleri. To determine the role of extracellular and intracellular bioaccumulation in metal removal by P. kessleri, TPW samples taken from two oil sands operators (Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Albian Sands Energy Inc.) were enriched with nutrient supplements. Results indicate that intracellular bioaccumulation played the main role in metal removal from TPW; whereas extracellular bioaccumulation was only observed to some extent for Mn, Co, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (88)Sr, (95)Mo and Ba. The FTIR scan and titration of functional groups on the cell surface indicated low metal binding capacity by indigenous P. kessleri. However, it is believed that the dissolved cations and organic ligand content in TPW (such as naphthenic acids) may interfere with metal binding on the cell surface and lower extracellular bioaccumulation. In addition, the total bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factor (BCF) varied during the cultivation period in different growth regimes. PMID:23149182

Mahdavi, Hamed; Liu, Yang; Ulrich, Ania C

2012-11-11

237

Metal removal from oil sands tailings pond water by indigenous micro-alga.  

PubMed

This paper reports the removal of ten target metals of environmental concern ((53)Cr, Mn, Co, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, As, (88)Sr, (95)Mo, and Ba) from oil sands tailings pond water. The organism responsible for removal was found to be an indigenous green micro-alga identified as Parachlorella kessleri by sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene. P. kessleri grew in tailings pond water samples taken from two oil sands operators (Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Albian Sands Energy Inc.), and enriched with low (0.24 mM NO(3)(-) and 0.016 mM PO(4)(-3)) and high (1.98 mM NO(3)(-) and 0.20mM PO(4)(-3)) concentrations of nutrient supplements (the most realistic scenario). The removal of (60)Ni, (65)Cu, As, (88)Sr, (95)Mo, and Ba from Syncrude tailings pond water was significantly enhanced by high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, whereas the high nutrient concentrations adversely affected the removal of Co, (60)Ni, As, (88)Sr, and Mo in samples of Albian tailings pond water. Based on ANOVA two-factor analysis, higher nutrient concentration does not always result in higher metal removal, and TPW source must also be considered. PMID:22583786

Mahdavi, Hamed; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

2012-05-13

238

Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery using sand pack column.  

PubMed

Bacillus licheniformis K125, isolated from an oil reservoir, produces an effective bioemulsifier. The crude bioemulsifier showed 66% emulsification activity (E(24)) and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN/m. It contains substantial amount of polysaccharide, protein and lipid. This bioemulsifier is pseudoplastic non-Newtonian in nature. It forms oil in water emulsion which remains stable at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity. It gave 43+/-3.3% additional oil recovery upon application to a sand pack column designed to simulate an oil reservoir. This is 13.7% higher than that obtained from crude lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by the standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2 and 8.5% higher than hot water spring isolate, Bacillus licheniformis TT42. The increased oil recovery obtained by using the crude bioemulsifier can be attributed to its combined surface and emulsification activity. Its mechanism of oil recovery must be similar to the mechanism exhibited by surfactant-polymer flooding process of chemical enhanced oil recovery. PMID:18625271

Suthar, Harish; Hingurao, Krushi; Desai, Anjana; Nerurkar, Anuradha

2008-06-18

239

Do Massive Oil Sands Developments in a Northern Watershed Lead to an Impending Crisis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands developments in northern Alberta are land disruptions of massive proportions, with potentially major impacts on watersheds. Alberta has one of the largest known oil reserves in the world, and developments have about 25,000 sqkm of lease areas, and have approvals for plants to develop over half a million ha (or 54 townships). This is 91% the size of Lake Erie covered mainly with tailings dams, open-pit mines and associated massive removal of forests, wetlands, and soils. With rising oil prices and declining conventional reserves, the current production of about 900,000 barrels per day will dramatically increase. There is considerable confusion over how much water is needed to extract and refine the oil. Best estimated by oil companies are 6 to 10 barrels of water for each barrel of oil. Shell Oil is aiming to bring the water to oil ratio down to 3, however, this is not yet achieved. Trend analysis of the Athabasca streamflow shows that the streamflow is declining, particularly the low flow during winter. In order to sustain a minimum flow that ensures a relatively healthy aquatic environment, the only option the oil sands companies have to ensure uninterrupted production during winter is to build large water reservoirs, which would be filled during the high flow period in spring or summer. A disturbing fact is that this need for reservoirs was never considered until a science panel initiated by the Mikesew Cree First Nation participated in two hearings in the fall of 2003, when two major oil companies applied for licenses of a massive scale each. In the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), water was to be extracted throughout the year, consequently threatening in-stream flow needs at some point in the future. Less than 1% has been reclaimed so far, with questionable success, as the new landscape will be a relatively sterile landscape with minimal biological diversity. Reclamation liabilities need to be included in mining leases. The release of naphthenic acids into water bodies through oil sands refining and potential tailings pond leaks could have huge impacts on the water quality for a large region. The short-comings in the EIAs submitted during the past two and a half years are manifold: a) the hydrological science of the EIAs is extremely sparse, with hardly any references to peer-reviewed journals; b) uncertainty analysis was not included until the 2003 hearings, and today uncertainty analysis is carried out inadequately; c) climate change impacts on streamflow and the water cycle have been totally ignored until the 2003 hearings, and today climate change impact analyses are totally inadequate; d) impacts quantification calculations are based on comparing impacted areas, such as the change of open water areas, to the total study area, instead of the associated pre-development areas, which results in highly underrated impacts quantification; e) the regions of potentially affected impacts from oil sands operations are defined to end at the inflow into Lake Athabasca, which is insufficient as substances carried with the water will flow into Lake Athabasca; f) frequency analyses are based on the wrong frequency distribution, subsequently resulting in inadequate predictions of streamflow extremes.

Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.; Schindler, D.; Komers, P.

2005-12-01

240

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One

McHale

1980-01-01

241

Where Has All the Oil Gone? The use of trace metals as potential indicators of oil contamination in marine sediments and beach sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.

Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.

2011-12-01

242

The measurement of the rate of burning of different coal chars in an electrically heated fluidised bed of sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work measured the rates of burning of three coal chars. This was done by adding small batches (?3mg; particle size 106–150?m) of a char to a hot bed of silica sand (diam. 90–126?m) fluidised by different mixtures of O2+N2, varying from 0 to 100vol% O2. The bed was electrically heated and maintained at 700, 800, 900 or 950?C. The

P. S. Fennell; S. Kadchha; H.-Y. Lee; J. S. Dennis; A. N. Hayhurst

2007-01-01

243

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

2003-02-07

244

Coking contaminated oil shale or tar sand oil on retorted solid fines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on retorted fine solids contained in a coking zone separate from a retorting vessel characterized by the presence of an inert stripping gas of a rate sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

B. G. Spars; R. J. Klett; P. H. Wallman

1985-01-01

245

Process for improving quality of pyrolysis oil from oil shales and tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on the hot mixture of pyrolyzed solids and heat transfer material in a retorting vessel provided with an inert stripping gas of a velocity sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

B. G. Spars; R. J. Klett; P. H. Wallman

1985-01-01

246

Coking contaminated oil shale or tar sand oil on retorted solid fines  

SciTech Connect

Heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on retorted fine solids contained in a coking zone separate from a retorting vessel characterized by the presence of an inert stripping gas of a rate sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

Spars, B.G.; Klett, R.J.; Wallman, P.H.

1985-03-26

247

Process for improving quality of pyrolysis oil from oil shales and tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on the hot mixture of pyrolyzed solids and heat transfer material in a retorting vessel provided with an inert stripping gas of a velocity sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

Spars, B. G.; Klett, R. J.; Wallman, P. H.

1985-06-04

248

Liquid chromatography on oil fractions of coal liquids of some parent and demineralized coals and their maceral groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of the authors earlier efforts to understand the liquefaction behavior of a complex system such as coal, they have extended their approach to the quantitative HPLC analysis of the oil fractions (pentane solubles) of coal liquids. The separation of the macromolecular components of coals into maceral groups is an initial step in developing an understanding of coal liquefaction

B. Chawla; R. Keogh; B. H. Davis

1989-01-01

249

Oil's new rival - coal-water slurry for utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water slurries (CWS), composed of about 70-75% coal, 24-29% water, and 1% chemical additives, offer utilities an alternative to burning oil for power generation. The CWS process has advanced through the pilot plant stage in a little over five years, and now needs a utility demonstration to show that stable combustion flame can be maintained at full and partial loads,

T. Moore; R. Manfred

2009-01-01

250

Use of coal combustion residues and waste foundry sands in flowable fill. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of waste foundry sand (WFS) in flowable fill. However, the concepts developed are applicable to flowable fills containing any type of sand. Even though the flowable fill is presently popular as a trenchfilling material, this study addresses a much broader perspective in order to be able to develop uses of this material in geotechnical applications. Since sand is the major component of flowable fill, replacing sand with a waste material may be beneficial from an economical as well as an environmental point of view. One such waste material produced in large quantities is waste foundry sand, which is a by-product of metal casting industries where sand is used for making molds and cores. Green sands from ferrous foundries in which clay and water are used as binder materials, are mostly non-hazardous. In this research, only green sands were taken. The fly ash used was class F type.

Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W.

1996-05-01

251

Unconventional Hydrocarbons: Oil Shales, Heavy Oil, Tar Sands, Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many decades conventional oil which could be produced at low cost was present in abundance. A low oil price gave no incentive\\u000a to look for other types of resources. It is now clear, however, that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins\\u000a to explore and that the reserves of conventional oil which can be produced cheaply are

Knut Bjørlykke

252

Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.  

PubMed

Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. PMID:20657616

Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

2010-06-01

253

Transcriptional responses of male fathead minnows exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is produced by the oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. OSPW has acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms, but the suite of effects of OSPW, and mechanisms of effects, are not understood. The goal of this study was to use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to quantify abundances of transcripts in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW and ozone-treated OSPW to investigate sublethal effects of untreated OSPW and to determine whether ozonation imparts toxicity upon OSPW. A reference transcriptome of 25,342 contigs was constructed from RNA from livers of fathead minnows exposed to various experimental conditions. Exposure to untreated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 104 transcripts and lesser abundances of 91 transcripts. Oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and immune function were identified as processes affected by OSPW. Exposure to ozone-treated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 57 transcripts and lesser abundances of 75 transcripts. However, in general, putative pathways for effects of OSPW in fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW were not identified in minnows exposed to ozone-treated OSPW, and pathways by which ozone-treated OSPW might have effects were not identified. PMID:23246600

Wiseman, Steve B; He, Yuhe; Gamal-El Din, Mohamed; Martin, Jonathan W; Jones, Paul D; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P

2012-12-14

254

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.  

PubMed

The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 ?g/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality. PMID:23134288

Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-11-14

255

Limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.  

PubMed

Fluorescence spectrophotometry has been proposed as a quick screening technique for the measurement of naphthenic acids (NAs). To evaluate the feasibility of this application, the fluorescence emission spectra of NAs extracted from three oil sands process water sources were compared with that of commercial NAs. The NAs resulting from the bitumen extraction process cannot be differentiated because of the similarity of the fluorescence spectra. Separation of the fluorescent species in NAs using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector proved unsuccessful. The acidic fraction of NAs is fluorescent but the basic fraction of NAs is not fluorescent, implying that aromatic acids in NAs give rise to the fluorescent signals. The concentrations of NAs in oil sands process water were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence spectrophotometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). Commercial Merichem and Kodak NAs are the best standards to use when measuring NAs concentration with FTIR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In addition, the NAs concentrations measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry are about 30 times higher than those measured by FTIR and UPLC-TOF/MS. The findings in this study underscore the limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of NAs. PMID:23379948

Lu, Weibing; Ewanchuk, Andrea; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Sego, Dave; Ulrich, Ania

2013-01-01

256

Coupling bioelectricity generation and oil sands tailings treatment using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

In this study, four dual-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFC1-4) were constructed and filled with different ratios of mature fine tailings and oil sands process-affected water to test the feasibility of MFCs to simultaneously generate electricity and treat oil sands tailings. After 800 h of operation, the maximum voltage was observed in MFC4 at 0.726 V with 1.2k? external resistance loaded. The maximum power density reached 392 ± 15 mW/m(2) during the 1,700 h of MFC4 operation. With continuous electricity generation, MFC4 removed 27.8% of the total COD, 81.8% of the soluble COD and 32.9% of the total acid extractable organics. Moreover, effective removal of eight heavy metals, includes 97.8% of (78)Se, 96.8% of Ba, 94.7% of (88)Sr, 81.3% for (66)Zn, 77.1% of (95)Mo, 66.9% of (63)Cu, 44.9% of (53)Cr and 32.5% of Pb, was achieved. PMID:23669071

Jiang, Yaxin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

2013-04-20

257

Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-05-09

258

Barley, a potential species for initial reclamation of saline composite tailings of oil sands.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry in Alberta (Canada) has developed the composite tailings (CT) process to reduce the fluid fine tails resulting from the processing of oil sands. This process uses a chemical coagulant (gypsum or alum) to produce aggregated fines (clay), so they are retained with the coarse sand fraction of the extraction tailings to form CT, from which fines-free water is released relatively quickly compared with untreated tailings. The resulting CT and CT waters are saline-sodic, with Na+, SO4(2-), and Cl- being the dominant ions. When freshly deposited, the CT deposits are too soft for access by reclamation equipment, and the time required for these deposits to remove the water sufficiently to support traffic is uncertain. A greenhouse study was designed to determine the suitability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for reclamation of fresh CT deposits and to evaluate benefits of peat amendments. This study assessed germination, early plant growth, chlorophyll content, and survival of barley growing in alum- and gypsum-treated CT, with and without peat amendment. Ion and trace metal accumulation in the root and shoot tissues of barley was determined. Amendment of CT with peat improved germination, survival, and growth of barley, but did not prevent leaf injury (probably due to Na and Cl- and possibly multiple nutrient deficiency). Field studies will be undertaken to validate our greenhouse results suggesting that barley could be used to improve dewatering of the freshly deposited substrates, reduce soil erosion, and facilitate leaching of ions by root penetration into the substrate. PMID:14674548

Renault, Sylvie; MacKinnon, Mike; Qualizza, Clara

259

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

260

Polymerization in narrow fractions of coal tar wash-oil  

SciTech Connect

Certain changes take place in coal tar wash-oil as it is circulated through the benzol hydrocarbons recovery and distillation cycle. It undergoes condensation, loses much of its light distillates content and attains a higher cp. One major problem with coal tar wash-oil is its tendency to form polymers as it circulates through the processing cycle and comes into contact with coke-oven gas. The polymerization rate is affected by a number of factors relating to the composition of the wash-oil, the concentrations in the coke-oven gas of components capable of promoting condensation and the operating conditions in the processing cycle. It has been shown that H/sub 2/S and O/sub 2/ in the coke-oven gas greatly accelerate polymerization processes in the wash-oil. Cyanide compounds and oxides of nitrogen also impair the quality of coal tar wash-oil.The deterioration of wash-oil in circulation leads to a serious rise in its cp and the rapid build-up of deposits on the scrubber packings, with serious effects on the performances of the benzol recovery and distillation sections. We have attempted to evaluate the polymerization tendencies of individual narrow wash-oil fractions. The tests were planned to simulate the conditions under which wash-oil can condense and polymerize. The results show that polymerization proceeds most rapidly in the fractions boiling at 280 to 285 and 285 to 295/sup 0/C. They rapidly increase in density and viscosity and lower the quality of the entire oil. The most stable fractions in respect of polymerization are those boiling up to 270/sup 0/C and up to 280/sup 0/C. These tests have shown that wash-oil boiling up to 280/sup 0/C is the least liable to polymerization; its processing quality is superior and the specific consumption can thus be reduced.

