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1

Fluid catalytic cracking of shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the potential of converting shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil into liquids of 100-600°F boiling range covers composition of shale oil, including its high nitrogen content and the severe conditions required for its removal prior to catalytic cracking, and test results obtained some years ago by Atlantic Richfield Co. on hydrotreating and fluid-catalytic cracking of

J. P. Gallagher; W. H. Humes; J. O. Slemssen

1978-01-01

2

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements to a previously proposed (Fisher, 1979) means for the underground processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil using eddy currents induced by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Consideration is given to the injection into the fuel layer by pressure from the surface of a hot, saturated high-conductivity aqueous electrolyte solution, which would allow induction heating to depend

S. T. Fisher

1980-01-01

3

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements to a previously proposed (Fisher, 1979) means for the underground processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil using eddy currents induced by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Consideration is given to the injection into the fuel layer by pressure from the surface of a hot, saturated high-conductivity aqueous electrolyte solution, which would allow induction heating to depend entirely on low-frequency eddy currents, and to the use of an outer tube of copper welded to an inner tube of steel for the tunnel and shaft casings and electrical conductors of the underground eddy-current heating installation. The physical and operational parameters of the proposed modifications are given, and it is shown that these improvements would increase the performance margin of the eddy-current heating method over the proposed dielectric heating method for oil shale and oil sand deposits.

Fisher, S. T.

1980-07-01

4

Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming for underground coal gasification applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming which are potentially suitable for in situ processing with process heat or combustible gas from underground coal gasification (UCG). The investigation was undertaken as part of a project to develop novel concepts for expanding the role of UCG in maximizing energy recovery from

1985-01-01

5

Survey of tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, and shallow light oil fields of the United States for underground coal gasification applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature survey was conducted to identify areas of the United States where tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, or shallow light oil fields might be suitably associated with coal deposits for production of oil by in situ thermal recovery methods using heat derived from underground coal gasification (UCG) processes. The survey is part of a Department of Energy-sponsored program

1986-01-01

6

Oil shale and tar sands as substitute fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the sheer magnitude of the resources available, coal takes a strong position as the alternate source of fuel supplies when petroleum is unavailable. However oil shale and tar sands are also possibilities, and, indeed, have some advantages over coal. Although Oklahoma has no oil shale deposits, it does have appreciable amounts of tar sands. Oil shale deposits in the

Ball

1974-01-01

7

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

8

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

9

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

10

Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar sands at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.

Chastko, Paul Anthony

11

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

12

Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

cheong, S.; Lee, H.

2013-12-01

13

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-09-01

14

An overview of Canadian oil sand mega projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently a number of existing oil sand Mega-Projects as well as many other related projects planned and under construction in the Alberta oil sands region. There are many challenges facing the oil sands. The demanding climate conditions cost of extraction, environmental, energy constraints as well as the rising construction costs are examples. To develop this huge petroleum reserve,

R. Paes; M. Throckmorton

2008-01-01

15

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01

16

Gold, coal and oil.  

PubMed

Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans will make it certain that a number of other hardly won, nicely balanced human-specific adaptednesses will decline. These include a decline of encephalization and life-span, and consequentially intelligence and longevity. These changes are likely to have far-reaching impacts on biological and cultural evolution of mankind. The only efficient way of reducing chronic global exposure to arsenic and avoiding further human losses is the inactivation of important sources of anthropogenic arsenic such as hard rock mining and burning of fossil fuels. PMID:19846256

Dani, Sergio U

2010-03-01

17

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

18

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience  

SciTech Connect

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

None, None

2013-09-01

19

Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters.

Gulley, J.R. [Suncor Inc., Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada). Oil Sands Group; Hamilton, H.R.; Taylor, B. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

20

Coal Oil Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its energy technology program, the administration of the Land of North-Rhine Westphalia, after the 1973/74 energy crisis, pointed out development targets to lessen the dependence of the country's energy supply on imports by upgrading domestic coal. It ...

1982-01-01

21

Productivity and equipment selection in surface mining of oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of mining equipment is used in the mining of oil sands by surface mining. This includes bucket wheel excavators, draglines, hydraulic shovels and off-highway trucks. This paper examines the existing mining schemes and equipment used. Peculiarities of oil sands surface mining and their influence on equipment selection, utilization and mining schemes are described. Recent developments undertaken to improve

R. K. Singhal; R. J. Kolada; T. I. Vladut

1985-01-01

22

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16

23

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

24

Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

E-print Network

Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction A the feasibility of integrating a nuclear power plant with Steam- Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), an oil the Kyoto protocol and could prove to be expensive for oil sands development companies. Nuclear power

25

Shale Oil and Gas, Frac Sand, and Watershed  

E-print Network

Shale Oil and Gas, Frac Sand, and Watershed Changes in Energy Transportation May 21, 2014 Minnesota, 60-70 MMT/Yr · Life of current Shale Oil & Gas exploration trend, 25-35 Years (?- new discoveries · Bakken is 25% of new shale oil and gas in US #12;Large Geologic Scale, Reserves #12;#12;Safety

Minnesota, University of

26

Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

Kushida, R. O.

1982-01-01

27

Major tar sand and heavy oil deposits of the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for this report has grown with each passing year since the last official tabulation of US tar sands, the 1965 Department of Interior\\/Bureau of Mines Monograph 12 entitled, Surface and Shallow Oil-Impregnated Rocks of the United States. Four important national energy resource objectives are addressed: (1) to develop an updated assessment of US tar sand resources; (2) to

Hammershaimb

1983-01-01

28

Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Oil Sands  

E-print Network

`Oil sands' exist in some parts of the world as thick deposits .... Settari and Raisbeck [10,11] provided two of the early work ...... is kept equal to zero at the top surface; everywhere else, ..... Lane Mountain sand grain was determined to be 2.65.

2008-11-16

29

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to assess their potential economic importance. A reconnaissance geologic map of each examined deposit was constructed, and the deposits were sampled and described. Ten occurrences were described during the 1984 and 1985 field seasons. The oil-sand occurrences were all sandstone reservoirs ranging from Pennsylvanian to Tertiary. Based on these reconnaissance examinations, only three occurrences appeared to be potentially significant. The Rattlesnake Hills occurrence, west of Casper, is an asymmetrical anticline with oil-impregnated sands in the Mesaverde Formation, Frontier Formation, and, most extensively, the Muddy Sandstone. Other formations in the structure contain minor amounts of oil staining. The Muddy Creek occurrence, southwest of Rawlins, contains oil-impregnated sandstones in the lower Wasatch Formation. This stratigraphically controlled trap dips to the west into the Washakie basin. The Conant Creek occurrence, southeast of Riverton, includes stratigraphically controlled oil sands in the relatively flat Wagon Bed Formation.

Ver Ploeg, A.

1986-08-01

30

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil sand and oil spring occurrences in Wyoming. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous oil seeps and oil sands have been reported in the literature in Wyoming. Clark and Glass (Clark, M., and Glass, G.B., 1982, Review of reported tar sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming Open File Report 82-5, 49 p.) reviewed the literature for reports of occurrences and catalogued 78 reported occurrences of shallow or outcropping

Ver Ploeg

1986-01-01

31

Coal-generated oil in Tuha Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turpan-Harmi (abbreviated to Tuha below) Basin is a typical basin of coal-generated oil accumulation in China. The Middle-Lower\\u000a Jurassic coal measures are considered the main source beds. Hence, both desmocollinite and suberinite are considered the contributors\\u000a for coal-generated oil. Principal geochemical features of the crude oil in the Tuha Basin are rich in alkanes (70%—80%), high\\u000a pristane\\/phytane ratio (6—8),

Keming Cheng; Aiguo Su; Changyi Zhao; Zhonghua He

1997-01-01

32

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part II. Five grass plant species and their response to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; alkaligrass  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10 week growth period. Hypotheses tested were: (a) there is a difference between in situ produced waters, and (b) plant species respond differently to various retort waters. Results indicated that the stated hypotheses were true.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-11-01

33

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part III. Three grass species and their response to Omega 9 and to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands and underground coal gasification. [Basin wildrye; western wheatgrass; alkali sacaton  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. The hypothesis tested was, there is a difference between produced waters diluted by ground water and those where dilution is non-existent and their effect on plant growth. Results indicated that retort water diluted by ground water has a less toxic effect on plant species tested.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-12-01

34

Fracturing yields oil from poorly consolidated sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of fracturing poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs and filling them with a thick multilayer of proppant has proven successful since sustained production has been obtained from zones previously not producible. Since there was no significant difference in results when fluids of varying polymer concentrations were used, the least expensive fluid was applied. The 70\\/140 mesh sand used as a

S. A. Lambert; R. T. Dolan; J. P. Gallus

1984-01-01

35

Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.  

PubMed

Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

2008-01-01

36

Fracturing yields oil from poorly consolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

The technique of fracturing poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs and filling them with a thick multilayer of proppant has proven successful since sustained production has been obtained from zones previously not producible. Since there was no significant difference in results when fluids of varying polymer concentrations were used, the least expensive fluid was applied. The 70/140 mesh sand used as a fluid loss additive apparently was effective and possibly less damaging than silica flour. Larger sized sand pumped at the end of treatments did not have a discernible effect on production rate, but wells treated with Clay Acid apparently produced at higher rates than wells not treated. The stimulation method described for poorly consolidated, sandstone reservoirs may be expected to be effective in areas other than the Cook Inlet of Alaska, i.e., in areas where conventional fracturing in relatively soft formations has not been successful.

Lambert, S.A.; Dolan, R.T.; Gallus, J.P.

1984-05-01

37

Alder-Frankia Symbionts Enhance the Remediation and Revegetation of Oil Sands Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of petroleum from the oil sands creates lar ge quantities of oil sands process- affected water (OSPW) and tailings sand. The tailings sand has a low fertility, a low organic matter content, it is highly alkaline, compactable, and contains residual hydrocarbons, making it a very inhospitable growth environment. As the exploitation of this resource intensifies, increasing quantities of OSPW

Elisabeth Lefrançois; Ali Quoreshi; Damase Khasa; Martin Fung; Lyle G. Whyte; Sébastien Roy; Charles W. Greer

38

Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high

M. A. Naeth; D. S. Chanasyk; T. D. Burgers

2011-01-01

39

Combination fluid bed dry distillation and coking process for oil\\/tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for direct coking of tar sands which includes contacting the tar sand with heat transfer particles resulting from combustion of coked sand effluent from the coking process, and transporting the combination up a riser\\/mixer to a coking vessel whereby separation of oil and hydrocarbon gases from the sand is initiated. The tar sand is introduced into

H. Owen; J. H. Haddad; J. C. Zahner

1985-01-01

40

EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND  

E-print Network

structures built of creosoted wood. It has been recorded numerous times that sparks from welding operations have started serious fires of oil slicks in harbors and that ship repairs have had to be delayed until

41

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

42

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

43

Emulsified coal oils as flotation reagents  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted with the goal of preparing coal oils for use in coal flotation by preliminary emulsification. When added to the slurry, this oil is rapidly and uniformly distributed over the surface of the coal particles. The emulsification was conducted by mechanical dispersion in a laboratory agitator. (Under industrial conditions this process may be conducted in a centrifugal pump). A neutralized solution of acid tar (a waste from the sulfuric acid purification of crude benzol) was used as the emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer. The concentration of sulfonic acids was about 48%. Stable homogeneous emulsions were obtained at a concentration of oil up to 20% and neutralized tar of 0.2%. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsions was 2-10 microns. Experimental testing was conducted on a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine with a chamber 1 litter in volume. Unemulsified and emulsified coal oils from the tar refining division of the Makeevka Coke Works were investigated; screenings from the charge of the Yasinovka Coke Works (the below-0.5-mm size class) were floated. As a comparison experiments with the traditional kerosene reagent were conducted. In the experiments with anthracene oil, pitch distillates and kerosene, T-66 frothing agent was added at 140 g/ton of sludge; during the work with wash oil and naphthalene exudates T-66 was not added, assuming that the water-soluble phenols and bases contained in these oils have adequate frothing capacity. 5 references, 2 figures.

Selyanko, I.T.; Belov, K.A.; Karnozhitskii, P.V.; Ivashchenko, V.A.

1983-01-01

44

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large areas of land to reclaim. There are estimates that the consolidation of the mature fine tails (MFT) in the settling ponds will take about 150 years. Some of the settling ponds are now evolving microbially produced methane, a greenhouse gas. To hasten consolidation, gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) is added to MFT, yielding materials called consolidated or composite tailings (CT). Sulfate from the gypsum has the potential to stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to out-compete methanogens, thereby stopping methanogenesis. This investigation examined three MFT and four CT samples from three oil sands extractions companies. Each was found to contain methanogens and SRB. Serum bottle microcosm studies showed sulfate in the CT samples stopped methane production. However, if the microcosms were amended with readily utilizable electron donors, the sulfate was consumed, and when it reached approximately 20 mg/L, methane production began. Some unamended microcosms were incubated for 372 days, with no methane production detected. This work showed that each MFT and CT sample has the potential to become methanogenic, but in the absence of exogenous electron donors, the added sulfate can inhibit methanogenesis for a long time. PMID:11888160

Fedorak, Phillip M; Coy, Debora L; Salloum, Myrna J; Dudas, Marvin J

2002-01-01

45

Method for treating oil sands extraction plant tailings  

SciTech Connect

Tailings from an oil sands hot water process extraction plant are mixed with hydrolyzed starch flocculant and transferred to a settling pond. After a residence period on the order of one year, sludge from the lower region of the settling pond is withdrawn, mixed with a hydrolyzed starch dewatering agent and transferred to a collecting pond. After a residence period on the order of one week, partially dewatered sludge is withdrawn, mixed with sand, and deposited in a terminal disposal area, the sand in the mixture there effecting an internal surcharge to obtain further dewatering. The hydrolyzed starch additives are obtained by the aqueous hydrolysis of a starch in the presence of one or more metal salts.

Yong, R.N.

1984-03-20

46

The pyrolysis of oil sands in a fluidized bed at reduced pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor system was designed, constructed, and tested at reactor pressures less than atmospheric using mined and crushed oil sands from the Whiterocks deposit of Utah. A 6.0 inch ID fluidized bed reactor was fed oil sand of 7% bitumen saturation on a continuous basis while maintaining a bed height of approximately 12 inches. Spent sand was

1992-01-01

47

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

48

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

49

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

2011-12-01

50

RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS; PROVIDING  

E-print Network

RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS) are protists (unicellular microorganisms) that comprise an important component within the microbial trophic

Patterson, Timothy

51

Magnetic pipeline for coal and oil  

SciTech Connect

A 1994 analysis of the recorded costs of the Alaska oil pipeline, in a paper entitled Maglev Crude Oil Pipeline, (NASA CP-3247 pp. 671--684) concluded that, had the Knolle Magnetrans pipeline technology been available and used, some $10 million per day in transportation costs could have been saved over the 20 years of the Alaska oil pipeline's existence. This over 800 mile long pipeline requires about 500 horsepower per mile in pumping power, which together with the cost of the pipeline's capital investment consumes about one-third of the energy value of the pumped oil. This does not include the cost of getting the oil out of the ground. The reason maglev technology performs superior to conventional pipelines is because by magnetically levitating the oil into contact-free suspense, there is no drag-causing adhesion. In addition, by using permanent magnets in repulsion, suspension is achieved without using energy. Also, the pumped oil's adhesion to the inside of pipes limits its speed. In the case of the Alaska pipeline the speed is limited to about 7 miles per hour, which, with its 48-inch pipe diameter and 1200 psi pressure, pumps about 2 million barrels per day. The maglev system, as developed by Knolle Magnetrans, would transport oil in magnetically suspended sealed containers and, thus free of adhesion, at speeds 10 to 20 times faster. Furthermore, the diameter of the levitated containers can be made smaller with the same capacity, which makes the construction of the maglev system light and inexpensive. There are similar advantages when using maglev technology to transport coal. Also, a maglev system has advantages over railroads in mountainous regions where coal is primarily mined. A maglev pipeline can travel, all-year and all weather, in a straight line to the end-user, whereas railroads have difficult circuitous routes. In contrast, a maglev pipeline can climb over steep hills without much difficulty.

Knolle, E.

1998-07-01

52

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of Syncrude post-extraction oil sand.  

PubMed

Rapid- and step-scan photoacoustic (PA) infrared spectra of three fractions of a Syncrude post-extraction oil sand were analyzed in detail in this work. The rapid-scan spectra showed that the samples were comprised primarily of kaolinite, quartz, silica, siderite, and residual hydrocarbons, and that the proportions of these constituents were different for each fraction. Depth profiling of the three post-extraction oil sands was accomplished using both rapid- and step-scan PA infrared spectroscopy. The results confirmed that kaolinite is more abundant in the near-surface region, whereas quartz and hydrocarbons are concentrated at greater depths. The modulation frequency dependence of the PA intensities for all three fractions was consistent with a model in which the samples are thermally thick; in other words, the thermal diffusion length (roughly equal to the sampling depth) was less than the particle sizes of all three samples. The results of this study are consistent with published reports on the PA infrared spectra of fine tailings generated during bitumen extraction and the spectroscopic and thermophysical characterization of clay soils and an appropriate model clay. PMID:16388979

Michaelian, Kirk H; Hall, Robert H; Kenny, Kimberly I

2006-06-01

53

Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional oil production and oil sands.  

PubMed

Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land disturbed by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energy yield of oil production is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher, (0.33-2.6, 0.61-1.2, and 2.2 5.1 PJ/ha) for conventional oil production, oil sands surface mining, and in situ production, respectively). We found that land use contributes small portions of GHGs to life cycle emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production ( <0.4% or < 0.4 gCO?e/MJ crude refinery feedstock) and small to modest portions for Alberta conventional oil (0.1-4% or 0.1-3.4 gCO?e/MJ) and surface mining of oil sands (0.9-11% or 0.8-10.2 gCO?e/MJ).Our estimates are based on assumptions aggregated over large spatial and temporal scales and assuming 100% reclamation. Values on finer spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to policy targets need to account for site-specific information, the baseline natural and anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:20949948

Yeh, Sonia; Jordaan, Sarah M; Brandt, Adam R; Turetsky, Merritt R; Spatari, Sabrina; Keith, David W

2010-11-15

54

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1993-07-01

55

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

56

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

57

Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology,  

E-print Network

Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology the effects of various types of wastewater produced in oil-sand-refining on the survival, hematology, gill. In con- trast, all fish did not survive a 28-day period in any of the wastewaters tested and, in some

Farrell, Anthony P.

58

Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) Obtained from Methanogenic Oil Sands Tailings Pond Metagenomes  

PubMed Central

Draft genome sequences of two Campylobacterales (Sulfurospirillum sp. strain SCADC and Sulfuricurvum sp. strain MLSB [Mildred Lake Settling Basin]) were obtained by taxonomic binning of metagenomes originating from an oil sands tailings pond. Both genomes contain soxABXYZ genes involved in sulfur oxidation, highlighting their potential roles in sulfur cycling in oil sands tailings ponds. PMID:25323712

Tan, BoonFei

2014-01-01

59

Draft genome sequences of campylobacterales (epsilonproteobacteria) obtained from methanogenic oil sands tailings pond metagenomes.  

PubMed

Draft genome sequences of two Campylobacterales (Sulfurospirillum sp. strain SCADC and Sulfuricurvum sp. strain MLSB [Mildred Lake Settling Basin]) were obtained by taxonomic binning of metagenomes originating from an oil sands tailings pond. Both genomes contain soxABXYZ genes involved in sulfur oxidation, highlighting their potential roles in sulfur cycling in oil sands tailings ponds. PMID:25323712

Tan, BoonFei; Foght, Julia

2014-01-01

60

Performance of auger-type dry materials feeders when feeding oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, reproducible solids feeding has historically been difficult to achieve during surface mining-recovery process development studies with Uinta Basin oil sands. In an effort to solve the problem, commercial bin-discharge feeders were tested for oil sands feeding to rotary kiln and fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactors and for feeding spent sands from pyrolysis reactors to combustion reactors. Feeder experiments were conducted using

F. V. Hanson; J. V. Fletcher; H. Zheng

1995-01-01

61

Recent coal-oil mixture combustion tests at PETC  

SciTech Connect

Coal-oil mixture combustion tests with coal concentrations of up to 50 percent were successfully conducted in a 700 horsepower watertube boiler designed originally for oil firing. A 500-h duration test with coal-oil mixture containing 40 percent coal has also been completed. No derating of the boiler occurred, carbon-conversion efficiencies were above 98 percent, and boiler efficiencies were the same as when firing No. 6 fuel oil. All combustion tests were conducted with No. 6 fuel oil mixed with Pittsburgh Seam coal pulverized to a coal particle size of 90 percent minus 200 mesh. Test results relating to boiler performance, pollutant emissions, ash deposition, and corrosion, erosion, and fouling behavior are presented.

Pan, Y. S.; Bellas, G. T.; Mathur, M. P.; Joubert, J. I.; Bienstock, D.

1980-06-01

62

Alberta bound : the interface between Alberta's environmental policies and the environmental management of three Albertan oil sands companies  

E-print Network

The Athabasca Oil Sands, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, were for many years anomalous. Two oil sands operators developed their extraction techniques for 30 years, refining their technology before production became ...

Lemphers, Nathan C

2009-01-01

63

Disease and Gill Lesions in Yellow Perch ( Perca flavescens) Exposed to Oil Sands Mining-Associated Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds designed to test the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives currently being pursued by the oil sands mining industry. Water-quality characteristics of oil sands-influenced water in the experimental ponds included increased salinity and elevated trace organics associated with raw oil sands (bitumen). After 3 and 10 months of exposure to affected waters,

M. R. van den Heuvel; M. Power; J. Richards; M. MacKinnon; D. G. Dixon

2000-01-01

64

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs ( Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data

Blair D. Hersikorn; Judit E. G. Smits

2011-01-01

65

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data  

E-print Network

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth and at ultrasonic frequencies (0.8MHz). The measurements were carried on heavy-oil sand sample from Asphalt Ridge

66

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

67

Oil Sands and Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If constructed, the Keystone XL pipeline would transport crude oil (e.g., synthetic crude oil or diluted bitumen) derived from oil sands in Alberta, Canada to destinations in the United States. Because the pipeline crosses an international border, it requ...

J. L. Ramseur, L. Luther, N. T. Carter, P. W. Parfomak, R. K. Lattanzio

2013-01-01

68

Tracing biogeochemical and microbial variability over a complete oil sand mining and recultivation process.  

PubMed

Recultivation of disturbed oil sand mining areas is an issue of increasing importance. Nevertheless only little is known about the fate of organic matter, cell abundances and microbial community structures during oil sand processing, tailings management and initial soil development on reclamation sites. Thus the focus of this work is on biogeochemical changes of mined oil sands through the entire process chain until its use as substratum for newly developing soils on reclamation sites. Therefore, oil sand, mature fine tailings (MFTs) from tailings ponds and drying cells and tailings sand covered with peat-mineral mix (PMM) as part of land reclamation were analyzed. The sample set was selected to address the question whether changes in the above-mentioned biogeochemical parameters can be related to oil sand processing or biological processes and how these changes influence microbial activities and soil development. GC-MS analyses of oil-derived biomarkers reveal that these compounds remain unaffected by oil sand processing and biological activity. In contrast, changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance and pattern can be observed along the process chain. Especially naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and chrysenes are altered or absent on reclamation sites. Furthermore, root-bearing horizons on reclamation sites exhibit cell abundances at least ten times higher (10(8) to 10(9)cellsg(-1)) than in oil sand and MFT samples (10(7)cellsg(-1)) and show a higher diversity in their microbial community structure. Nitrate in the pore water and roots derived from the PMM seem to be the most important stimulants for microbial growth. The combined data show that the observed compositional changes are mostly related to biological activity and the addition of exogenous organic components (PMM), whereas oil extraction, tailings dewatering and compaction do not have significant influences on the evaluated compounds. Microbial community composition remains relatively stable through the entire process chain. PMID:25201817

Noah, Mareike; Lappé, Michael; Schneider, Beate; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilkes, Heinz; Kallmeyer, Jens

2014-11-15

69

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-02-01

70

Development of an Optimal Energy Infrastructure for the Canadian Oil Sands Industry in a CO2-constrained World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrading of oil sands bitumen to Synthetic Crude Oil (SCO) consumes substantial quantities of power and hydrogen, which are produced using fossil fuels. The resulting combined CO2 emissions from hydrogen and power production for bitumen upgrading make the oil sands industry one of Canada's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters. This study quantitatively identifies the GHG emissions associated with oil

Guillermo Ordorica-Garcia; Eric Croiset; Peter Douglas; Ali Elkamel; Murlidhar Gupta

71

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

SciTech Connect

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One consisted of a 50/40/10 (weight) coal/oil/water mixture, and the other was a 65/35 coal/water slurry stabilized with modified corn starch. The emphasis was placed on the coal/water slurry. Firings were conducted in a one MMBTUH experimental furnace constructed and instrumented for the purpose. A specially designed swirl burner/atomizer was developed for use with the coal/water slurry. Both slurries were burned successfully. Numerous firings were performed of up to one-half duration each. In the case of the coal/water slurry a small amount of gas assist was usually used, although this was eliminated in several shorter duration tests. Thermochemical calculations for coal/water slurries are presented. The presence of water in the slurry represents a relatively small energy penalty. A slurry made from a good coal will have a calorific value in the range of 10,000 Btu/lb. The heat required to vaporize the water of a 70/30 mixture is only about 300 Btu/lb slurry, or about 3 percent. Analysis of the results led to the conclusion that significant improvement in the burning maybe achievable, possibly to the point where combustion rates would be comparable to those of heavy oil. Because of the availability of coal, its cost advantage relative to oil, and especially because of the ease of handling of a liquid fuel, coal/water slurry appears to have considerable potential as a future fuel.

McHale, E.T.

1980-05-01

72

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1993-11-01

73

Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry  

E-print Network

This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

Lacombe, Romain H.

2007-01-01

74

Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia Physodes Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A microwave-assisted digestion technique followed by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analysis was used to measure concentrations of 43 elements in Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canad...

75

Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment  

PubMed Central

Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratidal beach environment with reasonable control over and knowledge of the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat samples from the intertidal did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and nutrient-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents <2% and molar C:N ratios from 131–323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2–8 year?1) due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For submerged oil mat samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture, salinity, terminal electron acceptors, nutrient, and oil composition) due, in part, to their location on the landscape. PMID:24782849

Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R.; Pardue, John H.

2014-01-01

76

Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment.  

PubMed

Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratidal beach environment with reasonable control over and knowledge of the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat samples from the intertidal did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and nutrient-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents <2% and molar C:N ratios from 131-323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2-8 year(-1)) due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For submerged oil mat samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture, salinity, terminal electron acceptors, nutrient, and oil composition) due, in part, to their location on the landscape. PMID:24782849

Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R; Pardue, John H

2014-01-01

77

A Wintertime Investigation of Atmospheric Pollutants Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is a potentially important pathway of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) input to the landscape in the oil sands region of Alberta. With planned expansion of oil sands facilities, there is interest in being able to characterize the magnitude and extent of trace metal and PAH deposition in the oil sands region. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of a bulk collection system to characterize atmospheric deposition of selected organic and inorganic contaminants in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The study was carried out in four sampling sites near and distant to oil sands facilities from late December 2011 to the end of March 2012 (3-month period). To check the precision of the bulk deposition method, triplicate bulk samplers were used, which were placed next to each other and as close as possible considering similar microenvironment. Monthly deposition samples were analyzed for 36 trace metals (including 13 U.S. EPA priority pollutants), ultra-low mercury, and 25 PAH (including alkylated-, parent-, and carcinogenic-PAH). At two sampling sites located within 20 km of major oil sands facilities, 3-month integrated deposition rates for some priority metals were up to 20-fold higher compared to two background sites located >45 km away from the oil sands facilities. Winter deposition rates of alkylated-PAH and parent-PAH were up to 70-fold lower at the background sampling sites than at sites near oil sands facilities. Deposition fluxes of total carcinogenic PAH were found to be 6- to 75-fold higher at the two sampling sites near oil sands development facilities compared to the north and south background sites. Another notable finding is the apparent precision of the sampling method. Median coefficient of variation for 13 priority metals were ±21% and within ±15% for both alkylated- and parent-PAH. The Athabasca oil sands region is considered a large area of current interest with respect to potential deposition of trace metals and PAH. However, access to power for any type of air pollution monitoring is, for the most part, lacking in locations at distances excess of 30 km from oil sands facilities. The bulk collection systems investigated here offer the ability to obtain direct measures of trace metal and PAH deposition in these remote areas.