Volkov, E.L.; Akulov, P.V.; Zhilyaev, Yu. A.; Samarkina, A.A.

1981-01-01

261

Observations on the Effects of Natural Oil Seeps in the Coal Oil Point Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available data from population, community, and ecosystem studies from an area of natural marine oil seepage, Coal Oil Point, California, are reviewed and a hypothesis presented to explain the information. This suggests a relation that exists through time and space. Exposure to a large volume of petroleum results initially in total or almost total destruction of all organisms, followed by

Dale Straughan; D. H. Dalby; D. J. Crisp; J. M. Baker; A. J. Southward; A. D. McIntyre; J. H. Vandermeulen

1982-01-01

262

Sovent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery for In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO{sub 2}. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO{sub 2} density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

Norman Munroe

2009-01-30

263

Larvicidal efficacy and biological stability of a botanical natural product, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical analysis on Curcuma zedoaria rhizome volatile oil, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometer techniques, demonstrated the presence of ?-tumerone (19.88%),\\u000a 1,8-cineole (8.93%), and 7-zingiberene (7.84%) as major constituents. Larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes of zedoary oil and its formulated preparation, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, were investigated and compared\\u000a with that of Abate®sand (temephos). Zedoary oil exhibited pronounced potential against the

Daruna Champakaew; Wej Choochote; Yanee Pongpaibul; Udom Chaithong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Benjawan Tuetun; Benjawan Pitasawat

2007-01-01

264

Coal as a source rock for oil: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological debate about whether, and to what extent, humic coals have sourced oil is likely to continue for some time, despite some important advances in our knowledge of the processes involved. It is clear that not only liptinites, but also perhydrous vitrinites have the potential to generate hydrocarbon liquids in the course of natural coalification. Some liptinites, especially alginite,

Ronald W. T Wilkins; Simon C George

2002-01-01

265

H-coal slurry oil composition and process performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study to determine the relationship between slurry oil composition and process performance in 8 areas were carried out for the H-coal process. These 8 areas are: (1) changes in slurry recycle stream composition during startup, (2) the manner in which the process reaches steady state operation during stable operation, (4) the changes in recycle composition in response

F. P. Burke; R. A. Winschel

1981-01-01

266

Potential end uses of oil produced by wet forward combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In this report an evaluation is made of the potential end uses of an oil produced from Asphalt Ridge tar sand by wet forward combustion. The oil is evaluated with respect to its potential to produce a specification-grade asphalt and an aviation turbine fuel. To accomplish this the oil was vacuum distilled to produce a distillate and a residue. The distillation residue meets all of the ASTM D-3381 Table 1 specification tests for an AC-10 asphalt. However, the 135/sup 0/C (275/sup 0/F) viscosity is low when compared with the more stringent ASTM D-3381 Table 2 requirements. The residue also has an unusually low aging index. This indicates not only that it may not set properly, but also it may be resistant to rapid age hardening. The results from successive freeze-thaw cycling indicate that the residue, when coated on appropriate aggregates, is comparable to or better than some petroleum asphalts coated on the same aggregates. Freeze-thaw cycling to failure is an indirect measure of the resistance of an asphalt-aggregate mixture to moisture-induced loss of strength. The distillate of the thermally produced oil represents about 50 wt % of the oil. The chemical and physical properties of the distillate are better than those of the original bitumen and the thermally produced oil. Combined gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis of the neutral fraction from the distillate indicates it is composed of predominantly aromatic structures. The aromatic structures are primarily of the 2- and 3-ring type and the saturate structures are primarily of the 3-ring type. It is believed that upon hydrogenation this distillate could be a source of high-density or endothermic aviation turbine fuels.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1987-09-01

267

Influence of inorganic anions on metals release from oil sands coke and on toxicity of nickel and vanadium to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study it was shown that pH significantly influences the release of metals from oil sands coke, particularly Ni and V which were identified as the cause of coke leachate toxicity. Coke comes in contact with oil sands process water (OSPW) during its transport and long term storage in reclamation landscapes. However, the influence of dominant inorganic anions

Naveen Puttaswamy; Karsten Liber

268

Evolution of gas, oil and coal  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Fuels Theory was conceived in the 1830's by William E. Logan. Under each of nearly 100 coal seams, he observed a bed of bleached clay that contained a tangled mass of long, fibrous casts ''with a thin coating of carbonaceous matter.'' Plant fossils and imprints were found throughout the coal. His conclusion that plants turned into coal seemed logical. In the 1920's, a biochemist, J.B.S. Haldane added to this concept by theorizing that petroleum was created from tiny marine organisms. It was then logical to conclude that natural gas was a product of decomposition of plants and animals. Over the years, a significant amount of subtle, yet distinct, evidence that argues against the validity of the FFT has accumulated in the literature. These arguments have been condensed into six critical points in this presentation. For example, the FFT is based on the supposition that plants died and became a mass of compacted, decayed vegetable matter during the initial stages of coal formation. If this were true, the original structural integrity of the plants' imprints could not have been preserved as they were in the coal.

Scarbourough, A.

1983-12-01

269

Characterization of oil generation and expulsion from coals and source rocks using diamond anvil cell pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visual technique has been developed using a diamond anvil cell to characterize oil-prone vs. gas-prone coals and source rocks, and evaluate their oil expulsion efficiency. The experiments, conducted using 15 humic or shaly coals, two boghead coals, and eight source rock samples from Taiwan, Turkey, North America, and Australia, show that the technique has potential to distinguish oil-prone coals

Ruei-Fu Weng; Wuu-Liang Huang; Cheng-Lung Kuo; Sedat Inan

2003-01-01

270

Scales of geological heterogeneity of a deep-water sand giant oil field  

SciTech Connect

To understand the levels of accuracy that can be placed upon different scales of reservoir description, turbidite intervals in part of the giant Wilmington oil field, California, have been numerically described at four scales of heterogeneity. The degree of accuracy of the description, in terms of real geologic variability, is found to diminish with increasing scale. At the microscale (grains and pores) and mesoscale (near well bore), the following flow units, listed in order of decreasing reservoir quality, were defined by relating various geologic and petrophysical properties: thick-bedded sand, thin-bedded sand, and shale. Mutual relationships among the geologic and petrophysical properties are a result of primary depositional processes. At the macroscale (interwell), shale beds are laterally continuous over long distances and probably isolate individual sands by acting as vertical permeability barriers. Petrophysical properties, such as permeability, vary between wells within an order of magnitude of measured values. The relationships among petrophysical properties and geologic properties established at the single-well scale are sometimes but not always predictable between wells. At the megascale (field wide), the turbidites were placed within the context of Vail's integrated sequence stratigraphy model, Walker's progradational submarine fan model, and Mutti's turbidite systems model to illustrate that there is not a unique interpretation when the overall size of a depositional system is larger than that of the data grid. At this scale, petrophysical properties are averaged over a large stratigraphic interval so that there is very little interwell predictability; however, the primary depositional control on gross petrophysical properties is maintained.

Slatt, R.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA)); Phillips, S. (ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage (USA)); Boak, J.M. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); Lagoe, M.B. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1990-05-01

271

H-Coal Process: Slurry Oil System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an improved manner of operating a coal hydrogenation in an ebullated bed reactor wherein the composition of the liquid slurry within the reactor is controlled so as to cantain a liquid residuum content of from about 30 to 45 weight pe...

R. H. Wolk E. Johanson

1970-01-01

272

Metabolic and Molecular Approaches to the Study of Bacterial Communities in Wetlands of the Alberta Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities in wetlands from the Athabasca region (Alberta, Canada) were surveyed and their utility as bio-indicators for wetland reclamation was assessed. Sediment samples were collected from wetlands categorized as: (1) natural (off mining leases), (2) reference (on mining sites but not directly impacted by oil sands processed material (OSPM)), and (3) OSPM (directly affected by OSPM). Wetlands of the

Jessica Dawn Morrison

2009-01-01

273

The influence of solvent and demulsifier additions on nascent froth formation during flotation recovery of Bitumen from Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the commercial slurry conditioning and flotation process applied to Athabasca oil sands the primary bituminous froth can contain significant amounts of emulsified water and suspended solids. Previous work [Fuel Process. Technol. 56 (1998) 243] has shown that a small chemical addition during the nascent froth process can yield froth of higher quality, without sacrificing bitumen recovery or increasing tight

Elaine N. Stasiuk; Laurier L. Schramm

2001-01-01

274

A relevance vector machine-based approach with application to oil sand pump prognostics.  

PubMed

Oil sand pumps are widely used in the mining industry for the delivery of mixtures of abrasive solids and liquids. Because they operate under highly adverse conditions, these pumps usually experience significant wear. Consequently, equipment owners are quite often forced to invest substantially in system maintenance to avoid unscheduled downtime. In this study, an approach combining relevance vector machines (RVMs) with a sum of two exponential functions was developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of field pump impellers. To handle field vibration data, a novel feature extracting process was proposed to arrive at a feature varying with the development of damage in the pump impellers. A case study involving two field datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed method. Compared with standalone exponential fitting, the proposed RVM-based model was much better able to predict the remaining useful life of pump impellers. PMID:24051527

Hu, Jinfei; Tse, Peter W

2013-09-18

275

Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program  

SciTech Connect

Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

Radvanyi, A.

1980-12-01

276

The Impact of Emission Compliance Costs on Investment in Alberta's Oil Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A net present value model with simulation analysis and a binomial real options model are developed to examine the impact of changes in emission compliance costs on the decision to invest in a representative steam assisted gravity drainage project in Alberta's oil sands. The project used in this analysis is found to generate positive returns when emission compliance costs increase from 15.00 to 100 per tonne when accounting for the option to abandon the project. This result is driven in part by the treatment of emission compliance costs in the calculation of royalties. The implications of removing abatement costs from the list of allowable expenses for the purpose of royalty calculations is also discussed.

Shewchuk, Pearce William

277

Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ?3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO?S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O? species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O? species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O? species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O? species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region. PMID:23607765

Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

2013-05-09

278

Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21 d. Half of the fish from the 21 d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100 mg/kg dose. However, at 21 d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100 mg/kg dose. In the 21 d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose × A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells. PMID:23159729

MacDonald, Gillian Z; Hogan, Natacha S; Köllner, Bernd; Thorpe, Karen L; Phalen, Laura J; Wagner, Brian D; van den Heuvel, Michael R

2012-10-27

279

Direct evaluation of in situ biodegradation in athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance radiocarbon.  

PubMed

Compound-specific stable (?(13)C) and radiocarbon (?(14)C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. Algal-specific PLFAs were absent at three of the four sites investigated, and ?(13)CPLFA values were generally within ?3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (?-30‰), suggesting that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. ?(14)CPLFA values ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to significant uptake of fossil carbon, particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively heavier ?(14)C values found in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population. Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially "radiocarbon dead" (i.e., ?(14)C ? -1000‰), the principal source for this relatively modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential utilization of the minor amount of younger and presumably more labile material present in systems otherwise dominated by petroleum carbon has important implications for remediation strategies, since it implies that organic contaminants may persist long after reclamation has begun. Alternatively, this young organic matter could play a vital and necessary role in supporting the microbial utilization of fossil carbon via cometabolism or priming processes. PMID:23957578

Ahad, Jason M E; Pakdel, Hooshang

2013-09-09

280

Mercury trends in colonial waterbird eggs downstream of the oil sands region of alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury levels were measured in colonial waterbird eggs collected from two sites in northern Alberta and one site in southern Alberta, Canada. Northern sites in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and Lake Athabasca were located in receiving waters of the Athabasca River which drains the oil sands industrial region north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Temporal trends in egg mercury (Hg) levels were assessed as were egg stable nitrogen isotope values as an indicator of dietary change. In northern Alberta, California and Ring-billed Gulls exhibited statistically significant increases in egg Hg concentrations in 2012 compared to data from the earliest year of sampling. Hg levels in Caspian and Common Tern eggs showed a nonstatistically significant increase. In southern Alberta, Hg concentrations in California Gull eggs declined significantly through time. Bird dietary change was not responsible for any of these trends. Neither were egg Hg trends related to recent forest fires. Differences in egg Hg temporal trends between northern and southern Alberta combined with greater Hg levels in eggs from northern Alberta identified the likely importance of local Hg sources in regulating regional Hg trends. Hg concentrations in gull and Common Tern eggs were generally below generic thresholds associated with toxic effects in birds. However, in 2012, Hg levels in the majority of Caspian Tern eggs exceeded the lower toxicity threshold. Increasing Hg levels in eggs of multiple species nesting downstream of the oil sands region of northern Alberta warrant continued monitoring and research to further evaluate Hg trends and to conclusively identify sources. PMID:24070029

Hebert, Craig E; Campbell, David; Kindopp, Rhona; Macmillan, Stuart; Martin, Pamela; Neugebauer, Ewa; Patterson, Lucy; Shatford, Jeff

2013-09-26

281

Effect of ozonation on the estrogenicity and androgenicity of oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

There is increasing environmental concern about the volume of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) produced by the oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. There is limited knowledge of the toxic effects of OSPW and one of the primary organic constituents, naphthenic acids (NAs), which are thought to be one of the toxic constituents of OSPW. OSPW and NAs can have endocrine disrupting potential. The NAs in OSPW are persistent, but ozonation can significantly reduce concentrations of NA, while increasing their biodegradability, and consequently reduce OSPW toxicity. However, it is of concern that OSPW ozonation might generate hydroxylated cycloaliphatics with endocrine disrupting potential. In this study, the estrogen receptor- (ER) and androgen receptor- (AR) mediated effects of OSPW and ozone-treated OSPW were investigated in vitro by use of T47D-kbluc (estrogen responsive) and MDA-kb2 (androgen responsive) cells. Ozonation neither attenuated nor intensified the estrogenicity of OSPW. The estrogenic responses to untreated OSPW and ozone treated OSPW were 2.58(±0.22)-fold and 2.48(±0.13)-fold greater than those of controls, respectively. Exposure to untreated OSPW produced significant antiandrogenicity in the presence of 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 nM testosterone (T), while ozone-treated OSPW produced significant antiandrogenicity in the presence of 0.01 or 0.05 nM T. Exposure to untreated and ozone-treated OSPW also caused potentiation of androgen receptor-mediated effects of T. OSPW could cause estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects through receptor mediated pathways, and ozonation can partially mitigate the OSPW antiandrogenicity as well as androgen potentiating effect, without increasing estrogen potency. PMID:21675710

He, Yuhe; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Nan; Perez, Leonidas A; Jones, Paul D; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

2011-06-29

282

Synthesis and Analysis of Jet Fuels from Shale Oil and Coal Syncrudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical problems involved in converting a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or coal syncrude into a suitable aviation turbine fuel were studied. TOSCO shale oil, H-Coal and COED coal syncrudes were the starting materials. They we...

A. C. Antoine J. P. Gallagher

1976-01-01

283

Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.  

PubMed

Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and a significant increase in the dry sand abrasion wear resistance when compared with the microstructured coating. PMID:19916449

Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

2009-07-01

284

Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

2012-05-31

285

On the utilization of waste vegetable oils (WVO) as agglomerants to recover coal from coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW) from two different Spanish coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with waste vegetable oils (WVO) of household origin over a wide range of oil concentration with the aim of recovering high-calorific value\\/low-ash content coal. The results were evaluated in terms of organic matter recovery (OMR) and ash rejection (AR) from CFCW. In addition to the WVO

Adolfo F. Valdés; Ana B. Garcia

2006-01-01

286

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-10-30

287

Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100.

J. W. Murray

2009-01-01

288

Oil price shocks and employment: the case of Ohio coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic theory suggests that oil price shocks will have an impact on employment in local coal markets. However, theory is silent on both the absolute and relative magnitudes. Based on vector autoregressive models, we find that oil price shocks, and therefore OPEC policies, have significant impacts on Ohio coal mining employment. Our study indicates that oil price shocks have larger

John H. Hoag; Mark Wheeler

1996-01-01

289

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

290

Studies for the Stabilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures. Final Report, August 1978-May 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared wi...

G. D. Botsaris Y. M. Glazman M. Adams-Viola

1981-01-01

291

For oil: a mining alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shale development plans are surging again. The modern era of commercial extraction of oil from shales, tar sands, and other non-coal sources could be back-dated to 1967, the year that a Sun Oil Co. subsidiary dedicated a 90,000 short tons\\/day strip mine and a 50,000-bpd plant in the Athabasca tar sands of Alberta, Canada. Since then, Syncrude Canada Ltd.

Dayton

1981-01-01

292

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

A. G. Oblad; J. W. Bunger; D. A. Dahlstrom; M. D. Deo; J. V. Fletcher; F. V. Hanson; J. D. Miller; J. D. Seader

1994-01-01

293

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01

294

Toxicity of shale oil to freshwater algae: comparisons with petroleum and coal-derived oils  

SciTech Connect

The toxicities of various water-soluble fractions of Paraho/SOHIO shale oils and coal liquefaction products to the algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa are investigated. Photosynthetic inhibition is the criterion of toxicity. A secondary objective of the algal bioassay is determination of the range of toxic concentrations. (ACR)

Giddings, J.M.

1980-01-01

295

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Quarterly report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The product size depicted by the median size and d{sub 90} as well as the corresponding specific energy for the series of tests with silica sand and steel shot respectively are given in Table 3. It is obvious from these results that the products from both systems have a similar degree of fineness. but the silica sand system uses a relatively lower specific energy than the steel shot system. Depending on the experimental conditions, the energy input ratio of the steel and sand media systems varies between 1.3 to 5. Such a difference in energy input is expected due to the difference in the specific gravity of the two media particularly where equal volume of the media is used and no dramatic changes in the slurry rheology occurs during the grinding operation. The energy consumption for both the silica sand and steel shot systems increase with increasing stirring speed as well as decreasing slurry density. Since the corresponding influence on the product fineness is minimal, it is more economical to employ relatively low stirring speeds and high pulp densities. The feed particle size seems to have only a small influence on the product size in the range studies.

Not Available

1992-09-01

296

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

1986-10-01

297

Combustion studies of coal-in-oil droplets. Final report, August 1, 1977-July 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The combustion characteristics of droplets of coal-oil mixtures (COM) were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Results show that agglomeration of the coal powder occurs upon complete depletion of the volatile oil components, and therefore has serious implications regarding radiation transfer, total burning time, and particulate collection efficiency. Agglomeration is somewhat irrelevant for COM with No. 6 oil because of the small volatility-differentials between coal and No. 6 oil. As a result of agglomeration, fine-crushing the coal is unnecessary unless they can be reduced to micron-sizes such that agglomerate ignition is facilitated.

Law, C.K.

1979-12-01

298

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

299

Vapor-liquid equilibrium of aromatic oil from coal hydrogasification  

SciTech Connect

The need for appropriate phase equilibrium data in the design of emerging coal conversion technology and particularly for the coal hydrogasification process has been the primary reason for the initiation of this project. A recirculation type vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) apparatus has been constructed for obtaining phase equilibrium data for complex hydrocarbon mixtures at high pressures and temperatures. A specially designed value has been used for obtaining equilibrium phase samples. The performance of the apparatus was tested for attainment of equilibrium in comparison with published data on VLE and N/sub 2/-n-decane systems. A systematic and complete VLE data for Ch/sub 4/-aromatic oil and H/sub 2/-aromatic oil systems, for pressures in the range of 20 to 110 atm and temperatures in the range of 400 to 550 K is presented. The multicomponent aromatic oil is a simulated light oil from coal hydrogasification without the presence of any highly polar components. Correlations for the estimation of hypothetical liquid phase pure component fugacities of hydrogen and methane, based on binary hydrocarbon VLE data, are presented. The correlations are to be used in conjunction with (1) the Prausnitz-Chueh modification of the Redlich-Kwong equation state for estimation of the vapor phase fugacity coefficients; (2) a slightly modified regular solution theory for estimation of activity coefficients and (3) the Lee-Edmister correlation for estimation of pure component hydrocarbon liquid phase fugacities at subcritical conditions. The methodology presented here has been tested for the computation of the VLE of a few ternary and quaternary systems at high pressures and temperatures with fair success. The technique presented here offers a viable means of estimation of high pressure and temperature VLE of complex hydrocarbon systems.

Srinivasan, R.

1981-01-01

300

Technique to Improve Fuel Extraction for Coal Seams Intersected by Oil and Gas Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal, gas, and oil in many geological formations of the eastern United States are intimately associated but have traditionally been recovered independently of each other. Oil and gas wells, however, are often spaced sufficiently close to cause the subsequ...

R. D. Haynes

1974-01-01

301

Has Alberta oil sands development increased far-field delivery of airborne contaminants to the Peace-Athabasca Delta?  

PubMed

Identifying potential regional contamination by Alberta oil sands industrial emissions on sensitive ecosystems like the Peace-Athabasca Delta, ~200 km to the north, requires knowledge of historical contaminant levels and trends. Here we provide some of these critically-needed data, based on analysis of metals in a sediment core from an upland precipitation-fed lake in the delta. The lake is well-situated to record the anthropogenic history of airborne contaminant deposition for this region. Sediment records of metals of concern (Pb, Sb, As, Hg) reflect early to mid-20th century increases in North American industrial emissions, followed by reduced emissions due to improved industrial practices after 1950-70. Notably, Pb, Sb, As and Hg have declined since the onset of Alberta oil sands production, belying concerns that this activity has enhanced far-field atmospheric delivery of these contaminants to the delta. PMID:22819889

Wiklund, Johan A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Edwards, Thomas W D; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George

2012-07-20

302

Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The fine tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil sand and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil sands create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil sand areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil sand-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil sand, unprocessed and processed mature fine tailings samples as well as in tailings sands used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its subsequent separation into asphaltenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, neutral nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen (NSO) compounds and carboxylic acids. The asphaltene fractions are analysed using pyrolysis-GC, all other fractions are analysed by GC-MS. Additionally Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is used to study the chemical composition of the samples on the molecular level using different ionisation methods.

Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

2012-04-01

303

Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

304

Recognition of down-valley translation in tidally influenced meandering fluvial deposits, Athabasca Oil Sands (Cretaceous), Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast Athabasca Oil Sands of Alberta, Canada has an estimated resource of more than 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen in-place, the majority of which is hosted in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation. Despite its economical significance the depositional environment of the formation, and particularly the middle part that is the primary reservoir in most areas, is still a matter

Milovan Fustic; Stephen M. Hubbard; Ron Spencer; Derald G. Smith; Dale A. Leckie; Barry Bennett; Steve Larter

305

Nature and distribution of Ni(II) complexes in oil sand asphaltenes  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of asphaltenes with two Ni(II) porphyrins and a non-porphyrin complex in organic medium and with nickel (II) sulfate in aqueous solutions were investigated. The nickel (II) acetylacetonate-asphaltene reaction in chloroform solution occurred rapidly. No saturation Ni(II) content in asphaltenes after this reaction was observed up to a Ni(II) content of 174 ..mu..mole Ni/g. It was shown that discrete Ni(acac)/sub 2/ molecule adsorbs weakly on asphaltenes but that the dominant reaction involved acetylacetonate ligand replacement by asphaltenes functional groups. Nickel (II) mesoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (Ni-DME) was adsorbed by oil-sand asphaltenes to a greater extent than nickel (II) octaethylphorphyrin (Ni-OEP) possibly due to hydrogen bonding between the ester groups of Ni-DME and asphaltene functional groups. The Ni(II) porphyrin adsorption on asphaltenes in the chloroform solution and not during asphaltene precipitation. The Cu(II) content in asphaltenes after reaction with Cu(acac)/sub 2/ in chloroform under similar reaction conditions used for Ni(acac)/sub 2/ - asphaltene reaction indicated that Cu(II) was taken up by asphaltenes to a smaller extent than Ni(II). The reaction rate of the interaction between asphaltenes and aqueous solutions of nickel (II) sulfate was slow, and dependent on the interfacial contact between the aqueous and organic phases.

Nguyen, S.N.

1986-01-01

306

Organic constituents in process water from tar-sand oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was performed on acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid filtrates and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of composite samples of raw process water collected from two in situ tar-sand oil recovery experiments. The experiments, conducted by Laramie Energy Technology Center, were the reverse/forward combustion experiment (TS-2C) of 1977 and the steam injection experiment (TS-1S) of 1980. Some 143 extractable/chromatographable organic compounds were tentatively identified in the TS-2C sample, and 95 were identified in the TS-1S sample. The predominant organic groups in the TS-2C process water included cyclic cyclohexonyl compounds, acetophenones of ketones, and alcohols in the neutral fraction; quinolines and isoquinolines, pyridines, phenyl piperidines, and pyrazoles in the base fraction; and phenols, carboxylic acids, and lactones in the acid fraction. Predominant in the TS-1S process water were alkenes or cyclohexanes, cyclic ketones, and toluenes in the neutral fraction; quinolines and isoquinolines, acridines, pyrazoles, pyridines, phenol piperdines, and piperidines in the base fraction; and phenols in the acid fraction.

Raphaelian, L.A.; Harrison, W.; Torpy, M.F.

1981-08-01

307

Detection of naphthenic acids in fish exposed to commercial naphthenic acids and oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that occur naturally in petroleum. During the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands in northeastern Alberta, Canada, naphthenic acids are released into the aqueous phase and these acids become the most toxic components in the process-affected water. Although previous studies have exposed fish to naphthenic acids or oil sands process-affected waters, there has been no analytical method to specifically detect naphthenic acids in fish. Here, we describe a qualitative method to specifically detect these acids. In 96-h static renewal tests, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were exposed to three different treatments: (1) fed pellets that contained commercial naphthenic acids (1.5mg g(-1) of food), (2) kept in tap water that contained commercial naphthenic acids (3mg l(-1)) and (3) kept in an oil sands process-affected water that contained 15mg naphthenic acids l(-1). Five-gram samples of fish were homogenized and extracted, then the mixture of free fatty acids and naphthenic acids was isolated from the extract using strong anion exchange chromatography. The mixture was derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reconstructed ion chromatograms (m/z=267) selectively detected naphthenic acids. These acids were present in each fish that was exposed to naphthenic acids, but absent in fish that were not exposed to naphthenic acids. The minimum detectable concentration was about 1microg naphthenic acids g(-1) of fish. PMID:17287002

Young, R F; Orr, E A; Goss, G G; Fedorak, P M

2007-02-06

308

Monitoring the Effects of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water (OSPW) on Thecamoebian Assemblages: An Experimental Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thecamoebian (testate amoeba) assemblages have been shown to respond over short time periods to environmental conditions in aquatic reclamation options under development at oil sands operations in northeastern Alberta. This makes them a useful bio-monitoring tool for assessing reclamation success. Thecamoebian responses to Oil Sands Process Water (OSPW) have been monitored in the field at lacustrine and wetland test sites established by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Ltd. These field studies have confirmed that the generation times of testate amoebas is sufficiently rapid to permit the construction of a controlled laboratory experiment to be completed within one year, where controlled exposures of a natural assemblage of thecamoebians to OSPW can be undertaken to better understand the community responses to stressors We intend to culture these protists in the lab and monitor their response to different concentrations of OSPW in a controlled environment. Survival and changes in relative community composition (difflugiids vs. centropyxids) will be used to establish the dilution of OSPW in which thecameobians can survive and examine how a natural assemblage changes over time in response to increased concentrations of OSPW. This will assist in reclamation management in the Oil Sands region of Alberta.

Christie, D. G.; McCarthy, F. F.; Penner, T.; MacKinnon, M. M.

2009-05-01

309

Liquid fuels from coal: analysis of a partial transition from oil to coal; light liquids in Zimbabwe's liquid fuels base  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the feasibility of a coal based light liquids program as a way to localize forces that determine the flow of oil into the Zimbabwean economy. Methods in End-use Energy Analysis and Econometrics in which the utilization of petroleum energy is related to economic and industrial activity are used to gain insight into the structure and behavior of petroleum utilization in that country and to forecast future requirements of this resource. The feasibility of coal liquefaction as a substitute for imported oil is assessed by the use of engineering economics in which the technical economics of competing oil supply technologies are analyzed and the best option is selected. Coal conversion technologies are numerous but all except the Fischer-Trosch indirect coal liquefaction technology are deficient in reliability as commercial ventures. The Fischer-Tropsch process by coincidence better matches Zimbabwe's product configuration than the less commercially advanced technologies. Using present value analysis to compare the coal liquefaction and the import option indicates that it is better to continue importing oil than to resort to a coal base for a portion of the oil supplies. An extended analysis taking special consideration of the risk and uncertainty factors characteristic of Zimbabwe's oil supply system indicates that the coal option is better than the import option. The relative infancy of the coal liquefaction industry and the possibility that activities responsible for the risk and uncertainty in the oil supply system will be removed in the future, however, make the adoption of the coal option an unusually risky undertaking.

Maya, R.S.

1986-01-01

310

Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡  

PubMed Central

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.

Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

2011-01-01

311

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C? to C??) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10? to 10.2 × 10? copies g?¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10? to 1.4 × 10? copies g?¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

2011-09-23

312

Wetland regulations affecting coal mining and oil and gas operations  

SciTech Connect

Although the total acreage of wetlands in Appalachia is relatively small, the impact of wetlands on coal mining and the oil and gas industry can be significant. Wetlands are strongly protected from degradation and diminution under both federal and state regulatory programs, and both environmental protection groups and the public are concerned about the disturbance of natural wetlands. If an owner or operator of site is unable to obtain an appropriate permit, the presence of wetlands may completely preclude energy development. This article strives to provide an insight into the regulatory scheme surrounding wetlands and the risks of wetlands development.