Bari, M.; Kindzierski, W.

2012-12-01

78

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

Coal Oil Point seep field, underlying geologic structure showing the Monterey Formation (Formation dips north, with the steepest portions along the CoalCoal Oil Point seep field distribution, underlying geologic structure showing faults, Monterey Formation (

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

79

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development  

E-print Network

contents have since been revised and updated to reflect changes and progress that have occurred in the domestic oil shale and tar sands industries since the first release and to include profiles of additional companies engaged in oil shale and tar sands resource and technology development. Each of the companies profiled in the original report has been extended the opportunity to update its profile to reflect progress, current activities and future plans.

unknown authors

80

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

81

Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Characteristics of Oil Sands Using Ultrasound Irradiation for Shortening the Preheating Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are attractive as an energy resource. Bitumen, which is found in oil sands, has high viscosity, so that it does not flow. Most oil sands are underground and are developed with a method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Hot steam is injected underground to fluidize bitumen and promote its recovery. However, the preheating time is too long. One way of reducing running costs is by shortening the preheating time. Previous studies have found that bitumen can be extracted from oil sands efficiently by applying ultrasonic irradiation, but SAGD was not applied directly in these cases. Thus, the purpose of this study is to apply ultrasonic irradiation to SAGD, thereby shortening the preheating time of oil sands. As a model experiment for SAGD, heat transfer experiments in a sand layer made with Toyoura sand and silicone oil were conducted and the thermal effect with ultrasound was investigated.

Kamagata, Shingo; Kawamura, Youhei; Okawa, Hirokazu; Mizutani, Koichi

2012-07-01

82

Increased Thyroid Hormone Levels in Tree Swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) on Reclaimed Wetlands of the Athabasca Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are one of the world’s largest reserves of crude oil. Oil sands mining companies are now\\u000a investigating the ecological impacts of reclamation strategies in which wetlands are used for the bioremediation of waste\\u000a materials. To examine the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals in Oil Sands Process Materials (OSPM), thyroid hormone\\u000a concentrations were measured in

Marie-Line Gentes; Anne McNabb; Cheryl Waldner; Judit E. G. Smits

2007-01-01

83

Laboratory studies to characterize the efficacy of sand capping a coal tar-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Placement of a microbial active sand cap on a coal tar-contaminated river sediment has been suggested as a cost effective remediation strategy. This approach assumes that the flux of contaminants from the sediment is sufficiently balanced by oxygen and nutrient fluxes into the sand layer such that microbial activity will reduce contaminant concentrations within the new benthic zone and reduce the contaminant flux to the water column. The dynamics of such a system were evaluated using batch and column studies with microbial communities from tar-contaminated sediment under different aeration and nutrient inputs. In a 30-d batch degradation study on aqueous extracts of coal tar sediment, oxygen and nutrient concentrations were found to be key parameters controlling the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the five PAHs monitored (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), degradation rates were inversely proportional to molecular size. For the column studies, where three columns were packed with a 20-cm sand layer on the top of a 5 cm of sediment layer, flow was established to sand layers with (1) aerated water, (2) N(2) sparged water, or (3) HgCl(2)-sterilized N(2) sparged water. After steady-state conditions, PAH concentrations in effluents were the lowest in the aerated column, except for pyrene, whose concentration was invariant with all effluents. These laboratory scale studies support that if sufficient aeration can be achieved in the field through either active and passive means, the resulting microbially active sand layer can improve the water quality of the benthic zone and reduce the flux of many, but not all, PAHs to the water column. PMID:16337673

Hyun, Seunghun; Jafvert, Chad T; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C

2006-06-01

84

Research of Coal Substituting Oil (Natural Gas) in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexion that coal gives priority to others resource is decided by the energy production and consume structure. It is difficult to change in the future. With the economy growth, the energy demand is increasing, especially the oil and natural gas. But the resource condition of oil and natural gas are not optimism, domestic production is satisfy to the energy demand difficultly, the direct way is by the import. However the import is affected by the international energy subsituation, and it can affect the energy safety. Whereas the abundant coal resource, the coal can substitute the oil(natural gas).It not only cuts down the dependence on the overseas energy, but also builds up the safety. So, applying the trans-log production function, the text analyses the substitution among capital, coal, oil and natural gas in China.

Zhang, Lifeng

85

Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers  

E-print Network

Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

Swanson, K.

1981-01-01

86

Integration of waste pyrolysis with coal/oil coprocessing  

SciTech Connect

HTI has developed a novel process, HTI CoPro Plus{trademark}, to produce alternative fuels and chemicals from the combined liquefaction of waste materials, coal, and heavy petroleum residues. Promising results have been obtained from a series of bench tests (PB-01 through PB-06) under the DOE Proof of Concept Program. Recently, HTI acquired a proven technology for the mild co-pyrolysis of used rubber tires and waste refinery or lube oils, developed by the University of Wyoming and Amoco. The feasibility of integration of pyrolysis with coal-oil coprocessing was studied in the eighth bench run (PB-08) of the program. The objective of Run PB-08 was to study the coprocessing of coal with oils derived from mild pyrolysis of scrap tires, waste plastics, and waste lube oils to obtain data required for economic comparisons with the DOE data base. A specific objective was also to study the performance of HTI`s newly improved GelCat{trademark} catalyst in coal-waste coprocessing under low-high (Reactor 1-Reactor 2 temperatures) operating mode. This paper presents the results obtained from Run PB-08, a 17-day continuous operation conducted in August 1997. A total of 5 conditions were tested, including a baseline coal-only condition. During the coprocessing conditions, 343{degrees}C+ pyrolysis oils derived from co-pyrolysis of rubber tires or a mixture of rubber tires and plastics with waste lube oil, were coprocessed with Black Thunder coal using HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst. In the last condition, rubber tires were pyrolyzed with 524{degrees}C- coal liquid to study the possible elimination of lube oil used as pyrolysis processing oil. Overall coal conversion above 90 W% was achieved.

Hu, J.; Zhou, P.; Lee, T.L.K.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1998-04-01

87

Draft genome sequences for oil-degrading bacterial strains from beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826

Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Marks, Kala P; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om; Kostka, Joel E

2013-01-01

88

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

89

Pretreatment of coal and recycle oil for direct liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program is being conducted by the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research, Sandia National Laboratories, LDP Associates and CONSOL Inc. to improve current coal liquefaction technology by physical and chemical pretreatments of the coal and recycle oil. These pretreatment steps include: (1) agglomeration of the coal with ash-containing recycle oil to simultaneously reject coal ash and recycle-oil ash, (2) fluid coking of the distillation bottoms (ash-purge) stream and recycle of the coker overhead, (3) dewaxing of the distillate portion of the recycle oil, and (4) low-severity hydrotreatment of the coker overhead and dewaxed oil using hydrogen from an in-situ water-gas shift reaction. These pretreatment steps will remove the ash and unconverted coal, reducing the ash load in the system and simultaneously recovering the maximum amount of organics. Dewaxing and hydrotreatment will yield a high-quality recycle oil distillate. These pretreatment steps are being evaluated technically and economically to develop an improved conceptual liquefaction process. The baseline process to which the improved process will be compared is the Two-Stage Liquefaction Process as it was practiced at the Wilsonville, AL, USA Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility.

Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Burke, F.P. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States); Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01

90

Integration of waste pyrolysis with coal/oil coprocessing  

SciTech Connect

HTI has developed a novel process, HTI CoPro Plus{trademark}, to produce alternative fuels and chemicals from the combined liquefaction of waste materials, coal, and heavy petroleum residues. Promising results have been obtained from a series of bench tests (PB-01 through PB-06) under the DOE Proof of Concept Program. Recently, HTI acquired a proven technology for the mild co-pyrolysis of used rubber tires and waste refinery or lube oils, developed by the University of Wyoming and Amoco. The feasibility of integration of pyrolysis with coal-oil coprocessing was studied in the eighth bench run (PB-08) of the program. The objective of Run PM-08 was to study the coprocessing of coal with oils derived from mild pyrolysis of scrap tires, waste plastics, and waste lube oils to obtain data required for economic comparisons with the DOE data base. A specific objective was also to study the performance of HTI's newly improved GelCat{trademark} catalyst in coal-waste coprocessing under low-high (Reactor 1-Reactor 2 temperatures) operating mode. This paper presents the results obtained from Run PB-08, a 17-day continuous operation conducted in August 1997. A total of 5 conditions, 343 C + pyrolysis oils derived from co-pyrolysis of rubber tires or a mixture of rubber tires and plastics with waste lube oil, were coprocessed with Black Thunder coal using HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst. In the last condition, rubber tires were pyrolyzed with 524 C coal liquid to study the possible elimination of lube oil used as pyrolysis processing oil. Overall coal conversion above 90 W% was achieved. Distillate yield as high as 69.2 W% was obtained while hydrogen consumption was only 4.4 W%. The distinct advantage of this process is the increase in hydrogen efficiency as both hydrogen consumption and C{sub 1}{minus}C{sub 3} gas yield decrease. Economic evaluation shows that co-processing of plastics with oil, coal, or mixed oil and coal reduces the equivalent crude oil price to a competitive level. This demonstrates that a combined process of coal liquefaction and waste pyrolysis is economically viable.

Hu, J.; Zhou, P.; Lee, T.L.K.; Comolli, A.

1998-07-01

91

Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada  

E-print Network

One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

2007-01-01

92

The pyrolysis of oil sands in a fluidized bed at reduced pressure  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor system was designed, constructed, and tested at reactor pressures less than atmospheric using mined and crushed oil sands from the Whiterocks deposit of Utah. A 6.0 inch ID fluidized bed reactor was fed oil sand of 7% bitumen saturation on a continuous basis while maintaining a bed height of approximately 12 inches. Spent sand was withdrawn using a modified nonmechanical L valve. The characteristics of bed pressure drop, [Delta]P[sub B], versus superficial gas velocity, U, were determined during fluidization and defluidization of spent sand using laboratory air. A proposed method for interpreting the minimum fluidization gas velocity, U[sub mf], from [Delta]P[sub B] versus U curves for multisized particles at reduced pressure was tested. U[sub mf] values were consistent with predictive correlations in the literature. The relationship, U[sub mf] T[sup 0.27] = a constant, was tested and found to be valid from 295 K to 559 K for spent sand fluidized by air. The reactor used propane for heating and the hot propane combustion product gases for fluidization during pyrolysis. Liquid products were condensed and filtered using commercial basket strainers modified with water cooling coils. Material balances of 90% or more were obtained for pyrolysis experiments at 450[degrees]C, 475[degrees]C, and 500[degrees]C. The optimum pyrolysis temperature for liquid yields was found to be 475[degrees]C at average retention times of thirty minutes or more. For pyrolysis temperatures of 475[degrees]C or lower, recovered oil sand pyrolysis products were 88 wt% liquid, 9 wt% coke, and 3 wt% gas. Liquid yields from the fluidized bed pyrolysis of Whiterocks oil sands at reduced pressure were greater than reported yields from a rotary kiln or an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed. Coke on the spent sand was about 0.6 wt% of the spent sand and represented about 8 wt% of the bitumen pyrolyzed.

Fletcher, J.V.

1992-01-01

93

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

94

Extraction of phenanthrene and fluoranthene from contaminated sand using palm kernel and soybean oils.  

PubMed

Experimental extraction tests are conducted to investigate feasibility of saturated palm kernel oil (PKO) and unsaturated soybean oil (SO) to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sand. The extraction rates and efficiencies for lowly contaminated (LC) and highly contaminated (HC) sands at temperatures of 30 °C and 70 °C are evaluated using empirical first order kinetic dissolution models. In LC sand, the extraction is dominated by the diffusion of PAHs adsorbed onto particle surfaces and the direct dissolution of PAH phase. In HC sand, a rapid diffusion of PAHs adsorbed onto particle surfaces and a direct dissolution of PAH phase occur followed by a slower diffusion of PAHs entrapped within the pores and micropores. Larger diffusion resistance during HC sand extractions results in an average 10.8% reduction in extraction efficiencies compared to LC sand. Increased temperature generally increases the mass transfer rates and extraction efficiencies. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of both oils and PAHs also determine the extent of PAH extraction into oil. PMID:22595079

Von Lau, Ee; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

2012-09-30

95

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis

A. G. Oblad; D. A. Dahlstrom; M. D. Deo; J. V. Fletcher; F. V. Hanson; J. D. Miller; J. D. Seader

1997-01-01

96

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis

A. G. Oblad; D. A. Dahlstrom; M. D. Deo; J. V. Fletcher; F. V. Hanson; J. D. Miller; J. D. Seader

1997-01-01

97

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

98

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27

99

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of current oil sands technologies: GHOST model development and illustrative application.  

PubMed

A life cycle-based model, GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies), which quantifies emissions associated with production of diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) is developed. GHOST has the potential to analyze a large set of process configurations, is based on confidential oil sands project operating data, and reports ranges of resulting emissions, improvements over prior studies, which primarily included a limited set of indirect activities, utilized theoretical design data, and reported point estimates. GHOST is demonstrated through application to a major oil sands process, steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The variability in potential performance of SAGD technologies results in wide ranges of "well-to-refinery entrance gate" emissions (comprising direct and indirect emissions): 18-41 g CO(2)eq/MJ SCO, 9-18 g CO(2)eq/MJ dilbit, and 13-24 g CO(2)eq/MJ synbit. The primary contributor to SAGD's emissions is the combustion of natural gas to produce process steam, making a project's steam-to-oil ratio the most critical parameter in determining GHG performance. The demonstration (a) illustrates that a broad range of technology options, operating conditions, and resulting emissions exist among current oil sands operations, even when considering a single extraction technology, and (b) provides guidance about the feasibility of lowering SAGD project emissions. PMID:21919460

Charpentier, Alex D; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Bergerson, Joule A; MacLean, Heather L

2011-11-01

100

Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon  

PubMed Central

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734–7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services. PMID:22411786

Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

2012-01-01

101

Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 ?g/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 ?g/L in winter and to 0.202 ?g/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly <0.025 ?g/L in winter and 0.030 ?g/L in summer, except near oil sands upgrading facilities and tailings ponds in winter (0.031–0.083 ?g/L) and downstream of new development in summer (0.063–0.135 ?g/L). In the Athabasca and its tributaries, development within the past 2 years was related to elevated dissolved PAC concentrations that were likely toxic to fish embryos. In melted snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 ?g/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

2009-01-01

102

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

1992-01-01

103

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

1992-11-10

104

Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in Idiopopo at Okitipupa area, South-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration. Apparent resistivity value obtained ranged from (135.7 ± 0.05)

R. K. Odunaike; J. A. Laoye; G. C. Ijeoma; L. P. Akinyemi

105

Effects of Exposure to Naphthenic Acids in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a group of carboxylic acids that are of particular concern to the steadily growing oil sands mining industry of Alberta, Canada, because they become highly concentrated in the water used for oil sands extraction and are toxic to aquatic biota and mammals. Upon mine closure, vast amounts of process-affected water will need to be reclaimed and

Marie-Line Gentes; Cheryl Waldner; Zsuzsanna Papp; Judit E. G. Smits

2007-01-01

106

The effect of sand composition on the degradation of buried oil.  

PubMed

The potential effects of the mineralogical composition of sediment on the degradation of oil buried on sandy beaches were investigated. Toward that purpose, a laboratory experiment was carried out with sandy sediment collected along NW Iberian Peninsula beaches, tar-balls from the Prestige oil spill (NW Spain) and seawater. The results indicate that the mineralogical composition is important for the physical appearance of the oil (tar-balls or oil coatings). This finding prompted a reassessment of the current sequence of degradation for buried oil based on compositional factors. Moreover, the halo development of the oil coatings might be enhanced by the carbonate concentration of the sand. These findings open new prospects for future monitoring and management programs for oiled sandy beaches. PMID:25044040

Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Bernabeu, Ana M; Rey, Daniel; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bouchette, Frédéric

2014-09-15

107

Mapping oil-contaminated sand and till with the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory and field results from an environmental application of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method are presented. The phase spectra of the resistivity of uncontaminated glacial till, silt, sand and gravel were measured in the laboratory. The effects of waste oil and motor oil on the phase and amplitude spectra of the resistivity were studied using artificially contaminated sand and till samples and mineral soil samples from real waste sites. Field IP and SIP measurements were also made at the waste sites. The laboratory phase spectra of sands and tills were straight or slightly concave upwards in a log-log plot. The phase angle varies between 0.1 and 20 mrad at 1 Hz frequency and increases towards higher frequencies with a slope of 0.15--0.25. In laboratory tests, motor oil and waste oil changed the phase and amplitude spectra of sand and till. At first, the amplitude and phase decreased due to oil contamination. Later, during continued maturation, both the amplitude and phase increased. After a few days or weeks of maturation, some of the contaminated samples showed a convex-upwards phase spectrum. The features observed in artificially contaminated samples were also detected in the sample material from real waste sites. Furthermore, the in situ results from the waste sites were in agreement with the laboratory results. In laboratory tests, the phase spectra of clean sand and till remained stable with time, whereas the phase spectra of oil-contaminated samples changed with increasing maturation time. This, together with the field results, suggests that differences between the spectra of clean and polluted soils, and also changes occurring in the phase spectra of contaminated soils with time, can be indicative of contamination.

Vanhala, H. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)] [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

1997-03-01

108

Characterization and Interfacial Behavior of Oil Sands Solids Implicated in Emulsion Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model water?in?hydrocarbon emulsions were used to assess the configuration of oil sands solids in the interfacial region. The model emulsions consisted of toluene, heptane, and water as well as asphaltenes and solids separated from Athabasca bitumen. A combination of emulsion gravimetric measurements, water drop size measurements, and geometrical considerations was employed to determine the fractional area of the interface occupied

Danuta M. Sztukowski; Harvey W. Yarranton

2004-01-01

109

Analysis and Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing During Cyclic Steam Stimulation in Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic steam stimulation in oil sands above fracturing pressure is analyzed by numerical modeling. A numerical model is formulated that simultaneously describes the fracturing process and reservoir behavior for different types of fracture geometry. The model is used to study the differences in performance expected for different fracture types. The comparison of model results with the data from a first-cycle

A. Settari; J. M. Raisbeck

1981-01-01

110

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings  

E-print Network

mining have saline soils; yet, they are required to have similar biodiversity and productivity, we studied the effects of soil salin- ity on plant communities in natural saline landscapes mining. Key words: boreal forest, community ecology, oil sands, ordination, reclamation, salinity

Macdonald, Ellen

111

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) analysis of heavy oil and tar sand samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) reproducibility of the fractionation [saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes (SARA)] of heavy oil and tar sands samples has been optimized by avoiding overloading and channeling caused by very small sample spot sizes at the origin of the silica - coated rods (S-III). Doping the rods with copper (II) sulfate increased the signal response for the saturate and

Chunqing Jiang; Steve R. Larter; Kimberley J. Noke; Lloyd R. Snowdon

2008-01-01

112

Early performance of native shrubs and trees planted on amended Athabasca oil sand tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present accepted end land uses for land disturbed by surface mining in the Athabasca oil sands deposit are forestry, wildlife and recreation, in that order of priority. Consistent with government requirements, the main objective of the reclamation program is the establishment of a system at least equal to the predisturbed state in terms of ecological productivity. This system should

A. W. Fedkenheuer; H. M. Heacock; D. L. Lewis

1980-01-01

113

Woody plant establishment in grassed reclamation areas of the Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary end land use for areas disturbed by the Syncrude Canada Ltd. oil sands surface mining venture is forest cover. Short term erosion control is of concern, however, and this results in the early establishment of a grass and legume cover. Problems have subsequently been encountered in attempts to establish woody plants in the grass and legume cover. Vegetation

Fedkenheuer

1980-01-01

114

Oil sands mine planning and waste management using mixed integer goal programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic mine planning and waste management are an important aspect of surface mining operations. Recent environmental and regulatory requirements make waste management an integral part of mine planning in the oil sands industry. The research problem here is determining the order of extraction of ore, dyke material and waste to be removed from a predefined ultimate pit limit over the

Eugene Ben-Awuah; Hooman Askari-Nasab

2011-01-01

115

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

PubMed

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2013-10-15

116

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

117

Stable nitrogen isotopes of nestling tree swallows indicate exposure to different types of oil sands reclamation.  

PubMed

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) inhabiting reclaimed wetlands on the oil sands in northern Alberta are potentially exposed to elevated levels of oil sands constituents such as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) through diet. While increased detoxification enzyme activity as measured using 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in nestlings is a generally accepted indicator of exposure to oil sands constituents, there is no apparent method to detect dietary exposure specific to oil sands processed material (OSPM). In this study, stable C and N isotopes were analyzed from muscle and feathers of nestling tree swallows (15 d old) to distinguish dietary exposure of birds near reference and OSPM wetlands. High ?¹?N and low ?¹³C values in the nestling tissues differentiated those from the OSPM wetlands and reference sites. Lower ?¹?N values of nestlings compared to the ?¹?N values of larval chironomids from an earlier study suggested that the majority of the diet of the nestlings was derived from non-OSPM sources, despite residence near and on the OSPM wetlands. Our finding of limited utilization of OSPM resources by tree swallows indicates either low abundance or diversity of dietary items emerging from OSPM wetlands, or sensory avoidance of prey from those wetlands. Minimal consumption of OSPM-derived dietary sources may be attributed to published findings of limited adverse effects on tree swallow reproduction, or growth and development for these same nestlings. This study demonstrated that stable isotope analysis, particularly for N isotopes, may serve as a useful tool to trace dietary exposure to OSPM constituents as part of avian ecotoxicology assessments of reclaimed wetlands on the oil sands. PMID:24627996

Farwell, A J; Harms, N J; Smits, J E G; Dixon, D G

2014-01-01

118

Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

2014-10-01

119

The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion  

E-print Network

grain size on this saturation were examined. A reservoir was simulated by packing a vertical tube with a mixture of sand, oil, and water. Three different sand mixtures were used as porous media. Each mixture was analyzed to determine grain size...-situ combustion. Their conclusions were drawn from experiments performed using the fire flood-pot technique. It was demonstrated that the amount of fuel available for combustion depends upon crude oil and porous medium characteristics, oil saturation and air...

Daniel, William Marvin

2012-06-07

120

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

2014-01-01

121

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.  

PubMed

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

2014-03-15

122

High-pressure ignition of oil sands samples in oxygen atmospheres containing various concentrations of diluents  

SciTech Connect

In-situ recovery of oil from oil sands deposits by combustion requires the injection of vast quantities of oxygen into the bed of deposits. Accordingly, there is a need to establish the ignition characteristics of high-grade Athabasca oil sands in environments containing pure oxygen at high-pressure and including the role of the presence of various diluents with the oxygen. A high-pressure constant volume bomb with a water calorimeter was employed as the test apparatus over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa to 4.0 MPa at ambient temperature. The paper presents the results of an experimental program that examined the effects of changes in the pressure, amounts of diluents and ignition energy on the ignition limits and subsequent combustion processes at ambient initial temperature. Moreover, the morphological changes to the samples at various stages of the process were also examined and discussed.

Mehta, S.A.; Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mehanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

123

Heavy and tar sand oil deposits of Europe  

SciTech Connect

Several hundred heavy and extra-heavy oil and natural bitumen occurrences from 26 European countries (including European Turkey and the western borderlands of the USSR) were compiled. The definitions used for heavy crude oils and natural bitumens, as proposed by or prepared with the UNITAR/UNDP information center, were applied. Information on stratigraphy, lithology, and depth as well as on gravity, viscosity, and gas and water content, is given. Deposits are characteristically distributed along the flanks of the basins or within the separating uplifts. Nevertheless, they are found from the surface down to depths of 3000 m (9800 ft). Up to now, big accumulations have been exploited in Albania and Sicily, but they have been discovered also in the British North Sea, France, Spain, and West Germany. In carbonates, they were mostly encountered in fractures of synsedimentary or tectonic origin. The accumulations are the result of either intrusion of immature heavy oil from a source rock or of the immigration of mature oil, which was biodegraded afterward. In many cases, there have been at least two separate migration/accumulation events. In some cases paleoseepages did supply a source rock with asphaltic material or became an effective seal of a later hydrocarbon accumulation.

Cornelius, C.D.

1984-09-01

124

1 Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

E-print Network

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil.

unknown authors

2009-01-01

125

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

2011-03-01

126

Uncovering the Microbial Diversity of the Alberta Oil Sands through Metagenomics: A Stepping Stone for Enhanced Oil Recovery and  

E-print Network

and · to make extraction and use of fossil fuels as green as possible. The Province of Alberta is uniquely society is greatly dependent on fossil fuels with oil, gas and coal contributing 40, 24 and 22% of our energy forms (8%). The environmental consequences of this heavy reliance on fossil fuels are well known

Voordouw, Gerrit

127

Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene concentration was almost double that measured in the Houston area, even though Houston is the largest petrochemical manufacturing center in the United States. Together, propene and acetaldehyde contributed 40% of the OH reactivity in the most strongly polluted plumes, based on the VOCs that we measured. We recommend systematic, independent monitoring in this region because of the strong impact of industrial emissions on local air quality and potentially on human health.

Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

2012-12-01

128

The Significance of Tax Incentives in Attracting Foreign Investment: Lessons from the Canadian Oil Sands Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tax incentives have been used by countries to stimulate foreign investment. Few countries doubt the effectiveness of tax incentives. Canada and Indonesia are among the many countries that offer tax incentives to attract investors. While Canada has a long history of using tax incentives to foster the development of the Alberta oil sands, Indonesia is just embarking on this strategy, especially in promoting foreign investment in remote areas. Drawing on the Canadian development of the Alberta oil sands, this thesis asks what lessons Indonesia can learn from that experience in relying on tax incentives to develop the industry. This thesis acknowledges that there are many important differences between Canada and Indonesia. Since most countries speak of using tax incentives to finance their petroleum industries, it is worth examining at least one instance of that strategy and see whether Indonesia can extract any thing of value from this examination.

Febriana, Restika

129

Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast amount of oil sands exists in the Athabasca area, Alberta, Canada. These oil sands consist of bitumen (extra-heavy oil) and unconsolidated sand distributed from surface to a depth of 750 meters. Including conventional crude oil, the total number of proved remaining oil reserves in Canada ranks second place in the world after Saudi Arabia. For the production of bitumen from the reservoir 200 to 500 meters in depth, the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) method (Steam Injection EOR) has been adopted as bitumen is not movable at original temperatures. It is essential to understand the detailed reservoir distribution and steam chamber development extent for optimizing the field development. Oil sands reservoir characterization is conducted using 3D seismic data acquired in February 2002. Conducting acoustic impedance inversion to improve resolution and subsequent multi-attribute analysis integrating seismic data with well data facilitates an understanding of the detailed reservoir distribution. These analyses enable the basement shale to be imaged, and enables identification to a certain degree of thin shale within the reservoir. Top and bottom depths of the reservoir are estimated in the range of 2.0 meters near the existing wells even in such a complex channel sands environment characterized by abrupt lateral sedimentary facies changes. In March 2006, monitoring 3D seismic data was acquired to delineate steam-affected areas. The 2002 baseline data is used as a reference data and the 2006 monitoring data is calibrated to the 2002 seismic data. Apparent differences in the two 3D seismic data sets with the exception of production related response changes are removed during the calibration process. P-wave and S-wave velocities of oil sands core samples are also measured with various pressures and temperatures, and the laboratory measurement results are then combined to construct a rock physics model used to predict velocity changes induced by steam-injection. The differences of the seismic responses between the time-lapse seismic volumes can be quantitatively explained by P-wave velocity decrease of the oil sands layers due to steam-injection. In addition, the data suggests that a larger area would be influenced by pressure than temperature. We calculate several seismic attributes such as RMS values of amplitude difference, maximum cross correlations, and interval velocity differences. These attributes are integrated by using self-organization maps (SOM) and K-means methods. By this analysis, we are able to distinguish areas of steam chamber growth from transitional and non-affected areas. In addition, 3D P-SV converted-wave processing and analysis are applied on the second 3D data set (recorded with three-component digital sensor). Low Vp/Vs values in the P-SV volume show areas of steam chamber development, and high Vp/Vs values indicate transitional zones. Our analysis of both time-lapse 3D seismic and 3D P-SV data along with the rock physics model can be used to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively the rock property changes of the inter-well reservoir sands in the field.

Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

2008-12-01

130

Atmospheric deposition of mercury and methylmercury to landscapes and waterbodies of the Athabasca oil sands region.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition of metals originating from a variety of sources, including bitumen upgrading facilities and blowing dusts from landscape disturbances, is of concern in the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest as methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin which bioaccumulates through foodwebs, can reach levels in fish and wildlife that may pose health risks to human consumers. We used spring-time sampling of the accumulated snowpack at sites located varying distances from the major developments to estimate winter 2012 Hg loadings to a ?20 000 km(2) area of the Athabasca oil sands region. Total Hg (THg; all forms of Hg in a sample) loads were predominantly particulate-bound (79 ± 12%) and increased with proximity to major developments, reaching up to 1000 ng m(-2). MeHg loads increased in a similar fashion, reaching up to 19 ng m(-2) and suggesting that oil sands developments are a direct source of MeHg to local landscapes and water bodies. Deposition maps, created by interpolation of measured Hg loads using geostatistical software, demonstrated that deposition resembled a bullseye pattern on the landscape, with areas of maximum THg and MeHg loadings located primarily between the Muskeg and Steepbank rivers. Snowpack concentrations of THg and MeHg were significantly correlated (r = 0.45-0.88, p < 0.01) with numerous parameters, including total suspended solids (TSS), metals known to be emitted in high quantities from the upgraders (vanadium, nickel, and zinc), and crustal elements (aluminum, iron, and lanthanum), which were also elevated in this region. Our results suggest that at snowmelt, a complex mixture of chemicals enters aquatic ecosystems that could impact biological communities of the oil sands region. PMID:24873895

Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Gleason, Amber; Wang, Xiaowa; Lawson, Greg; Frank, Richard A; Lehnherr, Igor; Wrona, Fred

2014-07-01

131

Analysis and numerical modeling of hydraulic fracturing during cyclic steam stimulation in oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic steam stimulation in oil sands above fracturing pressure is analyzed by numerical modeling. A numerical model is formulated that simultaneously describes the fracturing process and reservoir behavior for different types of fracture geometry. The model is used to study the differences in performance expected for different fracture types. The comparison of model results with the data from a first-cycle cyclic steam operation shows good agreement for single vertical fracture configuration. 21 refs.

Settari, A.; Raisbeck, J.M.

1981-11-01

132

A Laboratory Evaluation of the Sorption of Oil Sands Naphthenic Acids on Organic Rich Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption characteristics of oil sands tailings pond water (OSTPW)-derived naphthenic acids on soils was determined using a batch partitioning method. The adsorption isotherms were found to be linear in all cases. All tests were conducted at 4°C, and at a pH of 8.0 ± 0.4, which reflects the pH of a tailings settling facility near Fort McMurray, AB. The

ARASH JANFADA; JOHN V. HEADLEY; KERRY M. PERU; S. L. BARBOUR

2006-01-01

133

Legacy of a half century of Athabasca oil sands development recorded by lake ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The absence of well-executed environmental monitoring in the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has necessitated the use of indirect approaches to determine background conditions of freshwater ecosystems before development of one of the Earth’s largest energy deposits. Here, we use highly resolved lake sediment records to provide ecological context to ?50 y of oil sands development and other environmental changes affecting lake ecosystems in the region. We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within lake sediments, particularly C1-C4–alkylated PAHs, increased significantly after development of the bitumen resource began, followed by significant increases in dibenzothiophenes. Total PAH fluxes in the modern sediments of our six study lakes, including one site ?90 km northwest of the major development area, are now ?2.5–23 times greater than ?1960 levels. PAH ratios indicate temporal shifts from primarily wood combustion to petrogenic sources that coincide with greater oil sands development. Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines for PAHs have been exceeded since the mid-1980s at the most impacted site. A paleoecological assessment of Daphnia shows that this sentinel zooplankter has not yet been negatively impacted by decades of high atmospheric PAH deposition. Rather, coincident with increases in PAHs, climate-induced shifts in aquatic primary production related to warmer and drier conditions are the primary environmental drivers producing marked daphniid shifts after ?1960 to 1970. Because of the striking increase in PAHs, elevated primary production, and zooplankton changes, these oil sands lake ecosystems have entered new ecological states completely distinct from those of previous centuries. PMID:23297215

Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wang, Xiaowa; Evans, Marlene S.; Smol, John P.

2013-01-01

134

Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

PubMed Central

We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE—cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc—in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

Kelly, Erin N.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C.

2010-01-01

135

Preliminary measurement-based estimates of PAH emissions from oil sands tailings ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailings ponds in the oil sands region (OSR) of western Canada are suspected sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere. In the absence of detailed characterization or direct flux measurements, we present preliminary measurement-based estimates of the emissions of thirteen priority PAHs from the ponds. Using air concentrations measured under the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Plan and water concentrations from a small sampling campaign in 2013, the total flux of 13 US EPA priority PAHs (fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be upward from water to air and to total 1069 kg y-1 for the region as a whole. By comparison, the most recent air emissions reported to Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) from oil sands facilities totalled 231 kg y-1. Exchange fluxes for the three remaining priority PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) could not be quantified but evidence suggests that they are also upward from water to air. These results indicate that tailings ponds may be an important PAH source to the atmosphere that is missing from current inventories in the OSR. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses lend confidence to the estimated direction of air-water exchange being upward from water to air. However, more detailed characterization of ponds at other facilities and direct flux measurements are needed to confirm the quantitative results presented herein.

Galarneau, Elisabeth; Hollebone, Bruce P.; Yang, Zeyu; Schuster, Jasmin

2014-11-01

136

Coal- and oil-shale liquids tested for toxic effects  

SciTech Connect

The advent of liquid chemicals and fuels derived from coal and oil shale has presented some potential health problems. A number of projects are under way to determine the possible toxic effects of these fuels and chemicals on humans and animals. The preliminary data from these studies are briefly reviewed. A consensus is that there are some dangers but they can be overcome with appropriate chemical processing.

Not Available

1986-04-28

137

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

138

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

139

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

1986-10-01

140

Early performance of native shrubs and trees planted on amended Athabasca oil sand tailings  

SciTech Connect

The present accepted end land uses for land disturbed by surface mining in the Athabasca oil sands deposit are forestry, wildlife and recreation, in that order of priority. Consistent with government requirements, the main objective of the reclamation program is the establishment of a system at least equal to the predisturbed state in terms of ecological productivity. This system should be consistent with the regional surface hydrology, the natural vegetation and the land use for forestry, wildlife and recreation. In addition, the plant communities in these systems will be permanent, self-supporting and maintenance free. The lack of available information regarding the procedures necessary to permanently reclaim the tailings sand left after extraction of the oil prompted Syncrude to initiate this study in 1977. Four replicated soil amendment treatments were established on a one meter deep experimental area of tailings sand located on the lease area. The plots were subsequently seeded with a grass-legume mix in July 1977. Trees and shrubs were planted in August 1977 and June 1978. Results to date indicate over-winter survival was very satisfactory with most plant species. A dry spell during the 1978 growing season had a pronounced effect on the survival of some of the tree and shrub seedlings. Those species which had the highest survival rates over the range of treatments were Amelanchier alnifolia, Pinus banksiana, Pinus contorta, Potentilla fruticosa, Shepherdia canadensis and Symphoricarpos albus. Performance of the other trees and shrubs was fair to poor, depending on the species and the treatment.

Fedkenheuer, A.W.; Heacock, H.M.; Lewis, D.L.

1980-01-01

141

Differences in phytotoxicity and dissipation between ionized and nonionized oil sands naphthenic acids in wetland plants.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are composed of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and, because they are acutely toxic to fish, are of toxicological concern. During the caustic hot-water extraction of oil from the bitumen in oil sands deposits, NAs become concentrated in the resulting tailings pond water. The present study investigated if dissipation of NAs occurs in the presence of hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus) to determine the potential for phytoremediation of these compounds. Plants were grown with oil sands NAs (pKa approximately 5-6) in medium at pH 7.8 (predominantly ionized NAs) and pH 5.0 (predominantly nonionized NAs) to determine if, by altering their chemical form, NAs may be more accessible to plants and, thus, undergo increased dissipation. Whereas the oil sands NA mixture in its nonionized form was more toxic to wetland plants than its ionized form, neither form appeared to be sequestered by wetland plants. The present study demonstrated that plants may selectively enhance the dissipation of individual nonionized NA compounds, which contributes to toxicity reduction but does not translate into detectable total NA dissipation within experimental error and natural variation. Plants were able to reduce the toxicity of a NA system over 30 d, increasing the median lethal concentration (LC50; % of hydroponic solution) of the medium for Daphnia magna by 23.3% +/- 8.1% (mean +/- standard error; nonionized NAs) and 37.0% +/- 2.7% (ionized NAs) as determined by acute toxicity bioassays. This reduction in toxicity was 7.3% +/- 2.6% (nonionized NAs) and 45.0% +/- 6.8% (ionized NAs) greater than that in unplanted systems. PMID:19469588

Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

2009-10-01

142

Massive dominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in formation waters from a Canadian oil sands reservoir containing severely biodegraded oil  

PubMed Central

Summary The subsurface microbiology of an Athabasca oil sands reservoir in western Canada containing severely biodegraded oil was investigated by combining 16S rRNA gene- and polar lipid-based analyses of reservoir formation water with geochemical analyses of the crude oil and formation water. Biomass was filtered from formation water, DNA was extracted using two different methods, and 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified with several different primer pairs prior to cloning and sequencing or community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Similar results were obtained irrespective of the DNA extraction method or primers used. Archaeal libraries were dominated by Methanomicrobiales (410 of 414 total sequences formed a dominant phylotype affiliated with a Methanoregula sp.), consistent with the proposed dominant role of CO2-reducing methanogens in crude oil biodegradation. In two bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries generated with different primer pairs, > 99% and 100% of the sequences were affiliated with Epsilonproteobacteria (n = 382 and 72 total clones respectively). This massive dominance of Epsilonproteobacteria sequences was again obtained in a third library (99% of sequences; n = 96 clones) using a third universal bacterial primer pair (inosine-341f and 1492r). Sequencing of bands from DGGE profiles and intact polar lipid analyses were in accordance with the bacterial clone library results. Epsilonproteobacterial OTUs were affiliated with Sulfuricurvum, Arcobacter and Sulfurospirillum spp. detected in other oil field habitats. The dominant organism revealed by the bacterial libraries (87% of all sequences) is a close relative of Sulfuricurvum kujiense – an organism capable of oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds in crude oil. Geochemical analysis of organic extracts from bitumen at different reservoir depths down to the oil water transition zone of these oil sands indicated active biodegradation of dibenzothiophenes, and stable sulfur isotope ratios for elemental sulfur and sulfate in formation waters were indicative of anaerobic oxidation of sulfur compounds. Microbial desulfurization of crude oil may be an important metabolism for Epsilonproteobacteria indigenous to oil reservoirs with elevated sulfur content and may explain their prevalence in formation waters from highly biodegraded petroleum systems. PMID:21824242

Hubert, Casey R J; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Fustic, Milovan; Gray, Neil D; Larter, Stephen R; Penn, Kevin; Rowan, Arlene K; Seshadri, Rekha; Sherry, Angela; Swainsbury, Richard; Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K; Head, Ian M

2012-01-01

143

High Resolution Monitoring and Modeling of Steam Injection in the Athabasca Oil Sands at UTF: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This case study explores rock physical properties of heavy oil reservoirs subject to the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) thermal enhanced recovery process. Previously published measurements (e.g. Wang et. al, 1990, and Eastwood, 1993) of the temperature dependant properties of heavy oil saturated sands are extended by fluid substitutional modeling and wireline data in order to assess the effects

Evan Bianco; Douglas Schmitt

144

CYP1A Induction and Blue Sac Disease in Early Life Stages of White Suckers (Catostomus commersoni) Exposed to Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil

Maria V. Colavecchia; Peter V. Hodson; Joanne L. Parrott

2006-01-01

145

Where Has All the Oil Gone? The use of trace metals as potential indicators of oil contamination in marine sediments and beach sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.

Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.

2011-12-01

146

Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.  

PubMed Central

The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples. PMID:6825617

Alfheim, I; Bergstrom, J G; Jenssen, D; M?ller, M

1983-01-01

147

Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

Rochefort, Line

2013-04-01

148

Bringing Context to the Oil Sands Debate: understanding the role of nature versus man  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian oil sands represent an important resource to the national economy, and a strategic supply-line to the United States of America. These hydrocarbon deposits reside beneath a vast area in northern Alberta, and have been exposed to the environment for millennia as a result of erosion by the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Further complexity to the geochemical setting occurs due to the existence of faulted pathways extending from deeper, highly saline, Devonian intervals to surface. Situated within this natural setting are large waste management structures used to contain mine tailings and oil sands produced water. Many of these structures are situated in close proximity to aquatic receptors and have the potential to affect local water quality due to seepage losses. As such, these structures are coming under increasing scrutiny as a potential source of environmental impact. Discharge of oil sands contaminants to the rivers, and the accumulation of these materials in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, has been cited as a factor leading to adverse health effects at downstream communities. However, the role that natural discharge of contaminants plays has never been fully acknowledged. To address this critical gap, a reconnaissance of the Athabasca River was conducted. Areas of elevated terrain conductivity (detected by EM31 survey) were identified both in background locations and areas suspected of industrial releases. Water samples were collected from various sites and from multiple depth intervals (up to 3 m) within the hyporheic zone of the river sediments. This was achieved using drive-point wells. Each sample was then analyzed for a comprehensive suite of parameters including: i) major ions; ii) dissolved trace elements; iii) dissolved organics; and iv) selected stable and radiogenic isotopes. Results of the investigation identified large areas (in excess of 10km) of groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River well outside the influence of oil sands development. Mineralization of water samples from these natural discharge zones ranged up to 64,000 mg/L TDS. Elevated levels of ammonia (up to 4.5 mg/L) were also detected, as well as certain trace elements (e.g., arsenic), dissolved organics (e.g., phenols and naphthenic acids), and certain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Geophysical anomalies identified near active oil sands developments yielded similar results. The data generated by this, and other, studies was used to create geochemical fingerprints to identify likely sources and associated risk to aquatic receptors. In the end this multi-disciplined investigation, employing physical and chemical sciences in a forensic manner, identified the significant role that nature plays in contaminant loading to the Athabasca River. This paper will highlight key geochemical findings (consistent with the physical setting) leading to a refined understanding of risks related to oil sands development, and the importance of a holistic approach when assessing and attributing environmental effects.

Fennell, J.; Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Jasechko, S.; Moncur, M. C.

2013-12-01

149

Reproductive development of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed to oil sands-affected waters.  

PubMed

In similar experiments conducted in 1996 and 2009, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into two experimental systems: a demonstration lake where oil sands fine tailings were capped with natural water and a lake in a watershed containing bitumen-bearing sodic clays. In both experiments, yellow perch were captured in May from a nearby reservoir and released into the experimental ponds. Perch were recaptured in the experimental systems, the source lake, and two reference lakes in late September and lethally sampled to examine reproductive parameters. In the 1996 experiment, gonad size and steroid hormones were not affected in either pond environment. In the 2009 experiment, male perch in the water-capped tailings pond showed a significant reduction in the testicular development and reductions in circulating testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, while no reductions were seen in the second experimental pond. No changes were observed in ovarian size or circulating steroid levels in female perch. In the pond containing tailings, the release of water from underlying tailings caused approximately a twofold increase in salinity, alkalinity, and naphthenic acids, and a pH increase from 8.4 to 9.4 over the 13-year period of the study. In the pond influenced by unextracted oil sands materials, total dissolved solids, major ions, and pH did not change substantially. However, naphthenic acids in this system dropped more than twofold post-watershed reclamation. Because the selective reproductive effect observed in male perch in the experimental end-pit lake were accompanied by increases in naphthenic acids, alkalinity, and pH, a specific cause cannot be determined. The present study adds to the evidence, suggesting the presence of endocrine-disrupting substances in oil sands. PMID:22189895

Heuvel, Michael R van den; Hogan, Natacha S; Roloson, Scott D; Kraak, Glen J Van Der

2012-03-01

150

Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and ?15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. ?15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest ?15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. ?15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated ?15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background ?15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to atmospheric NH4 deposition. References: Sebilo et al., 2004: Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 1, 99-103. Proemse et al., 2012: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 60, 555-563. Proemse et al., 2013: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 182, 80-91.

Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

2013-12-01

151

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California  

E-print Network

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point). Among the most visible manifestations of marine oil in the environment is the formation and beach accumulation is common on many California beaches due to chronic oil emissions from natural oil seeps

Luyendyk, Bruce

152

APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

153

Sovent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery for In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO{sub 2}. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO{sub 2} density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

Norman Munroe

2009-01-30

154

CONTROL OF CRITERIA AND NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANTS FROM COAL/OIL MIXTURE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the existing data base on NOx, SO2, and particulate emissions from combustion sources burning coal/oil mixtures (COMs). The need for the U.S. to reduce its dependence on oil and expand its use of coal has prompted a number of industrial and utility energy pr...

155

Perch population assessment in lakes reclaimed using oil-sands derived material  

SciTech Connect

The mining and extraction of petroleum products from oil-sands involves large areas of land and produces enormous volumes of tailings. One possible land reclamation option is to incorporate fine-tailings material into the bottoms of constructed lakes capped with natural surface water. The wet landscape method represents potential risk to aquatic biota-naphthenic acids and PAHs elute from pore water contained in the fine-tailings substrate. In spring 1995 yellow perch were stocked into a large-scale (5ha) experimental pond that consisted of fine-tailings capped with natural water as well as into two other reclaimed ponds that were constructed with oil-sands overburden material. Prior to stocking of perch, ponds had colonized with cyprinids, macrophytes and benthic invertebrates over a two year period. Perch were sampled in fall 1995 for age, condition factor, liver size, gonad size, fecundity, stomach contents, liver mixed-function oxygenase activity (MFO), bile PAH metabolites and plasma steroid hormones. When compared to the source lake, perch in the DP did not show reduced reproductive potential. Perch in all of the reclaimed ponds demonstrated exposure to organic compounds as indicated by marginally induced MFO activity and increased liver size. Exposure to naphthenates and PAHs in water as well as ecological environmental factors will be discussed.

Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

156

Pyrolysis of Uinta Basin Oil Sands in fluidized bed and rotary kiln reactors  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was used to pyrolyze the mined and crushed ore from the PR Spring oil sands deposit which is located in the Uinta Basin of Utah. Liquid yields of approximately 80 wt% of the bitumen fed to the reactor were obtained. This compares to 55-70 wt% obtained from smaller laboratory scale fluidized bed reactors and a pilot-scale rotary kiln. The product yields and distributions exhibited no discernable trends with reactor temperature or solids retention time. The liquid products obtained from the pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor were upgraded compared to the bitumen in terms of volatility, viscosity, molecular weight, and metals (Ni and V) content. The nitrogen and sulphur contents of the total liquid products were also reduced relative to the bitumen. A comparison of oil sands pyrolysis yields from a pilot scale FBR and a rotary kiln of the same diameter (15.2 cm) was made. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the rotary kiln produced a slightly more upgraded product but at lower total liquid yields. Kinetic modeling of the various reactors indicates that the pilot-scale FBR product distributions may be explained using a simplified two-reaction scheme. It is proposed that secondary cracking is suppressed in the large diameter FBR due to elimination of slugging and the superior quality of fluidization in the reactor. More experimental studies with the rotary kiln and an economic evaluation will be required before concluding which reactor is preferred for the thermal recovery process.

Nagpal, S.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-12-31

157

Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry  

PubMed Central

Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT) during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae, and Desulfobulbaceae) and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) transformed FeIII minerals in MFT to amorphous FeII minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O) and goethite (?-FeOOH) were the dominant FeIII minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators. PMID:24711806

Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Li, Carmen; Young, Rozlyn; Arocena, Joselito M.; Foght, Julia M.

2014-01-01

158

Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

2014-08-01

159

Characterization of naphthenic acids from athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization: the significant influence of solvents.  

PubMed

There is a need to develop routine and rugged methods for the characterization of oil sands naphthenic acids present in natural waters and contaminated soils. Mass spectra of naphthenic acids, obtained using a variant of electrospray ionization coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, are shown here to vary greatly, reflecting their dependence on solubilities of the acids in organic solvents. The solubilities of components in, for example, 1-octanol (similar solvent to fatty tissue) compared to polar solvents such as methanol or acetonitrile are used here as a surrogate to indicate the more bioavailable or toxic components of naphthenic acids in natural waters. Monocarboxylic compounds (CnH2n+zO2) in the z=-4, -6, and -12 (2-, 3-, and 6-ring naphthenic acids, respectively) family in the carbon number range of 13-19 were prevalent in all solvent systems. The surrogate method is intended to serve as a guide in the isolation of principle toxic components, which in turn supports efforts to remediate oil sands contaminated soils and groundwater. PMID:17602673

Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barrow, Mark P; Derrick, Peter J

2007-08-15

160

Biodegradation of naphthenic acids in oils sands process waters in an immobilized soil/sediment bioreactor.  

PubMed

Aqueous extraction of bitumen in the Alberta oil sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) containing naphthenic acids (NAs), a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Although aerobic biodegradation reduces NA concentrations and OSPW toxicity, treatment times are long, however, immobilized cell reactors have the potential to improve NA removal rates. In this study, two immobilized soil/sediment bioreactors (ISBRs) operating in series were evaluated for treatment of NAs in OSPW. A biofilm was established from microorganisms associated with sediment particles from an OSPW contaminated wetland on a non-woven textile. At 16 months of continuous operation with OSPW as the sole source of carbon and energy, 38±7% NA removal was consistently achieved at a residence time of 160 h at a removal rate of 2.32 mg NAs L(-1)d(-1). The change in NA profile measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that biodegradability decreased with increasing cyclicity. These results indicate that such treatment can significantly reduce NA removal rates compared to most studies, and the treatment of native process water in a bioreactor has been demonstrated. Amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequencing using Ion Torrent sequencing characterized the reactors' biofilm populations and found as many as 235 and 198 distinct genera in the first and second bioreactor, respectively, with significant populations of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizers. PMID:24602345

McKenzie, Natalie; Yue, Siqing; Liu, Xudong; Ramsay, Bruce A; Ramsay, Juliana A

2014-08-01

161

Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.  

PubMed

Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. PMID:20657616

Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

2010-06-01

162

Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55±0.025V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41±0.01V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC. PMID:25103035

Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

2014-10-01

163

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (? 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. PMID:21036440

Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

2011-02-01

164

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.  

PubMed

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. PMID:22575093

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

2012-08-01

165

Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands experimental reclamation pond (Pond 9). Using the three-alternative forced choice method, a concentration series of NAs were presented to the sensory panels in phosphate buffer (pH 8) and in steamed fish (Sander vitreus). In buffer, the odor detection thresholds of Acros, Merichem and Pond 9 NAs, as evaluated by the trained panelists, were 1.5, 0.04, and 1.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Only the detection threshold for the Merichem NAs was significantly different (p<0.01) than the other two sources. Based on the general population assessments, all three odor detection thresholds were significantly different from one another; 4.8, 0.2, and 2.5 mg L(-1) for Acros, Merichem, and Pond 9 NAs, respectively (p<0.01). The odor detection thresholds of Merichem and Pond 9 NAs in steamed fish were 0.6 and 12 mg kg(-1), respectively and were significantly different from each other (p<0.01). The detection threshold of Acros NAs was estimated to be >21 mg kg(-1). For the steamed fish evaluations, the odor descriptors of all three of the NAs preparations was given as chemical in nature (Acros: oil, plastic; Merichem: gasoline; Pond 9: gasoline, tar). Exposure of live rainbow trout to a non-lethal concentration of Merichem NAs (3 mg L(-1) for 10 d) imparted an odor to the fish flesh. Analyses of the three NAs preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that each had a unique distribution of acids. We conclude that the source of the NAs is important when interpreting odor threshold data and that the two commercial preparations of NAs that were tested do not represent oil sands waters' tainting potential. PMID:20801486

Edge, Kristyn; Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

2010-11-01

166

Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse particulate fugitive emissions from these sources. The impact of the general urban source was found to be enhanced in the southern portion of the sampling domain in the vicinity of the Fort McMurray urban area. The receptor model results also indicated lower Mn concentrations in lichen tissues near oil sands production operations suggesting a biogeochemical response. Overall the largest impact on elemental concentrations of Hypogymnia physodes tissue in the AOSR was related to fugitive dust, suggesting that implementation of a fugitive dust abatement strategy could minimize the near-field impact of future mining related production activities.

Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

2013-12-01

167

Effect of sorbed oil on the dielectric properties of sand and clay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric response of geologic materials is related to the amount of water-wetted solid surface present. This dependence raises the possibility that dielectric measurements may be used to detect changes in the state of the solid-fluid interface such as those caused by the sorption of a chemical species. In this study, complex impedance data are collected for systems of clean and oil-bearing sand and kaolinite vacuum- saturated with a 0.001 M NaCl brine in the frequency range 100 kHz to 10 MHz. The effective dielectric constant k and electrical conductivity ? of the samples are calculated from these measurements assuming quasi-static conditions. We define the components in our system as brine, air, and a "wetted" solid phase. In this way, the contribution of the solid-fluid interface to the bulk dielectric response is included in the last component. We use an inclusion-based effective medium theory to extract the dielectric response of the wetted solid from the experimental data. The presence of sorbed oil is found to have little effect on the dielectric response of the wetted sand matrix, presumably because of the very low surface area (0.2 m2/g) of the solid-fluid interface. In contrast, the kaolinite (5-12 m2/g) data indicate a decrease of the order of 50% in the dielectric constant of the wetted matrix phase as the amount of water-wetted surface in the sample decreases. The results from this experimental study show that the presence of sorbed oil leads to a detectable change in the dielectric properties of high surface area geologic materials.

Li, Camille; Tercier, Paulette; Knight, Rosemary

2001-06-01

168

Increased thyroid hormone levels in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands of the athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are one of the world's largest reserves of crude oil. Oil sands mining companies are now investigating the ecological impacts of reclamation strategies in which wetlands are used for the bioremediation of waste materials. To examine the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals in Oil Sands Process Materials (OSPM), thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in plasma and thyroid glands of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands partly filled with mine tailings. Plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and thyroxine (T(4)) content within thyroid glands were elevated in nestlings from OSPM sites compared to those from the reference site. Results suggested enhanced hormone synthesis by the thyroid glands independently of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as increased deiodination of T(4) into T(3) in peripheral tissues. This might have resulted from exposure to oil sands associated chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and from environmental factors such as food availability. Modulation of thyroid function might have negative effects on metabolism, behavior, feather development, and molt, which could compromise postfledging survival. PMID:17549538

Gentes, Marie-Line; McNabb, Anne; Waldner, Cheryl; Smits, Judit E G

2007-08-01

169

Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined

N. Jane Harms; Graham D. Fairhurst; Gary R. Bortolotti; Judit. E. G. Smits

2010-01-01

170

Biogeochemical characterization of MC252 oil:sand aggregates on a coastal headland beach.  

PubMed

MC252 oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were sampled for physical, chemical and microbial characteristics from different tidal zones on a coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. Supratidal SRBs were smaller, had low moisture content, and salinities that were <2 ppt. Intertidal SRBs were hypersaline and had higher N and sulfate concentrations, consistent with regular tidal inundation. Crude oil components were highest in the intertidal "oil mat" SRBs with C1- and C2-phenanthrenes, C2- and C3-dibenzothiophenes comprising the majority of the PAH concentrations. In the other SRB categories, PAHs and alkanes were depleted and profiles were skewed toward higher molecular weight compounds. Oxygen microelectrode measurements demonstrated that saturated O2 is present immediately after wetting, but O2 consumption in the interior of the aggregate occurs after a few days. Microbial populations varied with position on the beach but sequences similar to known PAH-degrading taxa (Mycobacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp.) were observed. PMID:24210008

Urbano, Marilany; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H

2013-12-15

171

A numerical\\/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical

Theodore Henry Leshchyshyn

1999-01-01

172

Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting  

E-print Network

and Mining Unconventional Fuels Conference May 17, 2011 #12;Utah Department of Natural Resources Michael R" or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

Utah, University of

173

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01

174

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05

175

Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.  