Tokarz, A.P. [Bowles Rice McDavid Graff & Love, Charleston, WV (United States); Dulin, B.E. [Univ. Center for Environmental, Geotechnical, and Applied Sciences, Huntington, WV (United States)

1995-12-31

313

Cultivation of yeast on light-oil fractions of hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The results are given of experiments on the cultivation of the yeast Candida tropicalis on light-oil fractions of coal-tar. It has been shown that a light fraction can serve as the sole source of carbon and energy. Surface active agents stimulate the growth of the yeast on the light-oil fractions of hard-coal tar.

Kucher, R.V.; Dzumeozei, N.V.; Pavlyuk, M.I.; Tyrovskii, A.A.

1982-01-01

314

APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

315

Apparatus for manufacturing and stabilizing coal-oil-water fuel mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus, suitable for making a coal-oil-water fuel mixture, includes a grinder for grinding coal a relatively fine particle size, a mixer for controllably mixing the coal particles with water and and a sonic agitator to stabilize the mixture. The sonic agitator comprises a processing chamber associated with or having two opposed plates which are oscillated by appropriate transducers at controllable

L. E. Poetschke; V. Zeitz

1983-01-01

316

Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.  

PubMed

'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ?C3 carboxylic acid side chains. PMID:23856466

Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

2013-07-12

317

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

1995-12-31

318

An experimental study for a combined system of tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake as a potential energy source in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is an example of a third world country that is non-oil producing but contains huge reserves of other energy sources such as tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake. Some limited research is available about how to utilize these energy sources in pure form. However, available research does not deal with combinations of these energy sources. This experimental study

M. M Kablan; T. M Alkhamis

1999-01-01

319

Energy Requirements for the Production of a Synthetic Crude Oil from Athabasca Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed process analysis is provided of operations for producing syncrude from tar sands at the Athabasca deposit in Alberta, Canada. A comparison is made of the calculated net energy requirement of the syncrude with those determined previously for oth...

D. F. Hemming

1976-01-01

320

Toxic effects of oil sand naphthenic acids on the biomass accumulation of 21 potential phytoplankton remediation candidates.  

PubMed

The oil sands of northern Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 170 billion barrels of crude oil. Extraction processes produce large amounts of liquid tailings known as oil sand process affected water (OSPW) that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Naphthenic acids (NAs), and their sodium salts, represent a significant contributor to the toxicity of these waters. Due to the recalcitrant nature of these compounds, an effective mode of remediation has yet to be established. This study investigates the suitability of the use of phytoplankton for remediation efforts based on two criteria: the ability of phytoplankton strains to withstand the toxic effects of NAs, and their rate of biomass accumulation. A total of 21 phytoplankton strains were isolated from waters containing NAs, cultured, and maintained under unialgal conditions. These strains were then exposed to NAs in concentrations ranging from 0mg L(-1) to 1000mg L(-1) over a 14 day period. Inhibition of growth was observed at 30mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 100mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 300mg L(-1) NA (six strains), and 1000mg L(-1) NA (six strains). Five strains failed to show any growth inhibition at any test concentration and two strains could not be analysed due to poor growth during the test period. Strains were then ranked based on their suitability for use in remediation efforts. PMID:23031586

Woodworth, Adam P J; Frank, Richard A; McConkey, Brendan J; Müller, Kirsten M

2012-09-29

321

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry as Indicators of Regionally Elevated Atmospheric N and S Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission from ongoing development of oil sands in northern Alberta results in regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S in an area where background deposition of both N and S is exceptionally low (less than 1 kg/ha/yr). Because bogs, which represent major landforms in the Alberta oil sands region, are believed to be N-limited and potentially sensitive to S inputs, we have been investigating the effects of elevated N deposition on C, N, and S cycling in bogs, as well as the potential of bogs to serve as monitors of N and S deposition. Toward this latter end, we have measured seasonal variation (5 sampling dates between June and October 2009) concentrations of N and S, as well as ?15N value, in leaf tissues (Picea mariana (ectomycorrhizal); Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpon, Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal); Rubus chamaemorus, and Smilacina trifolia (nonmycorrhizal), Sphagnum (S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. angustifolium) moss capitula (top 1-cm of plant) and lichens (Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha) at 5 bogs at distances ranging from 14 to 300 km from the heart of the oil sands mining area. Averaged across all sites and sampling dates, N concentrations in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal, Sphagnum, and lichens was 8.6 + 0.2, 11.9 + 0.2, 26.3 + 0.6, 10.2 + 0.1, 7.2 + 0.2 mg/g, respectively; ?15N values were -10.3 + 0.1, -6.0 + 0.1, 1.7 + 0.2, -5.3 + 0.1, -4.7 + 0.1 mg/g, respectively, and S concentrations were 1.07 + 0.2, 1.31 + 0.2, 1.94 + 0.6, 1.46 + 0.2, 1.11 + 0.3 mg/g, respectively. Plant functional groups and individual species behaved differently with respect to both seasonal variation and site differences, often with significant interactions when analyzed using two-way analyses of variance. Some species exhibited seasonal variation in some aspects of plant tissue chemistry, while others did not; when a species did exhibit seasonal variation, the variation was rather consistent between sites. More importantly, however, canonical discriminant analysis (with potential variables of C, N, or S concentrations, C:N, C:S, or N:S ratios, and ?15N values) indicated that the five sites can be differentiated based on plant tissue chemistry, most clearly separating the site closest and the site farthest from the oil sands mining area. The first canonical axis explained between 66 and 91 percent of the overall variation, but the variables that were significantly correlated with the first canonical axis differed between species. We conclude that plant tissue chemistry exhibited a significant variation between plant functional groups, between species, between sites, and seasonally. Some of this variation appears to be related to distance from the heart of oil sands mining activity in northern Alberta, possibly reflecting regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S. Bog plants, through analysis of tissue chemistry, have the potential to serve as biomonitors of the anticipated spread of elevated atmospheric N and S deposition as oil sands development continues to grow in northern Alberta.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.; Quinn, J.

2011-12-01

322

Electrostatic Precipitation of Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Coal-Oil-Water and Coal-Water-Slurry in an Industrial Packaged Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the results of a research project designed to determine electrostatic precipitation performance in collecting particulate emissions from coal-oil-water or coal-water slurry fuels. Measurements made on a mobile electrostatic precipitat...

C. G. Noll J. R. Dooher

1984-01-01

323

Impact of Oils Sands Mining on Nitrogen-Limited Peatland Ecosystems in Alberta Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands of boreal Canada represent large reservoirs of sequestered carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Cycling of C and N in peatlands is intrinsically linked, especially in bogs - peatlands isolated from ground- and surface-water inputs, receiving nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere, which in the absence of N pollution, ensures an N-limited, nutrient-poor ecosystem. A growing concern associated with the development of Alberta’s Oil Sands Mining (OSM) is the potential for regionally elevated deposition of N-compounds (NOx). Prior to OSM, N inputs to bogs were limited exclusively to (1) biological N fixation, and (2) bulk atmospheric deposition. Currently, data examining the effect of purported increases in N and S deposition in this region are limited. Our goal was to determine patterns in atmospheric N deposition on N concentrations in bog porewaters at 5 sites spanning varying distances from the OSM region: Mildred, McKay, McMurray, Anzac and Utikuma bog (14, 24, 51, 71 and 300 km, respectively). Specifically, we wanted to test the hypothesis that OSM results in higher N deposition leading to elevated N in porewaters. Deposition of N was greatest at Mildred, followed by McKay, McMurray, and Anzac, and significantly lowest at Utikuma Bog (F4,49 = 5.9, p < 0.0006), supporting the first part of our hypothesis (Fig. 1). In contrast, dissolved inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in porewaters demonstrated significantly highest concentrations at Anzac, followed by significantly lower concentrations at McMurray, and least at McKay and Mildred (F3,147 = 25.9, p < 0.0001; Fig. 1), refuting the latter half of our hypothesis. Subsequent analyses reveal that site differences emerge with significantly elevated TIN in the 3 deepest depths (70-100 cm), with NH 4 + comprising the majority (~ 95 %) of TIN, suggesting the role of N deposition to bogs on in-situ N cycling processes be explored further. Figure 1. Atmospheric TIN (nitrate + ammonium) deposition (purple) and dissolved TIN concentrations (blue) in bog porewaters for each site. No porewater data are available for Utikuma. Bars with the same lower-case letter and same number are not significantly different. Atmospheric deposition was determined via ion-exchange resin samplers placed at each site (n=50 total; 10 per site) and porewaters were collected using a modified sipper design (n=15; 3 per site; 10-10cm depth intervals per sipper).

Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Scott, K.; Prsa, T.; Quinn, J.; Vitt, D. H.

2010-12-01

324

Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.  

PubMed

The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent water treatments in the SAGD process. PMID:22901407

Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

2012-07-31

325

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on wetlands impacted by oil sands mining are highly parasitized by the bird blow fly Protocalliphora spp.  

PubMed

Oil sands mining is steadily expanding in Alberta, Canada. Major companies are planning reclamation strategies for mine tailings, in which wetlands will be used for the bioremediation of water and sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and naphthenic acids during the extraction process. A series of experimental wetlands were built on companies' leases to assess the feasibility of this approach, and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were designated as upper trophic biological sentinels. From May to July 2004, prevalence and intensity of infestation with bird blow flies Protocalliphora spp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were measured in nests on oil sands reclaimed wetlands and compared with those on a reference site. Nestling growth and survival also were monitored. Prevalence of infestation was surprisingly high for a small cavity nester; 100% of the 38 nests examined were infested. Nests on wetlands containing oil sands waste materials harbored on average from 60% to 72% more blow fly larvae than those on the reference site. Nestlings on reclaimed sites suffered mean parasitic burdens about twice that of those on the reference site; and for comparable parasitic load, they exhibited greater pathologic effects (e.g., decreased body mass) than control nestlings. The heavy blow fly infestation on oil sands-impacted wetlands suggests that oil sands mining disturbs several components of the local ecosystem, including habitat characteristics, blow fly predators, and host resistance to parasites. PMID:17495301

Gentes, Marie-Line; Whitworth, Terry L; Waldner, Cheryl; Fenton, Heather; Smits, Judit E

2007-04-01

326

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1670 and 3070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios (<0.2) of triaromatic steranes to methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios (11 and 13) found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Carlson, P. R.; Hostettler, F. D.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Wright, B. A.

1999-01-01

327

Recycle oils from fluid coking of coal liquefaction bottoms  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten fluid-coker tars from coal liquefaction vacuum bottoms, was characterized to evaluate their use as liquefaction recycle oils. The primary variables in the coking tests were temperature (1000 to 1200/degree/F) and coker feedstock source. None of the tars produced at 1000/degree/F or 1100/degree/F were hydrotreated. Since the properties of those tars are different than those produced at 1200/degree/F, they may respond differently to hydrotreating. However, the difference is such that the tars produced at lower temperature are more similar to their feedstock. Therefore, it is expected that their susceptibility to hydrotreating should be intermediate between their feedstock and the high-temperature coker tars. Based on these results, it would appear that tars produced from fluid coking of liquefaction vacuum bottoms can be recycled to a catalytic liquefaction reactor to produce additional liquids without adversely affecting process performance. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1988-01-01

328

Waste oils utilized as coal liquefaction solvents on different ranks of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction. The solvent acts as a medium to transport hydrogen, as a heat transfer medium, as an additional reactant along with the coal, as a coal dissolution medium, and as the medium to transport coal liquefaction products away from the coal matrix. Recent investigations of coprocessing coal with solid waste materials (plastics,

E. C. Orr; Yanlong Shi; Jing Liang; Weibing Ding; L. L. Anderson; E. M. Eyring

1995-01-01

329

A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical wellbores. Other techniques, such as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are proving superior to other recovery methods for increasing early oil production but at initial higher development and/or operating costs. Successful optimization of bitumen production rates from the entire reservoir is ultimately decided by the operator's understanding of the reservoir in its original state and/or the positive and negative changes which occur in oil sands and heavy oil deposits upon heat stimulation. Reservoir description is the single most important factor in attaining satisfactory history matches and forecasts for optimized production of the commercially-operated processes. Reservoir characterization which lacks understanding can destroy a project. For example, incorrect assumptions in the geological model for the Wolf Lake Project in northeast Alberta resulted in only about one-half of the predicted recovery by the original field process. It will be shown here why the presence of thin calcite streaks within oil sands can determine the success or failure of a commercial cyclic steam project. A vast amount of field data, mostly from the Primrose Heavy Oil Project (PHOP) near Cold Lake, Alberta, enabled the development a simple set of correlation curves for predicting bitumen production using CSS. A previously calibtrated thermal numerical simulation model was used in its simplist form, that is, a single layer, radial grid blocks, "fingering" or " dilation" adjusted permeability curves, and no simulated fracture, to generate the first cycle production correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

330

Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.  

PubMed

To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment. PMID:17773028

Osborn, E F

1974-02-01

331

Improvement in facies discrimination using multiple seismic attributes for permeability modelling of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to develop a reservoir modelling workflow to reproduce the heterogeneous distribution of effective permeability that impacts on the performance of SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), the in-situ bitumen recovery technique in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Lithologic facies distribution is the main cause of the heterogeneity in bitumen reservoirs in the study area. The target formation consists of sand with mudstone facies in a fluvial-to-estuary channel system, where the mudstone interrupts fluid flow and reduces effective permeability. In this study, the lithologic facies is classified into three classes having different characteristics of effective permeability, depending on the shapes of mudstones. The reservoir modelling workflow of this study consists of two main modules; facies modelling and permeability modelling. The facies modelling provides an identification of the three lithologic facies, using a stochastic approach, which mainly control the effective permeability. The permeability modelling populates mudstone volume fraction first, then transforms it into effective permeability. A series of flow simulations applied to mini-models of the lithologic facies obtains the transformation functions of the mudstone volume fraction into the effective permeability. Seismic data contribute to the facies modelling via providing prior probability of facies, which is incorporated in the facies models by geostatistical techniques. In particular, this study employs a probabilistic neural network utilising multiple seismic attributes in facies prediction that improves the prior probability of facies. The result of using the improved prior probability in facies modelling is compared to the conventional method using a single seismic attribute to demonstrate the improvement in the facies discrimination. Using P-wave velocity in combination with density in the multiple seismic attributes is the essence of the improved facies discrimination. This paper also discusses sand matrix porosity that makes P-wave velocity differ between the different facies in the study area, where the sand matrix porosity is uniquely evaluated using log-derived porosity, P-wave velocity and photographically-predicted mudstone volume.

Kashihara, Koji; Tsuji, Takashi

2010-02-01

332

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

333

Determination of thermodynamic and transport parameters of naphthenic acids and organic process chemicals in oil sand tailings pond water.  

PubMed

Oil sand tailings pond water contains naphthenic acids and process chemicals (e.g., alkyl sulphates, quaternary ammonium compounds, and alkylphenol ethoxylates). These chemicals are toxic and can seep through the foundation of the tailings pond to the subsurface, potentially affecting the quality of groundwater. As a result, it is important to measure the thermodynamic and transport parameters of these chemicals in order to study the transport behavior of contaminants through the foundation as well as underground. In this study, batch adsorption studies and column experiments were performed. It was found that the transport parameters of these chemicals are related to their molecular structures and other properties. The computer program (CXTFIT) was used to further evaluate the transport process in the column experiments. The results from this study show that the transport of naphthenic acids in a glass column is an equilibrium process while the transport of process chemicals seems to be a non-equilibrium process. At the end of this paper we present a real-world case study in which the transport of the contaminants through the foundation of an external tailings pond is calculated using the lab-measured data. The results show that long-term groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport at the oil sand mining site may be necessary to avoid chemicals from reaching any nearby receptors. PMID:23736740

Wang, Xiaomeng; Robinson, Lisa; Wen, Qing; Kasperski, Kim L

2013-07-01

334

Chemical compositions and sources of atmospheric PM10 in heating, non-heating and sand periods at a coal-based city in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Mass concentrations and chemical components (18 elements, 9 ions, organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) in atmospheric PM(10) were measured at five sites in Fushun during heating, non-heating and sand periods in 2006-2007. PM(10) mass concentrations varied from 62.0 to 226.3 ?g m(-3), with 21% of the total samples' mass concentrations exceeding the Chinese national secondary standard value of 150 ?g m(-3), mainly concentrated in heating and sand periods. Crustal elements, trace elements, water-soluble ions, OC and EC represented 20-47%, 2-9%, 13-34%, 15-34% and 13-25% of the particulate matter mass concentrations, respectively. OC and crustal elements exhibited the highest mass percentages, at 27-34% and 30-47% during heating and sand period. Local agricultural residuals burning may contribute to EC and ion concentrations, as shown by ion temporal variation and OC and EC correlation analysis. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Mn) from coal combustion and industrial processes should be paid attention to in heating and sand periods. The anion/cation ratios exhibited their highest values for the background site with the influence of stationary sources on its upper wind direction during the sand period. Secondary organic carbon were 1.6-21.7, 1.5-23.0, 0.4-17.0, 0.2-33.0 and 0.2-21.1 ?g m(-3), accounting for 20-77%, 44-88%, 4-77%, 8-69% and 4-73% of OC for the five sampling sites ZQ, DZ, XH, WH and SK, respectively. From the temporal and spatial variation analysis of major species, coal combustion, agricultural residual burning and industrial emission including dust re-suspended from raw material storage piles were important sources for atmospheric PM(10) in Fushun at heating, non-heating and sand periods, respectively. It was confirmed by principal component analysis that coal combustion, vehicle emission, industrial activities, soil dust, cement and construction dust and biomass burning were the main sources for PM(10) in this coal-based city. PMID:22252430

Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong

2012-01-17

335

Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in wetland sediments and aquatic insects in the oil sands area of northeastern Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

An immense volume of tailings and tailings water is accumulating in tailings ponds located on mine leases in the oil sands area of Alberta, Canada. Oil sands mining companies have proposed to use tailings- and tailings water-amended lakes and wetlands as part of their mine remediation plans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of concern in oil sands tailings and tailings water. In this study, we determined concentrations of PAHs in sediments, insect larvae and adult insects collected in or adjacent to three groups of wetlands: experimental wetlands to which tailings or tailings water had been purposely added, oil sands wetlands that were located on the mine leases but which had not been experimentally manipulated and reference wetlands located near the mine leases. Alkylated PAHs dominated the PAH profile in all types of samples in the three categories of wetlands. Median and maximum PAH concentrations, especially alkylated PAH concentrations, tended to be higher in sediments and insect larvae in experimental wetlands than in the other types of wetlands. Such was not the case for adult insects, which contained higher than expected levels of PAHs in the three types of ponds. Overlap in PAH concentrations in larvae among pond types suggests that any increase in PAH levels resulting from the addition of tailings and tailings water to wetlands would be modest. Biota-sediment accumulation factors were higher for alkylated PAHs than for their parent counterparts and were lower in experimental wetlands than in oil sands and reference wetlands. Research is needed to examine factors that affect the bioavailability of PAHs in oil sands tailings- or tailings water-amended wetlands. PMID:17380417

Wayland, Mark; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Crosley, Robert; Brownlee, Brian G

2007-03-23

336

Solute movement through unsaturated fen peat: Lab and greenhouse experiments for transport study of contaminants from Athabasca oil sands tailing pond water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Athabasca oil sands region, wetlands specially peatland dominate the landscape. Processing oil sands produces large volumes of wet material called oil sands tailing water. Discharge of organic liquid contaminants such as Naphthenic Acids (NA) and Sodium (Na) from tailing waters have a toxic effect on plants in this region. One of the greatest barriers to peatland creation will be the elevated amount of toxins (naphthenic acid, metals and salinity) present in the post-mined landscapes. Variability in solute transport properties in the unsaturated zone is of growing concern due to environmental hazards and there are no many scientific challenges in the field of organic liquid contaminants transport through the unsaturated peat soils. The attenuation, degradation and transport of NA and Na in peat are essentially unknown. The ionizable nature of NA and Na along with the complex structure of peat soils poses challenges to characterizing the transport properties of NA and Na in the filed and laboratory. In this experimental research project, we examine the plant responses in 64 greenhouse tubs filled with peat and process-water; and study the transport and attenuation processes of NA and Na through peat in a series of laboratory column experiments. We developed an analytical method for evaluating the transport and adsorption characteristics of NA and Na to derive a clear understanding of the transport, sorption mechanisms and desorption behaviour of NA and Na with temporal evolution of the solute concentration distribution from groundwater to fen plants. The goal of this research project is to investigate how oil sands process-affected waters will affect peatland vegetation, specifically fen vegetation. In particular, we would like to know how contaminants present in oil sand process affected water will be transported through peat and how typical fen vegetation will react to a realistic contamination scenario in a controlled macrocosm environment? Research that responds to the above-mentioned questions will be taking a clear step towards addressing the future outcomes of oil sand affected landscapes.

Price, J. S.; Rezanezhad, F.; Graf, M.; Rochefort, L.

2009-12-01

337

Impact of edible oil injection on the permeability of aquifer sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that food-grade edible oils can be injected into the subsurface for installation of in-situ permeable reactive barriers. However to be effective, the oil must be distributed out away from the oil injection points without excessive permeability loss. In this work, we examine the distribution of soybean oil in representative aquifer sediments as non-aqueous

Kapo M. Coulibaly; Robert C. Borden

2004-01-01

338

MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE COAL AND OIL SHALE INDUSTRIES: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recommendations are presented for monitoring and predictive technology for the coal conversion and oil shale industries. The recommendations are based upon a literature survey of the emissions and potential impacts of these industries. Descriptions of the technologies are include...

339

Organic Constituents in Process Water from Tar-Sand Oil Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was performed on acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid filtrates and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of composite samples of raw process water collected from two in situ tar-sand oi...

L. A. Raphaelian M. F. Torpy W. Harrison

1981-01-01

340

The Determination of Optimum Completion and Production Conditions for Sand-Free Oil Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for the selection of optimum completion conditions and the evaluation of optimum production conditions to understand the factors contributing to and controlling sand production. Many factors such as the geometry of the performation, the inherent formation strength and the effective-stress distribution in the vicinity of the perforation tunnel during production must be considered to determine the maximum

J. M. Peden; A. A. M. Yassin

1986-01-01

341

The Non-Impact of Scientific Reviews of Oil Sands Environmental Impact Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schindler (Science, Vol. 192: 509; 1976) stated that Environmental Impact Assessments authors "conduct the studies regardless of how quickly results are demanded, write large, diffuse reports containing reams of uninterpreted and incomplete descriptive data, and in some cases, construct "predictive" models, irrespective of the quality of the data base." Schindler offered a solution: "If we are to protect both our resources and scientific integrity, environmental scientists must seek to put their studies on a scientifically credible basis-to see that problems, terms of reference, funding, time constraints, reports, and conclusions are all within a bona fide scientific framework." When the first scientific panel was formed in 2003 by the Mikisew Cree First Nations (MCFN), Alberta, to objectively review EIAs of proposed oil sands mining projects, the scientific panel uncovered many severe omissions, errors, and a significant lack of substance that could not withstand scientific scrutiny. Neither the Terms of Reference for two major oilsands projects, estimated to be worth approximately CND 15 billion, nor the EIAs (one single EIA was over 11,000 pages long) contained the terms "climate change", "trend analysis", or "risk analysis", and nearly all environmental impacts were described by the proponents as "negligible". The Hydrology Section (over 950 pages in length) of one EIA did not contain a single peer-reviewed scientific publication. In summary, nothing had changed since Schindler's observations 27 years earlier. Since 2003, the authors have reviewed more than a dozen EIAs of proposed oilsands projects in northern Alberta. The "non-impact" of scientific reviews on the quality of EIAs and the insincerity of the stewards of the land are very sobering: apart from cosmetic improvements in the requirements of the Terms of Reference and the writing of the EIAs, no meaningful improvement of scientific content has been made. Key environmental concerns around water resource utilization and contamination, massive boreal forest ecosystem disruption and destruction, insignificant reclamation, and dramatic increases in emission of acidic pollutants and GHGs have never been adequately addressed. Spills of contaminated tailings fluids into the Athabasca River have occurred in the past, and Mikisew Cree Elders have both anecdotal and physical evidence of contamination of downstream areas through to Lake Athabasca. As the Alberta government has declared a sell-out of very large areas of boreal forest for fast profit, the scientific reviews have been ignored. With the exception of a few cosmetic improvements to the EIAs (e.g. climate change is now discussed, however, with incomplete data and incorrect interpretations), the scientific quality of EIAs has not improved. In fact, the Terms of Reference differ in content requirements with each oilsands project, which means that there is inconsistency between EIAs, prohibiting the evaluation of the evolution of the Terms of Reference. The consequences of the disregard of scientific standards are enormous environmental impacts in terms of carbon dioxide output, acid rain, severe health risks of the local population, water quality, and negligible reclamation efforts.

Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.

2008-12-01

342

Economics of nuclear power. [Nuclear costs compared to coal and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of costs associated with building and operating nuclear-, coal-, and oil-fired electric generating plants in the Philadelphia Electric system indicate an economic advantage for nuclear facilities. A breakdown of average total costs shows 1.2 cents per kilowatt-hour for nuclear, 1.7 cents for coal, and 3.3 cents for oil. The advantage for nuclear is expected to increase in the

1976-01-01

343

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale. It comprises: pulverizing coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, subjecting the pulverized mixture to a mechanical load, and heating the mechanically loaded mixture to pyrolysis temperature in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture, so as to substantially prevent the mixture from swelling, to form a product fuel.

Khan, M.R.

1989-12-12

344

The performance of a compact oil-designed utility boiler when firing coal-water fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian coal-water fuel technology development program has been in progress since 1980. This phase of the work is the final stage in the demonstration of practicability of burning coal-water fuel in a boiler designed to burn oil. Early tests in small coal-capable front-wall and tangentially fired utility boilers have shown that two of the major problems to be addressed

D. M. Rankin; H. Whaley; P. J. Read; D. J. Burnett

1990-01-01

345

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent -beyerane, phyllocladane and ent -kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16

Rohinton A. Noble; Robert Alexander; Robert Ian Kagi; John Knox

1985-01-01

346

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

SciTech Connect

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670 and 3,070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios of triaromatic steranes of methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources.

Short, J.W.; Wright, B.A. [NOAA, Juneau, AK (United States); Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1999-01-01

347

Erosion-corrosion in carbon dioxide saturated systems in presence of sand, inhibitor, oil, and high concentration of salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil and gas production is usually accompanied by formation water which typically contains high levels of chloride. Some effects of chloride concentration on corrosion are not widely known in the literature, and this can result in misleading conclusions. One goal of this research was to contribute to a better understanding of the effects of chloride concentration in CO2 corrosion. Experimental and theoretical studies conducted in the present work have shown that increasing the NaCl concentration in solution has three important effects on corrosion results. First, standard pH meter readings in high NaCl concentration solutions require corrections. Second, increasing the NaCl concentration decreases the CO2 concentration in solution and therefore contributes to a decrease in the corrosion rate. Third, increasing the NaCl concentration increases the solubility of FeCO3 and therefore reduces the likelihood of forming an iron carbonate scale. High NaCl concentration also decreases the sand erosion rate of the metal slightly by increasing the density and viscosity of the liquid. There are two main contributions of this research. The first contribution is the experimental characterization of inhibited erosion-corrosion behavior of mild steel under CO2-saturated conditions with a high salt concentration. Chemical inhibition is one the most important techniques for controlling erosion-corrosion in offshore mild steel pipelines, tubing and pipe fittings in oil and gas industry. The second contribution is the introduction of a new approach for predicting inhibited erosion-corrosion in mild steel pipes including the effects of flow and environmental conditions, sand production, and an oil phase. Sand erosion can decrease the efficiency of corrosion protection systems including iron-carbonate scale formation and chemical inhibition. The need to be able to predict inhibitor performance under sand production conditions is particularly acute when the wells are deep or off-shore because of the difficulty in running coupon tests. Research reported in this dissertation is aimed at providing producers with information that will help them make decisions about the design of a well given advanced knowledge of the inhibition options and their predicted effectiveness under sand production conditions. Frumkin isotherms modified to handle effects of erosivity, temperature, and oil phase were successfully fitted to erosion-corrosion data. Inhibitor adsorption isotherms were integrated into a mechanistic model for prediction of CO2 corrosion rates as a function of inhibitor concentration and good results were obtained as compared with data. A computer program was also developed to predict the inhibited erosion-corrosion rate as a function of corrosivity of the system (temperature, pH, CO 2 pressure, and other factors) and erosivity of the system (particle size, particle rate, material type, pipe diameter, and other factors).

Hassani, Shokrollah

348

Distribution of naphthenic acids in tissues of laboratory-exposed fish and in wild fishes from near the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids, which have a variety of commercial applications, occur naturally in conventional crude oil and in highly biodegraded petroleum such as that found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands extraction is done using a caustic aqueous extraction process. The alkaline pH releases the naphthenic acids from the oil sands and dissolves them into water as their soluble naphthenate forms, which are anionic surfactants. These aqueous extracts contain concentrations of naphthenates that are acutely lethal to fishes and other aquatic organisms. Previous research has shown that naphthenic acids can be taken up by fish, but the distribution of these acids in various tissues of the fish has not been determined. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to commercial (Merichem) naphthenic acids in the laboratory. After a 10-d exposure to approximately 3mg naphthenic acids/L, the fish were dissected and samples of gills, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and eggs were extracted and analyzed for free (unconjugated) naphthenic acids by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Each of the tissues contained naphthenic acids and non-parametric statistical analyses showed that gills and livers contained higher concentrations than the muscles and that the livers had higher concentrations than the hearts. Four different species of fish (two fish of each species) were collected from the Athabasca River near two oil sands mining and extraction operations. No free naphthenic acids were detected in the muscle or liver of these fish. PMID:21216009

Young, Rozlyn F; Michel, Lorelei Martínez; Fedorak, Phillip M

2011-01-07

349

The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

Burke, F.P.