PubMed

To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment. PMID:17773028

Osborn, E F

1974-02-01

176

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-print Network

In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

2013-01-01

177

A Relevance Vector Machine-Based Approach with Application to Oil Sand Pump Prognostics  

PubMed Central

Oil sand pumps are widely used in the mining industry for the delivery of mixtures of abrasive solids and liquids. Because they operate under highly adverse conditions, these pumps usually experience significant wear. Consequently, equipment owners are quite often forced to invest substantially in system maintenance to avoid unscheduled downtime. In this study, an approach combining relevance vector machines (RVMs) with a sum of two exponential functions was developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of field pump impellers. To handle field vibration data, a novel feature extracting process was proposed to arrive at a feature varying with the development of damage in the pump impellers. A case study involving two field datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed method. Compared with standalone exponential fitting, the proposed RVM-based model was much better able to predict the remaining useful life of pump impellers. PMID:24051527

Hu, Jinfei; Tse, Peter W.

2013-01-01

178

A relevance vector machine-based approach with application to oil sand pump prognostics.  

PubMed

Oil sand pumps are widely used in the mining industry for the delivery of mixtures of abrasive solids and liquids. Because they operate under highly adverse conditions, these pumps usually experience significant wear. Consequently, equipment owners are quite often forced to invest substantially in system maintenance to avoid unscheduled downtime. In this study, an approach combining relevance vector machines (RVMs) with a sum of two exponential functions was developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of field pump impellers. To handle field vibration data, a novel feature extracting process was proposed to arrive at a feature varying with the development of damage in the pump impellers. A case study involving two field datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed method. Compared with standalone exponential fitting, the proposed RVM-based model was much better able to predict the remaining useful life of pump impellers. PMID:24051527

Hu, Jinfei; Tse, Peter W

2013-01-01

179

Treatment of pulp mill and oil sands industrial wastewaters by the partial spray freezing process.  

PubMed

The spray freezing process, a natural freezing technology, was used to treat pulp mill effluent and oil sands tailings pond water. The wastewaters froze partially or completely (i.e. with or without runoff generation) during the spraying operation. Greater than 60% impurity reduction in the spray ice was obtained when 30% of the total volume of the sprayed water was released as runoff. Organic and inorganic contaminants were rejected with different efficiencies. The impurities were uniformly distributed within the ice columns when the spray ice was produced without generating any runoff. While a significant increase in impurity concentration was observed at the bottom of the ice formed with runoff production. The spray freezing process is an effective and economically feasible technique for wastewater treatment in cold regions. To achieve higher impurity removal efficiency, the wastewater should be only partially frozen during spray ice production. PMID:14723926

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Sego, D C

2004-02-01

180

The fine sand Abra alba community of the bay of morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977–1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results

J-C Dauvin

1998-01-01

181

Growing season energy and water exchange from an oil sands overburden reclamation soil cover, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands mining industry in Canada is required to return mining areas to a land capability equivalent to that which existed prior to mining. During the reclamation process, ecosystems are created that bear little similarity to boreal forests that existed prior to mining. Quantifying the water balance of reclaimed ecosystems is critical in establishing whether there is sufficient moisture

Sean K. Carey

2008-01-01

182

Volatilization and ignition of oil sand samples during intermittent exposure to hot low-velocity air streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the behavior of small oil sand samples monitored experimentally when subjected repeatedly to low-velocity heated air streams, with either prompt quenching or slow cooling of the samples to their initial temperatures between these exposures. This was done in relation to understanding better the associated processes in some in situ recovery trials where stoppage of the combustion front

G. A. Karim; A. Hanafi; S. A. Mehta

1989-01-01

183

In-line method for the beneficiation of coal and the formation of a coal-in-oil combustible fuel therefrom  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-line method for the beneficiation of coal and the formation of a coal-in-oil combustible fuel wherein the coal is wet pulverized, micro-agglomerated with light oil to dissociate a large amount of inorganic impurities and some water, agglomerated with heavy oil to form relatively larger agglomerates and dissociate mainly water with some inorganic impurities, and then mixed with further heavy

C. Capes; R. D. Coleman; L. Messer; W. L. Thayer

1981-01-01

184

Mercury trends in colonial waterbird eggs downstream of the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury levels were measured in colonial waterbird eggs collected from two sites in northern Alberta and one site in southern Alberta, Canada. Northern sites in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and Lake Athabasca were located in receiving waters of the Athabasca River which drains the oil sands industrial region north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Temporal trends in egg mercury (Hg) levels were assessed as were egg stable nitrogen isotope values as an indicator of dietary change. In northern Alberta, California and Ring-billed Gulls exhibited statistically significant increases in egg Hg concentrations in 2012 compared to data from the earliest year of sampling. Hg levels in Caspian and Common Tern eggs showed a nonstatistically significant increase. In southern Alberta, Hg concentrations in California Gull eggs declined significantly through time. Bird dietary change was not responsible for any of these trends. Neither were egg Hg trends related to recent forest fires. Differences in egg Hg temporal trends between northern and southern Alberta combined with greater Hg levels in eggs from northern Alberta identified the likely importance of local Hg sources in regulating regional Hg trends. Hg concentrations in gull and Common Tern eggs were generally below generic thresholds associated with toxic effects in birds. However, in 2012, Hg levels in the majority of Caspian Tern eggs exceeded the lower toxicity threshold. Increasing Hg levels in eggs of multiple species nesting downstream of the oil sands region of northern Alberta warrant continued monitoring and research to further evaluate Hg trends and to conclusively identify sources. PMID:24070029

Hebert, Craig E; Campbell, David; Kindopp, Rhona; MacMillan, Stuart; Martin, Pamela; Neugebauer, Ewa; Patterson, Lucy; Shatford, Jeff

2013-10-15

185

Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ?3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO?S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O? species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O? species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O? species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O? species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region. PMID:23607765

Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

2013-05-21

186

LIDAR first results from the Oil Sands Region: A complex vertical atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment Canada is using LIDAR technology to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere over the oil sands region. This provided the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. The trailer that contains the LIDAR system includes a roof hatch assembly, basic meteorological tower, radar interlock system, climate control system and leveling stabilizers. A precipitation sensor is used to operate the roof hatch and three pan/tilt webcams capture sky conditions and monitor the Lidar system's health. A remote control interface is used to monitor all vital components of the system, including the ability to provide hard resets to the various electronic devices onboard. Every 10 seconds the system provides vertical aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects three channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization). The depolarization channel provided key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events and when aircraft fly over the site. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. First results from an intensive field campaign will be presented. LIDAR false color plot showing the bottom 7 km of the atmosphere during a forest fire event. Note the forest fire plume is between 1.5 and 5 km.

Strawbridge, K. B.

2012-12-01

187

Evaluation of tubular ceramic heat-exchanger materials in basic coal ash from coal-oil-mixture combustion. [Sialon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubes of ten different structural ceramic materials were exposed to the hot combustion gases from a coal-oil-mixture (COM) fuel in the Ceramic Recuperator Analysis Facility (CRAF) at an outer tube wall temperature of about 1240°C for about 240 h. Air flow through each tube simulated the conditions in a tubular heat exchanger element. As-received and exposed materials and solidified coal

M. K. Ferber; V. J. Tennery

1982-01-01

188

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-10-30

189

Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

2012-07-01

190

Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.  

PubMed

Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and a significant increase in the dry sand abrasion wear resistance when compared with the microstructured coating. PMID:19916449

Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

2009-07-01

191

Petroleum source rock identification of United Kingdom Atlantic Margin oil fields and the Western Canadian Oil Sands using Platinum, Palladium, Osmium and Rhenium: Implications for global petroleum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates that petroleum and source rocks are enriched in Pt and Pd to the ppb level, and that the 187Os/ 188Os composition coupled with the Pt/Pd value permits the fingerprinting of petroleum to its source. Oils from the United Kingdom Atlantic Margin (sourced from the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Fm.) as well as source rock samples have been analysed for Pt and Pd. When the Pt/Pd value is compared with 187Os/ 188Os (calculated at the time of oil generation; Os g) the values from both the known source and the oils are similar, demonstrating that they can be used as an oil to source fingerprinting tool. This inorganic petroleum fingerprinting tool is particularly important in heavily biodegraded petroleum systems where traditional fingerprinting techniques (e.g. biomarkers) are severely hampered, e.g. the world's largest oil sand deposit, the West Canadian Oil Sands (WCOS). This has caused the source of the WCOS to be hotly debated, with no present day consensus between inputs from potential source units e.g. Exshaw and Gordondale Fms. 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd fingerprinting of the oil sands shows that the majority of the petroleum have similar 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd values, supporting the hypothesis of one principal source. Analysis of the potential source rocks establishes that the principal source of the oil sands to be from the Jurassic Gordondale Fm., with a minor Exshaw Fm. input. Thus, the combination of previously pioneered Re-Os petroleum geochronology with 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd values of petroleum permits both a temporal and spatial understanding of petroleum systems.

Finlay, Alexander J.; Selby, David; Osborne, Mark J.

2012-01-01

192

Tales from a distant swamp: Petrological and paleobotanical clues for the origin of the sand coal lithotype (Mississippian, Valley Fields, Virginia)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tournasian (Mississippian) Price Formation semianthracites (Rmax = 2.40%) in the Valley Fields of southwestern Virginia contain a lithotype described in an early-20th-century report as a "sand" coal. The Center for Applied Energy Research inherited a collection of coals containing sand coal specimens, making it possible to study the lithotype from the long-closed mines. The sand coal consists of rounded quartz sand and maceral assemblages (secretinite, corpogelinite, and rounded collotelinite) along with banded collotelinite, vitrodetrinite, and inertodetrinite assemblages. The association of rounded macerals and similar-size quartz grains suggests transport. Oxidation rims surrounding the rounded collotelinite provides further evidence for transport. Due to the semianthracite rank, palynology could not be performed. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the Lepidodendropsis flora would have been the dominant mire vegetation. Pteridosperms in this assemblage could have contributed resin rodlets, subsequently metamorphosed to collogelinite or secretinite. While a resin rodlet origin is an intriguing possibility for the origin of the rounded macerals (at least some of the rounded maceral, the rounded collotelinite clearly has a different origin), we cannot definitively prove this origin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J. C.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Eble, C. F.

2008-01-01

193

Special report: Athabasca tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic crude oil is being produced from the Athabasca oil sands region of northeastern Alberta. The Athabasca operations are broken down into 3 divisions: mining, extraction of oil from the sand, and pipelining to market. The entire project, operated by Great Canadian Oil Sands, Ltd., an affiliate of Sun Oil Co., is self-sufficient except for the water supply. By-

W. A. Bachman; D. H. Stormont

1967-01-01

194

MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE COAL AND OIL SHALE INDUSTRIES: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recommendations are presented for monitoring and predictive technology for the coal conversion and oil shale industries. The recommendations are based upon a literature survey of the emissions and potential impacts of these industries. Descriptions of the technologies are include...

195

Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical...

Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

1982-01-01

196

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

of the furthest offshore seepage distribution with the Souththe seepage distribution only in part. The farthest offshoreoffshore Coal Oil Point (COP), California—the site of the present study—and by assuming that the global seep- emission probability distribution

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

197

168 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009 Copyright 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

168 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009 Copyright © 2009 Inderscience.Y. (2009) `Geology and coal potential of Somaliland', Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2 of Aden, Red Sea and East African trends (Figure 2). The opening of the Gulf of Aden has subjected

Ali, Mohammed

198

Gill and liver histopathological changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

The extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) produces significant volumes of process-affected water containing elevated levels of naphthenic acids (NAs), ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sublethal response of aquatic organisms exposed to oil sands constituents in experimental aquatic environments that represent possible reclamation options has been studied. In this study, the effects of process-affected waters on gill and liver tissues in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and caged goldfish (Carassius auratus) held in several reclamation ponds at Syncrude's Mildred Lake site have been assessed. Following a 3-week exposure, significant gill (epithelial cell necrosis, mucous cell proliferation) and liver (hepatocellular degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration) histopathological changes were noted in fish held in waters containing high levels of oil sands process-affected water. In addition, measurements of gill dimensions (gill morphometrical indices) proved sensitive and provided evidence of a physiological disturbance (gas exchange) with exposure to oil sands materials. Due to the complexity of oil sands process-affected water, the cause of the alterations could not be attributed to specific oil sands constituents. However, the histopathological parameters were strong indicators of exposure to oil sands process-affected water and morphometrical data were sensitive indicators of pathological response, which can be used to identify the interactive effects of ionic content, NAs, and PAHs in future laboratory studies. PMID:15964628

Nero, V; Farwell, A; Lister, A; Van der Kraak, G; Lee, L E J; Van Meer, T; MacKinnon, M D; Dixon, D G

2006-03-01

199

Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil  

SciTech Connect

Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

1982-07-20

200

Potential consolidation-induced NAPL migration from coal tar impacted river sediment under a remedial sand cap.  

PubMed

Subaqueous sediment, if capped for remediation purposes, may undergo consolidation due to the increased effective weight of the capping material. The standard Atterberg limits test and a modified drained three-dimensional consolidation test (DTCT) were performed on sediment collected from a river adjacent to a former manufactured gas plant site that contains high concentrations of coal tar. The plastic limit of five sediment samples ranged between 72 and 89%, and the liquid limit ranged between 123 and 194%. The plasticity index ranged from 51 to 122%, with the values among the sediments correlating with the coal tar content (r(2)=0.93). DTCT experiment was performed on 5 cm sediment overlain with 5 cm sand to a maximum applied effective cell pressure of 41.4 kPa. Consolidation increased almost linearly at lower pressures (<13.8 kPa); however, as higher pressures were imposed, the ratio of consolidation per applied pressure decreased. The results of this study suggest that porewater advection, resulting from sediment consolidation, will occur from the sediment to the capping material. Because this water will contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, measures, such as adding sorptive materials, should be taken to reduce the flux of these compounds. PMID:18650012

Kim, Yong Sang; Jafvert, Chad T; Yoon, Sungmin; Hyun, Seunghun; Johnson, Brian

2009-03-15

201

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01

202

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014 115 Copyright 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014 115 Copyright © 2014 Inderscience fields in Saudi Arabia', Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.115­131. Biographical economic recovery of oil and gas from a reservoir. The purpose of reservoir management is to control

Mohaghegh, Shahab

203

Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, ?13C and ?15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (< 100 ng/g for ? 16 EPA Priority PAHs at each lake) and in general showed no substantial increases over the past 30 years. Retene, which is often associated with the combustion of coniferous wood, was generally the most abundant PAH amongst those reported, demonstrating the importance of forest fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes ?13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. ?15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values observed in more recent sediments in some lakes suggest a potential input of depleted bioavailable nitrogen, as might be expected from anthropogenic NOx emissions. This study implies that thus far it appears that oil sands industry related emissions have had only a minor environmental impact on lakes in NW Saskatchewan.

Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

2011-12-01

204

Multicomponent seismic reservoir characterization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) heavy oil project, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in situ heavy oil recovery method involving the injection of steam in horizontal wells. Time-lapse seismic analysis over a SAGD project in the Athabasca oil sands deposit of Alberta reveals that the SAGD steam chamber has not developed uniformly. Core data confirm the presence of low permeability shale bodies within the reservoir. These shales can act as barriers and baffles to steam and limit production by prohibiting steam from accessing the full extent of the reservoir. Seismic data can be used to identify these shale breaks prior to siting new SAGD well pairs in order to optimize field development. To identify shale breaks in the study area, three types of seismic inversion and a probabilistic neural network prediction were performed. The predictive value of each result was evaluated by comparing the position of interpreted shales with the boundaries of the steam chamber determined through time-lapse analysis. The P-impedance result from post-stack inversion did not contain enough detail to be able to predict the vertical boundaries of the steam chamber but did show some predictive value in a spatial sense. P-impedance from pre-stack inversion exhibited some meaningful correlations with the steam chamber but was misleading in many crucial areas, particularly the lower reservoir. Density estimated through the application of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) trained using both PP and PS attributes identified shales most accurately. The interpreted shales from this result exhibit a strong relationship with the boundaries of the steam chamber, leading to the conclusion that the PNN method can be used to make predictions about steam chamber growth. In this study, reservoir characterization incorporating multicomponent seismic data demonstrated a high predictive value and could be useful in evaluating future well placement.

Schiltz, Kelsey Kristine

205

Deepwater Horizon Oil-Protection Sand Berm and its Morphologic Interactions with a Natural Barrier Island: an Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill, Louisiana received permission to build a sand berm parallel to and offshore of the ~30-km-long Chandeleur Islands to capture floating oil and keep it from reaching mainland marshes. The berm was built with dredged sand to a height of approximately 2 m above mean sea level and within 100 m of the Gulf-side of the natural barrier island. Here, we update the status of the sand berm and how its morphology has evolved since construction began in June 2010. This is part of a study of morphologic change involving time series of airborne lidar topographic and bathymetric surveys, boat acoustic bathymetric surveys, satellite imagery, and modeling of sediment transport. Waves and sea level are being monitored with models and in-situ sensors. We will examine, as of our latest surveys, whether the introduction of new sand from the berm has significantly changed peak elevations, Dhigh, along the natural islands and hence changed island vulnerability to being overtopped by storm-driven water levels, such as still-water level (?, due to tides, surge, and wave setup) and runup (R, due to swash). Vulnerabilities to overwash, where R > Dhigh, and inundation, where ? > Dhigh, will be identified. We will investigate the impacts on the berm and island of extra-tropical storms through June 2011 and tropical storms through the hurricane season of summer and early fall 2011. For example, during a storm in early January 2011, significant wave heights of 4.9 m generated runup on the berm where R > Dhigh. Four breaches were cut through the berm, the largest 590 m wide. This study provides a unique opportunity to investigate the wave and current transport of a large quantity of introduced sand and determine whether and how the sand nourishes a severely eroding barrier island.

Sallenger, A. H.; Plant, N. G.; Flocks, J.; Long, J. W.; Miselis, J. L.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hansen, M.; Nayegandhi, A.; Wright, W.

2011-12-01

206

SASOL: SOUTH AFRICA'S OIL FROM COAL STORY--BACKGROUND FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the world's only oil-from-coal plant, known as SASOL, operated by South Africa since 1955. When almost $7 billion worth of expansion is completed in the early 1980s, three SASOL plants will produce a total of 112,000 barrels of oil per day, or about half of S...

207

Investigation of the absorption and polymerization capacity of coal wash oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and polymerization capacity of coal gas wash oils is important when they are used as an absorber to recover benzol from coke-oven gas. The absorption capacity characterizes the property of the oil for dissolving benzol at normal temperature and a high benzol concentration in the coke-oven gas and for easily separating the benzol on heating. The polymerization capacity

T. Ya. Gogoleva; E. T. Kovalev; L. I. Butsinskaya; G. G. Golovina

1981-01-01

208

Continuous coking of residual oil and production of gaseous fuel and smokeless solid fuels from coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal and residual oil are simultaneously processed in a reactor with a combustion zone at the bottom and a fluidized bed on top of it. The residual oil is injected into heat exchange relationship with the top of the fluidized bed where it is cracked with heat generated by the combustion.

Yan, T.Y.; Whitehurst

1985-08-06

209

The controlling factors of oil and gas generation from coal in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic matter-rich rocks in the Kuqa Depression are mainly coal measures and therefore are gas prone. However, small amounts of oil also occur and appear to be derived from these coals and associated shales. The hydrocarbons have five different modes of occurrence: pure dry gas, wet gas, condensate, oil–gas mixtures and pure oil. The distribution of coal-related reservoired petroleum

Shengfei Qin; Jinxing Dai; Xianwei Liu

2007-01-01

210

Achieving Conservation when Opportunity Costs Are High: Optimizing Reserve Design in Alberta's Oil Sands Region  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R.; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W. L.; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

211

Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

212

Woody plant establishment in grassed reclamation areas of the Athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect

The primary end land use for areas disturbed by the Syncrude Canada Ltd. oil sands surface mining venture is forest cover. Short term erosion control is of concern, however, and this results in the early establishment of a grass and legume cover. Problems have subsequently been encountered in attempts to establish woody plants in the grass and legume cover. Vegetation competition for soil moisture and nutrients and rodent damage to woody seedlings have been the major problem areas. A study was initiated in 1978 to evaluate methods of manipulating the grass and legume cover sufficiently to improve success rates in establishing a variety of shrubs and trees. Five replicated treatments using the chemical herbicide glyphosate, soil scarification and fire alone plus soil scarification were established on an area seeded to grass and legumes in spring 1976. Woody plant survival and rodent damage, populations and distribution are being assessed annually in spring and fall. Rodent damage to woody seedlings was heavy in fall 1978 with 80 percent of the deciduous seedlings on non-scarified plots being damaged. In June 1979, 98 percent of the deciduous plants on the control and herbicide treatment areas were damaged. Damage to conifers was approximately 30 percent less during this time. Prescribed burning and mechanical scarification substantially reduced rodent damage. Seedling survival was variable with Amelanchier alnifolia, Pinus contorta and Populus tremuloides consistently exhibiting the highest survival rates.

Fedkenheuer, A.W.

1980-12-01

213

Impact of polymeric membrane filtration of oil sands process water on organic compounds quantification.  

PubMed

The interaction between organic fractions in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and three polymeric membranes with varying hydrophilicity (nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene) at different pHs was studied to evaluate the impact of filtration on the quantification of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and naphthenic acids (NAs). Four functional groups predominated in OSPW (amine, phosphoryl, carboxyl and hydroxyl) as indicated by the linear programming method. The nylon membranes were the most hydrophilic and exhibited the lowest AEF removal at pH of 8.7. However, the adsorption of AEF on the membranes increased as the pH of OSPW decreased due to hydrophobic interactions between the membrane surfaces and the protonated molecules. The use of ultra pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) showed insignificant adsorption of NAs on the tested membranes at pH 8.7. However, 26 ± 2.4% adsorption of NAs was observed at pH 5.3 following the protonation of NAs species. For the nylon membrane, excessive carboxylic acids in the commercial NAs caused the formation of negatively charged assisted hydrogen bonds, resulting in increased adsorption at pH 8.2 (25%) as compared to OSPW (0%). The use of membranes for filtration of soluble compounds from complex oily wastewaters before quantification analysis of AEF and NAs should be examined prior to application. PMID:25225922

Moustafa, Ahmed M A; Kim, Eun-Sik; Alpatova, Alla; Sun, Nian; Smith, Scott; Kang, Seoktae; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2014-01-01

214

Methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil sands fine tailings waste.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the large tailings pond (Mildred Lake Settling Basin) on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. lease near Fort McMurray, Alta., has gone methanogenic. Currently, about 60%-80% of the flux of gas across the surface of the tailings pond is methane. As well as adding to greenhouse gas emissions, the production of methane in the fine tailings zone of this and other settling basins may affect the performance of these settling basins and impact reclamation options. Enumeration studies found methanogens (10(5)-10(6) MPN/g) within the fine tailings zone of various oil sands waste settling basins. SRB were also present (10(4)-10(5) MPN/g) with elevated numbers when sulfate was available. The methanogenic population was robust, and sample storage up to 9 months at 4 degrees C did not cause the MPN values to change. Nor was the ability of the consortium to produce methane delayed or less efficient after storage. Under laboratory conditions, fine tailings samples released 0.10-0.25 mL CH4 (at STP)/mL fine tailings. The addition of sulfate inhibited methanogenesis by stimulating bacterial competition. PMID:11068680

Holowenko, F M; MacKinnon, M D; Fedorak, P M

2000-10-01

215

A first approximation kinetic model to predict methane generation from an oil sands tailings settling basin.  

PubMed

A small fraction of the naphtha diluent used for oil sands processing escapes with tailings and supports methane (CH(4)) biogenesis in large anaerobic settling basins such as Mildred Lake Settling Basin (MLSB) in northern Alberta, Canada. Based on the rate of naphtha metabolism in tailings incubated in laboratory microcosms, a kinetic model comprising lag phase, rate of hydrocarbon metabolism and conversion to CH(4) was developed to predict CH(4) biogenesis and flux from MLSB. Zero- and first-order kinetic models, respectively predicted generation of 5.4 and 5.1 mmol CH(4) in naphtha-amended microcosms compared to 5.3 (+/-0.2) mmol CH(4) measured in microcosms during 46 weeks of incubation. These kinetic models also predicted well the CH(4) produced by tailings amended with either naphtha-range n-alkanes or BTEX compounds at concentrations similar to those expected in MLSB. Considering 25% of MLSB's 200 million m(3) tailings volume to be methanogenic, the zero- and first-order kinetic models applied over a wide range of naphtha concentrations (0.01-1.0 wt%) predicted production of 8.9-400 million l CH(4) day(-1) from MLSB, which exceeds the estimated production of 3-43 million l CH(4) day(-1). This discrepancy may result from heterogeneity and density of the tailings, presence of nutrients in the microcosms, and/or overestimation of the readily biodegradable fraction of the naphtha in MLSB tailings. PMID:18547608

Siddique, Tariq; Gupta, Rajender; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Foght, Julia M

2008-08-01

216

TM-sand steam stimulation project, Huntington Beach offshore field - a remarkable example of a heavy oil reservoir responding to the cyclic steam injection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TM is a thin, unconsolidated, upper Miocene sand reservoir containing a 12° to 15° API gravity crude. Attempts to economically produce the reservoir prior to the introduction of the steam huff and puff process were unsuccessful due to the low rate of oil production and excessive sand problems. Steam stimulations since 1964 through gravel flow packed slotted liner completions

Yoelin

1970-01-01

217

Genotoxic potential of several naphthenic acids and a synthetic oil sands process-affected water in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The exploitation of oil sands has raised major environmental concerns, particularly regarding the presence of high concentration in contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs) in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). The purpose of this study was, first to evaluate the genotoxic impact of OSPW-related compounds such as NAs and PAHs in a salmonid species and secondly to assess if OSPW exposure leads to genotoxicity. For this purpose, rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to environmentally relevant concentrations of synthetic NAs, naphtalene, benzo(a)pyrene, and extracts of synthetic OSPW (generated by a laboratory bitumen extraction) and of oil sands leaching water (OSLW, mimicking leaching of oil sands in river water). Primary DNA damage was assessed by the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycolyase (Fpg)-modified comet assay. Genotoxicity was observed in hepatocytes exposed to several NAs, mixture of them, OSPW and OSLW extracts. The chemical structure of NAs influences the genotoxicity potential: among the NAs tested, the most cyclic NA was the most genotoxic. It also appears that genotoxicity was more marked for OSPW than for OSLW. Because exposure to OSPW led to oxidative DNA damage, while after exposure to several NAs, these types of DNA damage were limited, the NAs tested in this study could not be qualified as the only major contaminants responsible for OSPW genotoxicity. Notwithstanding, it should be noteworthy that exposure to NAs resulted in genotoxic impact at concentrations lower than those documented by literature for fresh OSPW. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between the chemical structure of NAs and their genotoxicity in the light of the distribution of NAs in fresh OSPW samples as well as in surface waters. PMID:24799193

Lacaze, E; Devaux, A; Bruneau, A; Bony, S; Sherry, J; Gagné, F

2014-07-01

218

Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

219

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

220

Scanning electron microscopic investigations of root structural modifications arising from growth in crude oil-contaminated sand.  

PubMed

The choice of plant for phytoremediation success requires knowledge of how plants respond to contaminant exposure, especially their roots which are instrumental in supporting rhizosphere activity. In this study, we investigated the responses of plants with different architectures represented by beetroot (Beta vulgaris), a eudicot with a central taproot and many narrower lateral roots, and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), a monocot possessing a mass of threadlike fibrous roots to grow in crude oil-treated sand. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate modifications to plant root structure caused by growth in crude oil-contaminated sand. Root structural disorders were evident and included enhanced thickening in the endodermis, increased width of the root cortical zone and smaller diameter of xylem vessels. Inhibition in the rate of root elongation correlated with the increase in cell wall thickening and was dramatically pronounced in beetroot compared to the roots of treated fescue. The latter possessed significantly fewer (p?oil-treated sand than beetroot and, thus, a potential for long-term phytoremediation. PMID:24958531

Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Harvey, Patricia J

2014-11-01

221

Effects of exposure to naphthenic acids in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a group of carboxylic acids that are of particular concern to the steadily growing oil sands mining industry of Alberta, Canada, because they become highly concentrated in the water used for oil sands extraction and are toxic to aquatic biota and mammals. Upon mine closure, vast amounts of process-affected water will need to be reclaimed and proven safe for wildlife colonizing reclaimed areas. The effects of exposure to NAs have not been investigated in avian species. To address this void, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings were dosed with NAs while being reared normally by their free-ranging parents on a site in the vicinity of the oil sands. Nestlings received 1.5 mg NAs/day (approximately 0.075 g/kg body mass) from d 7 to d 13 of age, which represented a 10-fold "worst exposure" scenario. Nestling growth, hematocrit, blood biochemistry, organ weights, and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were unaffected by NAs. The only change detected on histopathological evaluation of major organs was an increase in extramedullary erythropoiesis in the liver. These findings indicate that nestling tree swallows can successfully tolerate short-term exposures to environmentally realistic concentrations of NAs. However, this study did not investigate the chronic or reproductive toxicity of NAs. More research needs to be conducted to complete this initial assessment, to determine environmental risks on reclaimed areas where birds will be breeding and where their exposure to NAs could extend for several weeks. PMID:17573632

Gentes, Marie-Line; Waldner, Cheryl; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Smits, Judit E G

2007-07-01

222

Variability and uncertainty in life cycle assessment models for greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian oil sands production.  

PubMed

Because of interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation fuels production, a number of recent life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have calculated GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining pathways. The results from these studies vary considerably. This paper reviews factors affecting energy consumption and GHG emissions from oil sands extraction. It then uses publicly available data to analyze the assumptions made in the LCA models to better understand the causes of variability in emissions estimates. It is found that the variation in oil sands GHG estimates is due to a variety of causes. In approximate order of importance, these are scope of modeling and choice of projects analyzed (e.g., specific projects vs industry averages); differences in assumed energy intensities of extraction and upgrading; differences in the fuel mix assumptions; treatment of secondary noncombustion emissions sources, such as venting, flaring, and fugitive emissions; and treatment of ecological emissions sources, such as land-use change-associated emissions. The GHGenius model is recommended as the LCA model that is most congruent with reported industry average data. GHGenius also has the most comprehensive system boundaries. Last, remaining uncertainties and future research needs are discussed. PMID:22191713

Brandt, Adam R

2012-01-17

223

Multi-tracer profiling of natural and anthropogenic water sources and interaction in the oil sands region (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic, geochemical and organic tracer techniques for labeling water and for tracing biogeochemical processes in the Athabasca oil sands region, northern Alberta are being developed as part of research projects led by Alberta Innovates Technology Futures (AITF). Studies conducted to date have included both regional and site-specific assessments of baseline groundwater geochemistry, groundwater-surface water interactions, lake/wetland water balance, and acid sensitivity studies, as well as analysis of specific industrial issues such as airborne deposition, water supply, SAGD metals mobility, surface-casing-vent flows, and oil-sands process-affected water. Multiple tracers have been applied to interpret the source of water, salinity and organics in groundwater and surface water, which has led to better understanding of groundwater age, hydrodynamics, surface-subsurface connectivity, and the role of glaciogenic water and evaporate deposits in the regional hydrogeological system. Progress has also been made towards more extensive chemical characterization of process-affected water. The key to assessing ongoing anthropogenic impacts, in the context of significant observed natural variability in the oil sands region, is application of a multi-tracer toolkit as well as understanding of the regional and site-specific biogeochemical processes that control tracer distribution and interaction.

Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Moncur, M. C.

2013-12-01

224

Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached

Marie-Line Gentes; Cheryl Waldner; Zsuzsanna Papp; Judit E. G. Smits

2006-01-01

225

Quantitative and stereoisomeric determination of light biomarkers in crude oil and coal samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indans and tetralins are considered biological markers (biomarkers). These C9-C11 hydrocarbons are present in small amounts in organic geological samples. Methyl substituted indans or tetralins may possess a stereogenic center (carbon). Thus they can exist as enantiomers and, in the case of disubstituted entities, also as diastereoisomers. The concentrations of 1-methylindan, 1,3-dimethylindan, 1-methyltetralin, and 2-methyltetralin were determined in sixteen crude oil samples of different sources and in fourteen coal samples of different sources and ranks. Deuterated homologues were synthesized as standards to spike the samples and to assure accurate quantitative analysis. A procedure using HPLC fractionation followed by GC/MS analysis allowed the determination of ?g/g (ppm) amounts of these compounds in oils. The concentration of substituted indans and tetralins was 3-4 orders of magnitude less in coal than in crude oil. The select ion mass spectrometry (SIM) mode in GC/MS and the deuterated standards allowed detection of the much lower amounts (ng/g, ppb down to pg/g, ppt) of these compounds in coal samples. The stereochemistry of the biomarkers was determined, and the relationship between their relative concentrations and the location and type of the deposits was examined. Racemic mixtures of the indans and tetralins studied were found in all samples of oil and coal. It is postulated that there is an inverse relationship between the retention of stereochemical configuration and the molecular weight of hydrocarbons in crude oil. The chiral retention of configuration cut-off is thought to be between molecular weights of 146 and 208. An excess of cis-1,2-dimethylindan was found in all oil samples (average cis/trans ratio: 3/2). The 2-methyltetralin concentration was found to be about twice that of 1-methyltetralin in all oil and coal samples. Similar concentration correlations were found for the indan derivatives in oils and coals.

Berthod, Alain; Wang, Xiande; Gahm, Kyung H.; Armstrong, Daniel W.

1998-05-01

226

An on-site experience with burning coal-oil mixtures in firetube boilers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial and commercial firetube packaged boilers are uniquely designed to use gas or oil fuel. Due to diminishing gas and oil resources, users and sellers of these fuels in the U.S.A. feel concerned about cost and availability. They are seeking a viable, easily adaptable technology to minimize dependency on current suppliers. Synfuels are produced on a small scale, but found uneconomical for immediate application. Therefore, an old concept, mixing powdered coal and fuel oil has been tried. Coal-oil mixtures (COMS) can be used as an alternate for fuel oil by making modifications in the existing boiler system. In this paper, the main focus is on the burning characteristics of COMS, chemistry of COMS with respect to combustion process, and discussion of deposit mechanism in typical firetube boilers. Various coal-oil mixtures were fired in a firetube boiler (Cleaver-Brooks 150 HP), rated at 2270 kg/hr. (5,000 lbs/hr.) steam output. Full firing rate was maintained at 25% excess of stoichiometric air for 8 to 10 hours. Coal macerals appear to play an important role in maintaining a stable combustion process. Flame behavior was observed to be similar to that with number 6 oil until deposits in the combustion chamber and back door became thick enough to block flue gas passage. Engineering design concepts were considered to reduce deposit build up.

Singh, S.N.; Love, D.P.; Provance, G.A.; Rangi, B.; Wright, R.

1983-01-01

227

Chemical fingerprinting of naphthenic acids and oil sands process waters-A review of analytical methods for environmental samples.  

PubMed

This article provides a review of the routine methods currently utilized for total naphthenic acid analyses. There is a growing need to develop chemical methods that can selectively distinguish compounds found within industrially derived oil sands process affected waters (OSPW) from those derived from the natural weathering of oil sands deposits. Attention is thus given to the characterization of other OSPW components such as oil sands polar organic compounds, PAHs, and heavy metals along with characterization of chemical additives such as polyacrylamide polymers and trace levels of boron species. Environmental samples discussed cover the following matrices: OSPW containments, on-lease interceptor well systems, on- and off-lease groundwater, and river and lake surface waters. There are diverse ranges of methods available for analyses of total naphthenic acids. However, there is a need for inter-laboratory studies to compare their accuracy and precision for routine analyses. Recent advances in high- and medium-resolution mass spectrometry, concomitant with comprehensive mass spectrometry techniques following multi-dimensional chromatography or ion-mobility separations, have allowed for the speciation of monocarboxylic naphthenic acids along with a wide range of other species including humics. The distributions of oil sands polar organic compounds, particularly the sulphur containing species (i.e., OxS and OxS2) may allow for distinguishing sources of OSPW. The ratios of oxygen- (i.e., Ox) and nitrogen-containing species (i.e., NOx, and N2Ox) are useful for differentiating organic components derived from OSPW from natural components found within receiving waters. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy also provides a powerful screening technique capable of quickly detecting the presence of aromatic organic acids contained within oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy provides diagnostic profiles for OSPW and potentially impacted groundwater that can be compared against reference groundwater and surface water samples. Novel applications of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) are emerging for speciation of sulphur-containing species (both organic and inorganic components) as well as industrially derived boron-containing species. There is strong potential for an environmental forensics application of XANES for chemical fingerprinting of weathered sulphur-containing species and industrial additives in OSPW. PMID:23647107

Headley, J V; Peru, K M; Mohamed, M H; Frank, R A; Martin, J W; Hazewinkel, R R O; Humphries, D; Gurprasad, N P; Hewitt, L M; Muir, D C G; Lindeman, D; Strub, R; Young, R F; Grewer, D M; Whittal, R M; Fedorak, P M; Birkholz, D A; Hindle, R; Reisdorph, R; Wang, X; Kasperski, K L; Hamilton, C; Woudneh, M; Wang, G; Loescher, B; Farwell, A; Dixon, D G; Ross, M; Pereira, A Dos Santos; King, E; Barrow, M P; Fahlman, B; Bailey, J; McMartin, D W; Borchers, C H; Ryan, C H; Toor, N S; Gillis, H M; Zuin, L; Bickerton, G; Mcmaster, M; Sverko, E; Shang, D; Wilson, L D; Wrona, F J

2013-01-01

228

A comparison between firing coal-water slurry fuel and dry, micronized coal in an oil-designed industrial watertube boiler  

SciTech Connect

Penn State`s Energy and Fuels Research Center is conducting proof of concept demonstrations of firing coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) and dry, micronized coal in an oil-designed industrial watertube to establish the technical and economic viability of firing coal-based fuels in package watertube boilers designed for fuel oil. Technical aspects of the demonstrations are addressed in this paper, including: evaluating systems for coal storage (hoppers for micronized coal; tanks for CWSF) and handling (conveyors, screw feeders, and pneumatic transport for micronized coal; pumps and piping for CWSF) and their integration with the burner; determining coal combustion and boiler performance; determining rates of ash deposition and erosion; monitoring emissions; and quantifying the level of boiler derating.

Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

229

Pooling tree-ring samples for determining Zn isotopic signatures in the Athabasca oil sands region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sampling protocols for trees are primarily determined by the aim of the study and the expected concentrations of targeted elements. For site-specific environmental investigations using C and O stable isotopes, it is common to pool temporally-equivalent samples from different trees to obtain a representative signature for a given site. Furthermore, non-traditional stable isotopic analyses can require significant sample weights due to low elemental concentrations, which can force researchers to pool samples. However, it is unclear whether or not pooling will produce isotopic results representative of a site for elemental distribution of metals within trees. Therefore, this study investigates the validity of pooling sub-samples from several trees to obtain site-averaged Zn-isotopic analyses. We have investigated four white spruce trees from one site about 42 km east of the mining center of the Athabasca oil sands region (Alberta, Canada), and characterized their ring Zn-isotopes. Our specific goal here was to determine if individual determination and/or pooling sub-samples could detect temporal variations in Zn characteristics. We collected and analyzed nine sub-samples per tree, at a resolution of 4 and 2 years, and distributed over a 130 year period (1878-2009) using an ICP-MS. It turned out that the tree rings have very low Zn concentrations (3.8 to 7.6 ppm). The segmented tree-ring series were subsequently analyzed both for ?66Zn values in individual tree samples and pooled samples with equally weighted aliquots (total of 45 samples), using a MC-ICP-MS and a standard sample bracketing correction reported against NIST683. The ?66Zn results ranged between 0.30 and 0.74‰ ×0.05 (2 SD) for individual samples, and, 0.35 and 0.66‰ ×0.07, for the pooled sample set. As expected, all trees at the investigated site responded similarly, and the weighted average ?66Zn value of the individual series closely compared to the ?66Zn signature of the pooled sample (r2 = 0.8). For any single pooled versus individual trees comparative data point the ?66Zn results are bracketed within 0.2‰ with minimal scatter (generally < 0.1‰), suggesting that at the investigated site the sampling of individual or pooled series gives essentially the same result, and that the pooling technique may be suitable for understanding environmental processes through time. It seems overall that this method has the potential to differentiate Zn sources and emissions, and help understanding local Zn cycling and processes leading to Zn uptake by trees. In order to assess this potential for the oil sands region, we are currently analyzing Zn isotopes for the series from the first investigated site and from a second site, as well as their soil profiles (total of 150 tree and soil samples). Comparison of tree results with the soil Zn-isotopic signatures will help assess the use of tree-ring Zn-isotopes as an environmental tool, as well as the fractionation processes that may be operating at the two sites.

Dinis, L.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Gammon, P.; Girard, I.

2013-12-01

230

Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the three moss species and weighting by their abundances within each plot (percent cover), phosphatase activities differed between N treatments in the bog (p=0.0388) and the poor fen (p=0.0005), with the latter exhibiting a clear increase in enzyme activity with increasing N deposition, and a doubling of phosphatase activity between the control plots and the 25 kg/kg/yr N deposition treatment. Although the three moss species responded differently, at the plot scale, increasing N deposition stimulated phosphatase activity, suggesting that microbial enzyme activity in peat is sensitive to increasing N deposition from oil sands development, with potential consequences for peatland nutrient cycling.

Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

2013-12-01

231

Carbon and sulfur cycling by microbial communities in a gypsum-treated oil sands tailings pond.  

PubMed

Oil sands tailings ponds receive and store the solid and liquid waste from bitumen extraction and are managed to promote solids densification and water recycling. The ponds are highly stratified due to increasing solids content as a function of depth but can be impacted by tailings addition and removal and by convection due to microbial gas production. We characterized the microbial communities in relation to microbial activities as a function of depth in an active tailings pond routinely treated with gypsum (CaSO(4)·2H(2)O) to accelerate densification. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA gene sequences indicated that the aerobic surface layer, where the highest level of sulfate (6 mM) but no sulfide was detected, had a very different community profile than the rest of the pond. Deeper anaerobic layers were dominated by syntrophs (Pelotomaculum, Syntrophus, and Smithella spp.), sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfocapsa and Desulfurivibrio spp.), acetate- and H(2)-using methanogens, and a variety of other anaerobes that have been implicated in hydrocarbon utilization or iron and sulfur cycling. The SRB were most abundant from 10 to 14 mbs, bracketing the zone where the sulfate reduction rate was highest. Similarly, the most abundant methanogens and syntrophs identified as a function of depth closely mirrored the fluctuating methanogenesis rates. Methanogenesis was inhibited in laboratory incubations by nearly 50% when sulfate was supplied at pond-level concentrations suggesting that in situ sulfate reduction can substantially minimize methane emissions. Based on our data, we hypothesize that the emission of sulfide due to SRB activity in the gypsum treated pond is also limited due to its high solubility and oxidation in surface waters. PMID:21128661

Ramos-Padrón, Esther; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Bhaskar, Iyswarya Mani; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Fournier, Joseph; Voordouw, Gerrit; Gieg, Lisa M

2011-01-15

232

Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides a quantifiable scientific basis for forecasting the future functions, conditions and replacement value of wetlands lost to development, while providing a basis for reclamation recommendations.

Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

2013-04-01

233

Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

234

Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.  

SciTech Connect

Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

2007-01-25

235

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-10-13

236

Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel Pipes in Oil Sands Slurry Studied by Weight-Loss Testing and CFD Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weight-loss testing and computational fluid dynamic simulation were combined to investigate the essential roles of fluid mechanics and the sand impact in erosion-corrosion (E-C) of an X65 pipe steel in oil sands slurry. Results demonstrated that the steel E-C is resulted from the synergistic effect of the hydrodynamic shear stress and mechanical impact stress exerted on the steel surface. At low impact angles, such as 30°, the effect of shear stress is dominant. The particle impact stress becomes dominant when the impact angle increases to a high value, such as 90°. It is demonstrated that the maximum of E-C of the steel occurs at approximately 45° of the slurry impingement.

Liang, Guangchuan; Peng, Xingyu; Xu, Luyao; Cheng, Y. Frank

2013-10-01

237

Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen  

SciTech Connect

Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

1988-06-01

238

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry as Indicators of Regionally Elevated Atmospheric N and S Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission from ongoing development of oil sands in northern Alberta results in regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S in an area where background deposition of both N and S is exceptionally low (less than 1 kg/ha/yr). Because bogs, which represent major landforms in the Alberta oil sands region, are believed to be N-limited and potentially sensitive to S inputs, we have been investigating the effects of elevated N deposition on C, N, and S cycling in bogs, as well as the potential of bogs to serve as monitors of N and S deposition. Toward this latter end, we have measured seasonal variation (5 sampling dates between June and October 2009) concentrations of N and S, as well as ?15N value, in leaf tissues (Picea mariana (ectomycorrhizal); Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpon, Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal); Rubus chamaemorus, and Smilacina trifolia (nonmycorrhizal), Sphagnum (S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. angustifolium) moss capitula (top 1-cm of plant) and lichens (Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha) at 5 bogs at distances ranging from 14 to 300 km from the heart of the oil sands mining area. Averaged across all sites and sampling dates, N concentrations in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal, Sphagnum, and lichens was 8.6 + 0.2, 11.9 + 0.2, 26.3 + 0.6, 10.2 + 0.1, 7.2 + 0.2 mg/g, respectively; ?15N values were -10.3 + 0.1, -6.0 + 0.1, 1.7 + 0.2, -5.3 + 0.1, -4.7 + 0.1 mg/g, respectively, and S concentrations were 1.07 + 0.2, 1.31 + 0.2, 1.94 + 0.6, 1.46 + 0.2, 1.11 + 0.3 mg/g, respectively. Plant functional groups and individual species behaved differently with respect to both seasonal variation and site differences, often with significant interactions when analyzed using two-way analyses of variance. Some species exhibited seasonal variation in some aspects of plant tissue chemistry, while others did not; when a species did exhibit seasonal variation, the variation was rather consistent between sites. More importantly, however, canonical discriminant analysis (with potential variables of C, N, or S concentrations, C:N, C:S, or N:S ratios, and ?15N values) indicated that the five sites can be differentiated based on plant tissue chemistry, most clearly separating the site closest and the site farthest from the oil sands mining area. The first canonical axis explained between 66 and 91 percent of the overall variation, but the variables that were significantly correlated with the first canonical axis differed between species. We conclude that plant tissue chemistry exhibited a significant variation between plant functional groups, between species, between sites, and seasonally. Some of this variation appears to be related to distance from the heart of oil sands mining activity in northern Alberta, possibly reflecting regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S. Bog plants, through analysis of tissue chemistry, have the potential to serve as biomonitors of the anticipated spread of elevated atmospheric N and S deposition as oil sands development continues to grow in northern Alberta.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.; Quinn, J.

2011-12-01

239

A laboratory evaluation of the sorption of oil sands naphthenic acids on organic rich soils.  

PubMed

The adsorption characteristics of oil sands tailings pond water (OSTPW)-derived naphthenic acids on soils was determined using a batch partitioning method. The adsorption isotherms were found to be linear in all cases. All tests were conducted at 4 degrees C, and at a pH of 8.0 +/- 0.4, which reflects the pH of a tailings settling facility near Fort McMurray, AB. The adsorption characteristics of the naphthenic acids in a synthetic groundwater (SGW) solution was compared to that of the mixture in Milli-Q water. In the presence of SGW, the adsorption coefficient (K(d)) of the mixture of naphthenic acids on soil 1 with a higher organic carbon fraction (f(oc)) was an order of magnitude higher than that observed with the same soil and the Milli-Q water mixture, increasing from 1.9 +/- 0.2 (mL/g) to 17.8 +/- 1.5 (mL/g). The adsorption coefficient of the mixture of naphthenic acids on soil 2, with a lower f(oc), was also observably higher in the SGW mixture, increasing from 1.3 +/- 0.15 (mL/g) to 3.7 +/- 0.2 (mL/g). The relative fractional abundance of the individual naphthenic acids was plotted in order to determine the presence of preferential sorption between individual species within the mixture. It was found that for all Z families (where Z is a measure of the number of rings), naphthenic acids within the carbon number range of 13 to 17 showed preferential sorption. The mixture in SGW showed more pronounced sorption relative to naphthenic acid mixture in Milli-Q water. The results indicate that mixtures of naphthenic acids sorb strongly to soils and that adsorption would be an important attenuating mechanism in groundwater transport. Furthermore, preferential sorption of the individual naphthenic acids is important from a toxicity stand point since different naphthenic acid species have varying degrees of toxicity. PMID:16760080

Janfada, Arash; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barbour, S L

2006-01-01

240

Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.  

PubMed

The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent water treatments in the SAGD process. PMID:22901407

Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

2012-11-01

241

Lessons in microbial geochemistry from the Coal Oil Point seep field: progress as prospects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seeps located offshore Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA, are estimated to emit 1010 grams of methane and 50 thousand barrels of oil annually, and are among the most prolific in the world. The seep field spans a range of shelf depths and many of the seeps are accessible by SCUBA, making this an ideal location to investigate the impact of microbes on the biogeochemical cycling of methane and other hydrocarbons. With funding provided by the National Science Foundation, the Minerals Management Service and the Petroleum Research Fund, we have begun to investigate the interactions between microbes, hydrocarbon distributions, and environmental dynamics in the seep environment. This presentation will provide an overview of Coal Oil Point seep field and the biogeochemical research being conducted there. Several topics will be incorporated including i) the dynamics of oil and gas seepage, ii) the microbial consumption of methane, ethane, propane, butane and crude oil, iii) the distribution and composition of microbial mats, iv) redox differentiation in seep sediments and the importance of advection, and v) the development of experimental tools for the investigation of seep environments. Prospects for future biochemical research in the Coal Oil Point seep field will also be discussed.

Valentine, D. L.; Kinnaman, F.; Wardlaw, G.; Redmond, M.; Ding, H.; Kimball, J.; Busso, L.; Larson, A.

2005-12-01

242

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on wetlands impacted by oil sands mining are highly parasitized by the bird blow fly Protocalliphora spp.  

PubMed

Oil sands mining is steadily expanding in Alberta, Canada. Major companies are planning reclamation strategies for mine tailings, in which wetlands will be used for the bioremediation of water and sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and naphthenic acids during the extraction process. A series of experimental wetlands were built on companies' leases to assess the feasibility of this approach, and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were designated as upper trophic biological sentinels. From May to July 2004, prevalence and intensity of infestation with bird blow flies Protocalliphora spp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were measured in nests on oil sands reclaimed wetlands and compared with those on a reference site. Nestling growth and survival also were monitored. Prevalence of infestation was surprisingly high for a small cavity nester; 100% of the 38 nests examined were infested. Nests on wetlands containing oil sands waste materials harbored on average from 60% to 72% more blow fly larvae than those on the reference site. Nestlings on reclaimed sites suffered mean parasitic burdens about twice that of those on the reference site; and for comparable parasitic load, they exhibited greater pathologic effects (e.g., decreased body mass) than control nestlings. The heavy blow fly infestation on oil sands-impacted wetlands suggests that oil sands mining disturbs several components of the local ecosystem, including habitat characteristics, blow fly predators, and host resistance to parasites. PMID:17495301

Gentes, Marie-Line; Whitworth, Terry L; Waldner, Cheryl; Fenton, Heather; Smits, Judit E

2007-04-01

243

Extraction of bitumen, crude oil and its products from tar sand and contaminated sandy soil under effect of ultrasound.  

PubMed

In the present paper, the kinetics of the water extraction of bitumen from tar sand and crude oil or residual fuel oil from model contaminated soils under the effect of ultrasound is studied. The influence of process temperature, ultrasound power, the nature, and properties of the components of heterogeneous mixtures being separated, and the concentration of added alkaline reagents on the rate and degree of oil recovery is investigated. A functional form of the dependencies of separation efficiency on the mean size of solid particles and the temperature of a working medium is found. Optimum concentrations of reagents in the process solution are determined. It is shown that the spent solution of sodium silicate can be multiply used for separation, its reuse even speeding up the yield of oil in the initial period. Taking into account obtained results, a multipurpose pilot plant with a flow-type reactor for ultrasonic extraction of petroleum and its products from contaminated soils was manufactured and tested. During tests, the purification of sandy soil contaminated with residual fuel oil was carried out which verified the results of laboratory studies. PMID:19038567

Abramov, O V; Abramov, V O; Myasnikov, S K; Mullakaev, M S

2009-03-01

244

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of single coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive (CWOM) has been studied. In this study, the droplet is suspended on a fine quartz fiber and is exposed to the hot combustion product of propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) and air. The results are documented in a movie series. The combustion of CWOM with various combinations of concentrations are compared with that of coal-water slurry and water-oil mixture droplets. The combustion of coal-water slurry is enhanced significantly due to the presence of emulsified kerosene. The enhancement is also dependent upon the mixing procedure during preparation of CWOM. The presence of emulsified kerosene induces local boil-off and combustion that coal particles are splashed as fire works during the early evaporation stage of droplet heat-up. After particle splashing, blow-holes appear on the droplet surface. The popcorn and swelling phenomena usually occurred in coal-water-slurry combustion is greatly reduced. Significant combustion enhancement occurs with the use of kerosene in an amount of about 15 percent of the overall CWOM. This process of using kerosene as combustion additive may provide obvious advantage for the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry. 4 references, 6 figures.

Yao, S.C.

1984-10-01

245

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

1998-04-01

246

VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

247

LITERATURE SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH IN SITU COAL/OIL SHALE OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes available data on in situ coal gasification and in situ oil shale retorting to assess their potential environmental impacts on four areas: (1) groundwater due to leaching of residual materials left underground, (2) those due to subsidence, (3) air quality du...

248

Synthesis and analysis of jet fuel from shale oil and coal syncrudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-two jet fuel samples of varying properties were produced from shale oil and coal syncrudes, and analyzed to assess their suitability for use. TOSCO II shale oil and H-COAL and COED syncrudes were used as starting materials. The processes used were among those commonly in use in petroleum processing-distillation, hydrogenation and catalytic hydrocracking. The processing conditions required to meet two levels of specifications regarding aromatic, hydrogen, sulfur and nitrogen contents at two yield levels were determined and found to be more demanding than normally required in petroleum processing. Analysis of the samples produced indicated that if the more stringent specifications of 13.5% hydrogen (min.) and 0.02% nitrogen (max.) were met, products similar in properties to conventional jet fuels were obtained. In general, shale oil was easier to process (catalyst deactivation was seen when processing coal syncrudes), consumed less hydrogen and yielded superior products. Based on these considerations, shale oil appears to be preferred to coal as a petroleum substitute for jet fuel production.

Gallagher, J. P.; Collins, T. A.; Nelson, T. J.; Pedersen, M. J.; Robison, M. G.; Wisinski, L. J.

1976-01-01

249

Effect of catalyst concentration, temperature, and residence time on the chemical structure of coal hydropyrolysis oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the effect that the catalyst concentration, secondly at the effect that the reactor temperature and finally at the effect that the residence time at temperature have on the chemical structure of the oils (hexane soluble product) produced on hydropyrolysis (dry hydrogenation) of a high volatile bituminous coal. Generally, the hydropyrolysis conditions used in this study

J. R. Kershaw; G. Barrass; D. Gray

1979-01-01

250

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

251

Apparatus for cleaning fossil fuel, such as coal and crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for the desulfurization of fossil fuels including crude oil and\\/or coal, the apparatus comprising: (a) a receptacle for containing the fossil fuel in a liquid medium, the receptacle having at least one opening for the inlet and one opening for the outlet of the fossil fuel; (b) a plurality of copper tubes which are aligned generally

1989-01-01

252

Energy resources in an uncertain future: coal, gas, oil, and uranium supply forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. The five parts of this book take an in-depth look at resource and reserve estimation for oil, gas, coal, and uranium. The goal is not to provide a good estimate of what lies beneath the

M. A. Adelman; J. C. Houghton; G. Kaufman; M. B. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

253

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL FLY ASH PARTICLES EMITTED FROM COAL- AND OIL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous...

254

Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of

Martin Flechsenhar; Christian Sasse

1995-01-01

255

Material Response from Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Combustion of a Coal-Oil Mixture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44...