1995-08-01

350

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

1995-12-31

351

Bioremediation of Vegetable Oil and Grease from Polluted Wastewater Using a Sand Biofilm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. (L1), P. diminuta(L2) were among eight bacterial strains isolated from vegetable grease and oil-contaminated industrial wastewater, four of\\u000a which only were found to have the ability to degrade oil and grease. They were identified and investigated for oil and grease\\u000a degradation either individually or in combinations in previous unpublished work by the authors. Since the combination M1 (Pseudomonas

Mohamed H. El-Masry; Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Nawal I. El-Adl

2004-01-01

352

An Integrated Environmental Assessment Model for Oil Shale Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rising prices of conventional fuel, unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale, tar sands, and coal to liquid have gained attention as an energy resource. The largest reserve of oil shale in the world is located in the western interior of North America, and includes parts of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Development of oil shale in this

D. Pasqualini; M. S. Witkowski; G. N. Keating; H. Ziock; A. V. Wolfsberg

2008-01-01

353

Strategic view of new fuel oils development in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

New fuel oils are manufactured from various energy sources such as natural gas, coal, biomass, oil sand and oil shale and are expected to directly replace petroleum products in their end-uses. Other petroleum-substituting energy sources such as nuclear energy, natural gas, geothermal energy, solar energy, etc. are mainly positioned to replace electric energy, or eventually even petroleum used for power

Toshiaki

1983-01-01

354

Investigation of the ROPE copyright (Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction) process performance on Sunnyside tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pyrolysis temperature for Sunnyside tar sand and to verify the operability and efficiency of the ROPE process at steady-state conditions for production of feedstock materials. The experiments were conducted in the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR). Four 24-hour tests and one 105-hour test were performed in the 2-inch SPR

C. Y. Cha; L. A. Jr. Johnson; F. D. Guffey

1990-01-01

355

Recovery and upgrading of oil from Utah tar sands: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main areas for study in this report are bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis, a low coke-producing process pioneered at the University; bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of tar sand in a fluidized-bed retort; bitumen recovery in coupled fluidized-beds with interbed heat transfer via heat pipes; and bitumen recovery by water-assisted separation methods of bitumen from ore. The principal reactions occurring in

A. G. Oblad; J. W. Bunger; F. V. Hanson; J. D. Miller; J. D. Seader

1987-01-01

356

Larvicidal efficacy and biological stability of a botanical natural product, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae).  

PubMed

Chemical analysis on Curcuma zedoaria rhizome volatile oil, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques, demonstrated the presence of beta-tumerone (19.88%), 1,8-cineole (8.93%), and 7-zingiberene (7.84%) as major constituents. Larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes of zedoary oil and its formulated preparation, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, were investigated and compared with that of Abate(R)sand (temephos). Zedoary oil exhibited pronounced potential against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) and LC(99) of 33.45 and 83.39 ppm, respectively. Application of zedoary oil at a dosage yielding ten times that of LC(99) offered complete larval mortality (100% mortality) for a period of 3 days, and the larval mortality subsequently decreased to lower than 50% after application for more than 5 days. Zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules provided remarkably longer activity, with a larval mortality of 100% for a period of 9 days; and mortality below 50% was obtained in week 3 of application. The complete larval mortality that resulted from applying temephos at dosages of 0.1 and 1 ppm persisted for a period of 6 days and 4 weeks, respectively, and the larval mortality below 50% was reported on day 18 and week 11, respectively. Testing A. aegypti species against stored samples of zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules demonstrated that the product stored at 4 degrees C showed the longest larvicidal activity, followed by those kept at ambient temperature and 45 degrees C, yielding a complete larval mortality for 9, 8, and 6 days, respectively. Most samples of zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules stored at each temperature for 1 month showed slightly higher efficacy than those kept for 2 months. The larvicidal efficacy of samples stored at 4 degrees C seemed to be comparable to that of the fresh sample. The efficacy in killing A. aegypti larvae and good biological stability of zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules make this product promising as an alternative to essential oil in the development of new botanical natural larvicide for use in mosquito control programs. PMID:17096143

Champakaew, Daruna; Choochote, Wej; Pongpaibul, Yanee; Chaithong, Udom; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tuetun, Benjawan; Pitasawat, Benjawan

2006-11-10

357

The investigation of coal–pyrite\\/lignite concentration and their separation in the artificial mixture by oil agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentration of coal–pyrite and lignite taken from Yozgat-Ayridam (Turkey) Coal Management was investigated by oil agglomeration.In the previous studies, the agglomeration of coal–pyrite was investigated using different bridging liquids (fuel oil, diesel oil and kerosene) and the combination of reagent (KEX, Acorga M5397)+kerosene. When using only bridging liquids, the agglomeration recovery of pyrite was very low.

Yakup Cebeci; ?brahim Sönmez

2002-01-01

358

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670

Jeffrey W. Short; B. A. Wright; K. A. Kvenvolden; P. R. Carlson; F. D. Hostettler; R. J. Rosenbauer

1999-01-01

359

Prospects for oil\\/gas conversion to coal in the electric utility sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity consumption is growing in direct correlation with growth in United States GNP. It is difficult to make meaningful forecasts concerning either residual fuel oil or natural gas pricing. However, it would appear that there is some likelihood that upon deregulation, natural gas pricing will approach parity with residual fuel oil during the current decade. Steam coal pricing is likely

Leibson

1983-01-01

360

SASOL: SOUTH AFRICA'S OIL FROM COAL STORY--BACKGROUND FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the world's only oil-from-coal plant, known as SASOL, operated by South Africa since 1955. When almost $7 billion worth of expansion is completed in the early 1980s, three SASOL plants will produce a total of 112,000 barrels of oil per day, or about half of S...

361

Synthetic fuel and electric cars: A cost effectiveness comparison of alternatives for substituting coal for oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic feasibility of battery-powered electric cars was compared with that of synthetic crude oil as a means of substituting coal for oil in the U.S. over the next several decades. Electric propulsion promises to be the best choice for uses in which a maximum daily driving range of 75 to 150 miles is acceptable. Development of economically viable electric

D. P. Hughart

1977-01-01

362

A Review of Practical Experience and Management of the SAGD Process for Oil Sands Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fluctuation of international oil prices due to limited conventional petroleum resources, unconventional energy, including bitumen and extra heavy oil, are of primary interest these days. However, in-situ recovery processes of these resources are somewhat complicated, and there are many technical challenges accompanying it. For the recovery process, it is widely known that thermal techniques using steam are essential

T. Chung; W. Bae; J. Lee; W. Lee; B. Jung

2011-01-01

363

Electrostatic precipitation of particulate emissions from the combustion of coal-oil-water and coal-water-slurry in an industrial packaged boiler. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses the results of a research project designed to determine electrostatic-precipitation performance in collecting particulate emissions from coal-oil-water or coal-water slurry fuels. Measurements made on a mobile electrostatic precipitator (ESP) showed that New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) could be met by appropriate design and operation. Coal-oil-water fuels required a specific collection area (SCA) of 340 sq ft\\/1,000 ACFM

C. G. Noll; J. R. Dooher

1984-01-01

364

Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

365

Deposition trends of the Amnicola and Tulare sands, and relevance to the development of asphaltenes in a portion of the Cymric oil field, western San Joaquin Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cymric oil field is located on the southwestern margin of the San Joaquin Valley. The upper productive units include the lower Amnicola, and upper Tulare I and II sandstones. The Amnicola unit ranges from lacustrine to braided stream in depositional environment, it averages about 60 ft thick. The Tulare I and II sands are primarily braided stream to fan

1991-01-01

366

Recycle oils from fluid coking of coal liquefaction bottoms  

SciTech Connect

A series of nine fluid-coker tars, produced by Lummus-Crest, Inc., from coal liquefaction vacuum bottoms, was characterized to evaluate their use as liquefaction recycle oils. The primary variables in the coking tests were temperature (1000 to 1200/degree/F) and coker feedstock source. The properties of the tars are principally influenced by the coking temperature. Those produced at higher temperature are more aromatic and contain less hydrogen, and are principally unsubstituted and methyl-substituted condensed aromatic compounds. The tars produced at 1000/degrees/F are expected to be poor hydrogen donor solvents, whereas those produced at 1200/degree/F are not expected to be hydrogen donor solvents. However, a 1200/degree/F tar was readily hydrotreated to produce a good to excellent donor solvent. Based on these results, it would appear that tars produced from fluid coking of liquefaction vacuum bottoms can be recycled to a catalytic liquefaction reactor to produce additional liquids without adversely affecting process performance.

Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1988-01-01

367

The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type. PMID:23313671

Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-12-12

368

Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand  

PubMed Central

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater.

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

369

Reserve Driven Forecasts for Oil, Gas & Coal and Limits in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Peak Oil, Peak Gas, Peak Coal and Peak CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is coursed by an increasing use of fossil fuels; natural gas, oil and coal. This has so far resulted in an increase of the global surface temperature of the order of one degree. In year 2000 IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released 40 emission scenarios that can be seen as

Kjell Alekkett

2007-01-01

370

Has Alberta Oil Sands Development Altered Delivery of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds to the Peace-Athabasca Delta?  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which Alberta oil sands mining and upgrading operations have enhanced delivery of bitumen-derived contaminants via the Athabasca River and atmosphere to the Peace-Athabasca Delta (200 km to the north) is a pivotal question that has generated national and international concern. Accounts of rare health disorders in residents of Fort Chipewyan and deformed fish in downstream ecosystems provided impetus for several recent expert-panel assessments regarding the societal and environmental consequences of this multi-billion-dollar industry. Deciphering relative contributions of natural versus industrial processes on downstream supply of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been identified as a critical knowledge gap. But, this remains a formidable scientific challenge because loading from natural processes remains unknown. And, industrial activity occurs in the same locations as the natural bitumen deposits, which potentially confounds contemporary upstream-downstream comparisons of contaminant levels. Methods/Principal Findings Based on analyses of lake sediment cores, we provide evidence that the Athabasca Delta has been a natural repository of PACs carried by the Athabasca River for at least the past two centuries. We detect no measureable increase in the concentration and proportion of river-transported bitumen-associated indicator PACs in sediments deposited in a flood-prone lake since onset of oil sands development. Results also reveal no evidence that industrial activity has contributed measurably to sedimentary concentration of PACs supplied by atmospheric transport. Conclusions/Significance Findings suggest that natural erosion of exposed bitumen in banks of the Athabasca River and its tributaries is a major process delivering PACs to the Athabasca Delta, and the spring freshet is a key period for contaminant mobilization and transport. This baseline environmental information is essential for informed management of natural resources and human-health concerns by provincial and federal regulatory agencies and industry, and for designing effective long-term monitoring programs for the lower Athabasca River watershed.

Hall, Roland I.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Wiklund, Johan A.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Farwell, Andrea J.; Dixon, D. George

2012-01-01

371

The effect of oil sands process-affected water and naphthenic acids on the germination and development of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Oil sands mining in the Athabasca region of northern Alberta results in the production of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). We have evaluated the effects of OSPW, the acid extractable organic (AEO) fraction of OSPW, and individual naphthenic acids (NAs) on the germination and development of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). The surrogate NAs that were selected for this study were petroleum NAs that have been used in previous toxicology studies and may not represent OSPW NAs. A tricyclic diamondoid NA that was recently identified as a component of OSPW served as a model NA in this study. Germination of Arabidopsis seeds was not inhibited when grown on medium containing up to 75% OSPW or by 50mgL(-1) AEO. However, simultaneous exposure to three simple, single-ringed surrogate NAs or a double-ringed surrogate NA had an inhibitory effect on germination at a concentration of 10mgL(-1), whereas inhibition of germination by the diamondoid model NA was observed only at 50mgL(-1). Seedling root growth was impaired by treatment with low concentrations of OSPW, and exposure to higher concentrations of OSPW resulted in increased growth inhibition of roots and primary leaves, and caused bleaching of cotyledons. Treatment with single- or double-ringed surrogate NAs at 10mgL(-1) severely impaired seedling growth. AEO or diamondoid NA treatment was less toxic, but resulted in severely impaired growth at 50mgL(-1). At low NA concentrations there was occasionally a stimulatory effect on root and shoot growth, possibly owing to the broad structural similarity of some NAs to known plant growth regulators such as auxins. This report provides a foundation for future studies aimed at using Arabidopsis as a biosensor for toxicity and to identify genes with possible roles in NA phytoremediation. PMID:23746390

Leishman, Chelsea; Widdup, Ellen E; Quesnel, Dean M; Chua, Gordon; Gieg, Lisa M; Samuel, Marcus A; Muench, Douglas G

2013-06-06

372

Critical loads and H+ budgets of forest soils affected by air pollution from oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the critical load (CL) and exceedance (EX) of sulfur (S) deposition, temporal changes in soil chemistry, and H+ budget of soils in plots dominated by Pinus banksiana (jack pine) or Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen, aspen) in two acid-sensitive watersheds to assess the risk of soil acidification by S emissions from oil sands mining in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Canada. The CLs and EXs were determined by two methods: one was based on bulk deposition and the other based on total deposition (as a sum of bulk deposition and interception deposition). The CLs ranged from 223 to 711 molc ha-1 yr-1 based on bulk deposition. Those values were similar to that obtained based on total deposition. However, EXs based on bulk deposition were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those based on total deposition due to the relative increase of SO concentrations in interception deposition, indicating that EXs based on bulk deposition only could underestimate the risk of soil acidification in the AOSR. The S deposition did not exceed CLs in the long-term for both methods. The pH in the forest floor increased and available SO (as the sum of soluble and adsorbed SO) in the forest floor and surface mineral soils increased in both jack pine and aspen stands between 2005 and 2010. The H+ budget ranged from -289 to -130 molc ha-1 yr-1 in jack pine stands and from -510 to -371 molc ha-1 yr-1 in aspen stands. Our results suggest that 1) soils in the studied forest stands have recovered from acidification based on the increasing soil pH over time and the negative H+ budget, and 2) the risk of soil acidification should be assessed by CL and EX calculated based on total deposition.

Jung, Kangho; Chang, Scott X.; Ok, Yong Sik; Arshad, M. A.

2013-04-01

373

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

The first twelve months of the project focused on collecting data for characterization and modeling. In addition, data from Coalinga Field was analyzed to define the fractal structure present in the data set. The following sections of the report parallel the first four subtasks of the investigation were: (1) Collect and Load Property Data from Temblor Outcrops in California, (2) Collect and Load Property Data from Temblor Reservoir Sands, West Coalinga Field, California, (3) Collect and Load Property Data from Continuous Upper Cretaceous Outcrops in Utah, and (4) Define Fractal Structure in the Data Sets and Apply to Generating Property Representations.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

2001-11-29

374

Weathering and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleum seeps near Coal Oil Point, CA.  