G. J. Santoro, F. D. Calfo, F. J. Kohl

1981-01-01

256

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-05-29

257

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

258

A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical wellbores. Other techniques, such as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are proving superior to other recovery methods for increasing early oil production but at initial higher development and/or operating costs. Successful optimization of bitumen production rates from the entire reservoir is ultimately decided by the operator's understanding of the reservoir in its original state and/or the positive and negative changes which occur in oil sands and heavy oil deposits upon heat stimulation. Reservoir description is the single most important factor in attaining satisfactory history matches and forecasts for optimized production of the commercially-operated processes. Reservoir characterization which lacks understanding can destroy a project. For example, incorrect assumptions in the geological model for the Wolf Lake Project in northeast Alberta resulted in only about one-half of the predicted recovery by the original field process. It will be shown here why the presence of thin calcite streaks within oil sands can determine the success or failure of a commercial cyclic steam project. A vast amount of field data, mostly from the Primrose Heavy Oil Project (PHOP) near Cold Lake, Alberta, enabled the development a simple set of correlation curves for predicting bitumen production using CSS. A previously calibtrated thermal numerical simulation model was used in its simplist form, that is, a single layer, radial grid blocks, "fingering" or " dilation" adjusted permeability curves, and no simulated fracture, to generate the first cycle production correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

259

Improvement in facies discrimination using multiple seismic attributes for permeability modelling of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to develop a reservoir modelling workflow to reproduce the heterogeneous distribution of effective permeability that impacts on the performance of SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), the in-situ bitumen recovery technique in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Lithologic facies distribution is the main cause of the heterogeneity in bitumen reservoirs in the study area. The target formation consists of sand with mudstone facies in a fluvial-to-estuary channel system, where the mudstone interrupts fluid flow and reduces effective permeability. In this study, the lithologic facies is classified into three classes having different characteristics of effective permeability, depending on the shapes of mudstones. The reservoir modelling workflow of this study consists of two main modules; facies modelling and permeability modelling. The facies modelling provides an identification of the three lithologic facies, using a stochastic approach, which mainly control the effective permeability. The permeability modelling populates mudstone volume fraction first, then transforms it into effective permeability. A series of flow simulations applied to mini-models of the lithologic facies obtains the transformation functions of the mudstone volume fraction into the effective permeability. Seismic data contribute to the facies modelling via providing prior probability of facies, which is incorporated in the facies models by geostatistical techniques. In particular, this study employs a probabilistic neural network utilising multiple seismic attributes in facies prediction that improves the prior probability of facies. The result of using the improved prior probability in facies modelling is compared to the conventional method using a single seismic attribute to demonstrate the improvement in the facies discrimination. Using P-wave velocity in combination with density in the multiple seismic attributes is the essence of the improved facies discrimination. This paper also discusses sand matrix porosity that makes P-wave velocity differ between the different facies in the study area, where the sand matrix porosity is uniquely evaluated using log-derived porosity, P-wave velocity and photographically-predicted mudstone volume.

Kashihara, Koji; Tsuji, Takashi

2010-02-01

260

In Vitro Microbial Degradation of Bituminous Hydrocarbons and In Situ Colonization of Bitumen Surfaces Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. Images PMID:16345738

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

261

Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining  

SciTech Connect

As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

262

Influence of O2 and H2O on carbothermal reduction of SO2 by oil-sand fluid coke.  

PubMed

To develop a new process for removing high-concentration SO2 from industrial flue gases, the carbothermal reduction of SO2 by oil-sand fluid coke at 700 degrees C was investigated by varying the inlet concentration of either O2 or H2O. Concentrations of O2 and H2O ranged from 0 to 20% and from 0 to 30%, respectively, in a stream of SO2 (18%) with the balance helium. Addition of O2 and H2O was found to enhance SO2 reduction. The enhancement was attributed to the reducing gases, CO and H2, produced by solid-gas reactions between carbon and O2 or H2O. The effects of O2 and H2O on sulfur yield, however, were bifacial: adding O2 and/or H2O increased the sulfur yield when SO2 conversion was incomplete, otherwise, it decreased the sulfur yield through the formation of sulfides such as H2S. The results of a thermodynamic analysis were in a good agreementwith the experimental results, suggesting that gas-solid reactions were slow enough to allow gas-phase equilibrium. This study indicates that carbon, such as oil-sand fluid coke, can be utilized to remove SO2 in flue gases containing O2/H2O and to convert it to elemental sulfur. PMID:16475356

Feng, Wenguo; Jia, Charles Q

2005-12-15

263

Quantification of changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in-situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixeland object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, other than fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, the land surface changes by re-growth of vegetation and the capability for natural restoration on the mining sites have been assessed.

Zhang, Ying; Lantz, Nicholas; Guindon, Bert; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

2013-10-01

264

Quantification of anthropogenic and natural changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located in the Western Boreal Plains near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixel- and object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, except for those fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%.

Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Lantz, Nicholas; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

2014-06-01

265

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling of Oil and Gas Producing Shale Reservoirs; Case.Bromhal@netl.doe.gov Abstract: Producing hydrocarbon (both oil and gas) from Shale plays has attracted much attention in recent

Mohaghegh, Shahab

266

Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

2013-12-01

267

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

1993-04-21

268

Comparative analysis of coal use options for reducing the dependence of utilities on imported oil  

SciTech Connect

The President and the Congress are finalizing National Goals to reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil. A key element of these goals is the conversion of utilities from oil-fired to coal-fired to yield an import reduction of 0.75 MBD by 1990. Since these utilities already exist at fixed locations, this element of the National Goals has the focus of Appolo, Polaris, Minuteman and other major successful programs. It is indicated, therefore, that the program development and management techniques employed in these programs may have useful application to the utility conversion program. These techniques include comparative systems and mission mode analysis, and the application of these techniques to the utility conversion program is discussed. It is observed that the conversions of coal-capable utilities will most likely be achieved in the first half of the next decade, while those for non coal-capable utilities will likely occur in the latter half of the next decade. It is suggested that DOE/RA initiate an in-house task force effort to make a comparative analysis of conversion alternatives to meet this goal. This analysis is discussed in some detail and it should consider the coal delivery as well as the conversion elements of the overall coal use system with a view to focusing on problems which must be addressed, and discarding those which are of no consequence to meeting the National Goal.

Eggers, Jr, A J

1980-01-03

269

Erosion-corrosion in carbon dioxide saturated systems in presence of sand, inhibitor, oil, and high concentration of salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil and gas production is usually accompanied by formation water which typically contains high levels of chloride. Some effects of chloride concentration on corrosion are not widely known in the literature, and this can result in misleading conclusions. One goal of this research was to contribute to a better understanding of the effects of chloride concentration in CO2 corrosion. Experimental and theoretical studies conducted in the present work have shown that increasing the NaCl concentration in solution has three important effects on corrosion results. First, standard pH meter readings in high NaCl concentration solutions require corrections. Second, increasing the NaCl concentration decreases the CO2 concentration in solution and therefore contributes to a decrease in the corrosion rate. Third, increasing the NaCl concentration increases the solubility of FeCO3 and therefore reduces the likelihood of forming an iron carbonate scale. High NaCl concentration also decreases the sand erosion rate of the metal slightly by increasing the density and viscosity of the liquid. There are two main contributions of this research. The first contribution is the experimental characterization of inhibited erosion-corrosion behavior of mild steel under CO2-saturated conditions with a high salt concentration. Chemical inhibition is one the most important techniques for controlling erosion-corrosion in offshore mild steel pipelines, tubing and pipe fittings in oil and gas industry. The second contribution is the introduction of a new approach for predicting inhibited erosion-corrosion in mild steel pipes including the effects of flow and environmental conditions, sand production, and an oil phase. Sand erosion can decrease the efficiency of corrosion protection systems including iron-carbonate scale formation and chemical inhibition. The need to be able to predict inhibitor performance under sand production conditions is particularly acute when the wells are deep or off-shore because of the difficulty in running coupon tests. Research reported in this dissertation is aimed at providing producers with information that will help them make decisions about the design of a well given advanced knowledge of the inhibition options and their predicted effectiveness under sand production conditions. Frumkin isotherms modified to handle effects of erosivity, temperature, and oil phase were successfully fitted to erosion-corrosion data. Inhibitor adsorption isotherms were integrated into a mechanistic model for prediction of CO2 corrosion rates as a function of inhibitor concentration and good results were obtained as compared with data. A computer program was also developed to predict the inhibited erosion-corrosion rate as a function of corrosivity of the system (temperature, pH, CO 2 pressure, and other factors) and erosivity of the system (particle size, particle rate, material type, pipe diameter, and other factors).

Hassani, Shokrollah

270

Distribution of naphthenic acids in tissues of laboratory-exposed fish and in wild fishes from near the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids, which have a variety of commercial applications, occur naturally in conventional crude oil and in highly biodegraded petroleum such as that found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands extraction is done using a caustic aqueous extraction process. The alkaline pH releases the naphthenic acids from the oil sands and dissolves them into water as their soluble naphthenate forms, which are anionic surfactants. These aqueous extracts contain concentrations of naphthenates that are acutely lethal to fishes and other aquatic organisms. Previous research has shown that naphthenic acids can be taken up by fish, but the distribution of these acids in various tissues of the fish has not been determined. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to commercial (Merichem) naphthenic acids in the laboratory. After a 10-d exposure to approximately 3mg naphthenic acids/L, the fish were dissected and samples of gills, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and eggs were extracted and analyzed for free (unconjugated) naphthenic acids by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Each of the tissues contained naphthenic acids and non-parametric statistical analyses showed that gills and livers contained higher concentrations than the muscles and that the livers had higher concentrations than the hearts. Four different species of fish (two fish of each species) were collected from the Athabasca River near two oil sands mining and extraction operations. No free naphthenic acids were detected in the muscle or liver of these fish. PMID:21216009

Young, Rozlyn F; Michel, Lorelei Martínez; Fedorak, Phillip M

2011-05-01

271

Effect of coal liquefaction conditions on the composition of the product oil  

SciTech Connect

Two methods, catalyst physically mixing method (method I) and catalyst impregnation method (method II) were employed for Beypazari and Tuncbilek lignites liquefaction. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mo(CO){sub 6} were used as the catalysts. Oils obtained at the end of the catalytic coal liquefaction were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). With solvent/coal ratio increase, compounds with straight chain and high molecular weight were formed. Likewise, as the reaction time and catalyst concentration were increased, the number and the intensity of the compounds in the oils increased partially. Due to the increase in the reaction time, temperature and catalyst concentration, the oils were enriched in straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds. However, alkanes with straight chain were reduced by the effect of pyrolysis at temperatures over 400{sup o}C. Retention times of the compounds obtained by method II were higher than those of the compounds obtained by method I. Respectively, the compounds in the oils obtained by method II were found to have been composed by high quantities of high molecular straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds. Our data gave us ground to presume that the oils from both lignites were composed by straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds (tetralin, naphthalene and their derivatives, phenols, xylenols, biphenyl, naphthols, etc.). The oil compositions were strongly influenced by the liquefaction conditions.

Karaca, H. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-12-15

272

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry and N and S Accumulation in Peat are Influenced by Elevated N and S Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of the oil sands resource in northern Alberta, Canada has led to elevated atmospheric N and S deposition, the N coming mainly from the exhaust of diesel fueled-trucks that haul the raw oil sands from the mine sites and the S coming mainly from refining. Against a background deposition of < 1 kg/ha/yr for both N and S, at sites within 15 km of the oil sands mining region we have measured current N and S deposition to be as high as 2 and 27 kg/ha/yr. With a goal of developing monitoring tools to assess the spatial extent of elevated N and S deposition in the region, we collected leaves, needles, or whole plants of 12 bog species (lichens: Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha; Sphagnum mosses: S. capillifolium and S. fuscum; a tree: Picea mariana; ericaceous shrubs: Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea; deciduous forbs: Rubus chamaemorus and Smilacina trifolia) from 5 bogs ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area. Samples were collected on 23 dates between May and October of 2009-2012 and were analyzed for C, N, and S concentrations. Six species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, O. microcarpus, V. vitis-idaea, and R. chamaemorus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:N ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. Five species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, O. microcarpus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:S ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. For three species (S. fuscum, E. mesomorpha, O. microcarpus), N concentrations gradually and significantly increased (C:N ratios decreased) over the four years of the study, with the rate of increase as high as 1 mg/g/yr at sites in close proximity to the oil sands mining area. In contrast, S concentrations in plant tissues generally did not increase over the four years, possibly because of increasing efforts to control S emissions from stacks. Using 210Pb-dated cores collected from 15 bogs ranging from ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area, we demonstrated greater net N and S accumulation in peat over the most recent 25 years, as compared to the 25-50 time horizon. Moreover, net N and S accumulation decreased exponentially with distance from the oil sands mining region. These relationships indicate that higher N and S accumulation in peat is evident within a distance of about 20 km from the oil sands mining area. Our findings reveal that elevated N and S deposition from oil sands development affects plant tissue chemistry, with potential ramifications for both N and S cycling and potential vegetation change in bogs, and that atmospherically deposited N and S are retained in bog peat deposits.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Quinn, J.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.

2013-12-01

273

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

274

Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

Not Available

1986-12-01

275

Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated. PMID:18817131

Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

2008-02-15

276

Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: A field study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~ 2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes (2H and 18O). The distribution of conservative tracers (18O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport.

Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S. Jean; Moncur, Michael C.; Ulrich, Ania C.

2013-08-01

277

2 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009 Copyright 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

2 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009 Copyright © 2009 Inderscience presents the development of SRM using the state of the art Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI, Gas, and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.2­23. Biographical notes: Shahab D. Mohaghegh is currently

Mohaghegh, Shahab

278

Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product  

DOEpatents

The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1982-12-21

279

Advanced analytical mass spectrometric techniques and bioassays to characterize untreated and ozonated oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable mixture of sand, silt, heavy metals, and organics. In this study, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of naphthenic acids (NAs) were done using ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The unique combination of these analyses allowed for the determination and correlation of NAs, oxidized NAs, and heteroatom (sulfur or nitrogen) NAs. Despite its lower resolution, UPLC-TOF MS was shown to offer a comparable level of reliability and precision as the high resolution FT-ICR MS. Additionally, the impacts of ozonation (35 mg/L utilized ozone dose) and subsequent NAs degradation on OSPW toxicity were assessed via a collection of organisms and toxicity end points using Vibrio fischeri (nonspecific), specific fish macrophage antimicrobial responses, and fish olfactory responses. Fish macrophages exposed to ozonated OSPW for 1 week showed higher production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates; however, after 12 weeks the responses were reduced significantly. Fish olfactory tests suggested that OSPW interfered with their perception of odorants. Current results indicate that the quantification of NAs species, using novel analytical methods, can be combined with various toxicity methods to assess the efficiency of OSPW treatment processes. PMID:25211339

Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry N; Islam, Md Shahinoor; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemys?aw; Blunt, Brian J; Reichert, Megan; Hagen, Mariel; Tierney, Keith B; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2014-10-01

280

Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

281

In-situ combustion pilot operations in the Wabasca heavy oil sands deposit of North Central Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

A wet in situ combustion pilot was conducted in the Wabiskaw formation of the Wabasca heavy oil sands deposit from February 1981 until February 1983 to determine if this process would be economically feasible. A single 20-acre (8.09-ha) inverted 7-spot was chosen as the pattern for the pilot. The operational concept was that the producing wells would be cyclic steamed to stimulate them at the same time that the wet in situ combustion process was being conducted. To monitor the movement of the combustion front, a series of 3-dimensional seismic surveys was scheduled. The initial survey was conducted prior to air injection and was used as a reference. The pilot performance using cyclic steam and wet in situ combustion as well as the results of the 3-dimensional seismic monitoring are discussed. The well completions and surface facilities design as well as operational concepts to allow year round operation in the environment are discussed also. 11 references.

Alderman, J.H.; Fox, R.L.; Antonation, R.G.

1983-01-01

282

Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen  

SciTech Connect

Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

1989-01-01

283

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

284

Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.  

PubMed

The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water. PMID:24355856

Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2013-01-01

285

TREE SWALLOWS (TACHYCINETA BICOLOR) NESTING ON WETLANDS IMPACTED BY OIL SANDS MINING ARE HIGHLY PARASITIZED BY THE BIRD BLOW FLY PROTOCALLIPHORA SPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands mining is steadily expanding in Alberta, Canada. Major companies are planning reclamation strategies for mine tailings, in which wetlands will be used for the bioremediation of water and sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and naphthenic acids during the extraction process. A series of experimental wetlands were built on companies' leases to assess the feasibility of this approach,

Marie-Line Gentes; Terry L. Whitworth; Cheryl Waldner; Heather Fenton; Judit E. Smits

2007-01-01

286

Effects of hypoxia on ion accumulation in wild raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) exposed to water released from saline oil sands mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite tailings (CT) technology allows Alberta’s oil sands industry to reduce its volume of extraction tailings and accelerate the process of reclamation and revegetation of affected sites. Wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is desired on reclaimed sites; however, its sensitivity to ions in CT complicates its successful establishment. Hypoxia is another challenge for plants in CT, and is known to affect

Edmund B. Redfield; Stephanie M. Durnie; Janusz J. Zwiazek

2004-01-01

287

Estimation of dynamic petrophysical properties of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud from multi-physics borehole geophysical measurements  

E-print Network

multi-physics borehole geophysical measurements. The inferred petrophysical properties of waterEstimation of dynamic petrophysical properties of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud from multi-physics borehole geophysical measurements Zoya Heidari* and Carlos Torres

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

288

Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

289

Has Alberta Oil Sands Development Altered Delivery of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds to the Peace-Athabasca Delta?  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which Alberta oil sands mining and upgrading operations have enhanced delivery of bitumen-derived contaminants via the Athabasca River and atmosphere to the Peace-Athabasca Delta (200 km to the north) is a pivotal question that has generated national and international concern. Accounts of rare health disorders in residents of Fort Chipewyan and deformed fish in downstream ecosystems provided impetus for several recent expert-panel assessments regarding the societal and environmental consequences of this multi-billion-dollar industry. Deciphering relative contributions of natural versus industrial processes on downstream supply of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been identified as a critical knowledge gap. But, this remains a formidable scientific challenge because loading from natural processes remains unknown. And, industrial activity occurs in the same locations as the natural bitumen deposits, which potentially confounds contemporary upstream-downstream comparisons of contaminant levels. Methods/Principal Findings Based on analyses of lake sediment cores, we provide evidence that the Athabasca Delta has been a natural repository of PACs carried by the Athabasca River for at least the past two centuries. We detect no measureable increase in the concentration and proportion of river-transported bitumen-associated indicator PACs in sediments deposited in a flood-prone lake since onset of oil sands development. Results also reveal no evidence that industrial activity has contributed measurably to sedimentary concentration of PACs supplied by atmospheric transport. Conclusions/Significance Findings suggest that natural erosion of exposed bitumen in banks of the Athabasca River and its tributaries is a major process delivering PACs to the Athabasca Delta, and the spring freshet is a key period for contaminant mobilization and transport. This baseline environmental information is essential for informed management of natural resources and human-health concerns by provincial and federal regulatory agencies and industry, and for designing effective long-term monitoring programs for the lower Athabasca River watershed. PMID:23049946

Hall, Roland I.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Wiklund, Johan A.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Farwell, Andrea J.; Dixon, D. George

2012-01-01

290

The effect of oil sands process-affected water and naphthenic acids on the germination and development of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Oil sands mining in the Athabasca region of northern Alberta results in the production of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). We have evaluated the effects of OSPW, the acid extractable organic (AEO) fraction of OSPW, and individual naphthenic acids (NAs) on the germination and development of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). The surrogate NAs that were selected for this study were petroleum NAs that have been used in previous toxicology studies and may not represent OSPW NAs. A tricyclic diamondoid NA that was recently identified as a component of OSPW served as a model NA in this study. Germination of Arabidopsis seeds was not inhibited when grown on medium containing up to 75% OSPW or by 50mgL(-1) AEO. However, simultaneous exposure to three simple, single-ringed surrogate NAs or a double-ringed surrogate NA had an inhibitory effect on germination at a concentration of 10mgL(-1), whereas inhibition of germination by the diamondoid model NA was observed only at 50mgL(-1). Seedling root growth was impaired by treatment with low concentrations of OSPW, and exposure to higher concentrations of OSPW resulted in increased growth inhibition of roots and primary leaves, and caused bleaching of cotyledons. Treatment with single- or double-ringed surrogate NAs at 10mgL(-1) severely impaired seedling growth. AEO or diamondoid NA treatment was less toxic, but resulted in severely impaired growth at 50mgL(-1). At low NA concentrations there was occasionally a stimulatory effect on root and shoot growth, possibly owing to the broad structural similarity of some NAs to known plant growth regulators such as auxins. This report provides a foundation for future studies aimed at using Arabidopsis as a biosensor for toxicity and to identify genes with possible roles in NA phytoremediation. PMID:23746390

Leishman, Chelsea; Widdup, Ellen E; Quesnel, Dean M; Chua, Gordon; Gieg, Lisa M; Samuel, Marcus A; Muench, Douglas G

2013-09-01

291

A Landfarming Application Technique Used as Environmental Remediation for Coal Oil Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the massive exploitation of the Val d'Agri (Basilicata-Italy) oilfield has started, a lot of environmental pollution accidents have occurred in the same region. This research takes as starting point the heavy accident occurred in the year 2000, when 15,150 kg of coal oil were spilt all over the Agri river bed and the surrounding fields. In that particular case, the

Concetta I. Giasi; Annalisa Morelli

2003-01-01

292

Fly ash characteristics in co-combustion of wood with coal, oil or peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing of bio fuels with fossil fuels is often applied for environmental, technical and economic reasons. The properties of the solid residues produced from such fuel combinations cannot be predicted based on the properties of the ash from each fuel. In this work, fly ash materials from combustion of wood\\/oil, wood\\/coal and wood\\/peat combinations were characterized. Elemental compositions, mineralogical speciation

B. M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

1999-01-01

293

Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery using sand pack column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus licheniformis K125, isolated from an oil reservoir, produces an effective bioemulsifier. The crude bioemulsifier showed 66% emulsification activity (E24) and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN\\/m. It contains substantial amount of polysaccharide, protein and lipid. This bioemulsifier is pseudoplastic non-Newtonian in nature. It forms oil in water emulsion which remains stable at wide range of

Harish Suthar; Krushi Hingurao; Anjana Desai; Anuradha Nerurkar

2008-01-01

294

Microbial Oxidation of Natural Gas in a Plume Emanating from the Coal Oil Point Seep Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point, off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases > 1010 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Gases emitted from Coal Oil Point include methane, ethane, propane, and butane, which are atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Even though the seeps are at water depths of only 5-80 m, much of the gas dissolves and contributes to a plume that is transported by ocean currents. While hydrocarbons can support bacterial respiration, resulting in the removal of hydrocarbon gas from the plume, the time-scale for the bacterial respiratory response is unconstrained. To track hydrocarbon respiration 3H-ethane, propane, and butane were synthesized using Grignard reagents and tritiated water with yields of >70% and applied as tracers to samples up- and down-current from the seeps at Coal Oil Point. Validation experiments conducted in September 2011 aboard the R/V Atlantis show that 3H-labeled tracers are an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods using stable carbon isotopes (Valentine et. al 2010), making this technique preferable in natural systems. Application of the tracers concurrent with plume tracking in July-August 2012 show ethane, propane, and butane consumption are readily inducible on a timescale of days.

Mendes, S. D.; Valentine, D. L.; Perez, C.; Scarlett, R.

2012-12-01

295

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop an inexpensive method to remove organic sulfur from pyrite-free and mineral-free coal using base, air, and readily available farm products. This is accomplished by treating coals with impregnating coals with polyunsaturated offs, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they produce no noxious products and improve burning qualities of the solid products. IBC-108 coal, (contains only 0.4% pyrite and 2.7% organic sulfur) was first treated with Na{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and four different times, and with NH{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and two different temperatures. Pretreating IBC-108 coal with bases removes 13% to 23% of the sulfur, and NaOH is a better treatment than NH{sub 4}OH in most of the experiments. Higher temperatures, higher base concentrations, and longer treatment times remove more sulfur. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is more effective than NaOH for oil extraction after the oil treatment. To test for effectiveness of sulfur removal, eight coal samples were treated with NaOH (two concentrations at four different times) were further treated with linseed oil at three temperatures, four different times, and two oil to coal ratios. The combination of NaOH pretreatment, then oil treatment, followed by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction, removes 23% to 50% of the sulfur. The best result is achieved by pretreating with 5% NaOH for 20 hr (23% sulfur removal) followed by oil treatment at 100{degrees}C for 5 hr with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio (50% sulfur removal in total). More sulfur is removed with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio than a 1:10 ratio under most conditions.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi [and others

1997-05-01

296

Evidence of hepatotoxicity in the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus from Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the Gulf War in 1991) in Kuwait on the hepatotoxicity of the Sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus (A. scutellatus). Twenty lizards (10 of each sex) from each polluted and each control sites were collected. Livers were removed from dissected animals and ready for fixation by Bouin's solution and formal-saline. Twenty sections (10 from males and 10 from females) from each tar mat (polluted) and control sites were prepared and examined for cell diameter and nuclear measurements using Cell Analysis Systems. The cytology of hepatocytes showed normal appearance in samples from the control sites. Dead cells were abundant in the sections of lizard livers from the tar mat sites and occurred in notably greater numbers than the sections of livers of animals from the control sites. Examinations of the data confirm that the cell and nuclear diameters in liver samples of males collected from polluted sites were generally greater than those of corresponding females. The liver sections obtained from animals in the tar mat site had greater cellular diameters than counterparts from control sites. Females from the polluted sites were also affected by oil pollution by having larger hepatocyte diameters and their nuclei were also affected, being larger than female nuclei from the control sites. The most remarkable feature observed in hepatocytes of lizards collected from the tar mat sites were swelling of hepatocytes, ballooning degeneration of hepatic cytoplasm and cell death. This study confirmed that the prolonged exposure to oil pollution may result in increased accumulation of contaminants and may cause severe liver pathology in a range of wild organisms such as A. scutellatus. PMID:21411141

Al-Hashem, Mona A

2011-07-01

297

Monitoring population abundance of the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey in oil polluted soils at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field.  

PubMed

Desert ecosystems in Al-Burgan oil fields of Kuwait were contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons due to oil spill generated by the Gulf War in 1990. Studying sand lizard (Acanthodactylus scutellatus) population and their ant prey in the years 2002 and 2003 to detect the effects of oil pollution is now a focus of study. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of pollution (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control sites outside this region. Total lizard numbers were recorded by using transect method. Number of ants was recorded by walking the transects and counting ants present. The results showed no difference in lizard population between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003 by applying the transect method. No difference in ant populations between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003. Although, the mean estimated lizard numbers were lower at the tar mat sites, the ant number in this location was greatest, meaning that food availability was highest at these sites. This suggests any reduction in the numbers of lizards is unrelated to low resource availability. The lizard numbers at the tar mat sites could be depressed by some property of the pollutants. PMID:20128514

Al-Hashem, M

2009-11-01

298

Heavy oil pool and oil-bearing sands development using cyclic steam-gas bed stimulation technology  

SciTech Connect

Included in the present paper are results of research and field studies on application of gas-liquid (gas-steam) heat carrier for technological process of cyclic stimulation of bottom-hole formation zones in the reservoirs containing high-viscosity oils. Estimated during laboratory studies using physical models were the following technological parameters: dynamics of oil displacement efficiency for different heat carriers (gas, water, gas+water); oil displacement efficiency versus water content of gas-liquid heat carrier, versus CO{sub 2} content of the gas phase of heat carrier and versus temperature of gas-liquid heat carrier. Described under the heading of technical facilities are the method for generation of steam-gas heat carrier, makeup of the steam-gas generating unit along with its installing and connecting in the field, as well as operating characteristics of the great carrier measured directly under bench test conditions. Included under the heading of technological process for cyclic well stimulations are results of operations in the fields containing high-viscosity oils in their Pontian and Miocene horizons. Presented in the paper are also analysis and generalization of the results obtained; the process of cyclic well stimulation is analyzed from the point of view of power input and technological efficiency.

Stashok, Y.; Garushev, A.; Drampov, R. [RosNIPItermnef, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-12-31

299

Prototype Commercial Coal/Oil Co-Processing Plant Project  

SciTech Connect

With the successful demonstration of the Co-Processing Process for simultaneously converting and upgrading Ohio coal and Cold Lake atmospheric resid, a hydrotreating program was subcontracted out to Sun Refining and Marketing by Ohio Clean Fuels to define operating conditions that will produce a distillate product meeting 0.05 wt % sulfur and a naphtha product with 1 wppm nitrogen maximum. Two hydrotreating runs were carried out: one on a 350/650{degree}F distillate blend and other on the C5/350{degree}F co-pro naphtha. Both runs scoped process conditions by varying temperature, pressure and space velocity while maintaining hydrogen treat gas rate constant at 1,000 SCF/Barrel. Each run took about 30 days to complete and consisted of a test matrix of 8 conditions and a referee'' condition at the beginning and the end of the run, and as well, several other optimal conditions to define further information. While catalyst life test were originally planned, they were not carried out due to lack of funds. The tests identified hydrotreating conditions that can effectively reduce distillate blend sulfur from 0.55 wt % to as low as 0.15 wt % sulfur. The co-pro naphtha was denitrogenated from 46 wppm to below 1 wppm with mild hydrotreating conditions. There were anomalies in the results in that lower feed space velocities resulted in higher product nitrogen. 3 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

300

Machine for mining tar sands having rearwardly directed exhaust related to conveyor trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to mining machinery and presents a new an improved machine, and components therefor, suitable for mining tar sands and other soft materials such as soft coal, oil shale and so forth. The machine can be used both above ground and below ground, and is particularly suitable for underground mining , to take advantages, for example, of

1980-01-01

301

Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The State of Louisiana requested emergency authorization on May 11, 2010, to perform spill mitigation work on the Chandeleur Islands and on all the barrier islands from Grand Terre Island eastward to Sandy Point to enhance the capability of the islands to reduce the movement of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the marshes. The proposed action-building a barrier berm (essentially an artificial island fronting the existing barriers and inlets) seaward of the existing barrier islands and inlets-'restores' the protective function of the islands but does not alter the islands themselves. Building a barrier berm to protect the mainland wetlands from oil is a new strategy and depends on the timeliness of construction to be successful. Prioritizing areas to be bermed, focusing on those areas that are most vulnerable and where construction can be completed most rapidly, may increase chances for success. For example, it may be easier and more efficient to berm the narrow inlets of the coastal section to the west of the Mississippi River Delta rather than the large expanses of open water to the east of the delta in the southern parts of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This document provides information about the potential available sand resources and effects of berm construction on the existing barrier islands. The proposed project originally involved removing sediment from a linear source approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) gulfward of the barrier islands and placing it just seaward of the islands in shallow water (~2-m depth where possible) to form a continuous berm rising approximately 6 feet (~2 m) above sea level (North American Vertical Datum of 1988-NAVD88) with an ~110-yd (~100-m) width at water level and a slope of 25:1 to the seafloor. Discussions within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and with others led to the determination that point-source locations, such as Hewes Point, the St. Bernard Shoals, and Ship Shoal, were more suitable 'borrow' locations because sand content is insufficient along a linear track offshore from most of Louisiana's barrier islands. Further, mining sediment near the toe of the barrier island platform or edge of actively eroding barrier islands could create pits in the seafloor that will capture nearshore sand, thereby enhancing island erosion, and focus incoming waves (for example, through refraction processes) that could yield hotspots of erosion. In the Breton NWR, the proposed berm would be continuous from just south of Hewes Point to Breton Island for approximately 100 km with the exception of several passages for vessel access. Proposed volume estimates by sources outside of the USGS suggest that the structure in the Breton NWR would contain approximately 56 million cubic yards (42.8 m3) of sandy material. In the west, the berm would require approximately 36 million cubic yards (27.5 m3) of sandy material because this area has less open water than the area to the east of the delta. The planned berm is intended to protect the islands and inland areas from oil and would be sacrificial; that is, it will rapidly erode through natural processes. It is not part of the coastal restoration plan long discussed in Louisiana to rebuild barrier islands for hurricane protection of mainland infrastructure and habitat.

Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Twichell, David C.

2010-01-01

302

Reservoir Simulation of Cyclic Steam Stimulation in the Cold Lake Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam injectivity during cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) as Cold Lake can be achieved only by injecting at pressures high enough to fail the formation mechanically. The reservoir also exhibits water\\/oil relative permeability hysteresis. This paper describes enhancements made to a thermal reservoir simulator to incorporate these Cold Lake physics. The geomechanical model allows both localized fracturing and global reservoir deformation

C. I. Beattie; T. C. Boberg; G. S. McNab

1991-01-01

303

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1984-07-01

304

Coal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

1983-01-01

305

Cyclicity in Lower Cretaceous point bar deposits with implications for reservoir characterization, Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation comprises the majority of the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, which is one of the largest heavy oil accumulations in the world. Point bar deposits account for a significant proportion of the subsurface reservoir, and are characterized by bedded, sandstone-dominated strata. In-situ development of heavy oil is sensitive to lateral and vertical lithological heterogeneity in the form of interbedded siltstone beds, which are locally common in the formation and must be taken into account in order to understand permeability distribution within the reservoir. The objectives of this research are to integrate qualitative sedimentological observations with quantitative analyses of wireline log data in order to constrain the distribution of siltstone interbeds within the point bar deposit, to use this information to understand the deposition history of the fluvial system, and to provide insight into reservoir modeling. Quantitative statistical analyses of wireline log data, including autocorrelation analysis, Fourier transform analysis, and continuous wavelet transform analysis, reveal lithological cyclicity within the heterogeneous point bar sediments examined. Lithological cyclicity is evident at wavelengths ranging from 2 to 10 m, and generally increases in strength toward the downstream direction of the ancient point bar deposit where more heterogeneous sediments are prevalent. Cyclicity also increases in amplitude in the youngest layers of the laterally accreted point bar deposit; the overall finer-grained sediments correspond to decreasing energy levels and waning flow over the evolution of the fluvial system. Overall, the highest amplitude cycles were calculated at a wavelength of 3.5 m, and, when correlated to core observations, are represented as interbedded packages of thick, massive to cross-bedded sandstone that fine upward to siltstone. The control on cyclic sedimentation is difficult to discern from Cretaceous-aged point bar deposits. Through consideration of sedimentation rates from analogous modern fluvial systems, the smallest cycles observed might be attributed to seasonal variations in climate and associated flow fluctuation. However, it is more likely that the cyclicity recorded is linked to longer scale climatic signals, such as El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO-like) fluctuations or variations in solar output (decadal cyclicity). The mappable variations in siltstone bed frequency and thickness across the ancient point bar deposit have implications for heavy oil development. Low permeability siltstone beds associated with the shortest wavelength cycles (i.e., < 2 m cycles) have limited impact on fluid flow within the reservoir; however, those associated with cycles longer than 4 m in wavelength may serve to compartmentalize portions of the reservoir, leading to reduced oil recovery.

Labrecque, Phillip A.; Jensen, Jerry L.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

2011-12-01

306

Use of oil shale for SOâ emission control in atmospheric-pressure fluidized-bed coal combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shale--SOâ reactivity, determined with a thermogravimetric analyzer, was used to estimate the quantity of oil shale required to reduce SOâ concentration in the effluent gas sufficiently to meet the SOâ emission standard in atmospheric-pressure fluidized-bed coal combustion (AFBC). It was calculated that the oil shale could reduce the SOâ concentration in the effluent gas from FBC units below the

W. I. Wilson; R. B. Snyder; I. Johnson

1979-01-01

307

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16? (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

1985-10-01

308

Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

2006-08-15

309

Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz  

SciTech Connect

The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-03-15

310

Direct analysis of organic compounds in aqueous by?products from fossil fuel conversion processes: Oil shale retorting, synthane coal gasification and coed coal liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole water samples are injected directly into a gas Chromatograph equipped with a packed Tenax?GC column. Polar compounds are separated with good resolution under the temperature programming conditions employed. The by?product water from oil shale retorting contains carboxylic acids in the homologous series ranging from acetic to decanoic acid. Various amides, cresols and phenol are present in trace amounts. Coal

C. H. Ho; B. R. Clark; M. R. Guerin

1976-01-01

311

Mass spectrometric and toxicological assays of Athabasca oil sands naphthenic acids.  

PubMed

This work concerns the analysis of model naphthenic acids and authentic naphthenic acids from the tailings ponds of the Athabasca tar sands. A first objective was to compare atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) with the previously studied electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in this analysis. APCI-MS had a wider range of quantitation than ESI-MS, but its detection limit was poorer and model compounds showed greater variation in calibration sensitivity. A second objective was fractionation of naphthenic acids from tailings pond water and analysis by the Microtox toxicity assay. Fractionation on the basis of solubility gave fractions that did not differ significantly either in their congener distribution by ESI-MS or in their response to the Microtox assay. When partial separation was achieved by anion exchange chromatography, fractions with a higher proportion of multi-ring structures exhibited lower toxic potency. This finding is consistent with field observations that indicate that the toxic potency of tailings ponds water declines as the samples age-multi-ring structures are more highly branched and therefore more resistant to microbial degradation. PMID:16434073

Lo, Chun Chi; Brownlee, Brian G; Bunce, Nigel J

2006-02-01

312

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

Peng, F.F.

1995-01-01

313

Characterization of a Middle Distillate Oil from a Coal hydroliquefaction Plant  

SciTech Connect

In this article, a middle distillate oil obtained from a coal hydroliquefaction pilot plant was characterized by modern analytical instruments. First, using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, the distribution of hydrogen and carbon atoms were obtained, and the presence of configurations such as long aliphatic carbon chains, alkyl-substituted aromatic ring, and partially hydrogenated aromatics in the middle distillate oil was found. Then the oil was separated into three fractions: saturates, aromatics, and polars by neutral silica gel liquid chromatography, and the detailed compositions of saturates and aromatics were respectively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the aromatics fraction is the most abundant one in this oil, but they are not normal aromatics and mainly consist of dicyclic-, tricyclic-, and tetracyclic-partially hydrogenated aromatics with carbon atom numbers from C10-C21, such as tetralin, alkyl-substituted tetralin, hydrophenanthrene, hydroanthracene, hydropyrene, and so on. Saturates mainly comprise n-C12-C27 alkanes. These results are of significance for the further processing and marketing of this oil.

Lin, H.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L.; Pan, T.; Gao, J. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-07-01

314

POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

None

1998-11-12

315

Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).  

PubMed

Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached 48% while they ranged from 59% to 100% on reclaimed wetlands. The odds of dying on the most process-affected sites were more than ten times higher than those on the control site. In 2004, weather was less challenging. Mortality rates were low, but nestlings on reclaimed wetlands weighed less than those on the control site, and had higher EROD activity. These results indicate that compared with reference birds, nestlings from OSPM-impacted wetlands may be less able to withstand additional stressors, which could decrease their chances of survival after fledging. PMID:16297515

Gentes, Marie-Line; Waldner, Cheryl; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Smits, Judit E G

2006-07-01

316

PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

1999-01-01

317

Field and laboratory investigations to assess impacts to fish health from oil sands wastewater releases (Part 1)  

SciTech Connect

A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted during 1995 to evaluate the health of fish which were exposed to wastewaters from Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group`s operation. This investigation was designed to: assess effects on major trophic components of aquatic ecosystems; assess effects on the general condition and health of fish; and relate chemical characteristics to measured responses. A suite of indicators was examined at several levels of biological organization: biochemical, physiological, whole-organisms, population and community. This comprehensive approach was followed because stress effects on fish cannot be adequately evaluated by measuring a single indicator at a single level of organization. Fish health data for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) showed that there were no adverse effects on fish health at any level of organization. The laboratory investigations comprised 7 and 28 exposures to wastewater and showed that no observed effect levels (NOELs) and lowest observed effect levels (LOELs) were greater than 10% for biochemical and physiological and whole-organism endpoints.

Swanson, S.M.; Shaw, R.; Lagimodiere, M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Goudy, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gulley, J. [Suncor Inc. Oil Sands Group, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

318

Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-04-01

319

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

SciTech Connect

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15

320

Reservoir simulation of cyclic steam stimulation in the Cold Lake oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Steam injectivity during cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) as Cold Lake can be achieved only by injecting at pressures high enough to fail the formation mechanically. The reservoir also exhibits water/oil relative permeability hysteresis. This paper describes enhancements made to a thermal reservoir simulator to incorporate these Cold Lake physics. The geomechanical model allows both localized fracturing and global reservoir deformation (dilation and history-dependent recompaction). This representation allows the simulator to match injection and production pressures that are otherwise difficult to reproduce. The history-dependent relative permeability hysteresis model calculates gridlock relative permeabilities that always lie on or between input imbibition and drainage bounding curves. The model makes it possible to use laboratory-derived relative permeabilities in a simulation and still matchmatch field WOR's.

Boberg, T.C. (Exxon Production Research Co. (US)); Beattle, C.I.; McNab, G.S. (Esso Resources Canada Ltd. (CA))

1991-05-01

321

Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

2011-02-15

322

Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. PMID:19850385

Harms, N Jane; Fairhurst, Graham D; Bortolotti, Gary R; Smits, Judit E G

2010-03-01

323

Biogeochemical Controls on Biodegradation of MC252 Oil:Sand Aggregates on a Rapidly Eroding Coastal Headland Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described below was conducted on Fourchon Beach, a coastal headland consisting of nine miles of fairly pristine sandy beaches and dunes, backed by wetlands and tidal channels, located between Belle Pass tidal inlet on the west and Elmer's Island on the east in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. MC252 oil first arrived in large quantities on Fourchon Beach on or around May 20, 2010. A unique oil form created under these conditions was an aggregate of sand and emulsified oil, typically 0.1-10 cm in diameter, termed small surface residue balls (SSRBs). The work from this project made critical measurements on the factors controlling biodegradability of these SSRB aggregates. SSRB aggregates were sampled across transects perpendicular to the beach from the intertidal to the supratidal. Areas in the supratidal that were sampled initially were set aside for research purposes and not altered by any clean-up activities. Chemical composition of SSRBs was measured including concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate measured on water extracts of SSRBs), and electron acceptor concentrations (O2 microprofiles measured on intact SSRBs and sulfate). Physical characterization of the SSRBs including length and area dimensions, mass, density, porosity, moisture content, and salinity using standard methods. Microbial characterization of SSRBs was also conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of dominant bands. SSRBs were sampled from various locations across the beach profile deposited by 2 significant tropical events in 2010; Hurricane Alex and TS Bonnie, and one event in 2011, TS Lee. Sampling focused on comparing and contrasting impacts of biogeochemistry on weathering of oil stranded in three beach microenvironments; supratidal surface; subtidal subsurface which is permanently inundated and intertidal subsurface samples which are intermittently inundated. The three types of oil are dramatically different in appearance and have a distinctive chemical signature indicative of different rates of weathering. Supratidal surface samples were depleted in n-alkanes and lower-molecular weight PAHs. Geochemically, aggregates located in these environments had low salinities (1.3-1.5 ppt), O2 at near saturation throughout the aggregates and nutrient concentrations (N and P) significantly lower than SSRBs deposited in the intertidal and subtidal. Intertidal and subtidal subsurface oil samples were characterized by elevated nutrient concentrations and salinities consistent with regular seawater inundation. Complete inundation leads to O2 consumption in the aggregates after several days. Despite the presence of elevated nutrients, PAHs and n-alkanes were comparatively unweathered in the subtidal subsurface samples consistent with O2 limitations. Sequences of known PAH degraders were isolated from the supratidal and intertidal aggregates. The results to be presented support the hypothesis that SSRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics . These characteristics are due, in part, to their location on the landscape.

Pardue, J.; Elango, V.; Urbano, M.; Lemelle, K.

2012-12-01

324

Coal Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

1986-01-01

325

Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen  

SciTech Connect

The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

2005-01-01

326

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15

327

Advanced methods of oil and gas production from fossil fuels. Subpanel report VII used in preparing the AEC Chairman's report to the President  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program recommended by the subpanel consisted of six subprograms. ; In order to meet the 0 million program level recommended by the Overview ; Panel, the subprograms for in situ coal gasiftcation and recovery of oil and gas ; from tar sands and heavy oils were eliminated. The remaining four subprograms ; and objectives are: (1) oil recovery from

1973-01-01

328

Predicting the quantities of oil and gas generated fromAustralian Permian coals, Bowen Basin using pyrolyticmethods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to establish kinetic parameters for gas and oil generation and totest the applicability of the kinetic models to petroleum generation through comparisons withnatural maturity coal sequences (433°Coil window is

C. J Boreham; B Horsfield; H. J Schenk

1999-01-01

329

Improved satellite retrievals of NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian oil sands and comparisons with surface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing is increasingly being used to monitor air quality over localized sources such as the Canadian oil sands. Following an initial study, significantly low biases have been identified in current NO2 and SO2 retrieval products from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor over this location resulting from a combination of its rapid development and small spatial scale. Air mass factors (AMFs) used to convert line-of-sight "slant" columns to vertical columns were re-calculated for this region based on updated and higher resolution input information including absorber profiles from a regional-scale (15 km × 15 km resolution) air quality model, higher spatial and temporal resolution surface reflectivity, and an improved treatment of snow. The overall impact of these new Environment Canada (EC) AMFs led to substantial increases in the peak NO2 and SO2 average vertical column density (VCD), occurring over an area of intensive surface mining, by factors of 2 and 1.4, respectively, relative to estimates made with previous AMFs. Comparisons are made with long-term averages of NO2 and SO2 (2005-2011) from in situ surface monitors by using the air quality model to map the OMI VCDs to surface concentrations. This new OMI-EC product is able to capture the spatial distribution of the in situ instruments (slopes of 0.65 to 1.0, correlation coefficients of >0.9). The concentration absolute values from surface network observations were in reasonable agreement, with OMI-EC NO2 and SO2 biased low by roughly 30%. Several complications were addressed including correction for the interference effect in the surface NO2 instruments and smoothing and clear-sky biases in the OMI measurements. Overall these results highlight the importance of using input information that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability of the location of interest when performing retrievals.

McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.; Boersma, K. F.; Kharol, S. K.; Krotkov, N.; Lamsal, L.; Makar, P. A.; Martin, R. V.; Veefkind, J. P.; Yang, K.

2014-04-01

330

Improved satellite retrievals of NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian oil sands and comparisons with surface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing is increasingly being used to monitor air quality over localized sources such as the Canadian oil sands. Following an initial study, significant low biases have been identified in current NO2 and SO2 retrieval products from the Ozone Monitoring instrument (OMI) satellite sensor over this location resulting from a combination of its rapid development and small spatial scale. Air mass factors (AMFs) used to convert line-of-sight "slant" columns to vertical columns were re-calculated for this region based on updated and higher resolution input information including absorber profiles from a regional scale (15 km × 15 km resolution) air quality (AQ) model, higher spatial and temporal resolution surface reflectivity, and an improved treatment of snow. The overall impact of these new Environment Canada (EC) AMFs led to substantial increases in the peak NO2 and SO2 average vertical column density (VCD), occurring over an area of intensive surface mining, by factors of 2 and 1.4, respectively, relative to estimates made with previous AMFs. Comparisons are made with long-term averages of NO2 and SO2 from in-situ surface monitors by using the AQ model to map the OMI VCDs to surface concentrations. This new OMI-EC product is able to capture the spatial distribution of the in-situ instruments (slopes of 0.7 to 1.0; correlation coefficients of 0.9). The concentration absolute values from surface network observations were in reasonable agreement, with OMI-EC NO2 and SO2 biased low by roughly 30%. Several complications were addressed including correction for the interference effect in the surface NO2 instruments and smoothing and clear-sky biases in the OMI measurements. Overall these results highlight the importance of using input information that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability of the location of interest when performing retrievals.

McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.; Boersma, K. F.; Kharol, S. K.; Krotkov, N.; Lamsal, L.; Makar, P. A.; Martin, R. V.; Veefkind, J. P.; Yang, K.

2013-08-01

331

Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (~10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows from Demonstration Pond. The opercula of fathead minnows from Demonstration Pond also differed from those of reference fish. An examination of the gills of fathead minnows from Demonstration Pond revealed that were a number of proliferative and degenerative alterations relative to reference fish. Even though the fathead minnow population has been maintained in this OSPW pond since 1993, the results of this study demonstrate that the OSPW continues to affect the reproductive development and health of the fathead minnows compared to fish collected at reference sites. PMID:23416413

Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2013-04-15

332

Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

2008-06-01

333

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

334

COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

335

Voidage and pressure profile characteristics of sand-iron ore-coal-FCC single-particle systems in the riser of a pilot plant circulating fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Hydrodynamic behaviors of single system of particles were investigated in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit. Particles belonging to Geldart groups A and B like sand of various sizes (90, 300, 417, 522, 599, and 622 mu m), FCC catalyst (120 mu m), iron ore (166 and 140 {mu} m), and coal (335 and 168 {mu} m) were used to study the hydrodynamic characteristics. Superficial air velocity used in the present study ranged between 2.01 and 4.681 m/s and corresponding mass fluxes were 12.5-50 kg/(m{sup 2} s). A CFB needs the creation of some special hydrodynamic conditions, namely a certain combination of superficial gas velocity, solids circulation rate, particle diameter, density of particle, etc. which can give rise to a state wherein the solid particles are subjected to an upward velocity greater than the terminal or free fall velocity of the majority of the individual particles. The hydrodynamics of the bed was investigated in depth and theoretical analysis is presented to support the findings. Based on gas-solid momentum balance in the riser, a distinction between apparent and real voidage has been made. The effects of acceleration and friction on the real voidage have been estimated. Results indicated a 0.995 voidage for higher superficial gas velocity of 4.681. m/s.

Das, M.; Meikap, B.C.; Saha, R.K. [Indian Institute for Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2008-06-15

336

Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

1990-01-01

337

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

338

Aquatic plant-derived changes in oil sands naphthenic acid signatures determined by low-, high- and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry is a common tool for studying the fate of complex organic compound mixtures in oil sands processed water (OSPW), but a comparison of low-, high- ( approximately 10 000), and ultrahigh-resolution ( approximately 400 000) instrumentation for this purpose has not previously been made. High-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), with negative-ion electrospray ionization, provided evidence for the selective dissipation of components in OSPW. Dissipation of oil sands naphthenic acids (NAs with general formula C(n)H(2n+z)O(2) where n is the number of carbon atoms, and Z is zero or a negative even number describing the number of rings) was masked (by components such as fatty acids, O(3), O(5), O(6), O(7), SO(2), SO(3), SO(4), SO(5), SO(6), and NO(4) species) at low resolution (1000) when using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Changes observed in the relative composition of components in OSPW appear to be due primarily to the presence of plants, specifically cattails (Typha latifolia) and their associated microorganisms. The observed dissipation included a range of heteratomic species containing O(2), O(3), O(4), and O(5), present in Athabasca oil sands acid extracts. For the heteratomic O(2) species, namely naphthenic acids, an interesting structural relationship suggests that low and high carbon number NAs are dissipated by the plants preferentially, with a minimum around C(14)/C(15). Other heteratomic species containing O(6), O(7), SO(2), SO(3), SO(4), SO(5), SO(6), and NO(4) appear to be relatively recalcitrant to the cattails and were not dissipated to the same extent in planted systems. PMID:19142845

Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Armstrong, Sarah A; Han, Xiumei; Martin, Jonathan W; Mapolelo, Mmilili M; Smith, Donald F; Rogers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

2009-02-01

339

An examination of the toxic properties of water extracts in the vicinity of an oil sand extraction site.  

PubMed

The industrial extraction of oil sands (OS) in northern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about the quality of the Athabasca River. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic properties of various water extracts on Oncorhynchus mykiss trout hepatocytes. The water samples were fractionated on a reverse-phase C(18) cartridge and the levels of light-, medium- and heavy-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Primary cultures of trout hepatocytes were exposed for 48 h at 15 °C to increasing concentrations of the C(18) extract corresponding to 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5X concentrations from upstream/downstream sites in the Athabasca River, lake and groundwater samples, OS tailings and interceptor well-water samples. Changes in cell viability, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P4501A and glutathione S-transferase activities), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation LPO) and genotoxicity (single and double DNA strand breaks) were monitored in post-exposure cells. The water samples decreased cell viability and increased all the above endpoints at thresholds of between 0.02 and 0.1X the water concentration. The most responsive biomarker was DNA damage but it also offered the least discrimination among sites. LPO was higher at sites downstream of the industrial operations compared to upstream sites. A decision tree analysis was performed to formulate a set of rules by which to identify the distinctive properties of each type of water samples. The analysis revealed that OS tailings and interceptor waters were characterized by an increased concentration in light PAHs (>42 ?g L(-1)) and this fraction represented more than 85% of the total PAHs. These samples also inhibited GST activity, which could compromise the elimination of genotoxic PAHs present in the system. An analysis of groundwater samples revealed a contamination pattern similar to that for OS tailings. There is a need for more research into specific biomarkers of toxicity from OS tailings compounds such as naphthenic acids, light PAHs among others, which are a characteristic fingerprint of OS extraction activities. PMID:21915416

Gagné, F; André, C; Douville, M; Talbot, A; Parrott, J; McMaster, M; Hewitt, M

2011-11-01

340

Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

2009-08-15

341

Biogeochemical processes controlling the mobility of major ions and trace metals in aquitard sediments beneath an oil sand tailing pond: laboratory studies and reactive transport modeling.  

PubMed

Increased production and expansion of the oil sand industry in Alberta are of great benefit to the economy, but they carry major environmental challenges. The volume of fluid fine tailings requiring storage is 840×10(6) m(3) and growing, making it imperative that we better understand the fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) seepage from these facilities. Accordingly, the current study seeks to characterize both a) the potential for major ion and trace element release, and b) the principal biogeochemical processes involved, as tailing pond OSPW infiltrates into, and interacts with, underlying glacial till sediments prior to reaching down gradient aquifers or surface waters. Objectives were addressed through a series of aqueous and solid phase experiments, including radial diffusion cells, an isotope analysis, X-ray diffraction, and sequential extractions. The diffusion cells were also simulated in a reactive transport framework to elucidate key reaction processes. The experiments indicate that the ingress and interaction of OSPW with the glacial till sediment-pore water system will result in: a mitigation of ingressing Na (retardation), displacement and then limited precipitation of exchangeable Ca and Mg (as carbonates), sulfate reduction and subsequent precipitation of the produced sulfides, as well as biodegradation of organic carbon. High concentrations of ingressing Cl (~375 mg L(-1)) and Na (~575 mg L(-1)) (even though the latter is delayed, or retarded) are expected to migrate through the till and into the underlying sand channel. Trace element mobility was influenced by ion exchange, oxidation-reduction, and mineral phase reactions including reductive dissolution of metal oxyhydroxides - in accordance with previous observations within sandy aquifer settings. Furthermore, although several trace elements showed the potential for release (Al, B, Ba, Cd, Mn, Pb, Si, Sr), large-scale mobilization is not supported. Thus, the present results suggest that in addition to the commonly cited naphthenic acids, remediation of OSPW-impacted groundwater will need to address high concentrations of major ions contributing to salinization. PMID:23727691

Holden, A A; Haque, S E; Mayer, K U; Ulrich, A C

2013-08-01

342

Measurement of ultrafine particle size distributions from coal-, oil-, and gas-fired stationary combustion sources.  

PubMed

Currently, we have limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of emitted primary combustion aerosols and the changes in those properties caused by nucleation, condensation growth of volatile species, and particle coagulations under dilution and cooling in the ambient air. A dilution chamber was deployed to sample exhaust from a pilot-scale furnace burning various fuels at a nominal heat input rate of 160 kW/h(-1) and 3% excess oxygen. The formation mechanisms of particles smaller than 420 nm in electrical mobility diameter were experimentally investigated by measurement with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) as a function of aging times, dilution air ratios, combustion exhaust temperatures, and fuel types. Particle formation in the dilution process is a complex mixture of nucleation, coagulation, and condensational growth, depending on the concentrations of available condensable species and solid or liquid particles (such as soot, ash) in combustion exhausts. The measured particle size distributions in number concentrations measured show peaks of particle number concentrations for medium sulfur bituminous coal, No. 6 fuel oil, and natural gas at 40-50 nm, 70-100 nm, and 15-25 nm, respectively. For No. 6 fuel oil and coal, the particle number concentration is constant in the range of a dilution air ratio of 50, but the number decreases as the dilution air ratio decreases to 10. However, for natural gas, the particle number concentration is higher at a dilution air ratio of 10 and decreases at dilution air ratios of 20-50. At a dilution air ratio of 10, severe particle coagulation occurs in a relatively short time. Samples taken at different combustion exhaust temperatures for these fuel types show higher particle number concentrations at 645 K than at 450 K. As the aging time of particles increases, the particles increase in size and the number concentrations decrease. The largest gradient of particle number distribution occurs within the first 10 sec after dilution but shows only minor differences between 10 and 80 sec. The lifetimes of the ultrafine particles are relatively short, with a scale on the order of a few seconds. Results from this study suggest that an aging time of 10 sec and a dilution air ratio of 20 are sufficient to obtain representative primary particle emission samples from stationary combustion sources. PMID:15648387

Chang, M C Oliver; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Hopke, Philip K; Yi, Seung-Muk; England, Glenn C

2004-12-01

343

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1985-06-19

344

Sand Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this project is to use a sample of sand from a give are to tell its geologic history. Each student is given a 50 mL tube of sand labeled with the latitude and longitude of where it was found. They must then use this information along with analysis of the sand itself to tell the story of its formation.

Christensen, Hilary

345

LLNL program on coal-oil-mixture combustion preliminary report on stack emission measurements at the Salem Harbor unit No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from the Salem Harbor unit No. 1 were samples during a 10-day period beginning September 21, 1980. The purpose of the work was to characterize minor and trace pollutnats in respirable particles discharged into the atmosphere from the combustion of a 20% coal, coal-oil mixture (COM). This work included on-line instrumental aerosol analysis, effluent particulate, and bulk materials (i.e., coal, oil, and COM) collection. Particulate collections at the inlet of the electrostatic precipitator and measurement of gaseous SO/sub 3/ and total gaseous hydrocarbons were also made. A summary of the measurements made, samples collected, and preliminary results are given.

Ondov, J.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Carter, J.L.; Garvis, D.G.; Stuart, M.L.

1981-08-01

346

Microbial Oxidation of Ethane within Seep Sediment at Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point (COP), off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases more than 10^10 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Only a fraction of this methane, ethane, propane, and butane reaches the atmosphere, and is instead consumed by marine microbes in both the sediment and water column. Bacterial respiration of these gases has been observed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the exception of ethane (aerobic only) (Kniemeyer et. al 2007). This work seeks to quantify the rate of ethane oxidation (both aerobic and anaerobic) in marine sediment. A series of experiments, to be conducted using COP seep sediment aboard the R/V Atlantis in October 2013, will test how varying oxygen conditions impact ethane oxidation rate. Oxidation rates will be quantified using sensitive 3H-ethane tracers. Preliminary data from Shane's Seep, located within the COP seep field, indicates that ethane oxidation is restricted to the top 6 cm of sediment. This suggests that oxygen is a limiting factor, but further work is needed to establish if ethane oxidation is restricted to exclusively aerobic environments.

Mendes, S. D.; Duncombe, R.; Scarlett, R. D.; Shaffer, J.; Lensch, S.; Valentine, D. L.

2013-12-01

347

Sand consolidation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for consolidating unconsolidated mineral particles including sand in a subterranean petroleum formation penetrated by a well in fluid communication with at least a portion of the formation. The method consists of: (a) providing a fluid comprising a polymerizable resin, a polar organic diluent for the resin, and an oil soluble acid catalyst capable of causing polymerization

R. H. Friedman; B. W. Surles

1989-01-01

348

Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

2012-04-30

349

Comprehensive analysis of oil sands processed water by direct-infusion Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with and without offline UHPLC sample prefractionation.  

PubMed

Oil sands processed water (OSPW) is the main byproduct of the large-scale bitumen extraction activity in the Athabasca oil sands region (Alberta, Canada). We have investigated the acid-extractable fraction (AEF) of OSPW by extraction-only (EO) direct infusion (DI) negative-ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) on a 12T-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS), as well as by offline ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) followed by DI-FTICR-MS. A preliminary offline UHPLC separation into 8 fractions using a reversed-phase C4 column led to approximately twice as many detected peaks and identified compounds (973 peaks versus 2231 peaks, of which 856 and 1734 peaks, respectively, could be assigned to chemical formulas based on accurate mass measurements). Conversion of these masses to the Kendrick mass scale allowed the straightforward recognition of homologues. Naphthenic (CnH2n+zO2) and oxy-naphthenic (CnH2n+zOx) acids represented the largest group of molecules with assigned formulas (64%), followed by sulfur-containing compounds (23%) and nitrogen-containing compounds (8%). Pooling of corresponding fractions from two consecutive offline UHPLC runs prior to MS analysis resulted in ~50% more assignments than a single injection, resulting in 3-fold increase of identifications compared to EO-DI-FTICR-MS using the same volume of starting material. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by offline UHPLC fractionation thus holds enormous potential for a more comprehensive profiling of OSPW, which may provide a deeper understanding of its chemical nature and environmental impact. PMID:23566025

Nyakas, Adrien; Han, Jun; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Borchers, Christoph H

2013-05-01

350

Emission sources sensitivity study for ground-level ozone and PM2.5 due to oil sands development using air quality modeling system: Part I- model evaluation for current year base case simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling systems were used to simulate emissions and air quality in North Eastern Alberta where a rapid rise in oil sands development has caused air quality concerns over the last decade. The models were run on a 36/12/4 km domain for the four month period of May through August 2002. A model performance evaluation was conducted by comparing the CMAQ model estimates against ambient air quality measurements. In the Alberta oil sands region, the model tended to achieve or nearly achieve ozone model performance goals, albeit with an underestimation bias. The magnitudes of the observed PM2.5 concentrations were matched by the modeling system, except when the observed PM2.5 concentrations were influenced by emissions from forest fires in which case the model underestimated the observed PM2.5 concentrations. The CMAQ-estimated 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentrations in the oil sands region were below the 65 ppb Canada Wide Standard (CWS) as well as the 58 ppb Alberta Management Plan Trigger Level. The highest estimated ozone concentrations occurred near the oil sands development area just north of Fort McMurray with values approaching, but below, the 58 ppb Management Plan Trigger Level; estimated ozone concentrations are much lower in the farther northern portions of the oil sands region. The acute (i.e., maximum 3-day value) SUM60 vegetative ozone exposure metric was mostly less than 100 ppb h, which is below the threshold of concern for crops. However, just north of Fort McMurray there were small areas where the acute SUM60 metric exceeded the 500-700 ppb h threshold of concern for crops with maximum values in plumes from sources in the oil sands mine area of ˜900 ppb h. The maximum chronic (three-month average) SUM60 ozone exposure metric was below the thresholds of concern. The CMAQ-estimated maximum 98th percentile 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration occurs in the mine area north of Fort McMurray and was below the CWS threshold (30 ?g m-3), however it was above the Alberta Management Plan Trigger Level (20 ?g m-3). The estimated 98th percentile 24- hour average PM2.5 concentrations were mostly in the 2-6 ?g m-3 range with regions of higher PM2.5 concentrations predicted just north of Fort McMurray in the oil sands development region.

Cho, Sunny; McEachern, Preston; Morris, Ralph; Shah, Tejas; Johnson, Jeremiah; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

2012-08-01

351

Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area. Results from this report directly address issues raised in the California Ocean Protection Act (COPA) Five Year Strategic Plan. For example, one of the guiding principles of the COPA five-year strategic plan is to 'Recognize the interconnectedness of the land and the sea, supporting sustainable uses of the coast and ensuring the health of ecosystems.' Results from this USGS report directly connect the land and sea with the creation of both a seamless onshore and offshore digital terrain model (DTM) and geologic map. One of the priority goals (and objectives) of the COPA plan is to 'monitor and map the ocean environment to provide data about conditions and trends.' Maps within this report provide land and sea geologic information for mapping and monitoring nearshore sediment processes, pollution transport, and sea-level rise and fall.

Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

2011-01-01

352

Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States  

E-print Network

be commercially competitive with coal within about a decade. Elimination of fossil fuel subsidies unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology and practical reasons and on the U.S. because it is most responsible for accumulated fossil fuel CO2

353

California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.0 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The cities of Goleta and Isla Vista, the main population centers in the map area, are in the western part of a contiguous urban area that extends eastward through Santa Barbara to Carpinteria. This urban area is on the south flank of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains, on coalescing alluvial fans and uplifted marine terraces underlain by folded and faulted Miocene bedrock. In the map area, the relatively low-relief, elevated coastal bajada narrows from about 2.5 km wide in the east to less than 500 m wide in the west. Several beaches line the actively utilized coastal zone, including Isla Vista County Park beach, Coal Oil Point Reserve, and Goleta Beach County Park. The beaches are subject to erosion each winter during storm-wave attack, and then they undergo gradual recovery or accretion during the more gentle wave climate of the late spring, summer, and fall months. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Longshore drift rates have been reported to range from about 160,000 to 800,000 tons/yr, averaging 400,000 tons/yr. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) Las Llagas Canyon, Gato Canyon, Las Varas Canyon, Dos Pueblos Canyon, Eagle Canyon, Tecolote Canyon, Winchester Canyon, Ellwood Canyon, Glen Annie Canyon, and San Jose Creek. The Santa Ynez and Santa Maria Rivers, the mouths of which are about 100 to 140 km northwest of the map area, are not significant sediment sources because Point Conception and Point Arguello provide obstacles to downcoast sediment transport and also because much of their sediment load is trapped in dams. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 45 to 55 km southeast of the map area, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.8° to 1.0°) so that water depths at the shelf break, roughly coincident with the California’s State Waters limit, are about 90 m. This part

Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace

2014-01-01

354

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

Samples of SRC-II naphtha, middle distillate, and heavy distillate were received and analyzed. These samples are part of a planned study of the potential biological hazards of synthetic crudes. These oils will be hydrotreated when DOE provides blending instructions. Five drums of EDS syncrude made from Big Brown Texas lignite were received and analyzed. The boiling range and other properties of this syncrude are very similar to the properties of the previously studied H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes. The hydrotreating severities, which were employed to upgrade the H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes to transportation fuels, are expected to be close to the severities needed for the EDS syncrude.

Sullivan, R. F.; O'Rear, D. J.

1981-05-01

355

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31

356

Comparison of geothermal energy with coal, oil, and natural gas for selected uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects and energy efficiencies for geothermal energy, western strip-mined coal, and eastern underground mined coal applied to space heating, process heat, and electric drive were compared. The measure of an environmental effect is the amount of residual material released to the environment, and the measure of energy efficiency is the second law efficiency of the process involved. The results

G. W. Hinman; J. Robertson

1978-01-01

357

Comparison of geothermal energy with coal, oil, and natural gas for selected uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects and energy efficiencies for geothermal energy, western strip-mined coal, and eastern underground mined coal applied to space heating, process heat, and electric drive were compared. The measure of an environmental effect is the amount of residual material released to the environment, and the measure of energy efficiency is the second law efficiency of the process involved. The results

G. W. Hinman; J. Robertson

1979-01-01

358

Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

Enright, Rachel

359

Modeling and mapping the effects of heat and pressure outside a SAGD steam chamber using time-lapse multicomponent seismic data, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of study is a bitumen producing reservoir within the McMurray Formation. The deposit is a part of the Athabasca oil sands trend in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. This field contains 16 well pads that are, combined, producing more than 41,000 BOPD. Bitumen reservoirs are unique as a result of their high viscosity, low API gravity oil. This oil in this field has been produced by means of a method called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), since 2007. In this method, two vertically stacked, horizontal wells are drilled. The upper well injects high temperature, high pressure steam and as the viscosity of the bitumen decreases it will begin to flow, via gravity, down to the lower producing well. Reservoir monitoring in this field is very important for multiple reasons, including the shallow depth and the large velocity changes that result from SAGD production. In order to map these changes, time-lapse multicomponent data were incorporated with rock physics modeling in order to map and interpret changes in Vp/Vs with production. When fluid substitution results and pressure estimations are combined, the resulting velocities are consistent with the core sample modeling done by Kato et al. (2008). These results were then compared with the seismic data in order to identify areas affected by steam, heat, and pressure within the reservoir through time-lapse Vp/Vs. PP time-lapse results show the location of the steam chamber within the reservoir, however these data do not give any information about the effects of pressure or heat. Converted-wave (PS) data can be used to image pressure and viscosity changes in the reservoir. When these data are combined into a Vp/Vs volume, the effects of steam, heat and pressure can be identified. Vp/Vs areas of little to no difference indicate steamed zones while the surrounding areas with large differences indicate heated and pressured zones.

Zeigler, Loren Michelle

360

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-10-13

361

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, August 15--November 15, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to show that SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) operations and disposition. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, slagging and fouling factors, erosion and corrosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofit. The status of all three phases and the individual tasks under each phase are described.

Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

1990-04-06

362

Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to

N. R. Sefer; J. A. Russell

1981-01-01

363

Booming Sands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment, adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, presents basic concepts of physics behind booming sand dunes. See how surface tension affects potential and kinetic energy and how it all works together to create sound.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

364

Improved NO2 and SO2 satellite data products for pollution monitoring: evaluation over the Canadian oil sands and population centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of space-based air quality sensors, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), to help inform on surface levels of pollutants remains a challenge due to their coarse spatial resolution and lack of sensitivity to vertical distributions. In the case of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) progress in addressing these limitations has been made through development of a new Environment Canada (EC) air mass factor product that incorporates higher spatial and temporal resolution input information. This includes profile shapes from the EC operational air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH (Global Environmental Multiscale model - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry), running at 15 km resolution or better. These new EC air mass factors, when applied to OMI observations, were found to better capture spatial and temporal variability, including gradients near sources. In comparisons with surface stations, GEM-MACH was also used to help correct for the sampling and coarse OMI spatial resolution. Examples from the Canadian oil sands and urban centers (such as Toronto) will be used to illustrate this product.

McLinden, C. A.; Adams, C.; Fioletov, V.

2013-12-01

365

Effects of oil sands process-affected waters and naphthenic acids on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and Japanese medaka (Orizias latipes) embryonic development.  

PubMed

Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable oil sands process-affected water management methods as part of their land reclamation strategy. Surface waters of the "wet landscape" reclamation option characteristically have elevated concentrations of sodium sulphate and naphthenic acids (NAs), with low levels of PAHs. The following experiment compared early-life stage responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to those of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) when exposed to Mildred Lake settling basin (MLSB) surface water and a commercial sodium naphthenate (Na-NA) standard. Perch eggs were fertilized and incubated in: 100%, 50%, 20%, 4%, 0.8%, and 0.16% dilutions of MLSB water, as well as 20, 10, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/l solutions of the commercial standard. Medaka embryos were exposed to the same treatments, post-fertilization. Both species demonstrated an increase in the incidence of deformity, and a decrease in length at hatch as NA concentrations increased. MLSB surface water contained higher levels of NAs than the commercial standard, however, showed consistently higher NA threshold effect concentrations for both species. Significant differences between the MLSB water and the Na-NA standard suggest that they contain NA congeners with different toxicity, or other compounds such as PAHs. Species differences in thresholds could be explained by the difference in developmental stage in which the exposures were initiated. PMID:17316753

Peters, Lisa E; MacKinnon, M; Van Meer, T; van den Heuvel, M R; Dixon, D G

2007-05-01

366

Impact of ozonation pre-treatment of oil sands process-affected water on the operational performance of a GAC-fluidized bed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using biodegradation has the potential to be an environmentally sound approach for tailings water reclamation. This process is both economical and efficient, however, the recalcitrance of some OSPW constituents, such as naphthenic acids (NAs), require the pre-treatment of raw OSPW to improve its biodegradability. This study evaluated the treatment of OSPW using ozonation followed by fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) using granular activated carbon (GAC). Different organic and hydraulic loading rates were applied to investigate the performance of the bioreactor over 120 days. It was shown that ozonation improved the adsorption capacity of GAC for OSPW and improved biodegradation by reducing NAs cyclicity. Bioreactor treatment efficiencies were dependent on the organic loading rate (OLR), and to a lesser degree, the hydraulic loading rate (HLR). The combined ozonation, GAC adsorption, and biodegradation process removed 62 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88 % of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and 99.9 % of NAs under optimized operational conditions. Compared with a planktonic bacterial community in raw and ozonated OSPW, more diverse microbial communities were found in biofilms colonized on the surface of GAC after 120 days, with various carbon degraders found in the bioreactor including Burkholderia multivorans, Polaromonas jejuensis and Roseomonas sp. PMID:25104220

Islam, Md Shahinoor; Dong, Tao; McPhedran, Kerry N; Sheng, Zhiya; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2014-11-01

367

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

368

The effect of temperature on a variable permeability, two-stage sand consolidation technique  

E-print Network

-STAGE, SAND CONSOLIDATION TREATMENTS Page 15 17 17 17 21 27 INTRODUCTION Sand production from unconsolidated formations in oil and gas wells has been a major problem in the petroleum industry for many years. Sand production may result in reduced...-STAGE, SAND CONSOLIDATION TREATMENTS Page 15 17 17 17 21 27 INTRODUCTION Sand production from unconsolidated formations in oil and gas wells has been a major problem in the petroleum industry for many years. Sand production may result in reduced...

Barger, Blane Rene

2012-06-07

369

Fatty Acid and Carbon Isotopic Evidence for type I Methanotrophs in Microbial Mats from a Shallow Marine Gas Seep, Coal Oil Point, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the microbial community in a Southern California seep field, sediment and bacterial mat samples were collected from natural gas-bearing and gas-free surfaces at two distinct seeps in the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore Santa Barbara. Fatty acids in these samples were extracted, analyzed and identified. Using gas chromatography (GC), more than 30 different fatty acids were separated.

H. Ding; D. Valentine

2005-01-01

370

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

371

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-05-29

372

Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, lies within the central and northern parts of the Appalachian coal field. It consists of five assessment units (AU): the Pocahontas Basin in southwestern Virginia, southern West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, the Central Appalachian Shelf in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia, East Dunkard (Folded) in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia, West Dunkard (Unfolded) in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Of these, only the Pocahontas Basin and West Dunkard (Folded) AU were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological survey in 2002 as containing about 3.6 and 4.8 Tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively (Milici and others, 2003). In general, the coal beds of this Total Petroleum System, which are both the source rock and reservoir, were deposited together with their associated sedimentary strata in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) time. The generation of biogenic (microbial) gas probably began almost immediately as the peat deposits were first formed. Microbial gas generation is probably occurring at present to some degree throughout the basin, where the coal beds are relatively shallow and wet. With sufficient depth of burial, compaction, and coalification during the late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, the coal beds were heated sufficiently to generate thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the Appalachian basin. Trap formation began initially with the deposition of the paleopeat deposits during the Mississippian, and continued into the Late Pennsylvanian and Permian as the Appalachian Plateau strata were deformed during the Alleghanian orogeny. Seals are the connate waters that occupy fractures and larger pore spaces within the coal beds as well as the fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary strata that are intercalated with the coal. The critical moment for the petroleum system occurred during this orogeny, when deformation created geologic structures in the eastern part of the basin that enhanced fracture porosity within the coal beds. In places, burial by thrust sheets (thrust loading) within the Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt may have resulted in additional generation of thermogenic CBM in the anthracite district of Pennsylvania and in the semianthracite deposits of Virginia and West Virginia.

Milici, Robert C.

2004-01-01

373

The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

1991-08-30

374

Natural and anthropogenic variations in the N cycle - A perspective provided by nitrogen isotopes in trees near oil-sand developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen stable isotopes of tree-ring series have been recently used to detect past air pollution effects on forests in the contexts of point sources, highways or peri-urban regions. Here, we want to assess their potential to understand changes in soil processes and reveal perturbations of the N cycle. Our approach involves combining tree-ring N, C and O stable isotope series with statistical modelling to distinguish the responses of trees due to natural (climatic) conditions from the ones potentially caused by emissions from the Athabasca oil-sand developments where truck fleets, oil upgraders, desulphurization and hydrogen plants, boilers, heaters and turbines have been active since 1967. Three white spruce trees [Picea glauca (Moench)] 165 years or older, were selected in a well drained brunisolic site, at 55 km from the heart of the development operations (white and black spruce trees from other sites are currently being investigated). Their growth rings were dated and separated at a time resolution of 1 or 2 years for the 1880-2009 period. The average oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose do not show long-term anomalies and reflect climatic conditions. The average C isotope ratios of cellulose covering the 1880-1965 period show short-term variations mostly explained by local climatic conditions, whereas the 1966-1995 series presents similar short-term variations superimposed on a long-term isotopic increase significantly departing from the oxygen isotope curve. Most importantly, the nitrogen isotope series of treated wood shows an average decrease of 1.0% during the 1970-2009 period. The statistical links between the variations of the regional drought index and the isotopic C and N responses during the pre-operation period allows to develop predictive climatic models. When we apply these models to predict the natural isotopic behaviour of the recent period, the measured isotopic trends of the operation period depart from the modelled curves. In contrast, using multiple regression analyses combining climatic conditions and air pollution proxies allows to reproduce the measured C and N isotopic curves (r2 of 0.67 and 0.44, respectively). The C isotopic trends suggest that air contaminants emitted from oil-sands developments affected the photosynthetic functions of the studied trees, but that the foliar system is recovering since ~1995, perhaps due to the implementation of new air quality regulations. Our hypothesis based on the N isotope series is that the anthropogenic N input has perturbed the regional N cycle by changing the isotopic signal of bioavailable soil N and modifying the amount of N taken up by miccorhizal fungi which release light N for the host trees growing in non-saturated conditions. This last hypothesis suggests that tree-ring N isotope series can perhaps allow a retrospective recognition of N saturation levels in soils.

Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

2011-12-01

375

Creaming behavior of solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation of a suspension of particles under the action of gravity has been studied extensively due to its importance in practical applications such as oil sands extraction, solid-liquid separation, particle size measurement, dewatering of coal slurries, clarification of waste water, and processing of drilling and mining fluids containing rocks and mineral particles of various sizes. Creaming behavior of oil-in-water emulsions

Nianxi Yan; Jacob H. Masliyah

1997-01-01

376

Defrosting Sand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a patch of frost-covered, dark sand that, at the time the picture was acquired in June 2005, had begun to defrost. The frost is carbon dioxide. Dunes and other patches of sand are usually the first polar features to develop dark spots as the frost begins to sublime away.

Location near: 78.9oS, 80.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

377

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

Not Available

1983-12-01

378

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15

379

Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.  

PubMed

We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107). PMID:21484300

Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

2012-01-01

380

Devonian salt dissolution-collapse breccias flooring the Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands deposit and development of lower McMurray Formation sinkholes, northern Alberta Basin, Western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sub-Cretaceous paleotopography underlying giant Lower Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands, northern Alberta, has an orthogonal lattice pattern of troughs up to 50 km long and 100 m deep between pairs of cross-cutting lineaments. These structures are interpreted to have been inherited from a similar pattern of dissolution collapse-subsidence troughs in the underlying Middle Devonian salt beds. Removal of more than 100 m of halite salt fragmented the overlying Upper Devonian strata into fault blocks and collapse breccias that subsided into the underlying dissolution troughs. The unusually low 1:2 to 1:3 thickness ratios of halite salts to the overlying strata resulted in the Upper Devonian strata collapse-subsidence into underlying salt dissolution troughs being more cataclysmic during the first phase of salt removal. The second phase of slower but complete salt removal between the earlier troughs resulted in a more gradual subsidence of the overlying strata. This obliterated the earlier pattern of giant cross-cutting dissolution troughs bounded by major lineaments. The collapse breccia fabrics underlying the earlier troughs differ from those from areas between the troughs. Collapse breccias underlying the large troughs often have crushed fabrics distributed in zones that rapidly pinched out between fault blocks. Breccias between troughs developed as giant mosaics of detached carbonate blocks that formed breccia pipe complexes. Multiple sinkholes up to 100 m deep aligned along multi-km linear valley trends that dissected the sub-Cretaceous paleotopography. These sinkhole trends formed orthogonal patterns inherited from underlying lattice of NW-SE and NE-SW salt structured lineaments. These cross-cutting sinkhole trends have a smaller 5 km scale reticulate pattern similar to the giant 50 km scale pattern of collapse-subsidence troughs. Other sinkholes developed as lower McMurray strata sagged when underlying Devonian fault blocks and breccia pipes differentially subsided.

Broughton, Paul L.

2013-01-01

381

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

1993-04-21

382

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative contribution of low ring number PAHs to total PAHs increased with increasing distance. Total PAHs correlated strongly (R2 > 0.80, p < 0.05) with crustal elements, suggesting similar transport mechanisms. Analytical data for PAHs on PM 2.5 filters, including relationships between concentrations, PAH profiles, and distance from the mines, will be presented. The lichen data are consistent with PAH transport close to the mines being more influenced by particulate matter transport mechanisms, whereas PAHs in samples collected from remote areas reflect more of the vapor phase transport mechanisms.

Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

2013-12-01

383

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOEpatents

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01

384

Technology of Sand Level Detection Based on CCD Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy oil takes advantage of proportion in world petroleum resources. Thermal recovery technology, the chief means of heavy-oil exploitation, has been widely applied in development of world heavy-oil reservoir. To study the effect of sand-control technology in the process of heavy-oil thermal recovery, A HTRSTS (Heavy-oil Thermal Recovery Simulation Testing System) has been build. The detection of sand level in sand container is very important. The sand level detection technology adopted in this system is image processing technique based on CCD. Sand container image is taken by CCD, and then HTRSTS locks the interface between sand and liquid through CCD scanning. The preliminary experimental result shows that the standard deviation is about 0.02 liter, which could satisfy practical requirement quite well.

Jiang, Bing; Li, Xianglin; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Tengfei; Feng, Chi; Zhang, Fei

385

Defrosting Sand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

19 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark spots formed in carbon dioxide frost that covers the surfaces of patches of sand in the south polar region. As spring arrived this year in the martian southern hemisphere, so began the annual defrosting process. The fact that sand dunes begin to defrost earlier than other surfaces, and that the defrosting process involves the formation of spots like these, has been known since the earliest days of the MGS mission.

Location near: 66.8oS, 15.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

386

Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are: (1) to determine the fate of the plastics feedstocks, relative to coal-only operation; (2) to determine the conversion of the feedstocks; (3) to determine the product streams to which the feedstocks are converted (bottoms vs. distillate); (4) to determine interactions of feedstocks; (5) to determine how use of plastics feedstocks affect product quality; and (6) to determine to what degree property differences reflect feedstock differences vs. other (process) condition changes, such as unit operations, space velocity, and catalyst age.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1995-12-31

387

5/20/09 9:14 AMPhysics in the oil sands of Alberta -Physics Today March 2009 Page 1 of 4http://ptonline.aip.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_62/iss_3/31_1.shtml?type=PTFAVE  

E-print Network

, when crude oil was released from shale under the Rocky Mountains and migrated eastward and upward into sedimentary sand deposits in eastern Alberta. There, microbes biodegraded the oil, removing all the low in hot water is aerated, bitumen droplets attach to air bubbles and float to the top, leaving the solid

Podgornik, Rudolf

388

United States coal outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why have the government's coal policy initiatives failed to achieve their desired goals. The answer begins with the nature of coal itself. Relative to its hydrocarbon cousins, oil and natural gas, the production of coal is more dangerous and has significantly greater environmental impact. It is more difficult and expensive to transport and store, and, most importantly, its burning characteristics

J. D. Emerson; V. Calarco

1979-01-01

389

The analysis of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) innate immune responses after acute and subchronic exposures to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

We examined the immunotoxic effects of acute and subchronic exposures of goldfish to aged, fresh, and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using a flow-through exposure apparatus. We measured the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes, the antimicrobial responses of primary macrophages isolated from OSPW-exposed fish, and the ability of the goldfish to control infection with a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma carassii. After acute (1 week) exposure to aged OSPW, we observed upregulation in the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha-2 (TNF-?2) in the kidney and spleen but not in gills of the fish. After subchronic (12 weeks) exposure to aged OSPW, we observed significant increases in mRNA levels of proinflammatory genes in the gill (IFN-?, interleukin-1 beta 1 [IL1-?1], TNF-?2), kidney (IL1-?1, TNF-?2), and spleen (IL1-?1). An upregulation of immune gene expression in the gill and kidney (IFN-?, IL1-?1, TNF-?2) and spleen (IL1-?1, TNF-?2) was observed after acute exposure of fish to diluted fresh OSPW. Following subchronic exposure to diluted fresh OSPW, we observed high mRNA levels of IL1-?1 in all tissues examined. However, there were significant decreases in the mRNA levels of IFN-? and TNF-?2 in the kidney and spleen and gill and spleen (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40) of exposed fish. There were no changes in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 after both acute and subchronic exposures to diluted fresh OSPW. In fish exposed to ozonated fresh OSPW, immune gene expression was similar to nonexposed control fish in all organs examined, with exception of IL1-?1. The ability of primary kidney macrophages to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates was significantly reduced in fish exposed to fresh OSPW. The enhanced proinflammatory response after acute exposure to diluted fresh OSPW was confirmed by the parasite challenge experiments, where OSPW-exposed fish controlled the infection better than nonexposed fish. PMID:24284786

Hagen, Mariel O; Katzenback, Barbara A; Islam, M D Shahinoor; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Belosevic, Miodrag

2014-03-01