PubMed

The Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps offshore Goleta, CA, are estimated to release 20-25 tons of oil daily, providing an ideal natural laboratory to investigate the fate of oil in the coastal ocean. To address the long-term fate of COP oil, we collected 15 sediment samples down current from the seeps and quantified petroleum content and individual biomarkers using traditional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Similarities in the distributions of hopane biomarkers link the oil in the sediments to fresh seep oil (n=5) and underlying reservoirs (n=3), although sediment oil is heavily weathered. The spatial distribution of oil forms a plume along the continental shelf that we suggest represents a chronic fallout pattern for heavy oil from the persistent surface slicks; average surface currents appear to modulate the distribution of the fallout over a period of 0.4-5 days. The extent of hydrocarbon loss is consistent for all sediments, indicating a common limit to oil weathering with contributions from evaporation, biodegradation, and dissolution. Considering the amount of oil and quantity of sediment impacted, we estimate a sediment oil burden of 0.3 x 10(12) to 3 x 10(12) g in the study area, equivalent to 8-80 spills of the Exxon Valdez accident of 1989. PMID:19544852

Farwell, Christopher; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily; Nelson, Robert K; Washburn, Libe; Valentine, David L

2009-05-15

375

Quantitative and stereoisomeric determination of light biomarkers in crude oil and coal samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indans and tetralins are considered biological markers (biomarkers). These C9-C11 hydrocarbons are present in small amounts in organic geological samples. Methyl substituted indans or tetralins may possess a stereogenic center (carbon). Thus they can exist as enantiomers and, in the case of disubstituted entities, also as diastereoisomers. The concentrations of 1-methylindan, 1,3-dimethylindan, 1-methyltetralin, and 2-methyltetralin were determined in sixteen crude oil samples of different sources and in fourteen coal samples of different sources and ranks. Deuterated homologues were synthesized as standards to spike the samples and to assure accurate quantitative analysis. A procedure using HPLC fractionation followed by GC/MS analysis allowed the determination of ?g/g (ppm) amounts of these compounds in oils. The concentration of substituted indans and tetralins was 3-4 orders of magnitude less in coal than in crude oil. The select ion mass spectrometry (SIM) mode in GC/MS and the deuterated standards allowed detection of the much lower amounts (ng/g, ppb down to pg/g, ppt) of these compounds in coal samples. The stereochemistry of the biomarkers was determined, and the relationship between their relative concentrations and the location and type of the deposits was examined. Racemic mixtures of the indans and tetralins studied were found in all samples of oil and coal. It is postulated that there is an inverse relationship between the retention of stereochemical configuration and the molecular weight of hydrocarbons in crude oil. The chiral retention of configuration cut-off is thought to be between molecular weights of 146 and 208. An excess of cis-1,2-dimethylindan was found in all oil samples (average cis/trans ratio: 3/2). The 2-methyltetralin concentration was found to be about twice that of 1-methyltetralin in all oil and coal samples. Similar concentration correlations were found for the indan derivatives in oils and coals.

Berthod, Alain; Wang, Xiande; Gahm, Kyung H.; Armstrong, Daniel W.

1998-05-01

376

Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery using sand pack column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus licheniformis K125, isolated from an oil reservoir, produces an effective bioemulsifier. The crude bioemulsifier showed 66% emulsification activity (E24) and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN\\/m. It contains substantial amount of polysaccharide, protein and lipid. This bioemulsifier is pseudoplastic non-Newtonian in nature. It forms oil in water emulsion which remains stable at wide range of

Harish Suthar; Krushi Hingurao; Anjana Desai; Anuradha Nerurkar

2008-01-01

377

Evidence of hepatotoxicity in the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus from Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the Gulf War in 1991) in Kuwait on the hepatotoxicity of the Sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus (A. scutellatus). Twenty lizards (10 of each sex) from each polluted and each control sites were collected. Livers were removed from dissected animals and ready for fixation by Bouin's solution and formal-saline. Twenty sections (10 from males and 10 from females) from each tar mat (polluted) and control sites were prepared and examined for cell diameter and nuclear measurements using Cell Analysis Systems. The cytology of hepatocytes showed normal appearance in samples from the control sites. Dead cells were abundant in the sections of lizard livers from the tar mat sites and occurred in notably greater numbers than the sections of livers of animals from the control sites. Examinations of the data confirm that the cell and nuclear diameters in liver samples of males collected from polluted sites were generally greater than those of corresponding females. The liver sections obtained from animals in the tar mat site had greater cellular diameters than counterparts from control sites. Females from the polluted sites were also affected by oil pollution by having larger hepatocyte diameters and their nuclei were also affected, being larger than female nuclei from the control sites. The most remarkable feature observed in hepatocytes of lizards collected from the tar mat sites were swelling of hepatocytes, ballooning degeneration of hepatic cytoplasm and cell death. This study confirmed that the prolonged exposure to oil pollution may result in increased accumulation of contaminants and may cause severe liver pathology in a range of wild organisms such as A. scutellatus. PMID:21411141

Al-Hashem, Mona A

2011-03-15

378

Evaluation of the potential end use of oils produced by the ROPE copyright process from California tar sand  

SciTech Connect

The oil products produced by the rope process from Process Development Unit (PDU) run SPR-111 were evaluated for potential end use. This run was a five-day test using Arroyo Grande tar sand from California as the feed to the PDU. The distillate from knockout {number sign}2 was hydrotreated to produce a series of process intermediates. One of the intermediates was evaluated as a feedstock for the production of transportation fuels. The heavy product oil was distilled to produce a residue that was evaluated as an asphalt. Analysis of a selected process intermediate shows that it is not suitable for the production of gasoline or for use as a gasoline-blending feedstock. The process intermediate was not suitable for the production of aviation turbine fuels because of a high concentration of alkanes. However, the presence of alkanes does make the oil valuable as a feedstock for the production of diesel fuel. The heavy oil product as received from the PDU is not suitable for the production of an asphaltic material because it contains a large amount of very fine solid material. However, after filtration and distillation, the application of ASTM D-3381 specification tests to the +410{degree}C residue shows that all of the requirements are met except for the trichloroethylene solubility requirement. This value is below specification because a small amount of mineral matter was not removed during the filtrations process. Also, the residue had a very high aging index. Results from successive freeze-thaw cycling also show that the residue is comparable to petroleum asphalts when it is coated on the same appropriate aggregate. 14 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

1989-12-01

379

Comparative solubility and acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of coal liquids, shale oil and petroleum  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating toxicity of complex organic mixtures to aquatic biota involves generating and characterizing water-soluble fractions (WSF) of test materials. Depending on the mixture, WSFs may contain several biologically active compound classes including phenolics, aromatic and saturate hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, sulfur heterocycles and others. Although some components (e.g. phenolics) may predominate, each contributes to overall toxicity. We studied the relationships among solubility, chemical composition and acute toxicity of several fossil-derived materials. These included coal liquids with different boiling ranges, coal liquids produced by different technological processes and under different process conditions, coal liquids derived from different source coals, a shale oil and, crude and refined petroleum. Results indicated that concentrations of water-soluble components varied with component solubility and chemical composition of parent material, provided that mixing conditions were similar. Acute toxicity to Daphnia magna reflected solubility of chemical components and, in most cases, could be predicted from concentrations of total carbon in solution. Coal liquids were generally more soluble in water than shale oil and petroleum materials and, thus, posed a greater potential toxic hazard to aquatic biota. Lower boiling range coal liquids were most soluble, and thus, posed the greatest acute hazard in water. Coal type had little influence on acute toxicity of coal liquid WSFs to D. magna. 20 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Gray, R.H.; Dauble, D.D.; Scott, A.J.; Thomas, B.L.

1984-10-01

380

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources  

SciTech Connect

World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

none

2006-09-15

381

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1984-07-01

382

Scales of geological heterogeneity of a deep-water sand giant oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the levels of accuracy that can be placed upon different scales of reservoir description, turbidite intervals in part of the giant Wilmington oil field, California, have been numerically described at four scales of heterogeneity. The degree of accuracy of the description, in terms of real geologic variability, is found to diminish with increasing scale. At the microscale (grains

R. M. Slatt; S. Phillips; J. M. Boak; M. B. Lagoe

1990-01-01

383

Deep-water oil sand reservoirs: ancient case histories and modern concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the examination of countless cores recovered from many Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSPS) holes and of many kilometers of seismic data. Interpretations based on this data confirm and elaborate on the behavior patterns of turbidites discussed in part one. The documentation and systhesis derived there from comprises part two. To complete the study of deep water oil

Weser

1978-01-01

384

Technical and economic evaluation of retrofitting and repowering oil-fired boilers with gas from coal. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluor studied the feasibility of substituting fuel gas produced from coal for oil fuel at a modern oil-fired boiler plant and of repowering the same boiler plant using fuel gas from coal as the combustion turbine fuel as well as boiler fuel in some cases. Several cases were investigated, including cases with the fuel gas plant connected to the boiler

F. Canela; J. Huang; A. P. Ibe; S. C. Padgett; A. D. Rao; S. C. Smelser

1983-01-01

385

New feasibility study of carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power plants for enhanced oil recovery: A Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes is currently drawing much interest from oil, utility and coal companies in Western Canada. Implementation of such a scheme would provide two important benefits: (i) the captured CO2 could be marketed as a flooding agent which would

Larry Ward

1996-01-01

386

Adding coal-fired fluidized bed combustion to gas and oil boilers  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion is an economically attractive, technically feasible approach for burning all grades of coal without creating pollution problems. Robinson discusses the combustion and emission control operations of a fluidized bed combustor, explains the component changes necessary to the water/steam and air/flue gas subsystems, and describes the new ash removal and coal and limestone feed subsystems needed to retrofit the equipment to the plant's existing gas or oil-fired boiler.

Robinson, T.F.

1986-07-01

387

Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

388

Reactivity screening of feedstocks for catalytic coal\\/oil co-processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

HRI is currently conducting a four-party funded program to develop and demonstrate catalytic coal\\/oil co-processing using HRI's proven ebullated-bed reactor technology. The initial task in the research program was to determine reactivities of four coals and four petroleum residuums both separately and in combination, using a 20cc microautoclave reactor. Experimental conditions and analytical procedures were developed to properly approximate ebullated

J. B. Mc Lean; J. E. Duddy

1986-01-01

389

Cyclicity in Lower Cretaceous point bar deposits with implications for reservoir characterization, Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation comprises the majority of the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, which is one of the largest heavy oil accumulations in the world. Point bar deposits account for a significant proportion of the subsurface reservoir, and are characterized by bedded, sandstone-dominated strata. In-situ development of heavy oil is sensitive to lateral and vertical lithological heterogeneity in the form of interbedded siltstone beds, which are locally common in the formation and must be taken into account in order to understand permeability distribution within the reservoir. The objectives of this research are to integrate qualitative sedimentological observations with quantitative analyses of wireline log data in order to constrain the distribution of siltstone interbeds within the point bar deposit, to use this information to understand the deposition history of the fluvial system, and to provide insight into reservoir modeling.Quantitative statistical analyses of wireline log data, including autocorrelation analysis, Fourier transform analysis, and continuous wavelet transform analysis, reveal lithological cyclicity within the heterogeneous point bar sediments examined. Lithological cyclicity is evident at wavelengths ranging from 2 to 10 m, and generally increases in strength toward the downstream direction of the ancient point bar deposit where more heterogeneous sediments are prevalent. Cyclicity also increases in amplitude in the youngest layers of the laterally accreted point bar deposit; the overall finer-grained sediments correspond to decreasing energy levels and waning flow over the evolution of the fluvial system. Overall, the highest amplitude cycles were calculated at a wavelength of 3.5 m, and, when correlated to core observations, are represented as interbedded packages of thick, massive to cross-bedded sandstone that fine upward to siltstone.The control on cyclic sedimentation is difficult to discern from Cretaceous-aged point bar deposits. Through consideration of sedimentation rates from analogous modern fluvial systems, the smallest cycles observed might be attributed to seasonal variations in climate and associated flow fluctuation. However, it is more likely that the cyclicity recorded is linked to longer scale climatic signals, such as El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO-like) fluctuations or variations in solar output (decadal cyclicity). The mappable variations in siltstone bed frequency and thickness across the ancient point bar deposit have implications for heavy oil development. Low permeability siltstone beds associated with the shortest wavelength cycles (i.e., < 2 m cycles) have limited impact on fluid flow within the reservoir; however, those associated with cycles longer than 4 m in wavelength may serve to compartmentalize portions of the reservoir, leading to reduced oil recovery.

Labrecque, Phillip A.; Jensen, Jerry L.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

2011-12-01

390

Next-generation sequencing of microbial communities in the Athabasca River and its tributaries in relation to oil sands mining activities.  

PubMed

The Athabasca oil sands deposit is the largest reservoir of crude bitumen in the world. Recently, the soaring demand for oil and the availability of modern bitumen extraction technology have heightened exploitation of this reservoir and the potential unintended consequences of pollution in the Athabasca River. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential impacts of oil sands mining on neighboring aquatic microbial community structure. Microbial communities were sampled from sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries as well as in oil sands tailings ponds. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology (454 and Ion Torrent). Sediments were also analyzed for a variety of chemical and physical characteristics. Microbial communities in the fine tailings of the tailings ponds were strikingly distinct from those in the Athabasca River and tributary sediments. Microbial communities in sediments taken close to tailings ponds were more similar to those in the fine tailings of the tailings ponds than to the ones from sediments further away. Additionally, bacterial diversity was significantly lower in tailings pond sediments. Several taxonomic groups of Bacteria and Archaea showed significant correlations with the concentrations of different contaminants, highlighting their potential as bioindicators. We also extensively validated Ion Torrent sequencing in the context of environmental studies by comparing Ion Torrent and 454 data sets and by analyzing control samples. PMID:22923391

Yergeau, Etienne; Lawrence, John R; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Waiser, Marley J; Korber, Darren R; Greer, Charles W

2012-08-24

391

The performance of a compact oil-designed utility boiler when firing coal-water fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian coal-water fuel technology development program has been in progress since 1980. This phase of the work is the final stage in the demonstration of practicability of burning coal-water fuel in a boiler designed to burn oil. Early tests in small coal-capable front-wall and tangentially fired utility boilers have shown that two of the major problems to be addressed are both burner related: atomizer durability an poor carbon conversion performance. The present paper describes tests that were conducted in a 20 MWe compact, oil-designed boiler. Five burners were modified to burn coal-water fuel and oil with minimum changeover time. No changes were made to the boiler heat transfer tubes or to the flat furnace bottom to facilitate ash removal. The performance of the unit on coal-water fuel and oil is compared and evidence given that the derating was not as severe as had been predicted. The commercial burner supplied did show some atomizer wear, part of which could be attributed to manufacturing deficiencies. It is suggested that the performance of this small unit should be applicable to larger units in the 100 MWe range.

Rankin, D.M. (New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)); Whaley, H.; Read, P.J. (Energy Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa (CA)); Burnett, D.J. (MBB Mechanical Services Ltd., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (CA))

1990-01-01

392

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal- water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine is SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up and (3) demonstration and evaluation. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. 6 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Elston, J.T.; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1991-05-15

393

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

394

Repower oil, gas-fired plants with coal-fired combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

Combined-cycle repowering of existing oil- and gas-fired power plants to use coal can add capacity and increase the output of a given site. The economics are better if a modern reheat plant is repowered than for projects in the past. A supplemental boiler between the combustion turbine exhaust and the main boiler is the most versatile and efficient configuration. Four types of coal techniques are reported: coal-derived liquids, coal-derived gases, direct coal burning in pressurized fluid beds. Three figures illustrate configuration options. The performance parameters of several repowering options are summarized and compared in terms of their fuel revenue requirements in two tables. 3 figures. (DCK)

Garland, R.V.

1981-11-01

395

Ash deposition and composition resulting from the combustion of lignite coals combined with fuel oil and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for alternative fuels for use by American Industry has led to the development of coal-oil mixtures and more recently coal-water mixtures. Ash handling equipment costs for retrofitted units represents a substantial percentage of the total capital investment and often contributes to making conversion to coal-oil mixtures economically unattractive. This paper reports on the findings of ash deposition and

V. A. Cundy; N. Estep; D. Maples

1983-01-01

396

Reactivity screening of feedstocks for catalytic coal/oil co-processing  

SciTech Connect

HRI is currently conducting a four-party funded program to develop and demonstrate catalytic coal/oil co-processing using HRI's proven ebullated-bed reactor technology. The initial task in the research program was to determine reactivities of four coals and four petroleum residuums both separately and in combination, using a 20cc microautoclave reactor. Experimental conditions and analytical procedures were developed to properly approximate ebullated bed conditions at the small, batch scale and to allow estimation of both coal and petroleum residuum conversions. Over 200 single-stage microautoclave tests were conducted studying severity, feedstock ratio, and catalyst effects.

Mc Lean, J.B.; Duddy, J.E.

1986-09-01

397

Israeli co-retorting of coal and oil shale would break even at 22/barrel  

SciTech Connect

Work is being carried out at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on co-retorting of coal and oil shale. The work is funded under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy. The project is exploring the conversion of US eastern high-sulfur bituminous coal in a split-stage, fluidized-bed reactor. Pyrolysis occurs in the first stage and char combustion in the second stage. These data for coal will be compared with similar data from the same reactor fueled by high-sulfur eastern US oil shale and Israeli oil shales. The project includes research at three major levels: pyrolysis in lab-scale fluidized-bed reactor; retorting in split-stage, fluidized-bed bench-scale process (1/4 tpd); and scale-up, preparation of full-size flowchart, and economic evaluation. In the past year's research, a preliminary economic evaluation was completed for a scaled-up process using a feed of high-sulfur coal and carbonate-containing Israeli oil shale. A full-scale plant in Israel was estimated to break even at an equivalent crude oil price of $150/ton ($22/barrel).

Not Available

1986-12-01

398

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, making it an attractive deposit for recovery processing. Several commercial concerns have had financial interest in the development of recovery processing, including in-situ thermal (Shell Oil), steam flooding (Signal Oil and Gas), and solvent extraction (AMOCO). Laboratory pyrolysis of a given tar sand is useful in pyrolysis type recovery research, both in-situ and surface. Several laboratory studies have been performed on Sunnyside tar sand, to elucidate its performance - fluidized-bed and fixed-bed pyrolysis, hydropryolysis, hot water and solvent extraction. This paper summarizes the authors' initial efforts in the laboratory pyrolysis of Sunnyside tar sand, and compares the results to the pyrolysis of other domestic tar sands (Asphalt Ridge from Utah and Big Clifty from Kentucky) studied under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01

399

Arctic Oil And Gas Resources Energy Resources Map Circum-Pacific Region, Arctic Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Energy-Resources Map published in 2000 covers the North Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, part of the North Atlantic Ocean and surrounding land. The map shows oil and gas fields, oil sand, oil shale, coal deposits, geothermal energy sites, onshore and offshore thickness of sedimentary rocks, and active tectonic plate boundaries. Background data on land are from the Arctic

Kenneth J. Drummond

400

Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands mine in the Fort McMurray area, decision 99-2, application number 970588  

SciTech Connect

Shell Canada has applied before the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for approval to construct, operate, and reclaim an oil sands mine and associated bitumen extraction facilities (the Muskeg River Mine) in the Fort McMurray area. This report reviews the views of the applicant, the Board, and various intervenors at the hearing held to consider issues related to the application. Issues discussed include the need for the proposed project, its socio-economic effects, Shell's public consultation process, mine planning and resource conservation, the extraction process to be used, tailings management, environmental effects, land reclamation, and cumulative effects of oil sands developments. The Board's conclusion and decision regarding the application are also presented.

Not Available

1999-01-01

401

Pretreatment of coal and recycle oil for direct liquefaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research and development program is being conducted by the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research, Sandia National Laboratories, LDP Associates and CONSOL Inc. to improve current coal liquefaction technology by physical and chemical p...

R. A. Winschel M. S. Lancet G. A. Robbins F. P. Burke R. J. Kottenstette

1993-01-01

402

Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-04-01

403

The fate of particulate emissions from an isolated power plant in the oil sands area of western Canada  

SciTech Connect

The nature and fate of particulate emissions from an isolated power plant in the Athabasca oil sands area of western Canada are investigated on the basis of measurements of particulate elemental concentrations in the air 80 km from the source late one winter, and close to the source early the next summer, of dry deposition patterns of particulate sulfur and heavy metals in the early summer, and of total (wet and dry) deposition patterns of major ions and metals during two winters. Results of plume chemistry studies to investigate SO/sub 2/ oxidation during summer and winter and of fly-ash analyses for heavy metals are also used. It is found that: (1) many elements in particulate matter deposited around the plant originate primarily from a different source in summer and in winter (2) deposition near the source is more alkaline than in outlying areas, (3) wet and dry deposition of acidic oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from the power-plant emissions appear to be the main source of snowpack acidification in downwind areas, and (4) acidic compounds can be transported over long distances before being removed.

Barrie, L.A.

1980-01-01

404

Isotopic Assessment of Hydrologic Variability in the Oil Sands Region of Alberta and Implications for Risk of Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An isotope mass balance technique is applied to quantify water yield variations and is used for the first time to refine a steady-state critical acid loadings assessment for a network of fifty lakes in hydrologically complex, wetland-rich terrain of northeastern Alberta. The approach uses readily obtainable physical and climatological data combined with site-specific measurements of evaporative isotopic enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 in lakewater as a means for quantifying throughflow, lake residency and ungaged runoff to lakes. Comparison of the method with Water Survey of Canada hydrometric data suggests very similar water yields, a favourable result, in moderate to large-sized watersheds, although isotope-based estimates appear to capture a different, and potentially improved view of water balance variability for small, low-yield drainages apparently disconnected from the landscape, and high-yield drainages that appear to be fed by regional groundwater flow systems. The isotope mass balance method is of practical interest owing to its potential for broad incorporation into water quality networks, and capability for characterizing hydrologic variability across regions and among specifically targeted study basins. For aquatic ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, an area expected to be affected by acid deposition from regional oil sands development, the critical loadings results are preliminary and subject to further refinement. Nevertheless, they serve to demonstrate the sensitivity of the approach to hydrological setting, and emphasize the inherently low threshold to acidification of lakes with low water yield, due to reduced fluxes of watershed-derived base cations.

Gibson, J. J.; McEachern, P.

2006-12-01

405

Coal oxidation and its effect on oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Small particles of high volatile bituminous coal from two different sources were oxidized by air at 150 C for up to 72 hrs. As the treatment progressed, samples of coal were recovered and characterized by measuring the heat of immersion of the particles in water and determining the agglomerability of the material with heptane while suspended in water. As oxidation proceeded, the heat of immersion increased and the agglomerability decreased, and a direct relationship between the two was observed.

Qiu, X.; Wheelock, T.D. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1991-12-31

406

A multi-isotope approach for estimating industrial contributions to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Industrial nitrogen (N) emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, affect nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) deposition rates in close vicinity of industrial emitters. NO3-N and NH4-N open field and throughfall deposition rates were determined at various sites between 3 km and 113 km distance to the main oil sand operations between May 2008 and May 2009. NO3 and NH4 were analyzed for ?(15)N-NO3, ?(18)O-NO3, ?(17)O-NO3 and ?(15)N-NH4. Marked differences in the ?(18)O and ?(17)O values between industrial emissions and background deposition allowed for the estimation of minimum industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 deposition. ?(15)N-NH4 values also allowed for estimates of industrial contributions to atmospheric NH4 deposition. Results revealed that particularly sites within ?30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 and NH4 deposition. PMID:23896680

Proemse, Bernadette C; Mayer, Bernhard; Fenn, Mark E; Ross, Christopher S

2013-07-27

407

Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. PMID:19850385

Harms, N Jane; Fairhurst, Graham D; Bortolotti, Gary R; Smits, Judit E G

2009-10-21

408

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

409

VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

410

Replacing Oil and Gas with Coal and Other Fuels in the Industrial and Utility Sectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impacts of programs designed to replace oil and gas with coal and other fuels in the industrial and utility sectors are described. The major provisions of the program are summarized, the overall energy impacts are identified, and the analysis for each...

1977-01-01

411

1980 oil and gas drilling and coal production summary for Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a compilation of the oil and gas drilling and the coal mining for Montana in 1980. In 1980 a total of 789 drill holes were completed. Of these 423 were dry holes which include those holes reported as being dry, dry and abandoned, abandoned, plugged, permit expired, plugged and abandoned or drilled as utility or water wells;

G. A. Cole; J. A. Daniel; B. P. Heald; D. Fuller; R. E. Matson

1981-01-01

412

Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of

Martin Flechsenhar; Christian Sasse

1995-01-01

413

LITERATURE SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH IN SITU COAL/OIL SHALE OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes available data on in situ coal gasification and in situ oil shale retorting to assess their potential environmental impacts on four areas: (1) groundwater due to leaching of residual materials left underground, (2) those due to subsidence, (3) air quality du...

414

Composition and morphology of stack emissions from coal and oil fuelled boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in the study of fly ash from large electric power and heating plants. Two basic kinds of fly ash originating either from brown coal or heavy-oil combustion can be characterized both by morphology and trace element composition. INAA technique used consisted of both short (1 min)

Obrusník; B. Stárková; J. Blažek

1989-01-01

415

Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: Production costs in 2030–2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–2050 found in the open literature is used. The basis for comparison

Tao Ren; Bert Daniëls; Martin K. Patel; Kornelis Blok

2009-01-01

416

Repower oil, gas-fired plants with coal-fired combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined-cycle repowering of existing oil- and gas-fired power plants to use coal can add capacity and increase the output of a given site. The economics are better if a modern reheat plant is repowered than for projects in the past. A supplemental boiler between the combustion turbine exhaust and the main boiler is the most versatile and efficient configuration. Four

1981-01-01

417

Processing old Gelsenberg coal (K1086) at 600 atm into gasoline and middle oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruhr coal (1086) which contained 86.8% carbon, was processed during earlier tests in a 10 liter oven at 600 atm into gasoline and middle oil. As a catalyst, Luxmasse, with a 3% sulfur content, was used. With this catalyst, the activity of which was less than those normally used at that time, (i.e. iron sulfate, Lux- and Bayermasse and sodium

H. Hupfer; Leonhardt; E. Fuerst

1943-01-01

418

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO2 sorbent. The test data inc...

419

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume describes emission results from sampling of flue gas from a firetube boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to control SO2 emissions. Measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment samp...

420

Effect of short oil-length alkyd additive on the properties of coal tar binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Demands for coatings with superior technical characteristics have induced the use of composite coatings, which usually represent an extremely strong product. The resin blend technique is a simple and useful method for improving paint properties. Coal tar resins are the most economical coating extensively used in the industry; short oil-length alkyd resins are usually used for air and

H. Abd El-Wahab; F. Abd El-Hai; M. Abd El-Fattah; L. Lin

2011-01-01

421

Exploration of Future Risks on the Global Market for Oil, Coal and Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is divided into four sections. The first section deals with the issues and definitions that relate to the meaning of security of supply. The following three sections deal in turn with the risks to future supply for oil, coal and uranium. The analysis has examined the impact that supply disruptions have had in the past, the events that

Robert Arnott

2005-01-01

422

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of single coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive (CWOM) has been studied. In this study, the droplet is suspended on a fine quartz fiber and is exposed to the hot combustion product of propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) and air. The results are documented in a movie series. The combustion of CWOM with various combinations of concentrations are compared with that of coal-water slurry and water-oil mixture droplets. The combustion of coal-water slurry is enhanced significantly due to the presence of emulsified kerosene. The enhancement is also dependent upon the mixing procedure during preparation of CWOM. The presence of emulsified kerosene induces local boil-off and combustion that coal particles are splashed as fire works during the early evaporation stage of droplet heat-up. After particle splashing, blow-holes appear on the droplet surface. The popcorn and swelling phenomena usually occurred in coal-water-slurry combustion is greatly reduced. Significant combustion enhancement occurs with the use of kerosene in an amount of about 15 percent of the overall CWOM. This process of using kerosene as combustion additive may provide obvious advantage for the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry. 4 references, 6 figures.

Yao, S.C.

1984-10-01

423

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

1998-04-01

424

Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).  

PubMed

The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

2012-07-27

425

Prediction of Shale Plugs between Wells in Heavy Oil Sands using Seismic Attributes  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental geologic problem in the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) heavy oil developments in the McMurray Formation of Northern Alberta is to determine the location of shales in the reservoirs that may interfere with the steaming or recovery process. Petrophysical analysis shows that a key acoustic indicator of the presence of shale is bulk density. In theory, density can be derived from seismic data using Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) analysis of conventional or multicomponent seismic data, but this is not widely accepted in practice. However, with billions of dollars slated for SAGD developments in the upcoming years, this technology warrants further investigation. In addition, many attributes can be investigated using modern tools like neural networks; so, the density extracted from seismic using AVO can be compared and combined with more conventional attributes in solving this problem. Density AVO attributes are extracted and correlated with 'density synthetics' created from the logs just as the seismic stack correlates to conventional synthetics. However, multiattribute tests show that more than density is required to best predict the volume proportion of shale (Vsh). Vsh estimates are generated by passing seismic attributes derived from conventional PP, and multicomponent PS seismic, AVO and inversion from an arbitrary line following the pilot SAGD wells through a neural network. This estimate shows good correlation to shale proportions estimated from core. The results have encouraged the application of the method to the entire 3D.

Gray, F. David [Veritas DGC, Inc., 2200 (Canada); Anderson, Paul F. [Apache Canada Ltd. (Canada); Gunderson, Jay A. [Veritas DGC, Inc., 2200 (Canada)

2006-06-15

426

Mystery Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesnât get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

427

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines