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1

Synthetic liquid fuels from oil shale, tar sands, and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings contains 12 papers discussing - the national and international outlooks for synthetic, liquid hydrocarbons; thermal analysis of oil shales; oil shale processing; oil reserves in shales of the Green River formation in Colorado; disposal of oil shale ash; retorting of coal, oil shale and tar sands; coal liquefaction; some solutions for future gas supply; and Alberta's synthetic crude oil

1970-01-01

2

Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.  

PubMed

The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands. PMID:22329146

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2011-10-01

3

HYDROPROCESSING OF DISTILLATES DERIVED FROM OIL SANDS AND COAL: SUMMARY OF CANMET FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of technologies for refining commercially available synthetic crudes from Alberta oil sands is of increasing economic importance in view of projected expansions in their utilization. Similar developmental concerns will arise in upgrading refinery residual oils and possible use of coal-derived liquids. Extensive information is now available on the effectiveness of hydroprocessing technology in upgrading middle distillates from oil

J. F. Kriz; C. Fairbridge; M. F. Wilson

1988-01-01

4

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01

5

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. Report of Investigations\\/1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. The BMT was first used near Wilkeson, WA, where steeply pitching

Savanick

1987-01-01

6

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining made by the Bureau of Mines from 1974 to 1980. The design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines is presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate

Savanick

1987-01-01

7

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining made by the Bureau of Mines from 1974 to 1980. The design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines is presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore.

Savanick, G.A.

1987-01-01

8

COPROCESSING OF ALBERTA SUBBITUMINOUS COAL WITH OIL SAND BITUMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-processing of six Alberta subbituminous coals and Suncor bitumen (Athabasca deposit) by using H2 (Fe2 O3 catalyst) and CO\\/steam (K2CO3 catalyst) as reducing atmospheres have been studied. Results show that CO\\/steam gives significantly higher overall conversion compared to H2 with certain coals. However, the quality of products (as determined by distillation and subsequent extraction) are better when H2 was used

S. E. Moschopedis; B. Özüm

1984-01-01

9

Retorting of coal, oil shale and tar sand by means of circulated fine-grained heat carriers as a preliminary stage in the production of synthetic crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous processes are available for the production of crude oil from coal, oil shale or tar sand. A process sequence which is suitable for all 3 starting materials includes a retorting step to produce oils, which are subsequently hydrogenated. An efficient modern retorting process is described, which has been commercially utilized for the flash carbonization of coal and has been

Rammler

1970-01-01

10

Survey of Tar Sand Deposits, Heavy Oil Fields, and Shallow Light Oil Fields of the United States for Underground Coal Gasification Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey was conducted to identify areas of the United States where tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, or shallow light oil fields might be suitably associated with coal deposits for production of oil by in situ thermal recovery methods using...

L. G. Trudell

1986-01-01

11

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. Report of Investigations/1987  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. The BMT was first used near Wilkeson, WA, where steeply pitching metallurgical was mined at 8 st/h from a depth of 25 to 75 ft. Next, 940 st of uraniferous sandstone was mine at 8 st/h from a depth of 75 to 100 ft in Natrona County, WY. One thousand short tons of oil sands was mined in Kern County, CA. at the rate of 14 st/h from a depth of 110 to 150 ft in 1979. Most recently, 1,700 st of phosphate ore was produced at 25 st/h from deep (230- to 250-ft) deposits in St. Johns County, FL. Progressive improvements were made in the borehole mining technique. These include the use of the hydrostatic head of a water-filled borehole for roof support and the development of methods to survey and backfill mined-out cavities.

Savanick, G.A.

1987-01-01

12

Oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the tar sand deposits of the world have drawn a great deal of attention as possible sources of enormous quantities of crude oil. The total in-place reserves are estimated at over 900 billion bbl, 3 times the liquid petroleum reserves of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, the largest deposits of tar sands occur in Canada, Venezuela,

Farouq Ali

1968-01-01

13

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31

14

Oil sands fulfill their promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Canadian Oil Sands plant, a $300 million investment for Sun Oil Co., is the first commercial facility to wrest oil from the Alberta tar sands. Energy companies are poised to invest more than $3 billion in oil sands development in the next several years. Construction already underway, planning for projects to come, and the widening scope of oil

Chaapel

2009-01-01

15

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-09-01

16

Oil from deep sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Cold Lake, in NE Alberta, Esso Resources Canada Ltd. proposes to build a massive commercial plant to tap rich reserves of bitumen, or heavy oil, buried deep in sands approximately 1600 ft below the ground. The in situ steam injection extraction technique which is planned has been tested in pilot plants at the site for the past 17 yr.

2009-01-01

17

Possible New Coal and Bitumen Transportation Options for the Further Development of the Oil Sands Industry of Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great size of the potential resource of the oil sands of Alberta (traditionally placed at the equivalent of a very large 310 gigabarrels of recoverable oil) has long been a tantalizing option for the energy economy of Canada, especially now that the production of conventional light oil from the mature Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is declining at about four

John H. Walsh

18

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-09-01

19

Oil Sands Development in Alberta — An EUB Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB), ensures that Alberta's oil, gas, oil sands, and coal reserves are assessed and developed in an orderly, efficient, and environmentally sensitive manner, in the public interest. Currently there is a rapid expansion in the exploitation of the oil sands in Alberta and production from this source is playing an increasing role as a

Keith Sadler; Richard Houlihan

1998-01-01

20

Trace impurities in Canadian oil-sands, coals and petroleum products and their fate during extraction, up-grading and combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

National energy programs for the next two decades entail increased total consumption of fossil fuels in general and, in particular\\u000a of portable fuels extracted from oil sands and shales and from lower quality coals. Improved fuel-upgrading and combustion\\u000a technologies are recognized to be vital for minimizing environmental degradation caused by continental and global acid-rain\\u000a precipitation from fossil-fuel impurities. A further

R. E. Jervis; K.-L. Richard Ho; B. Tiefenbach

1982-01-01

21

New production techniques for Alberta oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and up-grading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. The history of oil sands technology development, the new drilling technology, and synthetic crude oil conversion are briefly described. 17 references.

Carrigy, M.A.

1986-12-19

22

Co-processing of Alberta subbituminous coal with oil sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

Co-processing of six Alberta subbituminous coals and Suncor bitumen (Athabasca deposit) by using H/sub 2/ (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst) and CO/steam (K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ catalyst) as reducing atmospheres have been studied. Results show that CO/steam gives significantly higher overall conversion compared to H/sub 2/ with certain coals. However, the quality of products (as determined by distillation and subsequent extraction) are better when H/sub 2/ was used in the co-processing of coal with bitumen. A second stage catalytic hydrogenation is required to upgrade heavy hydrocarbons (extracts) which form almost 50% of the product.

Moschopedis, S.E.; Ozum, B.

1984-01-01

23

Borehole (Slurry) Mining of Coal, Uraniferous Sandstone, Oil Sands, and Phosphate Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uran...

G. A. Savanick

1987-01-01

24

Aging of Athabasca oil sand  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Athabasca oil sand collected by mining are frequently stored for long periods to ensure that research projects have available oil sand of consistent properties. This strategy is not entirely satisfactory because oil sands age after even limited exposure to oxygen. The results of a three-year aging study carried out at the Alberta Research Council are presented in this paper. During aging, the level of water soluble salts in the oil sand increased and hot water processing characteristics deteriorated. Through the DLVO and Ionizable Surface Group theories, it is demonstrated that the increase in soluble salts was sufficient to cause the fine solids particles to coagulate in the conditioning stage of the hot water process which results in poorer processibility characteristics. Based on this scenario, relative rates of aging for different grades of oil sand are estimated.

Wallace, D.; Henry, D.; Takamura, K.

1988-06-01

25

Alberta's oil sands in-situ pilots  

SciTech Connect

A brief description is given of the Alberta Oil Sands deposits and the current active pilots which are testing various recovery processes. The role of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) in these oil sands pilots is discussed, and details of six AOSTRA funded pilots in the major oil sands and heavy oil areas of Alberta are presented.

Phillips, R.S.

1981-01-01

26

Recovery of heavy oil from oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the recovery of heavy oil in substantially its original state from a formation of unconsolidated oil sands. A plurality of vertically spaced, interconnected conduits provide an enclosed continuous fluid path through the formation. Heated fluid, from any source, is passed through these conduits for indirectly heating the oil to reduce its viscosity sufficiently that it

Cook

1967-01-01

27

Tar sands and oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worlds largest potential liquid-hydrocarbon reserves are not recoverable by ordinary oil-producing methods. These reserves are the Athabasca tar sands of northern Alberta in Canada and the Green River oil shales of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The two deposits differ in their chemistry, physical state, and history. Both contain hydrocarbons that can be converted economically into petroleum products. Both occur

de Never

1966-01-01

28

The Valuation of the Alberta Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta oil sands reserves represent a very valuable energy resource for Canadians. In 2007, Statistics Canada valued the oil sands at $342.1 billion, or 5 per cent Canada's total tangible wealth of $6.9 trillion. Given the oil sands' importance, it is essential to value them appropriately. In this report, we critically review the methods used by Statistics Canada in

Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault; Alexander Murray; Sharon Qiao

2008-01-01

29

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

30

The Athabasca Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta conventional crude oil industry, Athabasca, its reserves, government policy respecting in their development, the results to the present, current activities, and the outlook for the future are discussed. The Energy Resources Conservation Board regulates drilling and production operations with a view to conservation and prevention of waste, safety, correlative rights, and impact on the environment. The Board also

G. Govier

1972-01-01

31

Oil sands, heavy oil and the environment  

SciTech Connect

This book assembles the topics covered in discussion papers which were presented at a workshop held in Calgary in April 1985. The Focus of the workshop was to promote an overview of present and future oil sands and heavy oil development. The objectives included: to review the regulatory perspectives in Alberta and Saskatchewan; to review environmental concerns; and to review ongoing and proposed environmental R and D. The conference provided an opportunity where representatives from different levels of government and industry could discuss and recommend an action plan for future environmental R and D efforts.

Washington, S.

1986-01-01

32

Adding Value to Alberta's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly expanding oil sands industry and a dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry have stimulated interest in evaluating bitumen for producing a broad slate of refined products, including petrochemicals. Two industry\\/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining, and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petro- chemicals.

S. Laureshen; P. D. CLARK; M. P. DU PLESSIS

2006-01-01

33

Syncrude-oil from Alberta's tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic crude oil can be produced from bitumen contained in oil sands such as those located in Alberta, Canada. The most recent plant to come on stream, that of Syncrude Canada Ltd., mines the oil sand by open pit methods, recovers the bitumen using the hot water flotation process, and produces synthetic crude from bitumen by coking and hydrotreating. The

1980-01-01

34

China shows increasing interest in heavy oil and oil sands  

SciTech Connect

China and Canadian and US groups are cooperating in several areas to develop the heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sand deposits of China. The agreements dealing with exploration and upgrading are briefly described. The majority of the paper describes the occurrences of heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sands in China. 1 figure.

Not Available

1986-12-01

35

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

36

Syncrude-oil from Alberta's tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic crude oil can be produced from bitumen contained in oil sands such as those located in Alberta, Canada. The most recent plant to come on stream, that of Syncrude Canada Ltd., mines the oil sand by open pit methods, recovers the bitumen using the hot water flotation process, and produces synthetic crude from bitumen by coking and hydrotreating. The product is competitive in price with imported conventional crude at today's world prices. The lead time and investment required to put a plant on stream are substantial. Nevertheless, synthetic crude from oil sands has the potential to fill a significant portion of Canada's liquid fuel requirements.

Lund, C.N.

1980-12-01

37

On the nature of Athabasca Oil Sands.  

PubMed

The existence of a thin aqueous film, separating bitumen (a form of heavy oil) from inorganic solids in Athabasca Oil Sands, is analysed based on "first principles". There is a general consensus in the literature on the hydrophilic character of the solids in oil sands. However, a review of the references cited in support of the solids being encapsulated in thin water envelopes produced a surprising lack of evidence. A theoretical analysis indicates that a water film separating clean, hydrophilic quartz and bitumen is stable under most conditions, and unstable for acidic oil sand ores. The existence of water-wet solids in the Athabasca Oil Sands remains a reasonable yet unproven postulate. It could therefore be dangerous to accept the water-wet solids postulate and then use it to interpret other phenomena. PMID:15936283

Czarnecki, Jan; Radoev, Boryan; Schramm, Laurier L; Slavchev, Radomir

2005-06-30

38

Oil sands: resource, recovery, and industry  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the oil sand industry is presented, including a description of resources and technologies used for producing petroleum substitutes. The focus of the work is on the status and potential of developments in Canada (primarily Alberta) and the US (primarily Alabama, California, Kentucky, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah). Reserves are estimated at 1000 billion bbl in Canada and 30 billion bbl in the US. Characteristics of oil sand are discussed with regard to viscosity range, saturation, bulk density, porosity, and permeability. Oil sand processing methods also are described, including in situ recovery. Commercial projects for recovery and research thereon are listed, concluding that the use of oil sands resources is necessary in the drive to achieve energy independence from conventional oil supplies. 19 references.

Cox, C.H.; Baughman, G.L.

1980-07-01

39

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large

Phillip M. Fedorak; Debora L. Coy; Myrna J. Salloum; Marvin J. Dudas

2002-01-01

40

Biodiversity assessment in the Oil Sands region, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oil Sands region of northeastern Alberta contains the world's largest reserves of oil, in the form of tar-sand. In the Oil Sands region, a large number of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) have been completed for approximately 20 oil sands projects in the past two decades. The EIA process here is unique, in that stakeholders in the region (First Nations,

Mark Sherrington

2005-01-01

41

Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

cheong, S.; Lee, H.

2013-12-01

42

Microwave applications to oil sands and petroleum: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a general overview of microwave applications in oil sands bitumen or shale oil production in petroleum upgrading. The vast oil reserves in the oil sands of Alberta will become a major source of petroleum products in the near future and a number of alternative technologies have been explored for the production and upgrading of oil sands and

Sateesh Mutyala; Craig Fairbridge; J. R. Jocelyn Paré; Jacqueline M. R. Bélanger; Siauw Ng; Randall Hawkins

2010-01-01

43

Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to \\

Paul Anthony Chastko

2002-01-01

44

Development of the oil sands of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimated amount of bitumen in the Alberta oil sands is of the order of 1000 billion barrels; this quantity exceeds the known world reserves of oil by 50 percent. However, a large part of this bitumen is either too deeply buried or too thinly concentrated for possible economic recovery. A thermal hydrocracking process has been developed for application to

J. M. Denis; B. B. Pruden; C. Lafkas

1978-01-01

45

Heavy oil recovery in the Alberta Oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $200,000,000 top-priority, industry\\/government venture in development of Alberta's underground tar sands resources is to start by mid-1976, involving the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, established in mid-1975 and custodian of $100,000,000 in provincial research and development funding to be put up on a 50-50 basis to the most promising industry field experimental schemes for in-situ tar sands

McIntyre

1976-01-01

46

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience, Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil san...

K. Uchitel R. Keiter

2013-01-01

47

Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and

Alex D. Charpentier; Joule A. Bergerson; Heather L. MacLean

2009-01-01

48

Trace elements in Nigerian oil sands and extracted bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nigerian oil sands are very extensive with an estimated in place reserves of bitumen\\/heavy oil of over 30 billion barrels. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to determine the trace and minor elements in the raw oil sands and bitumens. About 43 trace elements in the raw oil sands and 30 in bitumen extracts were determined. The

A. F. Oluwole; A. H. M. A. Hannan; L. O. Kehinde; A. B. Borishade; O. S. Adegoke

1987-01-01

49

Further investigations on the use of bitumen and heavy oils to process coal  

SciTech Connect

The use of oil sands bitumen, heavy oil and liquids derived therefrom can be successfully used to liquefy an Alberta subbituminous B coal. The data indicate that by co-processing coal with these solvents, coal conversions and yields of liquid products are favorably compared with those obtained using anthracene oil as solvent.

Moschopedis, S.E.

1984-01-01

50

Borehole Mining: An Environmentally Compatible Method for Mining Oil Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to envir...

G. S. Knoke W. R. Archibald

1980-01-01

51

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-09-01

52

Alberta ERCB lists active oil sands projects  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board listed all active commercial and experimental oil sands projects as of December, 1986, as shown in the accompanying table. The recovery method and the name of the field and operator of the project are given for both commercial and experimental projects in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River deposits.

Not Available

1987-03-01

53

Geology of the Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried

G. D. Mossop

1980-01-01

54

Oil sands: resource, recovery, and industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the oil sand industry is presented, including a description of resources and technologies used for producing petroleum substitutes. The focus of the work is on the status and potential of developments in Canada (primarily Alberta) and the US (primarily Alabama, California, Kentucky, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah). Reserves are estimated at 1000 billion bbl in Canada and

C. H. Cox; G. L. Baughman

1980-01-01

55

Geology of the Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90% of reserves that are too deeply buried to

G. D. Mossop

1980-01-01

56

An overview of Canadian oil sand mega projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently a number of existing oil sand Mega-Projects as well as many other related projects planned and under construction in the Alberta oil sands region. There are many challenges facing the oil sands. The demanding climate conditions cost of extraction, environmental, energy constraints as well as the rising construction costs are examples. To develop this huge petroleum reserve,

R. Paes; M. Throckmorton

2008-01-01

57

Oil sands treatment utilizing the Taciuk direct thermal processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands reserves of heavy oil represent a major source of energy for the future. As conventional oil becomes more expensive a larger percentage of the oil sands can be economically mined by open pit mining methods which allow much higher oil recovery rates than those obtained by in situ methods. This work discusses the initial and planned

Taciuk

1982-01-01

58

Getty mines oil sands in California  

SciTech Connect

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

Rintoul, B.

1983-11-01

59

Synthetic crude oil from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic crude oil is prepared by carbonization of coal and hydrotreating the coal tar products. Thus, Kaiparowits coal (Utah) (< 0.25-in mesh) was dried to 3 wt % moisture by countercurrent contact with hot flue gas from the carbonizer, and fed to the double screw mixer of the carbonizer where it was mixed with hot recycle char. Contact time in

M. Shripek; L. L. Ludlam; K. E. Whitehead

1970-01-01

60

Canadian oil sands development: a blueprint for synthetic fuels commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four major oil sands deposits in Alberta hold an estimated trillion barrels of oil, nearly 200 billion of which are thought to be recoverable by known technologies. Oil sands will help Canada meet its goals of reducing imports in the face of dwindling oil field reserves if in-situ recovery technology can be brought to commercialization. Major environmental, economic, and institutional

Sen

1979-01-01

61

Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program of the Governments of Canada and Alberta aims to establish baseline data on aquatic and terrestrial fauna, meteorology, and air and water quality. Air research topics include plume dispersion, chemical constitution and transformation within plumes, and the deposition of pollutants. Land system research covers subjects such as the effects of airborne emissions, soil chemistry, biochemical and physiological responses of vegetation and sulfur pathways, which are being studied with a sulfur isotope technique. Water system research topics involve mine tailings, saline waters from mine depressurization, natural river waters that flow through bitumen deposits, the effects of industrial waters on stream biota, and toxicological aspects of industrial contaiminants. The program, which began in 1975, has identified significant environmental effects owing to current oil sands developments.

Macdonald, W.R.; Sandhu, H.S.; Bottenheim, J.W.; Munson, B.

1980-01-01

62

Environmental impact of Alberta oil sand development  

SciTech Connect

According to Esso Resources Canada Ltd.'s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for its Cold Lake, Alberta, oil sands project, environmental control measures will include the clustering of wells to reduce land surface disturbances; a pipeline to the North Saskatchewan River, rather than to a recreational lake, for water supplies; the use of recycling technology to reduce total water requirements by one-half; the disposal of some effluent to deep formations to reduce the potential for ground-water contamination; and sulfur emission control to meet Provincial standards. The EIA of the Alsands Project Group's oil sands project near Fort McMurray, includes reclamation and revegetation projects; improvements in water recycling; directing water effluents to the Athabasca River; and reduction of air emissions by using sulfur-recovery technology. Also discussed briefly are the Alberta agencies involved in the development approval process and the function of EIA's.

Smith, K.R.

1980-01-01

63

Structural investigations of Alberta oil sand bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class composition of Alberta oil sand and carbonate bitumen lies in a range of 17-26% for the saturate fraction, 18-32% for the aromatic, 44-48% for the resin and 17-21% for the asphaltene fraction. The saturate fraction is nearly devoid of eta-alkenes. However, as will be shown below, the aromatic and asphaltene fractions are quite rich in chemically bound, long-chain-alkanes,

1988-01-01

64

Alberta. [Development of oil sand deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alberta not only lays claim to the world's largest single tar sand deposit but is also a leader in the production of oil or bitumen from this abundant resource. Two companies now have the combined capacity to produce 188,000 bpd of syncrude. Suncor Inc., nearing completion of a $185 million expansion project, has increased its capacity from 45,000 to 58,000

D. Jr

1981-01-01

65

State of Illinois 1982 annual coal, oil and gas report  

SciTech Connect

This data compilation contains statistics from the coal industry and petroleum industry of Illinois. Data are given on the production, accidents, explosives, and mechanization of coal mines. Metal mines are only briefly described. The report from the Division of Oil and Gas contains data on oil well completions, oil wells plugged, water input wells, and salt water and waste disposal wells. The results of hearings in the division are included. The Land Reclamation Division reports data on permits and acreage affected by surface mining of coal, limestone, shale, clay, sand, and gravel. 2 figures, 76 tables.

Not Available

1983-01-01

66

Alberta. [Development of oil sand deposits  

SciTech Connect

Alberta not only lays claim to the world's largest single tar sand deposit but is also a leader in the production of oil or bitumen from this abundant resource. Two companies now have the combined capacity to produce 188,000 bpd of syncrude. Suncor Inc., nearing completion of a $185 million expansion project, has increased its capacity from 45,000 to 58,000 bpd. Syncrude Canada Ltd., after an expenditure of more than $2 billion, began producing oil in September 1978 and is well on its way to a permitted production rate of 130,000 bpd.

Jackson, D. Jr.

1981-11-01

67

Interaction forces in bitumen extraction from oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-based extraction process (WBEP) has been successfully applied to bitumen recovery from Athabasca oil sand ore deposits in Alberta. In this process, two essential steps are involved. The bitumen first needs to be “liberated” from sand grains, followed by “aeration” with air bubbles. Bitumen “liberation” from the sand grains is controlled by the interaction between the bitumen and sand grains.

Jianjun Liu; Zhenghe Xu; Jacob Masliyah

2005-01-01

68

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience  

SciTech Connect

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

None, None

2013-09-01

69

Oil sands treatment utilizing the Taciuk direct thermal processor  

SciTech Connect

The Athabasca Oil Sands reserves of heavy oil represent a major source of energy for the future. As conventional oil becomes more expensive a larger percentage of the oil sands can be economically mined by open pit mining methods which allow much higher oil recovery rates than those obtained by in situ methods. This work discusses the initial and planned development stages of the Taciuk Direct Thermal Processor System for treatment of mined oil sands. As the name implies, this processor accepts as-mined oil sands feed, produces a thermally cracked oil product that can be directly pumped to remote refineries, and produces a damp, oil free, tailings sand that can be conveyed back to the mined out areas. Processor units in increments of 8000 to 12,000 bpd output can be economically constructed and operated by lease holders. Approximate yield projections, as well as general capital and operating cost comments are included.

Taciuk, W.

1982-01-01

70

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01

71

Oil sand image segmentation using the inclusion filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands may constitute two thirds of the world's oil reserves. To efficiently harvest this important resource, image analysis is required to quantify production related performance in terms of particle size distribution. We utilize connected filters to simplify the oil sand images and to generate a robust segmentation. Specifically, a self-dual operator called the inclusion filter is applied to the

Nilanjan Ray; Baidya Nath Saha; Scott T. Acton

2008-01-01

72

Geostatistical Modeling of McMurray Oil Sands Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The McMurray formation in the Athabasca oil sands deposits of Northern Alberta is part of the world's second largest proven crude oil reserves. The formation is characterized by stratigraphic layers that correspond to three different depositional environments: Marine, Estuarine and Fluvial facies. Resource estimation for oil sands has traditionally relied on polygonal and inverse distance schemes. These techniques are simple

Oy Leuangthong; Emmanuel Schnetzler; Clayton V. Deutsch

73

Bitumen recovery from Jordanian oil sand by froth flotation using petroleum cycles oil cuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan has huge reserves of energy sources such as oil sand, oil shale, and olive cake. This work presents a part of an ongoing project to develop an appropriate low cost beneficiation technology for Jordanian oil sand. This study presents the utilization of a modified fluidized froth flotation process for beneficiation and bitumen recovery from Jordanian oil sand. This modification

Awni Al-Otoom; Mamdouh Allawzi; Naser Al-Omari; Emad Al-Hsienat

2010-01-01

74

Geology of the athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface. PMID:17809090

Mossop, G D

1980-01-11

75

Geology of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface.

Mossop, G. D.

1980-01-01

76

Geology of the Athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect

In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90% of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface. 10 figures.

Mossop, G.D.

1980-01-11

77

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

1993-08-01

78

Borehole mining oil sands is compatible with environment  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines borehole mining system for oil sands is discussed. The object of the program was to develop an environmentally feasible method of mining shallow oil sands without removing the overburden. The method entails extracting oil sands through a single borehole by cutting into the sands around the borehole with a high pressure water jet, and pumping the resulting slurry to the surface. The system was successfully field tested at a site in the Midway-Sunset Oil Field near Taft, in Kern County, California. During the two-month period during and following mining operations, no significant ground surface subsidence of ground water pollution was detected. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-05-01

79

Gold, coal and oil.  

PubMed

Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans will make it certain that a number of other hardly won, nicely balanced human-specific adaptednesses will decline. These include a decline of encephalization and life-span, and consequentially intelligence and longevity. These changes are likely to have far-reaching impacts on biological and cultural evolution of mankind. The only efficient way of reducing chronic global exposure to arsenic and avoiding further human losses is the inactivation of important sources of anthropogenic arsenic such as hard rock mining and burning of fossil fuels. PMID:19846256

Dani, Sergio U

2010-03-01

80

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

81

The economics of oil definitions: the case of Canada's oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada has chosen to define its 174 billion barrels of oil sand bitumen reserves as crude oil deposits, putting the country on a par with Saudi Arabia in potential oil production. However, the physical and economic definition of calling oil sand bitumen crude oil needs to be questioned. On the face of it, these definitions make Canada look as powerful

Douglas B. Reynolds

2005-01-01

82

Tar sand and heavy oil resources and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-sand resources in the U.S. are not as concentrated as the Canadian Athabasca deposits, but they are significant; the amount recoverable is estimated to be 25 to 35 billion barrels. Some of the characteristics of tar sands and heavy oil sands and their occurrence are discussed. The single large-scale production of bitumen from tar sands is the operation of Great

1972-01-01

83

Some aspects of the chemistry of Alberta oil sand bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast oil sand formations of northern Alberta contain a broad variety of organic substances ranging from methane to complex polymeric materials with mw in excess of 10,000. Among the gaseous and volatile materials, methane and curiously neopentane and acetaldehyde predominate. From the low temperature thermal behavior of the oil sand it is concluded that these compounds were formed via

1976-01-01

84

Structural investigations of Alberta oil sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

The class composition of Alberta oil sand and carbonate bitumen lies in a range of 17-26% for the saturate fraction, 18-32% for the aromatic, 44-48% for the resin and 17-21% for the asphaltene fraction. The saturate fraction is nearly devoid of eta-alkenes. However, as will be shown below, the aromatic and asphaltene fractions are quite rich in chemically bound, long-chain-alkanes, attesting to the importance of eta-alkenes in the original precursor oil. The free eta-alkenes were clearly removed from the oil by microbial degradation which left the bound alkyl moieties of the asphaltene and high molecular weight aromatic fractions relatively unchanged. The saturate fraction consists mainly of cyclic isoprenoids having 1-6 fused rings and smaller amounts of acyclic isoprenoids, and is rich in biological markers including mono-, di-, and tricyclic terpenoid hydrocarbons with isoprenoid side chains, hopanes, steranes, phytane, pristane, alkyl adamantanes, etc. A GC/MS trace of the molecular sieve 13X adduction-enriched markers is shown. The aromatic fraction consists of mono-, di-, triaromatic structures, their alkyl derivatives, mainly aromatized analogs of the biomarkers encountered in the saturate fraction, along with eta-alkyl thiophenes, eta-alkyl benzo- and di-benzothiophenes, alkyl fluorenes and polyaromatic structures, etc. Examples of Gc/MS graces showing the distribution of aromatized naphthenic biomarkers are given.

Strausz, O.P. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1988-06-01

85

Economics and Politics of Unconventional Oil The Case of the Canadian OilSands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview The soaring crude oil price since 2002 has significantly improved the competitiveness of unconventional fossil fuels like the Canadian oil-sands. As a consequence, the oil-sand industry plans to extend production from 1.2 million barrels per day (mbd) to about 5 mbd in 2020. Oil-sand has become an interesting alternative to investments in conventional oil and is attracting awareness and

Martin Meyer-Renschhausen

86

Aging effects on oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from the destruction of oil wells and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf Wa/r. A laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical properties of this material and the effect of aging on their properties. Tests included direct shear, triaxial, and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. The influence of aging was examined by testing uncontaminated sand after aging for one, three, and six months in natural environmental conditions. The results indicated increased strength and stiffness due to aging and a reduction of the oil content due to evaporation of volatile compounds. The factors that influence the depth of oil penetration in compacted sand columns were also examined including the type of oil, relative density, and the amount of fines.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-03-01

87

Combustion initiation at the bottom water - oil sands interface  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art of combustion studies in the Alberta Oil Sands is outlined and details are presented on an ignition test conducted in the Wabasca Deposit. The objective of the test was to determine whether combustion could be initiated at the bottom water/oil sands interface. It is concluded that in a preheated reservoir combustion can be successfully initiated at the water/oil interface and the burn propagated towards the production well. 14 refs.

Raisbeck, J.M.

1981-01-01

88

Oil from tar sands--a significant new plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first synthetic crude oil from Canada's Athabasca tar sands has been in commercial production since October, when the new 45,000 b\\/cd (design capacity) installation of Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. at Fort McMurray, Alberta, began operations. Besides the oil, the plant is designed to produce about 2,600 tons\\/cd of petroleum coke, for use as plant fuel, and 314 tons\\/cd

Uhl

1967-01-01

89

North American Oil Sands: History of Development, Prospects for the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When it comes to future reliable oil supplies, Canada's oil sands will likely account for a greater share of U.S. oil imports. Oil sands account for about 46% of Canada's total oil production and oil sands production is increasing as conventional oil prod...

M. Humphries

2008-01-01

90

Hardfacing fights wear in oil sands operation  

SciTech Connect

Wear attack is responsible for high production losses and over $40 million per year in equipment repairs and replacement costs at Syncrude`s synthetic crude oil plant near Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta. Most of this damage is caused by the fine quartz particle constituents which predominate in oil sands. It occurs in a multiplicity of forms which can be classified into three primary mechanisms: Sliding abrasive wear and sporadic impact, which affects mainly mining equipment; Slurry abrasion and erosion, which occur in bitumen extraction, separation plants, and in tailings lines; and High-temperature erosion, which is often augmented by corrosion in bitumen upgrading operations. Process streams in this area also contain fine coke particles and catalyst debris. The paper gives an overview of Syncrude`s operations in mining, extraction, and upgrading, then describes the following: wear materials and protection systems, surface engineering systems, weld deposited hardfacing, benefits, surface modification system experience, thermal spray coating experience, disk centrifuge bowls, investigation of plasma arc spraying, and combating pump erosion.

Llewellyn, R.; Tuite, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-03-01

91

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01

92

Land and water impacts of oil sands production in Alberta.  

PubMed

Expansion of oil sands development results not only in the release of greenhouse gas emissions, but also impacts land and water resources. Though less discussed internationally due to to their inherently local nature, land and water impacts can be severe. Research in key areas is needed to manage oil sands operations effectively; including improved monitoring of ground and surface water quality. The resulting information gap means that such impacts are not well understood. Improved analyses of oil sands products are required that compare land and water use with other transportation fuel pathways and use a regional perspective so local effects can be considered and mitigated. PMID:22364164

Jordaan, Sarah M

2012-04-01

93

Sedimentology, petrology, and geotechnical properties of Athabasca oil sands, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca oil sands deposit is not only one of the largest petroleum reservoirs in the world (870 billion bbl of oil in place), it is virtually the only supergiant oil accumulation that can be examined at outcrop. Sedimentologic and petrographic knowledge, gleaned both from the outcrop and from many subsurface cores, has direct and immediate implication for surface mining

M. B. Dusseault; G. D. Mossop

1979-01-01

94

Properties and composition of jet fuels derived from alternate energy sources. I. Background and n-alkane content. [Coal, tar sand, and oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

All jet fuel must meet many stringent requirements and several of these are controlled by composition. Freezing point, combustion properties, thermal oxidation stability, viscosity and gum formation are significantly influenced by the types and amounts of hydrocarbons in the fuel and\\/or the components containing nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Several samples of jet fuel obtained from alternate fossil fuel sources--oil shale,

R. N. Hazlett; J. M. Hall; J. Solash

1976-01-01

95

Methods of Enhancing Fluid Communication in Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective steamflooding of oil sands requires fluid communication between injectors and producers. Such a communication path can be developed through a naturally occurring zone of low bitumen saturation. If a water sand with little or no bitumen saturation is encountered, high injectivity can be achieved and a steamflood can be carried out immediately. With zones having mobile water and some

E. S. Tam; N. R. Edmunds; D. A. Redford

1984-01-01

96

ERCB publishes statistical history of oil sands production  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board published in May 1986 a statistical summary of the Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Inc. oil sands production history. Numerous production statistics are monitored. Some of the highlights are given in table 1.

Not Available

1986-09-01

97

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 1. Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1977 estimated primary, secondary, and tertiary recoverable reserves assigned to the heavy oil belt of west Canada are 34 billion bbl for tar sands deposits and 2 billion bbl for conventional heavy oil. Application of tertiary recovery techniques will substantially increase the recoverable reserves. Conventional heavy oil occurs in lower Cretaceous strata and appears to be associated with a

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. N. Wennekers

1979-01-01

98

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 2 (Conclusion). Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the large reserves of W. Canadian tar sands deposits, 35 billion bbl of oil can be recovered economically by open pit mining, dredging, hot water extraction, and fuel substitution. On heavy oil reserves in Canada, application of economically proven tertiary recovery could permit the production of 2.5 billion bbl of oil from the Lloydminster Fields and 3.7 billion

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. Wennekers

1979-01-01

99

Properties of Oil sands and Bitumen in Athabasca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary SAGD(Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) is one of the most effective methods to produce bitumen (Fig.1). For seismic monitoring of the steam front and its effect on the formation, it is important to know correctly the properties of oil sands and bitumen. We measured the P- and S-wave velocities of oil sands and bitumen from Athabasca, Alberta, by ultrasonic measurement

Hisako Mochinaga; S. Onozuka; Fumio Kono; Toyokazu Ogawa; Akihisa Takahashi; Takahiro Torigoe

100

Impacts of Crude Oil Production from Alberta Oil Sands on the Canadian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada has the largest hydrocarbon resource potential after Saudi Arabia in the world. Most of the proven reserves of crude bitumen (? 28 billion cubic meters) are located in Alberta in the form of oil sands. At present, oil sands accounts for about 40% of the total Canadian crude oil production. This share is expected to exceed 70% by 2015.

G. R. Timilsina; J. P. Prince; D. Czamanski; N. LeBlanc

101

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to assess their potential economic importance. A reconnaissance geologic map of each examined deposit was constructed, and the deposits were sampled and described. Ten occurrences were described during the 1984 and 1985 field seasons. The oil-sand occurrences were all sandstone reservoirs ranging from Pennsylvanian to Tertiary. Based on these reconnaissance examinations, only three occurrences appeared to be potentially significant. The Rattlesnake Hills occurrence, west of Casper, is an asymmetrical anticline with oil-impregnated sands in the Mesaverde Formation, Frontier Formation, and, most extensively, the Muddy Sandstone. Other formations in the structure contain minor amounts of oil staining. The Muddy Creek occurrence, southwest of Rawlins, contains oil-impregnated sandstones in the lower Wasatch Formation. This stratigraphically controlled trap dips to the west into the Washakie basin. The Conant Creek occurrence, southeast of Riverton, includes stratigraphically controlled oil sands in the relatively flat Wagon Bed Formation.

Ver Ploeg, A.

1986-08-01

102

Performance characteristics of coal-washing equipment: sand cones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of sand cones was evaluated in three preparation plants that utilized cones in various flow schemes. Three primary separations of raw coal effected between floats and sinks were excellent. The recovery efficiencies for the plus ¹\\/â-inch material ranged from 99.8 to 97.6 percent, the error areas ranged from 19 to 23 square centimeters, and the probable errors in

A. W. Deurbrouck; J. Jr. Hudy

1965-01-01

103

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16

104

Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 10(9) m(3) of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study was conducted in order to determine if synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) could detect OSPW contamination in water systems. Water samples collected from ponds containing OSPW and selected sites in the Alberta oil sands region were evaluated using SFS with an offset value of 18 nm. OSPW ponds consistently displayed a minor peak at 282.5 nm and a broad major peak ranging between 320 and 340 nm. Water from reference sites within the oil sands region had little fluorescence at 282.5 nm but greater fluorescence beyond 345 nm. Naphthenic acids are the major toxic component of OSPW. Both a commercial naphthenic acid and a naphthenic acid extract prepared from OSPW had similar fluorescent spectra with peaks at 280 nm and 320 nm and minor shoulders at approximately 303 and 331 nm. The presence of aromatic acids closely associated with the naphthenic acids may be responsible for unique fluorescence at 320-340 nm. SFS is proposed to be a simple and fast method to monitor the release of OSPW into ground and surface waters in the oil sands region. PMID:19269672

Kavanagh, Richard J; Burnison, B Kent; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2009-06-01

105

Getty mines oil sands in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields,

Rintoul

1983-01-01

106

The Production of Oil from Intermountain West Tar Sands Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than 1 billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of 28 billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits, arrang...

J. M. Glassett J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

107

Solar assisted method for recovery of bitumen from oil sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for the recovery of bitumen from oil sands in a natural gas limited environment with and without CO2 constraints is presented. We suggest a feasible method for the recovery of unconventional oil in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way that has the potential of eliminating the need of natural gas as a process fuel. The proposed concept

Daniel Kraemer; Anurag Bajpayee; Andy Muto; Vincent Berube; Matteo Chiesa

2009-01-01

108

Food web structure in oil sands reclaimed wetlands.  

PubMed

Boreal wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance. However, their ecosystem function is threatened by direct anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Oil sands surface mining in the boreal regions of Western Canada denudes tracts of land of organic materials, leaves large areas in need of reclamation, and generates considerable quantities of extraction process-affected materials. Knowledge and validation of reclamation techniques that lead to self-sustaining wetlands has lagged behind development of protocols for reclaiming terrestrial systems. It is important to know whether wetlands reclaimed with oil sands process materials can be restored to levels equivalent to their original ecosystem function. We approached this question by assessing carbon flows and food web structure in naturally formed and oil sands-affected wetlands constructed in 1970-2004 in the postmining landscape. We evaluated whether a prescribed reclamation strategy, involving organic matter amendment, accelerated reclaimed wetland development, leading to wetlands that were more similar to their natural marsh counterparts than wetlands that were not supplemented with organic matter. We measured compartment standing stocks for bacterioplankton, microbial biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, and zoobenthos; concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and residual naphthenic acids; and microbial production, gas fluxes, and aquatic-terrestrial exports (i.e., aquatic insect emergence). The total biomass of several biotic compartments differed significantly between oil sands and reference wetlands. Submerged macrophyte biomass, macroinvertebrate trophic diversity, and predator biomass and richness were lower in oil sands-affected wetlands than in reference wetlands. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that wetland age and wetland amendment with peat-mineral mix mitigate effects of oil sands waste materials on the fully aquatic biota. Although high variability was observed within most compartments, our data show that 20-year-old wetlands containing oil sands material have not yet reached the same level of function as their reference counterparts. PMID:23967574

Kovalenko, K E; Ciborowski, J J H; Daly, C; Dixon, D G; Farwell, A J; Foote, A L; Frederick, K R; Costa, J M Gardner; Kennedy, K; Liber, K; Roy, M C; Slama, C A; Smits, J E G

2013-07-01

109

Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows:

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

110

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil sand and oil spring occurrences in Wyoming. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous oil seeps and oil sands have been reported in the literature in Wyoming. Clark and Glass (Clark, M., and Glass, G.B., 1982, Review of reported tar sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming Open File Report 82-5, 49 p.) reviewed the literature for reports of occurrences and catalogued 78 reported occurrences of shallow or outcropping

Ver Ploeg

1986-01-01

111

Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry’s greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of Canada’s oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and

Alex D Charpentier; Joule A Bergerson; Heather L MacLean

2009-01-01

112

Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

2009-01-01

113

Secondary froth wash. [Oil Sand Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the removal of bitumen from secondary froth formed during the hot-water processing of Athabasca tar sands. More particularly, the process utilizes the intimate contacting of a hot water wash with a secondary froth and subsequent intimate contacting of the bitumen with the fresh hot water. The amount of solids in a secondary froth is reduced

Kaminsky

1973-01-01

114

Interaction forces in bitumen extraction from oil sands.  

PubMed

Water-based extraction process (WBEP) has been successfully applied to bitumen recovery from Athabasca oil sand ore deposits in Alberta. In this process, two essential steps are involved. The bitumen first needs to be "liberated" from sand grains, followed by "aeration" with air bubbles. Bitumen "liberation" from the sand grains is controlled by the interaction between the bitumen and sand grains. Bitumen "aeration" is dependent, among other mechanical and hydrodynamic variables, on the hydrophobicity of the bitumen surface, which is controlled by water chemistry and interactions between bitumen and fine solids. In this paper, the interaction force measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM) between bitumen-bitumen, bitumen-silica, bitumen-clays and bitumen-fines is summarized. The measured interaction force barrier coupled with the contacted adhesion force allows us to predict the coagulative state of colloidal systems. Zeta potential distribution measurements, in terms of heterocoagulation, confirmed the prediction of the measured force profiles using AFM. The results show that solution pH and calcium addition can significantly affect the colloidal interactions of various components in oil sand extraction systems. The strong attachment of fines from a poor processing ore on bitumen is responsible for the corresponding low bitumen flotation recovery. The identification of the dominant non-contact forces by fitting with the classical DLVO or extended DLVO theory provides guidance for controlling the interaction behavior of the oil sand components through monitoring the factors that could affect the non-contact forces. The findings provide insights into megascale industrial operations of oil sand extraction. PMID:15925617

Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

2005-07-15

115

Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.  

PubMed

Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

2008-01-01

116

Outlook for Canadian oil sands development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of oil-in-place, the heavy oil deposits of N. Alberta rank as one of the world's great accumulations. Reserves of oil-in-place for all deposits at 800 billion bbl represents a tremendous challenge to technology. The recovery factor for the minable portion has been reasonably demonstrated while that for in situ reserves has not. Given a successful demonstration plant in

J. D. Harvie; J. H. Nichols; A. G. Winstock

1973-01-01

117

Fracturing yields oil from poorly consolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

The technique of fracturing poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs and filling them with a thick multilayer of proppant has proven successful since sustained production has been obtained from zones previously not producible. Since there was no significant difference in results when fluids of varying polymer concentrations were used, the least expensive fluid was applied. The 70/140 mesh sand used as a fluid loss additive apparently was effective and possibly less damaging than silica flour. Larger sized sand pumped at the end of treatments did not have a discernible effect on production rate, but wells treated with Clay Acid apparently produced at higher rates than wells not treated. The stimulation method described for poorly consolidated, sandstone reservoirs may be expected to be effective in areas other than the Cook Inlet of Alaska, i.e., in areas where conventional fracturing in relatively soft formations has not been successful.

Lambert, S.A.; Dolan, R.T.; Gallus, J.P.

1984-05-01

118

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part III. Three grass species and their response to Omega 9 and to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands and underground coal gasification. [Basin wildrye; western wheatgrass; alkali sacaton  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. The hypothesis tested was, there is a difference between produced waters diluted by ground water and those where dilution is non-existent and their effect on plant growth. Results indicated that retort water diluted by ground water has a less toxic effect on plant species tested.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-12-01

119

Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part II. Five grass plant species and their response to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; alkaligrass  

SciTech Connect

In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10 week growth period. Hypotheses tested were: (a) there is a difference between in situ produced waters, and (b) plant species respond differently to various retort waters. Results indicated that the stated hypotheses were true.

Skinner, Q.D.

1981-11-01

120

Application of Rule Based Expert System to Sand Control in Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rule based expert system model, structure and sand prevention method, sand control design, the evaluation of sand control in detail, and the expert system based on rule and sand control technology of combining rule based expert system, puts forward the comprehensive analysis and evaluation of sand control system, and successfully applied in some oil field.

Lai NanjunDong; Dong Wan; Wang Jie; Xiao Xia; Lai Junhui

2012-01-01

121

CANADIAN ENERGY PROSPECTS: NATURAL GAS, TAR SANDS, AND OIL POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief overview of recent oil and gas developments in Canada. It describes marketing problems that the Canadian natural gas industry is facing and reports on some encouraging new developments in the recovery of bitumen from the Alberta tar sands deposits. Finally, the paper analyzes the current pricing, royalty, and taxation regime existing in Canada and where

BRIAN L. SCARFE

1985-01-01

122

Thermolysis and oxidation of the Alberta oil sand bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and the rates of evolution of light gases and volatile materials from Athabasca and Cold Lake oil sand bitumen and their separated fractions have been described as a function of temperature. From the estimation of the Arrhenius parameters for product formation, it was concluded that both these reservoirs are currently undergoing a slow but measurable thermal decomposition even

K. N. Jha; D. S. Montgomery; O. P. Strausz

1979-01-01

123

Surficial bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands of Northeastern Alberta, Canada, are primarily recovered by surface mining operations. These areas are required by regulation to be reclaimed at mine closure. Recent cuts in the proposed borrow areas for cover material have revealed unusual deposits of hydrocarbons at quantities exceeding clean soil guidelines in the surficial materials. This article outlines recent work in characterising

Matthew Fleming; Ian Fleming; John Headley; Jinglong Du; Kerry Peru

2011-01-01

124

Surficial bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands of Northeastern Alberta, Canada, are primarily recovered by surface mining operations. These areas are required by regulation to be reclaimed at mine closure. Recent cuts in the proposed borrow areas for cover material have revealed unusual deposits of hydrocarbons at quantities exceeding clean soil guidelines in the surficial materials. This article outlines recent work in characterising

Matthew Fleming; Ian Fleming; John Headley; Jinglong Du; Kerry Peru

2012-01-01

125

Water quality in Alberta oil sands area noted  

SciTech Connect

A 1985 report, from Alberta Environment, summarizes water quality constituents in the Athabasca River Drainage study area and examines relationships between these constituents and changes in land formation, hydrology, and development. Regional surface water quality, drainage systems, surface water hydrology, interaction with ground water, impacts of oil sands development on hydrology, and the Athabasca River mainstream are discussed.

Not Available

1986-09-01

126

Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

Schamaun, J.T.

1980-01-01

127

Regional inventory of Peace River oil sands, Alberta  

SciTech Connect

The Peace River oil sands of northwestern Alberta contain an estimated 92 billion bbl of bitumen trapped in an updip pinch-out of the Lower Cretaceous Blueksy and Gething Formation. Isopach maps from the top of the Bluesky and Gething Formations. The geologic reservoir characteristics of the Peace River oil sands are being mapped on a regional scale through the use of core and geophysical logs. Four wells per township are used wherever possible. A computerized data file on each well consists of basic well data, tops of the Bluesky and Gething Formations, and oil sand reservoir and the underlying pre-Cretaceous unconformity, and a coded lithology log. The lithology log is kept simple due to the limits of geophysical log interpretation but attempts to quantify sand, shale, interbedded sand and shale, oil, and water. Logs have been calibrated wherever possible with core control. Because the data are stored as a log of the well, a wide variety of useful maps can be generated by the computer. Recognition of four major facies including continental, tidal flat, shoreline and shallow marine, and tidal channel deposits has led to the proposal of an estuarine model for sedimentation within the Gething Formations down to the pre-Cretaceous unconformity show a regional southeast to northwest drainage trend on the unconformity surface. Similar trends are seen in the main sand bodies. Coordination of computer-generated maps with the facies model highlights areas which satisfy specific criteria that may be critical in determining the applicability of a particular in-situ recovery method.

Rottenfusser, B.A.

1983-03-01

128

The effects of oil sands wetlands on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of crude oil from oil sand produces solid (sand) and liquid (water with suspended fine particles) tailings materials, called oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). These waste materials are stored on the mine site due to a “zero discharge” policy and must be reclaimed when operations end. The liquid tailings materials are known to contain naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic

Blair D. Hersikorn; Jan J. C. Ciborowski; Judit E. G. Smits

2010-01-01

129

Operating Cost Parameters in Solvent Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand Mineral Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands represent a major world reserve of hydro-carbons. Present processing technology for mined oil sands is based on the hot water extraction process in the only operating plants to date (processing the Athabasca oil sands in Canada). Alternative technologies are of interest, particularly in view of the environmental problems associated with the aqueous effluents of the existing process. As

John M. Kenchington; Colin R. Phillips

1981-01-01

130

Characterization of metalloporphyrins in Alberta oil sands and components  

SciTech Connect

Compositional similarities in crude oils represent a basis for correlation (oil/oil oil/source rock) studies. One class of compounds with desirable characteristics are the metalloporphyrins for which the HPLC fingerprints or the DPEP/Etio ratios are two parameters used to correlate oils. The DPEP/Etio ratio in metalloporphyrin aggregates are used to compare the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake bitumens. The same parameter is also used to compare the porphyrin distributions in two crude oils from Northern Alberta to those in the oil sand bitumens. The distribution of the DPEP and Etio homologous series were also used to compare the metalloporphyrins isolated from the three oil-sand bitumens to those in the maltenes and asphaltenes. Two additional porphyrin aggregates were prepared through sequential methanol extraction of the asphaltenes. Vanadyl and nickel porphyrin extracts were purified by column chromatography on silica gel and alumina and mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metalloporphyrins and to measure C-number distributions. The lowest DPEP/Etio ratio was found in the maltenes and the highest was in the asphaltene extracts. The geochemical significance of these findings will be discussed.

Tooulakou, D.; Filby

1986-04-01

131

Nature and fate of oil sands fine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of clay suspensions produced during oil production front oil sands are described. With a composition of approximately 70 wt% water (with some unrecovered bitumen) and 30 wt% solids (>90% less than 44 {mu}m in size), these clay suspensions consolidate very slowly. Clay aggregate or floc morphology has been shown to be a function of the water chemistry and can be manipulated to produce a tailings suspension that is easier to consolidate and dewater. Commercial oil sands processing has been going on in northeastern Alberta since 1967, and in that time approximately 250 million m of this difficult to dewater clay suspension has been produced. The reclamation options for this material (mature fine tailings) on a commercial scale are also outlined. 84 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Mikula, R.J.; Kasperski, K.L. [Western Research Centre, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Burns, R.D. [Suncor Oil Sands Group, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M.D. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

132

Oil-impregnated rocks of Utah: USERDA field experiment to recover oil from tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration is equipping a field experiment to test the reverse combustion process for recovery of oil from a tar sand on a 10-acre site on the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit near Vernal, Utah. A tar sand section 10 ft thick at the top of the Rim Rock Sandstone (Mesaverde, Upper Cretaceous) has been selected

Marchant

1976-01-01

133

Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km2 of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water\\u000a availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may\\u000a aid in our understanding of how

N. K. Harner; T. L. Richardson; K. A. Thompson; R. J. Best; A. S. Best; J. T. Trevors

134

Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.  

PubMed

Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided. PMID:23394956

Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

2013-04-01

135

Pyrite suppression in oil agglomeration of coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oleophilicity of pyrite frequently interferes with the separation of coal and pyrite in aqueous suspensions by selective agglomeration with oil. To solve this problem, a search has been conducted for suitable agglomeration suppressants for oleophilic ...

J. Drzymala R. Markuszewski T. D. Wheelock

1991-01-01

136

Demetallation of waste oil with coal  

SciTech Connect

The breakdown of coal into liquid fuels has been researched extensively in order to improve upon the economics of the process. To produce liquid fuels from hydrogen deficient coal, hydrogen must be added. Weisz noted that for the most hydrogen deficient coals, it would be necessary to add 8 % by weight hydrogen to produce quality hydrocarbons. One way to decrease the cost of coal liquefaction would be to minimize the need for expensive hydrogen. By coprocessing coal with heavy petroleum resids, the resid may act as a hydrogen donor for the coal diminishing the need for additional costly hydrogen gas. In coprocessing resids with coal it has also been shown that some of the nickel and vanadium that are naturally abundant in the resid reside in the coal char and ash after coprocessing. This paper presents results of coprocessing of Illinois coal and demineralized Illinois coal with waste oils in order to determine the effect of the inorganic portion of the coal on the demetallization of automotive waste oil.

Orr, E.C.; Shao, Lian; Eyring, E.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake, City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

137

ADVENTURES IN COAL, OIL AND GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 40 years ago, Don Othmer's and my paths crossed in Johannesburg, South Africa. At that time my associates and I sold a coal-to-oil (Synthol) plant there which was the start of a synthetic fuels industry that peaked in the eighties. South Africa is the only country where coal-to-oil plants have been built since WWIIFour important patent-pooling and licensing agreements

1992-01-01

138

Tar sands, heavy-oil push building rapidly in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convinced that tar sands and heavy oil represent Canada's best hope for petroleum self-sufficiency, companies and government alike there are pushing development of extraction and upgrading projects in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Three multibillion-dollar commercial projects are planned or already under construction, and numerous pilot projects are in progress to test ways to produce and process the hard-to-get hydrocarbons. In addition,

Tippee

1978-01-01

139

Canada's R and D activities in oil sands and heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) stimulates oil sands and heavy oil development. Four very large deposits of oil sands in Northern Alberta are the focus of this paper. The problem with the mining is the extremely high viscosity of the bitumen under reservoir conditions. Various solutions to this difficulty are attempted. Surface mining leaves room for improvement because of the volumes of aquaeous tailings it produces. Different extraction methods are considered. 90% of the Athabasca deposit is too thick for surface mining, so in-situ steam injection or underground combustion have been tried. The ''huff and puff'' technique used at Cold Lake is described. Cyclic steam pressurization-depressurization used at the Peace River deposit is also mentioned. These are only a few of the projects supported by AOSTRA.

Wiggins, E.J.

1982-06-01

140

Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones  

SciTech Connect

Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in the near term. Further demonstrations of coal bed methane's recovery feasibility could improve the prospects for its production while future geopressured methane production remains speculative at this time.

Staats, E.B.

1980-01-10

141

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

142

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

143

Canada looks to tar sands, heavy oil to fill conventional-oil deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key element in Canada's future oil-supply scenario is tar sands\\/heavy oil production. It is expected to bridge the gap in the 1980s between the increasing decline in conventional southern-basin oil production and the startup of any future frontier discoveries. Production of the vast Alberta-Saskatchewan reserves is a technological challenge tapping the Canadian industry's whole range of expertise: conventional exploration

Crow

1979-01-01

144

Timing and petroleum sources for the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta based on 4-D modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta have an estimated 270.3 billion m3 (BCM) (1700 billion bbl) of in-place heavy oil and tar. Our study area includes oil sand accumulations and downdip areas that partially extend into the deformation zone in western Alberta. The oil sands are composed of highly biodegraded oil and tar, collectively referred to as bitumen, whose source remains controversial. This is addressed in our study with a four-dimensional (4-D) petroleum system model. The modeled primary trap for generated and migrated oil is subtle structures. A probable seal for the oil sands was a gradual updip removal of the lighter hydrocarbon fractions as migrated oil was progressively biodegraded. This is hypothetical because the modeling software did not include seals resulting from the biodegradation of oil. Although the 4-D model shows that source rocks ranging from the Devonian-Mississippian Exshaw Formation to the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group coals and Ostracode-zone-contributed oil to Mannville Group reservoirs, source rocks in the Jurassic Fernie Group (Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale) were the initial and major contributors. Kinetics associated with the type IIS kerogen in Fernie Group source rocks resulted in the early generation and expulsion of oil, as early as 85 Ma and prior to the generation from the type II kerogen of deeper and older source rocks. The modeled 50% peak transformation to oil was reached about 75 Ma for the Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale near the west margin of the study area, and prior to onset about 65 Ma from other source rocks. This early petroleum generation from the Fernie Group source rocks resulted in large volumes of generated oil, and prior to the Laramide uplift and onset of erosion (???58 Ma), which curtailed oil generation from all source rocks. Oil generation from all source rocks ended by 40 Ma. Although the modeled study area did not include possible western contributions of generated oil to the oil sands, the amount generated by the Jurassic source rocks within the study area was 475 BCM (2990 billion bbl). Copyright ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

Higley, D. K.; Lewan, M. D.; Roberts, L. N. R.; Henry, M.

2009-01-01

145

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

146

Regional inventory of Peace River oil sands, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Peace River oil sands of NW. Alberta contain an estimated 92 billion bbl of bitumen trapped in an updip pinch-out of the Lower Cretaceous Bluesky and Gething formations. The geologic reservoir characteristics of the Peace River oil sands are being mapped on a regional scale through the use of core and geophysical logs. Because the data are stored as a log of the well, a wide variety of useful maps can be generated by the computer. These include maps showing structure, sand/shale ratios, gross and net pay thicknesses, basal water, top water, lean zones, and uninterrupted pay. Recognition of 4 major facies including continental, tidal flat, shoreline and shallow marine, and tidal channel deposits has led to the proposal of an estuarine model for sedimentation within the Gething Formation. Coordination of computer-generated maps with the facies model highlights areas which satisfy specific criteria that may be critical in determining the applicability of a particular in situ recovery method.

Rottenfusser, B.A.

1983-03-01

147

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

2011-12-01

148

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26

149

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

150

A Resource Whose Time Has Come? The Alberta oil Sands as an Economic Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta oil sands, which comprise over 170 billion barrels of proven recoverable reserves, are a resource of an order of magnitude similar to many estimates of ultimate world conventional oil reserves. Campbell Watkins maintained a long-standing emphasis on the essential economic component of any meaningful definition of the worldÕs natural resources. The fact is that the Alberta oil sands

2008-01-01

151

The Use of Microscopic Bitumen Froth Morphology for the Identification of Problem Oil Sand Ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sand, which is found in various deposits around the world, consists mostly of sand, surrounded by up to 18 wt% bitumen. The largest deposits known are situated in northern Alberta, Canada, where reserves of bitumen are estimated to be 1.7 trillion barrels. Bitumen is similar to heavy oil, but with much higher viscosity and density. The two main commercial oil

Vicente A. Muñoz; Kim L. Kasperski; Oladipo E. Omotoso; Randy J. Mikula

2003-01-01

152

Combustion Characteristics of Occidental Coal-Oil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occidental Petroleum Corporation developed coal-oil mixture (COM) as a means for partial conversion of oil-burning equipment to coal. Subscale combustion tests were performed by KVB to determine the effect of COM compositional variables and firing paramet...

E. W. Knell M. N. Mansour

1983-01-01

153

Review of key issues related to air quality and reclamation in the oil sands area. Paper 81. 24. 3. [Alberta  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the key issues related to air quality in oil sands area development sites. Oil sand is composed of sand, bitumen, water and various clays of which in Alberta field sand makes up about 84 percent by weight and some 11 percent of heavy oil. Surface mining is used for recovery of bitumen from oil sands and the extraction process must have environmental impact. Methods to control pollution are outlines. 45 refs.

Kumar, A.; Fedkenheuer, A.W.

1981-01-01

154

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil sand and oil spring occurrences in Wyoming. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Numerous oil seeps and oil sands have been reported in the literature in Wyoming. Clark and Glass (Clark, M., and Glass, G.B., 1982, Review of reported tar sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming Open File Report 82-5, 49 p.) reviewed the literature for reports of occurrences and catalogued 78 reported occurrences of shallow or outcropping oil sands and oil seeps in Wyoming. The majority of these references are quite old, with vague descriptions of locations and formations containing the oil. The purpose of this study was to do a reconnaissance field examination of selected occurrences to better describe the occurrence and make some assessment as to the potential economic importance of the deposit. A reconnaissance geologic map of the occurrence was constructed from field observations and existing maps from the literature. The deposit was sampled, described and photographed. Since it was impossible to visit 78 reported occurrences, the author visited only those surface occurrences which appeared significant based on the descriptions in the literature. A total of ten occurrences were visited and described during the summers of 1984 and 1985. The author attempted to locate additional reported occurrences, but either the description in the literature was too vague to locate the deposit or evidence of the occurrence could no longer be located due to developmental activity in the area. Also, a few of the occurrences which were located were deemed to be insignificant and were not described in detail or sampled. The oil sand occurrences examined were all in sandstones of varying depositional environments and ranged in age from Tertiary to Pennsylvanian. Examples of both structural and stratigraphic traps were examined. Both oil seeps examined appeared to be related to nearby faults. Some of the occurrences contain live oil at the outcrop while others appeared to contain primarily dead oil. 39 refs., 32 figs.

Ver Ploeg, A.J.

1986-06-01

155

Heavy oil and tar sands resources of western Canada  

SciTech Connect

Western Canada contains about 2.5 trillion bbl of crude bitumen and heavy oil in an area of some 20,000 mi/sup 2/. Of this, an estimated 11%, or 280 billion bbl, is thought to be recoverable. This compares with 17.0 billion bbl of recoverable conventional crude oil discovered to date in Western Canada. The majority of the recoverable bitumen/heavy oil resources must be produced by in-situ thermal processes since only 12% is recoverable by surface mining and about 1% by conventional production practices. Current production is about 550,000 b/d with 45% being conventionally produced heavy oil, 33% surface-mined bitumens, and the remainder in-situ bitumen production. Western Canada's bitumen/heavy oil resources and associated gas are mostly entrapped in shallow Lower Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic sands at depths of less than 3000 ft, and mostly along the western flank of a regional anticline caused by drape over an underlying salt solution escarpment. Additional reserves of bitumen are also entrapped in Devonian and Mississippian carbonates which subcrop the Cretaceous. Commercial bitumen production commenced in 1967 using surface mining techniques, but development of more such mines is unlikely without significant technology changes, cost reductions, or substantially higher oil prices. Bitumen recovered by in-situ thermal methods is economically favorable to surface mining as demonstrated by the initiation of 29 experimental plants and 8 commercial projects, all of the latter having started in the last five years. The uncertainties of crude oil prices, and in-situ project costs require substantial efforts by governments to provide encouraging economic and regulatory environments to ensure continuing development of these large resources.

McIntosh, R.A.; Beckie, K.N.

1988-02-01

156

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of Syncrude post-extraction oil sand.  

PubMed

Rapid- and step-scan photoacoustic (PA) infrared spectra of three fractions of a Syncrude post-extraction oil sand were analyzed in detail in this work. The rapid-scan spectra showed that the samples were comprised primarily of kaolinite, quartz, silica, siderite, and residual hydrocarbons, and that the proportions of these constituents were different for each fraction. Depth profiling of the three post-extraction oil sands was accomplished using both rapid- and step-scan PA infrared spectroscopy. The results confirmed that kaolinite is more abundant in the near-surface region, whereas quartz and hydrocarbons are concentrated at greater depths. The modulation frequency dependence of the PA intensities for all three fractions was consistent with a model in which the samples are thermally thick; in other words, the thermal diffusion length (roughly equal to the sampling depth) was less than the particle sizes of all three samples. The results of this study are consistent with published reports on the PA infrared spectra of fine tailings generated during bitumen extraction and the spectroscopic and thermophysical characterization of clay soils and an appropriate model clay. PMID:16388979

Michaelian, Kirk H; Hall, Robert H; Kenny, Kimberly I

2006-06-01

157

Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional oil production and oil sands.  

PubMed

Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land disturbed by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energy yield of oil production is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher, (0.33-2.6, 0.61-1.2, and 2.2 5.1 PJ/ha) for conventional oil production, oil sands surface mining, and in situ production, respectively). We found that land use contributes small portions of GHGs to life cycle emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production ( <0.4% or < 0.4 gCO?e/MJ crude refinery feedstock) and small to modest portions for Alberta conventional oil (0.1-4% or 0.1-3.4 gCO?e/MJ) and surface mining of oil sands (0.9-11% or 0.8-10.2 gCO?e/MJ).Our estimates are based on assumptions aggregated over large spatial and temporal scales and assuming 100% reclamation. Values on finer spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to policy targets need to account for site-specific information, the baseline natural and anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:20949948

Yeh, Sonia; Jordaan, Sarah M; Brandt, Adam R; Turetsky, Merritt R; Spatari, Sabrina; Keith, David W

2010-11-15

158

Influence of Oil Saturation Upon Spectral Induced Polarization of Oil Bearing Sands  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of oil in an unconsolidated granular porous material such as sand changes both the resistivity of the material and the value of the phase shift between the low-frequency current and the voltage. The resistivity and the phase angle can be written as a complex-valued r...

159

Nuclear Technology and Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy from the nuclear reactor would replace the energy supplied by natural gas, which is currently burned at these facilities. There are a number of concerns surrounding the

A. E. FINAN; K. MIU; A. C. KADAK

2006-01-01

160

Lithological discrimination and correlation in oil sands using rock magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, which contains most of the bitumen reserves of the Athabasca oil sands, comprises uncemented quartz sands with siltstone, shale, and local ironstones. The sequential fluvial, estuarine, and marine depositional environments of the McMurray drainage basin have resulted in the complex juxtaposition of differing lithofacies. Horizontal continuity of lithofacies is limited. Sand body geometries are many

1991-01-01

161

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

162

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1993-07-01

163

Testing for Market Integration: Crude Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil

Lance J. Bachmeier; James M. Griffin

2006-01-01

164

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not used commercially, a nonaqueous extraction process is of great interest to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands due to its potential advantages, such as high bitumen recovery even from low grade oil sand ores and the elimination of slow settling, sludge tailings ponds with stable suspensions. While clay minerals have been characterized in water-based bitumen extraction from

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Douglas G. Ivey; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell

165

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLVENT-INSOLUBLE ORGANIC MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH MINERAL MATTER FROM OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable quantities of insoluble organic matter (IOM) are known to be associated with certain solid fractions found in oil sands. This organic matter is believed to be partly responsible for the intractability of the sludge generated by the hot water process used for the extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands. In previous investigations we had attempted to enrich the

Abdul Majid; Bryan D. Sparks; John A. Ripmeester

1993-01-01

166

Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands

Kristyn Edge; Brenda Barona; Rozlyn F. Young; Phillip M. Fedorak; Wendy V. Wismer

2010-01-01

167

Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images

Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

1981-01-01

168

Mapping Oil-Contaminated Sand and till with the Spectral Induced Polarization (sip) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory and field results from an environmental application of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method are presented. The phase spectra of the resistivity of uncontaminated glacial till, silt, sand and gravel were measured in the laboratory. The effects of waste oil and motor oil on the phase and amplitude spectra of the resistivity were studied using artificially contaminated sand

Heikki Vanhala

1997-01-01

169

OIL RECOVERY FROM A UTAH TAR SAND DEPOSIT BY IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. tar sand resource consists of an estimated 30 billion barrels (4.7Gm ) of oil. Most of this resource is in six large deposits in Utah. Through research and development to prove tar sand oil recovery methods, the Department of Energy is attempting to stimulate commercialization of this resource. Two in situ combustion field experiments have been conducted

L. A. Johnson; L. J. Fahy; M. W. Thornton

170

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

171

Phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus). One of the naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The other mixture was a commercially available NA mixture. While the oil sands

Sarah A. Armstrong; John V. Headley; Kerry M. Peru; James J. Germida

2007-01-01

172

Borehole mining: an environmentally compatible method for mining oil sands. Contract research, June-September 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to environmental quality. This project consisted of two concurrent tasks: mining operations and environmental monitoring. To generate the environmental impact, nearly 1000 tons of

G. S. Knoke; W. R. Archibald

1980-01-01

173

Effect of Salt on the Flocculation Behavior of Nano Particles in Oil Sands Fine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, two commercial plants, operating in the Athabasca region of Alberta, produce approximately 20 percent of Canada's petroleum requirements from oil sands. Surface mined oil sand is treated in a water based separation process that yields large volumes of clay tailings with poor settling and compaction characteristics. Clay particles, suspended in the pond water, interact with salts, dissolved from the

L. S. Kotylar; B. D. SPARKS; R. SCHUTFE

1996-01-01

174

Coal quality in area of Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, southern Appalachian Mountains, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 coal beds of Pennsylvanian age crop out around Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These beds were deposited in barrier and fluvial environments. Few determinations of modern coal-quality data have been made for these coals, although they have been mined for more than 100 years. To evaluate their quality, 47 coal samples from

T. L. Crawford

1986-01-01

175

Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system  

PubMed Central

Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in-situ pressure (0–100 MPa) and temperature (0–70°C) conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 ml/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the ?13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

Ohtomo, Yoko; Ijiri, Akira; Ikegawa, Yojiro; Tsutsumi, Masazumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Uramoto, Go-Ichiro; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Morono, Yuki; Sakai, Sanae; Saito, Yumi; Tanikawa, Wataru; Hirose, Takehiro; Inagaki, Fumio

2013-01-01

176

Nuclear Technology and Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy from the nuclear reactor would replace the energy supplied by natural gas, which is currently burned at these facilities. There are a number of concerns surrounding the continued use of natural gas, including carbon dioxide emissions and increasing gas prices. Three scenarios for the use of the reactor are analyzed:(1) using the reactor to produce only the steam needed for the SAGD process; (2) using the reactor to produce steam as well as electricity for the oil sands facility; and (3) using the reactor to produce steam, electricity, and hydrogen for upgrading the bitumen from the oil sands to syncrude, a material similar to conventional crude oil. Three reactor designs were down-selected from available options to meet the expected mission demands and siting requirements. These include the Canadian ACR- 700, Westinghouse's AP 600 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). The report shows that nuclear energy would be feasible, practical, and economical for use at an oil sands facility. Nuclear energy is two to three times cheaper than natural gas for each of the three scenarios analyzed. Also, by using nuclear energy instead of natural gas, a plant producing 100,000 barrels of bitumen per day would prevent up to 100 mega-tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year from being released into the atmosphere. (authors)

FINAN, A.E.; MIU, K.; KADAK, A.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-105 Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2006-07-01

177

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs ( Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data

Blair D. Hersikorn; Judit E. G. Smits

2011-01-01

178

Athabasca oil sands: effect of organic coated solids on bitumen recovery and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian oil sands deposits in northern Alberta contain about 1.3 trillion barrels of crude oil equivalent. The largest of the four major formations is found in the Athabasca region where bitumen is heterogeneously distributed throughout an unconsolidated mineral matrix. About one-tenth of the oil sands in this deposit is economically recoverable by conventional surface mining techniques.The Hot Water Extraction

B. D Sparks; L. S Kotlyar; J. B O'Carroll; K. H Chung

2003-01-01

179

Conversion from Oil to Coal Firing: Will It Pay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, high oil prices encouraged the conversion of some oil-fired stations to coal firing. This report reviews the experiences, lists the kinds of conversion tests necessary and reviews the economic attractiveness of different oil and coal pric...

L. Verbeek

1986-01-01

180

The future impact of oil shale and tar sands on world oil production  

SciTech Connect

The current world glut of oil has, for the time being, alleviated the crisis situation of the early 1970's. However, in today's dynamic and rapidly changing world the picture could change at any time so that today's surplus could become tomorrow's shortage. One of the important factors in any future energy reckoning is the potential impact of the large domestic deposits of oil shale and tar sands. These North American resources will play a significant role in the energy patterns of the future. This paper considers scenarios involving these resources.

Griskey, R.G.

1986-01-01

181

Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil-bearing sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induced polarization model developed recently by Revil and Florsch to understand the complex conductivity of fully saturated granular materials has been extended to partial saturation conditions. It is an improvement over previous models like the Vinegar and Waxman model, which do not account explicitly for the effect of frequency. The Vinegar and Waxman model can be considered as a limiting case of the Revil and Florsch model in the limit where the distribution of relaxation times is very broad. The extended model is applied to the case of unconsolidated sands partially saturated with oil and water. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the influence of oil saturation, frequency, grain size, and conductivity of the pore water upon the complex resistivity response of oil-bearing sands. The low-frequency polarization (below 100 Hz) is dominated by the polarization of the Stern layer (the inner part of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the grains in contact with water). The phase exhibits a well-defined relaxation peak with a peak frequency that is dependent on the mean grain diameter as predicted by the model. Both the resistivity and the magnitude of the phase increase with the relative saturation of the oil. The imaginary (quadrature) component of the complex conductivity is observed to decrease with the oil saturation. All these observations are reproduced by the new model.

Schmutz, M.; Revil, A.; Vaudelet, P.; Batzle, M.; Viñao, P. Femenía; Werkema, D. D.

2010-10-01

182

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

183

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Parker, R.J. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1991-12-01

184

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. (Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Parker, R.J. (Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada))

1991-12-01

185

Geology of Gulf Canada's Pelican oil sands pilot project, Alberta Canada  

SciTech Connect

Gulf Canada Resources Incorporated is operating an experimental oil sands pilot project (Pelican Lake project) in the Wabasca deposit in NE Alberta intended to recover bitumen by steam stimulation followed by combustion. The geology of the pilot site is being studied actively through an extensive logging and coring program aimed at defining the detailed vertical and lateral variability of the Wabiskaw A sand reservoir, particularly with a view to defining such parameters as porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and isopach, net pay, and structure. The Wabiskaw A sand at the pilot site is a thin, glauconitic, coarsening-upward sheet sand interpreted as part of an offshore (shelf) bar system. The major part of the sand body at the pilot site consists of a northeast-southwest trending bar. This grades into an interbar facies at the southeast corner where the sand thickness and net pay decrease and the clay content of the reservoir increases.

Sharpe, R.J.

1982-05-01

186

The production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than 1 billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of 28 billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits, arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface mining oil recovery operations, are as

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

187

The Price Is Wrong for Oil Shale and Tar Sand Tech  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge run-up in oil prices over the last several years, reaching a peak of close to US $150 per barrel this past summer, has given energy companies a big incentive to find new ways of harvesting unconventional oil, especially in North America. Technology firms targeted oil from tar sands in Canada and from shale, a sedimentary rock abundant in

Monica Heger

2008-01-01

188

Coal-Oil Agglomeration and Combustion Studies for a Bituminous Coal Pond Tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor quality of coal tailings used as one of the feeds in a coal-power generation station can lead to combustion problems. A coal-oil agglomeration technique has been tested as a possible option to treat the feed in order to improve the quality. The recovered coal from this agglomeration \\/ flotation treatment had a significantly reduced ash content and increased

K. L. KASPERSKI; Y. BRIKER; D. P. DESHPANDE; B. ÖZÜM

1996-01-01

189

Lithological discrimination and correlation in oil sands using rock magnetic properties  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, which contains most of the bitumen reserves of the Athabasca oil sands, comprises uncemented quartz sands with siltstone, shale, and local ironstones. The sequential fluvial, estuarine, and marine depositional environments of the McMurray drainage basin have resulted in the complex juxtaposition of differing lithofacies. Horizontal continuity of lithofacies is limited. Sand body geometries are many and varied. Prediction of sand body geometry has important economic applications; a strong positive correlation exists between sand facies and oil grade. An investigation of the magnetic property variations in specimens from five closely adjacent boreholes within the McMurray Formation has shown that it is possible to: (1) document objective magnetic property parameters to differentiate distinct lithological units; (2) use these same magnetic parameters to establish between borehole lithostratigraphic correlations; and (3) to show that the magnitude of some magnetic parameters bears a direct relationship to the oil content of a lithology.

Morris, W.A. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1991-03-01

190

Reservoir characterization for Chevron's HASDrive field trial, Athabasca oil sands area, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron is currently field testing an in-situ thermal recovery process termed Heated Annulus SteamDrive (HASDrive) on the Lower Cretaceous Athabasca tar sand deposit at the Alberta Oil Sands Technology Research Authority (AOSTRA) Underground Test Facility (UTF) site. The HASDrive process applies heat through a subsurface horizontal pipe to the base of the bitumen-rich reservoir sands of the McMurray Formation. A

R. G. Chalcraft; C. W. Grant

1990-01-01

191

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-02-01

192

Ecohydrology applications to ecosystem reconstruction after oil-sand mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-sand deposits in northeast Alberta, Canada comprise some of the world's largest oil reserves. Open-pit mining of these resources leads to waste-rock piles, tailings ponds and open pits that must be reclaimed to "equivalent landscape capability", with viable forests and wetlands, using only native vegetation. Understanding ecohydrological processes in natural systems is critical for designing the necessary landforms and landscapes. A challenge is the cold, sub-humid climate, with highly variable precipitation. Furthermore, there are competing demands, needs or uses for water, in both quantity and quality, for reclamation and sustainability of forestlands, wetlands and end-pit lakes. On average there is a potential water deficit in the region, yet wetlands cover half of the undisturbed environment. Water budget analyses demonstrate that, although somewhat unpredictable and uncontrollable, the magnitude and timing of water delivery largely control water storage and conservation within the landscape. The opportunity is to design and manipulate these reconstructed landscapes so that water is stored and conserved, and water quality is naturally managed. Heterogeneous geologic materials can be arranged and layered, and landforms sculpted, to minimize runoff, enhance infiltration, and promote surface and subsurface storage. Similarly, discharge of poor quality water can be minimized or focused. And, appropriate vegetation choices are necessary to conserve water on the landscape. To achieve these ends, careful attention must be paid to the entire water budget, the variability in its components, interconnections between hydrologic units, in both space and time, and coupled vegetation processes. To date our knowledge is guided primarily by natural analogues. To move forward, it is apparent that numerous priorities and constraints, which are potentially competing, must be addressed. These include geotechnical and operational requirements, material limitations or excesses, time, money and performance expectations. Careful landform design and integration of ecohydrological principles can be used to address some of these issues.

Mendoza, Carl; Devito, Kevin

2014-05-01

193

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1993-11-01

194

Role for Nuclear Energy in the Recovery of Oil from the Tar Sands of Alberta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the n...

V. R. Puttagunta R. O. Sochaski R. F. S. Robertson

1976-01-01

195

Energy requirements for the production of a synthetic crude oil from Athabasca tar sands. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed process analysis is provided of operations for producing syncrude from tar sands at the Athabasca deposit in Alberta, Canada. A comparison is made of the calculated net energy requirement of the syncrude with those determined previously for other sources of oil. Also investigated are the effects of such parameters as tar sand grade and overburden ratio on the

Hemming

1976-01-01

196

Responses of Red-Osier Dogwood to Oil Sands Tailings Treated with Gypsum or Alum  

Microsoft Academic Search

or composite tailings (CT), are currently being inves- tigated. The application of composite or consolidated tailings (CT) technol- In the CT process, the fines and sand fractions are ogy provides Alberta's oil sands industry with a means of reducing treated with a coagulant aid to produce a nonsegregating the volume of the fines fraction in extraction tailings and allows mixture

E. Redfield; C. Croser; J. J. Zwiazek; M. D. MacKinnon; C. Qualizza

2003-01-01

197

Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

Soderberg

1988-01-01

198

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority: Ten years of progress  

SciTech Connect

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) was established by the Government of Alberta in 1974 to promote research into the technological methods for the efficient and economic recovery and processing of bitumen and other products derived from oil sands and conventional heavy oils and for the recovery of crude oil through enhanced recovery methods. In its first 10 years of operation. AOSTRA, in cooperation with industry, has made a significant contribution to the technological base that now exists in Alberta. AOSTRA's involvement spans the complete range of oil sands and heavy oil research and development. AOSTRA's financial commitment to this work now exceeds $450 million. This paper highlights some of the more significant achievements of AOSTRA's first decade.

Turner, L.R.

1985-01-01

199

Low temperature extraction and upgrading of oil sands and bitumen in supercritical fluid mixtures.  

PubMed

Preliminary results are reported for the extraction and catalytic hydrocracking of Alberta bitumen and oil sands using supercritical fluid mixtures; high levels of extraction and upgrading were attained using reaction conditions significantly milder than those previously reported. PMID:20544122

Brough, Sarah A; Riley, Sandra H; McGrady, G Sean; Tanhawiriyakul, Supaporn; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Willson, Christopher D

2010-07-21

200

Interfacial chemistry of the hot water process for recovering bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Results from investigations into the interfacial chemistry of the hot water process for recovering bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands are presented. A discussion of the role of natural surfactants in the hot water process is included.

Schramm, L.L.; Smith, R.G.; Stone, J.A.

1984-01-01

201

Phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes.  

PubMed

Differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus). One of the naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The other mixture was a commercially available NA mixture. While the oil sands NA mixture was less phytotoxic to wetland plants compared to the commercially available NA mixture, they were not sequestered by wetland plants like their commercial NA counterparts. The small loss of commercial NAs from the spiked hydroponic system appeared to be selective and dependant on the specific NA compound. The results of this study indicate that plants alone may not mitigate NAs from oil sands tailings pond water. In addition, caution should be taken when making predictions on the environmental fate of oil sands naphthenic acids when using commercial NAs as surrogates. PMID:18161556

Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

2008-01-01

202

Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia Physodes Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A microwave-assisted digestion technique followed by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analysis was used to measure concentrations of 43 elements in Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canad...

203

Extraction of tar sands or oil shale with organic sulfoxides or sulfones  

SciTech Connect

Tar sands and oil shales are extracted with aliphatic or aromatic sulfoxides or sulfones whereby both non-polar organic constituents, e.g., hydrocarbons, and more polar constituents, E.G., phenols, are solubilized and recovered for conventional processing.

Rudnick, L. R.

1980-12-30

204

Balancing oil and environment... responsibly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing Oil and EnvironmentResponsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into

Walter C. Weimer; Lisa Teske

2007-01-01

205

Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment  

PubMed Central

Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratidal beach environment with reasonable control over and knowledge of the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat samples from the intertidal did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and nutrient-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents <2% and molar C:N ratios from 131–323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2–8 year?1) due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For submerged oil mat samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture, salinity, terminal electron acceptors, nutrient, and oil composition) due, in part, to their location on the landscape.

Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R.; Pardue, John H.

2014-01-01

206

Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment.  

PubMed

Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratidal beach environment with reasonable control over and knowledge of the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat samples from the intertidal did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and nutrient-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents <2% and molar C:N ratios from 131-323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2-8 year(-1)) due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For submerged oil mat samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture, salinity, terminal electron acceptors, nutrient, and oil composition) due, in part, to their location on the landscape. PMID:24782849

Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R; Pardue, John H

2014-01-01

207

A Wintertime Investigation of Atmospheric Pollutants Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is a potentially important pathway of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) input to the landscape in the oil sands region of Alberta. With planned expansion of oil sands facilities, there is interest in being able to characterize the magnitude and extent of trace metal and PAH deposition in the oil sands region. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of a bulk collection system to characterize atmospheric deposition of selected organic and inorganic contaminants in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The study was carried out in four sampling sites near and distant to oil sands facilities from late December 2011 to the end of March 2012 (3-month period). To check the precision of the bulk deposition method, triplicate bulk samplers were used, which were placed next to each other and as close as possible considering similar microenvironment. Monthly deposition samples were analyzed for 36 trace metals (including 13 U.S. EPA priority pollutants), ultra-low mercury, and 25 PAH (including alkylated-, parent-, and carcinogenic-PAH). At two sampling sites located within 20 km of major oil sands facilities, 3-month integrated deposition rates for some priority metals were up to 20-fold higher compared to two background sites located >45 km away from the oil sands facilities. Winter deposition rates of alkylated-PAH and parent-PAH were up to 70-fold lower at the background sampling sites than at sites near oil sands facilities. Deposition fluxes of total carcinogenic PAH were found to be 6- to 75-fold higher at the two sampling sites near oil sands development facilities compared to the north and south background sites. Another notable finding is the apparent precision of the sampling method. Median coefficient of variation for 13 priority metals were ±21% and within ±15% for both alkylated- and parent-PAH. The Athabasca oil sands region is considered a large area of current interest with respect to potential deposition of trace metals and PAH. However, access to power for any type of air pollution monitoring is, for the most part, lacking in locations at distances excess of 30 km from oil sands facilities. The bulk collection systems investigated here offer the ability to obtain direct measures of trace metal and PAH deposition in these remote areas.

Bari, M.; Kindzierski, W.

2012-12-01

208

Oil from sand: an alternate energy source begins to pay off  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress on the mining of 7000 acres of oil-impregnated sand by Syncrude Canada Ltd. in Alberta is reported. The project is on schedule presently, timewise and moneywise. The completion date is set for mid-1978. The cost is expected to be $2.4 billion, including an attendant utilities plant. A neighboring plant, the Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd., has been operating since

Markun

2009-01-01

209

Echoing in situ combustion oil recovery project in a Utah tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. tar sand resource consists of an estimated 30 billion bbl (4.7 cu g) of oil. Most of this resource is in 6 large deposits in Utah. Through research and development to prove tar sand oil recovery methods, the U.S. Department of Energy is attempting to stimulate commercialization of this resource. Two in situ combustion field experiments have been

L. A. Jr. Johnson; L. J. Fahy; L. J. Jr. Romanowski

1978-01-01

210

Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Characteristics of Oil Sands Using Ultrasound Irradiation for Shortening the Preheating Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are attractive as an energy resource. Bitumen, which is found in oil sands, has high viscosity, so that it does not flow. Most oil sands are underground and are developed with a method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Hot steam is injected underground to fluidize bitumen and promote its recovery. However, the preheating time is too long. One way of reducing running costs is by shortening the preheating time. Previous studies have found that bitumen can be extracted from oil sands efficiently by applying ultrasonic irradiation, but SAGD was not applied directly in these cases. Thus, the purpose of this study is to apply ultrasonic irradiation to SAGD, thereby shortening the preheating time of oil sands. As a model experiment for SAGD, heat transfer experiments in a sand layer made with Toyoura sand and silicone oil were conducted and the thermal effect with ultrasound was investigated.

Kamagata, Shingo; Kawamura, Youhei; Okawa, Hirokazu; Mizutani, Koichi

2012-07-01

211

Increased Thyroid Hormone Levels in Tree Swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) on Reclaimed Wetlands of the Athabasca Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are one of the world’s largest reserves of crude oil. Oil sands mining companies are now\\u000a investigating the ecological impacts of reclamation strategies in which wetlands are used for the bioremediation of waste\\u000a materials. To examine the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals in Oil Sands Process Materials (OSPM), thyroid hormone\\u000a concentrations were measured in

Marie-Line Gentes; Anne McNabb; Cheryl Waldner; Judit E. G. Smits

2007-01-01

212

Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be used as a case study for testing the applicability the Linearization Model approach. This model has been applied to the various world regions by D. Rutledge (Cal Tech). The regions are summed to estimate global production. The conclusion is that the world's coal resources may be much less (maybe by 10 times) than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. Several research groups, including K. Aleklett (Uppsala), the Energy Watch Group and the Institute of Energy (IFE) and have independently reached the same conclusion. Simulations by D. Rutledge of atmospheric CO2 levels, using these values of ultimate oil and coal production as an input, suggest that atmospheric CO2 could reach maximum concentrations as low as 450 ppm. While some of these conclusions are controversial, available data clearly suggest that resource limitation should be given serious consideration in future climate change scenarios. There are also serious implications for economic recovery and energy security as well.

Murray, J. W.

2009-05-01

213

Keynote 2: The Alberta oil sands — Wrestling bitumen out of the wild North  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athabasca Oil Sand Reserve:\\u000a- Oil sands are contained within the Cretaceous McMurray Formation. (149,000 km2)\\u000a- 2.5 trillion barrels of extractable oil (~ 25 % of Canada Crude Oil Production)\\u000a- Surface mineable deposits cover 2,800 km2\\u000a- 450 billion L of process water used annually\\u000a- Currently over 130 km2 of tailings ponds (largest man-made structures in the

David Rudolph

2011-01-01

214

Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to sand, a size fraction of what is commonly known as sediment (along with gravel, silt, and clay). An introductory section discusses the sedimentary aspects (grain size, rounding, and sorting), composition, and texture of sand. There is a virtual collection of sand specimens, sorted by location, region, or color. Each photo can be zoomed in or out and is accompanied by a brief description of the specimen. There is also a geographical index of specimens from the virtual collection which uses an interactive map to display them. An exercise is provided which uses specimens from the virtual collection to help students develop a connection between certain characteristics of sands and their environment of formation, information which can be applied to inferring the depositional environments of ancient sandstones. Other materials include a sand discovery kit, created to help teachers use sand in their classrooms, a 'Sands of the World' poster, and links to related websites. Some of these items must be purchased.

215

Too Little Oil, Too Much Coal: Optimal Carbon Tax and when to Phase in Oil, Coal and Renewables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main message is that it is optimal to use less coal and more oil once one takes account of coal being a backstop which emits much more CO2 than oil. The way of achieving this is to have a steeply rising carbon tax during the initial oil-only phase, a less-steeply rising carbon tax during the intermediate phase where oil

Frederick Van der Ploeg; Cees A. Withagen

2011-01-01

216

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-08-01

217

Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Data: Application to Oil Sands Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, three-dimensional inversion of airborne electromagnetic data for models of the conductivity variation in the Earth is currently impractical because of the large amount of computation time that it requires. At the other extreme, one-dimensional imaging techniques based on transforming the observed data as a function of measurement time or frequency at each location to values of conductivity as a function of depth are very fast. Such techniques can provide an image that, in many circumstances, is a fair, qualitative representation of the subsurface. However, this is not the same as a model that is known to reproduce the observations to a level considered appropriate for the noise in the data. This makes it hard to assess the quality and reliability of the images produced by the transform techniques until other information such as bore-hole logs is obtained. A compromise between these two interpretation strategies is to retain the approximation of a one-dimensional variation of conductivity beneath each observation location, but to invert the corresponding data as functions of time or frequency, taking advantage of all available aspects of inversion methodology. For example, using an automatic method such as the GCV or L-curve criteria for determining how well to fit a set of data when the actual amount of noise is not known, even when there are clear multi-dimensional effects in the data; using something other than a sum-of-squares measure for the misfit, for example the Huber M-measure, which affords a robust fit to data that contain non-Gaussian noise; and using an l1-norm or similar measure of model structure that enables piecewise constant, blocky models to be constructed. These features, as well as the basic concepts of minimum-structure inversion, result in a flexible and powerful interpretation procedure that, because of the one-dimensional approximation, is sufficiently rapid to be a viable alternative to the imaging techniques presently in use. We provide an example that involves the interpretation of an airborne time-domain electromagnetic data-set from an oil sands exploration project in Alberta. The target is the layer that potentially contains oil sands. This layer is relatively resistive, with its resistivity increasing with increasing hydrocarbon content, and is sandwiched between two more conductive layers. This is quite different from the classical electromagnetic geophysics scenario of looking for a conductive mineral deposit in resistive shield rocks. However, inverting the data enabled the depth, thickness and resistivity of the target layer to be well determined. As a consequence, it is concluded that airborne electromagnetic surveys, when combined with inversion procedures, can be a very cost-effective way of mapping even fairly subtle conductivity variations over large areas.

Cristall, J.; Farquharson, C. G.; Oldenburg, D. W.

2004-05-01

218

Vanadium and nickel complexes in the Alberta oil sands  

SciTech Connect

The nature, distribution and mode of association of V and Ni complexes in the Alberta oil-sand bitumens were investigated using neutron activation analysis (NAA), ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV), liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry (El-MS). The Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake bitumens were fractionated into three soluble extracts and an asphaltene solid. All the V in the extracts was present as vanadyl porphyrin but only a small fraction of the Ni is porphyrinic. The vanadyl porphyrin content of the Athabasca bitumen is 9.52 ..mu..g/g (Peace River: 92 ..mu..g/g; Cold Lake 77 ..mu..g/g) corresponding to 47% of the total V in the bitumen (51% and 40% of the Peace River and Cold Lake respectively) the remaining still associated strongly in the asphaltenes. All five types of porphyrins were present as homologous series with carbon numbers ranging from C/sub 27/-C/sub 40/. The maxima occur at C/sub 32/ for DPEP series, C/sub 29/-C/sub 32/ for etio and C/sub 28/ for the diDPEP, rhodo etio and rhodo DPEP. The relative abundance was in the following order: DPEP > etio > diDPEP > rhodo-etio > rhodo-DPEP. The DPEP/other porphyrin ratios (etio, di-DPEP, etc.), in the bitumen extracts are similar and decrease in the order: Athabasca > Peace River > Cold Lake. The results confirm that biodgradation has no effect on porphyrin distributions and that the bitumens are related geochemically.

Strong, D.

1986-01-01

219

Conditional simulation: geostatistical tool applied to Athabasca oil sands deposit  

SciTech Connect

Geostatistical modeling of reservoir variability in the Athabasca oil sands deposit prior to either surface or in-situ mining can provide valuable information to guide the extraction process. Geologic and engineering characteristics (variables), such as elevations of bitumen saturated and waste (barren) zones, and percentage bitumen saturation, porosity, and permeability, have a controlling effect on recovery methods. Each geologic variable is considered to be a particular realization of a random function defined within a geologic domain. This function can be inferred from available data (boreholes) under the hypothesis of stationarity. Other realizations (models) of the same random function can then be generated using the technique of conditional simulation, which is a combination of kriging and simulated correlated variables. The statistical models of geologic variables so produced are in conformity with the histogram, variogram, and actual data values, and most important, they mimic spatial variability between sampled locations. The key factor in geologic applications of geostatistics is the translation of geologic reality into mathematical abstraction. Each random statistical function is a function of the physical processes that produced the deposit, which processes in turn varied in both space and time. The deposit under study has been divided into seven domains based on the best available geologic model, and different random functions established for each variable in each domain. Three-dimensional models describing the spatial fluctuation of elevations and bitumen saturations were produced and stored as grids having 25 m (82 ft) vertical and 1 m (3 ft) horizontal resolution. These models will be used to develop strategies for mine planning.

Dimitrakopoulos, R.; Griffin, W.; Williams, G.D.

1985-05-01

220

Draft genome sequences for oil-degrading bacterial strains from beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826

Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Marks, Kala P; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om; Kostka, Joel E

2013-01-01

221

Draft Genome Sequences for Oil-Degrading Bacterial Strains from Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways.

Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Marks, Kala P.; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om

2013-01-01

222

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01

223

Controls on the oil and gas potential of humic coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic coals are highly heterogeneous, both with respect to maceral content and chemical composition. Although the oldest known humic coals, albeit gas-prone, are of Devonian age, the majority of humic coals capable of generating and expelling non-volatile oil are of Cretaceous and Tertiary age from Australia, New Zealand and southeast Asia. In contrast, the Middle-Jurassic humic coals of the Sleipner

G. H. Isaksen; D. J. Curry; J. D. Yeakel; A. I. Jenssen

1998-01-01

224

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

225

Investigation in the use of heavy oils (and derivatives) to process coal  

SciTech Connect

Results of studies to determine the effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, and reaction time on the extent of coal conversion and on product distribution are reported. Various solvents, e.g. Athabasca bitumen, were used to solubilize coal, and conversion yields under noncatalytic and catalytic hydrogenation conditions indicated that conversion increased from 10 to 24% in coal solvation to 30 to 40% in the catalytic hydrogenation. Conversion studies with Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. (GCOS) bitumen and coker gas oil showed that the conversion yield constantly increased with increasing temperature for coal/bitumen processing while reaching a maximum yield at 400/sup 0/C and then dropping dramatically to near zero conversion for coal/coker gas oil conversion. Optimum conversion conditions were established to be reaction for 60 min at 400/sup 0/C at a pressure of approximately 1000 psig. Analyses of solid, liquid, and gases are presented for samples used in studies of the different process parameters. (BLM)

Moschopedis, S.E. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton); Hawkins, R.W.; Speight, J.G.

1981-01-01

226

Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.  

PubMed

To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

2014-04-30

227

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta ...

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

228

The environmental impact of oil sands processing on land reclamation. [Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing technology (Clark process) used in processing synthetic crude oil from bitumen-impregnated Alberta oil sands makes successful and productive land reclamation very difficult. This study outlines the critical nature of the separation problem and relates it to the problem of land reclamation.

1977-01-01

229

Evaluation of Pump Used for In Situ Oil Recovery from Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment is being conducted near Vernal, Utah for oil recovery from tar sands by in-situ combustion. The principal mechanical problem was identified as repeated failure of the pumps used to lift the oil from the production wells. The primary pro...

J. T. McCabe J. P. McGee

1977-01-01

230

Do Massive Oil Sands Developments in a Northern Watershed Lead to an Impending Crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands developments in northern Alberta are land disruptions of massive proportions, with potentially major impacts on watersheds. Alberta has one of the largest known oil reserves in the world, and developments have about 25,000 sqkm of lease areas, and have approvals for plants to develop over half a million ha (or 54 townships). This is 91% the size of

S. W. Kienzle; J. Byrne; D. Schindler; P. Komers

2005-01-01

231

Suspensions in the hot water flotation process for Canadian oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Suspensions are created and must be processed during the application of the hot water flotation process to Canada`s Athabasca oil sands, a large-scale commercial application of mined oil sands technology. These suspensions are more than just two-phase dispersions, being comprised of not only solids and water but also dispersed oil and gas. As such, they form interesting petroleum industry suspensions. A review of the hot water flotation process is presented with an emphasis on the occurrence, nature, and properties of suspensions. 94 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

Shaw, R.C.; Czarnecki, J. [Edmonton Research Centre, Alberta (Canada); Schramm, L.L. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

232

Borehole mining: an environmentally compatible method for mining oil sands. Contract research, June-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to environmental quality. This project consisted of two concurrent tasks: mining operations and environmental monitoring. To generate the environmental impact, nearly 1000 tons of oil sands were mined from two boreholes. Water quality and ground subsidence were monitored. No significant changes occurred in the chemical composition of the process water, indicating that the borehole mining process does not dissolve the mined material. The average subsidence in the immediate vicinity of the boreholes was about 1/2 inch, although some points were slightly elevated. In general, the amount of subsidence increased with time and decreased with distance from the borehole. A mining cost analysis was used to project an estimated cost for production mining of about $38 per barrel of oil.

Knoke, G.S.; Archibald, W.R.

1980-02-01

233

Historical trends in greenhouse gas emissions of the Alberta oil sands (1970-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been increased scrutiny of the Alberta oil sands due to their high carbon intensity (CI) relative to conventional crude oil. Relying entirely on public and peer-reviewed data sources, we examine historical trends in the CI of oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining. Monthly data were collected and interpolated from 1970 to 2010 (inclusive) for each oil sands project. Results show a reduction in oil sands CI over time, with industry-average full-fuel cycle (well-to-wheels, WTW) CI declining from 165 gCO2e MJ-1 higher heating value (HHV) of reformulated gasoline (RFG) to 105 (-12, +9) gCO2e MJ-1 HHV RFG. 2010 averages by production pathways are 102 gCO2e MJ-1 for Mining and 111 gCO2e MJ-1 for in situ. The CI of mining-based projects has declined due to upgrader efficiency improvements and a shift away from coke to natural gas as a process fuel. In situ projects have benefitted from substantial reductions in fugitive emissions from bitumen batteries. Both mining and in situ projects have benefitted from improved refining efficiencies. However, despite these improvements, the CI of oil sands production (on a pathway-average basis) ranges from 12 to 24% higher than CI values from conventional oil production. Due to growing output, total emissions from the oil sands continue to increase despite improved efficiency: total upstream emissions were roughly 65 MtCO2e in 2010, or 9% of Canada’s emissions.

Englander, Jacob G.; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Brandt, Adam R.

2013-12-01

234

Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological CO2 sequestration into subsurface unmineable oil/gas fields and coal formations has been considered as one of the possible ways to reduce dispersal of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. However, feasibility of CO2 injection largely depends on a variety of geological and economical settings, and its ecological consequences have remained largely unpredictable. To address these issues, we developed a new flow-through-type CO2 injection system designated as the 'geobio-reactor system' to examine possible geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impact caused by CO2 injection under in-situ pressure (0-100 MPa) and temperature (0-70°C) conditions. In this study, we investigated Eocene bituminous coal-sandstones in the northwestern Pacific coast, Hokkaido, Japan, using the geobio-reactor system. Anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into the coal-sand column under the pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. Molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that predominant bacterial components were physically dispersed from coal to sand as the intact form during experiment. Cultivation experiments from sub-sampling fluids indicated that some terrestrial microbes could preserve their survival in subsurface condition. Molecular analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA genes also showed that no methanogens were activated during experiment. We also anaerobically incubated the coal sample using conventional batch-type cultivation technique with a medium for methanogens. After one year of the batch incubation at 20°C, methane could be detected from the cultures except for the acetate-fed culture. The sequence of archaeal 16S rRNA genes via PCR amplification obtained from the H2 plus formate-fed culture was affiliated with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanobacterium, whereas the methanol plus trimethylamine culture belonged to a methylotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanosarcina. For the acetate-fed culture, no cell proliferation and methane-production were observed after two-years incubation. During the injection of CO2 and fluid, increase of dissolved CH4 concentration was observed, of which ?13CCH4 were constantly similar to those of the absorbed coal-bed methane (?13CCBM, ~70‰), suggesting the enhanced gas recovery with fluid flow. The output volume of CO2 (?CO2out, 22.1 to 125.6 mM) was smaller than initial concentration (?CO2in, 138.38 mM), which can be explained by either adsorption on coal, formation of carbonate minerals, or microbial consumption. Increase of acetate concentration in the fluids was also observed, whereas ?13Cacetate depleted during experiment. Considering with the decrease of additive H2, it is most likely that homo-acetogenesis would occur during experiments, which is consistent with detection of Sporomusa-related 16S rRNA genes, homo-acetogenic bacterium, in cloning analysis of sandstone after experiment. Decrease of formate concentrations and increase of ?13Cformate indicate bacterial consumption of formate and isotopic fractionation. Our results suggest that CO2 injection to natural coal-sand formation stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

2013-12-01

235

Do peat amendments to oil sands wet sediments affect Carex aquatilis biomass for reclamation success?  

PubMed

The oil sands industries of Alberta (Canada) have reclamation objectives to return the mined landscape to equivalent pre-disturbance land capability. Industrial operators are charged with reclaiming a vast landscape of newly exposed sediments on saline-sodic marine-shales sediments. Incorporated in these sediments are by-products resulting from bitumen extraction (consolidated tailings (CT), tailings-sand (TS), and oil sands processed water (OSPW)). A sedge community dominated by Carex aquatilis was identified as a desirable and representative late-succession community for wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. However, the physical and chemical conditions, including high salinity and low nutrient content of CT and TS sediments suppress plant growth and performance. We experimentally tested the response of C. aquatilis to amendments with peat-mineral-mix (PM) on oil sand sediments (CT and TS). In a two factorial design experiment, we also tested the effects of OSPW on C. aquatilis. We assessed survival, below- and aboveground biomass, and physiology (chlorophyll a fluorescence). We demonstrated that PM amendments to oil sands sediments significantly increased C. aquatilis survival as well as below and aboveground biomass. The use of OSPW significantly reduced C. aquatilis belowground biomass and affected its physiological performance. Due to its tolerance and performance, we verified that C. aquatilis was a good candidate for use in reclaiming the wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. Ultimately, amending CT and TS with PM expedited the reclamation of the wetland to a C. aquatilis-community which was similar in gross structure to undisturbed wetlands of the region. PMID:24694323

Roy, Marie-Claude; Mollard, Federico P O; Foote, A Lee

2014-06-15

236

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen,

J. G. Reynolds; R. W. Crawford

1988-01-01

237

Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning. Eighth quarterly report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research efforts on the importance of a coal-sand attrition continued with work in four categories: Continuous grinding tests using steel media; fracture tests on coal samples compacted at different pressure; SEM-Image analysis of feed and ground prod...

R. K. Mehta C. W. Schultz

1993-01-01

238

In Situ Recovery of Oil from Utah Tar Sand: A Summary of Tar Sand Research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand depos...

L. C. Marchant J. D. Westhoff

1985-01-01

239

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of current oil sands technologies: GHOST model development and illustrative application.  

PubMed

A life cycle-based model, GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies), which quantifies emissions associated with production of diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) is developed. GHOST has the potential to analyze a large set of process configurations, is based on confidential oil sands project operating data, and reports ranges of resulting emissions, improvements over prior studies, which primarily included a limited set of indirect activities, utilized theoretical design data, and reported point estimates. GHOST is demonstrated through application to a major oil sands process, steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The variability in potential performance of SAGD technologies results in wide ranges of "well-to-refinery entrance gate" emissions (comprising direct and indirect emissions): 18-41 g CO(2)eq/MJ SCO, 9-18 g CO(2)eq/MJ dilbit, and 13-24 g CO(2)eq/MJ synbit. The primary contributor to SAGD's emissions is the combustion of natural gas to produce process steam, making a project's steam-to-oil ratio the most critical parameter in determining GHG performance. The demonstration (a) illustrates that a broad range of technology options, operating conditions, and resulting emissions exist among current oil sands operations, even when considering a single extraction technology, and (b) provides guidance about the feasibility of lowering SAGD project emissions. PMID:21919460

Charpentier, Alex D; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Bergerson, Joule A; MacLean, Heather L

2011-11-01

240

Gulf/RTR oil sands extraction process. [Gulf/Rio Tinto TIL Holding S. A  

SciTech Connect

The activities carried out and the results obtained from a 15 tons/hour oil sands extraction pilot plant operated in Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta are described. The process is the Rio Tinto TIL Holding S.A. (RTR)/Gulf Canada Lt. Oil Sands Extraction Process. It is a modified hot water extraction process. It is used to extract bitumen from Athabasca oil sands. The test ran from July to December 1981 through ambient conditions ranging from plus 38/sup 0/C to minus 30/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F to -22/sup 0/F). The process, the on-site facilities, the test program, an analysis of plant performance, an appraisal of the process economics, and an evaluation of its potential application are described.

Logan, A.; Devenny, D.; Porcari, G.; Corti, A.

1984-06-01

241

Extraction, separation, and intramolecular carbon isotope characterization of athabasca oil sands acids in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Here we report a novel approach to extract, isolate, and characterize high molecular weight organic acids found in the Athabasca oil sands region using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) followed by thermal conversion/elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA-IRMS). A number of different "naphthenic acids" surrogate standards were analyzed as were samples from the bitumen-rich unprocessed McMurray Formation, oil sands process water, groundwater from monitoring wells, and surface water from the Athabasca River. The intramolecular carbon isotope signature generated by online pyrolysis (?(13)C(pyr)) showed little variation (±0.6‰) within any given sample across a large range of mass fractions separated by PCGC. Oil sand, tailings ponds, and deep McMurray Formation groundwater were significantly heavier (up to ?9‰) compared to surface water and shallow groundwater samples, demonstrating the potential use of this technique in source apportionment studies. PMID:23121597

Ahad, Jason M E; Pakdel, Hooshang; Savard, Martine M; Simard, Marie-Christine; Smirnoff, Anna

2012-12-01

242

Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon  

PubMed Central

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734–7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services.

Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

2012-01-01

243

Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon.  

PubMed

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734-7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services. PMID:22411786

Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E; Schindler, David W

2012-03-27

244

Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

2011-12-01

245

Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.  

PubMed

For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 microg/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 microg/L in winter and to 0.202 microg/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly <0.025 microg/L in winter and 0.030 microg/L in summer, except near oil sands upgrading facilities and tailings ponds in winter (0.031-0.083 microg/L) and downstream of new development in summer (0.063-0.135 microg/L). In the Athabasca and its tributaries, development within the past 2 years was related to elevated dissolved PAC concentrations that were likely toxic to fish embryos. In melted snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 microg/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

Kelly, Erin N; Short, Jeffrey W; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K; Fortin, Barbra L

2009-12-29

246

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. PMID:11428139

Crowe, A U; Han, B; Kermode, A R; Bendell-Young, L I; Plant, A L

2001-01-01

247

Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 ?g/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 ?g/L in winter and to 0.202 ?g/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly <0.025 ?g/L in winter and 0.030 ?g/L in summer, except near oil sands upgrading facilities and tailings ponds in winter (0.031–0.083 ?g/L) and downstream of new development in summer (0.063–0.135 ?g/L). In the Athabasca and its tributaries, development within the past 2 years was related to elevated dissolved PAC concentrations that were likely toxic to fish embryos. In melted snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 ?g/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed.

Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

2009-01-01

248

Nuclear Power Aspects in an Oil and Coal Producing Country.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago are described. Resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, some hydro and geothermal power, and some radioactive minerals. The possible use of...

J. Iljas

1977-01-01

249

Characterization of oil sands mineral components and clay-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Differences in oil sands processibility and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailings as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with product. The nature of these complexes has been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis. The relationship of these measurements to processibility and the relevance of conventional oil sands structural modes are discussed.

Axelson, D.E.; Mikula, R.J.

1988-06-01

250

Unsteady mass transfer from oil sand spheres in convective streams at low Reynolds number  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the process of transient mass transfer in and around oil sand spheres that was investigated experimentally. Preshaped molded spherical particles of Athabasca oil sands were subjected to hot air streams at atmospheric pressure and constant temperature ranging from 150{degrees}C up to 475{degrees}C with a uniform stream velocity covering the range 0.15 m/s up to 1.7 m/s and Reynolds number over the range 33-1650. The rate of mass loss due to fluid volatilization for each set of experimental conditions was established and correlated with the residence time in terms of dimensionless groupings.

Abdrabboh, M.A. (Al-Azhan Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cairo (EG)); Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

251

Coal, oil, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented in this publication were assembled to assist in developing a fundamental understanding and a geological perspective of occurrence of coal, petroleum, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona. The data are presented in three parts: (1) coals; (2) oil, natural gas, and helium; and (3) uranium. A bibliography is presented at the end of the report. Numerous

H. W. Peirce; S. B. Keith; J. C. Wilt

1970-01-01

252

Heavy oil and tar sands resources of western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Canada contains about 2.5 trillion bbl of crude bitumen and heavy oil in an area of some 20,000 mi². Of this, an estimated 11%, or 280 billion bbl, is thought to be recoverable. This compares with 17.0 billion bbl of recoverable conventional crude oil discovered to date in Western Canada. The majority of the recoverable bitumen\\/heavy oil resources must

R. A. McIntosh; K. N. Beckie

1988-01-01

253

The effects of pretreatment on nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane filtration for desalination of oil sands process-affected water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is largely produced from the oil sands operational process and requires the removal of toxicants for reuse. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane applications can be used to remove salt ions from OSPW. However, membrane treatments of OSPW are impeded by membrane fouling due to suspended solids; therefore, feed water must be pretreated to

Eun-Sik Kim; Yang Liu; Mohamed Gamal El-Din

2011-01-01

254

Monitoring the Effects of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water (OSPW) on Thecamoebian Assemblages: An Experimental Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thecamoebian (testate amoeba) assemblages have been shown to respond over short time periods to environmental conditions in aquatic reclamation options under development at oil sands operations in northeastern Alberta. This makes them a useful bio-monitoring tool for assessing reclamation success. Thecamoebian responses to Oil Sands Process Water (OSPW) have been monitored in the field at lacustrine and wetland test sites

D. G. Christie; F. F. McCarthy; T. Penner; M. M. MacKinnon

2009-01-01

255

Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and\\/or safe return of OSPW into the environment,

Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Hongjing Fu; Nan Wang; Pamela Chelme-Ayala; Leonidas Pérez-Estrada; Przemys?aw Drzewicz; Jonathan W. Martin; Warren Zubot; Daniel W. Smith

2011-01-01

256

Coal-oil coprocessing: Phase 1, Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of Phase 1 of the Coal/Oil Co-Processing Program. The sponsors of the Phase 1 Program included the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ontario-Ohio Synthetic Fuels Corporation, Ltd. (OOSFC), Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Dynalectron Corporation. OOSFC received financial assistance from the Ohio Coal Development Office. While the overall objective of this program is to further develop and demonstrate HRI's Ebullated-Bed Coal/Oil Co-Processing Technology, the specific objectives of coal/oil co-processing are to: produce incremental liquid fuels from coal and upgrade poor quality petroleum-derived residual fuels. Four coal and four oil feedstocks were selected for the Phase 1 Program based on their near-term commercial interest. The quality of these feedstocks were characterized and batch microautoclave reactivity screening tests were performed. Further batch autoclave reactivity screening experiments were performed on selected feedstocks and feedstock combinations. Two continuous bench-scale operations were completed, in single- and two-stage configurations, using a single feedstock combination (Ohio No. 5/6 coal and Cold Lake residuum). Process performance obtained in the continuous bench unit operations was excellent, with over 90 W % M.A.F. 975/sup 0/F/sup +/ conversion, 90% hydrodesulfurization, 80% hydrodenitrogenation and 99% demetallization. Based on the results of the continuous bench-scale operations liquid product characterizations were performed, as well as economic screening studies that identified preferred operating conditions. Finally, commercial planning studies focused on specific locations in the Great Lakes region where coal/oil co-processing may be commercially applied. Further research and development of the coal/oil co-processing technology will be done during Phase 2 of this program. 7 refs., 62 figs., 73 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

257

Characterization of oil sands mineral components and clay-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Differences in oil sands processability and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailing as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with the product. The nature of the organic component of clay-organic complexes extracted from various streams in an oil sands recovery process is discussed in relation to the stability of both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions formed. These samples have been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as with other techniques such as interfacial tension measurements.

Axelson, D.E.; Mikula, R.J.; Potoczny, Z.M. (CRL, Fuel Processing Lab., CANMET, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, P.O. Bag 1280, Devon, Alberta, T0C 1E0 (CA))

1989-01-01

258

Santa Rosa Oil Sands Project. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous 25-barrel-per-day pilot plan to recover bitumen from tar sands was built and operated by Solv-Ex Corp. to test and develop its process for a proposed 4000 BPSD commercial plant at Santa Rosa, NM. A small test mine was opened near Santa Rosa and some s5000 tons of ore were mined and crushed for processing. A crater test program

1984-01-01

259

Biodegradation and origin of oil sands in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands deposits in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) comprise of at least 85% of the total immobile bitumen\\u000a in place in the world and are so concentrated as to be virtually the only such deposits that are economically recoverable\\u000a for conversion to oil. The major deposits are in three geographic and geologic regions of Alberta: Athabasca, Cold

Shuqing Zhou; Haiping Huang; Yuming Liu

2008-01-01

260

SAGD Reservoir Characterization Using Geostatistics: Application to the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is important because of the vast reserves accessible with this production mechanism. The Athabasca Oils Sands, also known as the McMurray Formation, is located in northern Alberta near Fort McMurray. The McMurray Formation contains an estimated one-trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place or one-quarter of Canada's total oil reserves; however, only 10% is economically

Jason A. McLennan; Clayton V. Deutsch

261

Unique enhanced oil and gas recovery project for very high pressure Wilcox sands uses cryogenic nitrogen and methane mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary recovery of oil, condensate, plant liquids, and gas from volatile oil and retrograde condensate reservoirs in the hot, high pressured, and multilayered Wilcox sands in the Fordoche field, Pt. Copee parish, Louisiana, is low. Recovery from oil reservoirs by depletion is predicted by numerous model studies to be from 26 to 36% of the original-in-place (OIP) oil. Condensate recovery

C. Prihoda; W. W. Holden; W. W. Jr. Eckles

1980-01-01

262

Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.  

PubMed

The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity. PMID:24054134

Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

2013-11-01

263

Liptinite in coal and oil source rocks in northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological study of northern Thailand coal and oil deposits indicates a similar palynological association to that of the Borneo region. Coal petrographic studies of these deposits show variations in the liptinite macerals, especially alginite types. The oldest of these coal and oil deposits, which are of Late Oligocene to Early Miocene age, are dominated by Botryococcus sp. or Botryococcus-related algae. Thick-walled lamaginites and spores and pollen of temperate affinity, are found in some areas. By contrast, thin-walled lamaginite is dominant in late Middle Miocene time. Resinite, suberinite, and cutinite are dominant in forest swamp coal deposits whereas alginite, cutinite and lycopodium spores are dominant in lacustrine environments. Exsudatinite is common even at early levels of maturation. These liptinite macerals can be major sources of oil and gas.

Ratanasthien, Benjavun; Kandharosa, Withaya; Chompusri, Sujintana; Chartprasert, Siraprapa

1999-04-01

264

Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

2012-09-01

265

Surface mining of oil sands in Canada: Developments in productivity improvement  

SciTech Connect

A variety of equipment is used to surface mine oil sands, including bucket wheel excavators/conveyors, draglines, hydraulic shovels, and off-highway trucks. This paper examines the existing mining schemes and equipment used. Several proposals to improve mine productivity are presented.

Singhal, R.K.; Kolada, R.

1987-04-01

266

Development and Field Results of a Unique Drilling Fluid Designed for Heavy Oil Sands Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling Heavy Oil Sands are traditionally fraught with many technical challenges. Stability of the wellbore, accretion of the tar on drill string and solids control equipment, torque- drag considerations, extreme temperature conditions, as well as the handling of oily solids are just some of the challenges that need to be met. This paper describes the development and testing of a

B. K. Warren; L. V. Baltoiu; R. G. Dyck

2005-01-01

267

Field Experiment of Reverse Combustion Oil Recovery from a Utah Tar Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment to recover oil from tar sand by reverse combusion was conducted at Northwest Asphalt Ridge, near Vernal, Utah. This test was in a 10-ft interval of the Rim Rock sandstone member of the Mesa Verde Formation at a depth of 300 ft. Ignition...

C. S. Land C. Q. Cupps L. C. Marchant F. M. Carlson

1977-01-01

268

Fluid Flow and Sand Production in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs Under Solution-Gas Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of heavy oil in Canada has led to a number of anomalous results, most of which have been excused as high-permeability channels resulting from sand production. The methods of soil mechanics predict gross formation failure resulting from high fluid compressability, small cohesion, and high viscosity. Gross failure results in excellent productivity but reduced in-situ stress (and fracture stress).

Gerald Smith

1988-01-01

269

Commercial aspects of Utah's oil-impregnated sand-stone deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utah contains 51 deposits or groups of deposits of tar sands. Four minor or small deposits occur in the northwest, southwest, and far southeast parts of the state. The 25 deposits in the Uinta Basin of northeast Utah contain an estimated 10.81 billion bbl of oil in place. The 22 in the central southeast contain an estimated 14.32 billion bbl.

Ritzma

1973-01-01

270

Examination of the mining of heavy oil and tar sands by overburden substitution  

SciTech Connect

A mining procedure which removes the geologic formations above an oil or tar sand bearing reservoir by strip mining techniques, then floods the upper surface of the reservoir with a pool of water, is examined by computational models and laboratory scale experiments. The results of the studies indicate low production rates are achieved by such a procedure.

Fox, R.L.

1982-02-01

271

Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

2008-01-01

272

Vegetation communities in continental boreal wetlands along a salinity gradient: Implications for oil sands mining reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands mining is a major disturbance to boreal landscapes in north-eastern Alberta, Canada. Freshwater peatlands dominate the landscape prior to mining, but the post-mining reclamation landscape will have wetlands that span a salinity gradient. Little is known about the native vegetation communities in subsaline and saline marshes in the boreal region, yet these communities offer the best potential for

Marsha Trites; Suzanne E. Bayley

2009-01-01

273

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed landscapes after oil sands mining have saline soils; yet, they are required to have similar biodiversity and productivity as the predisturbance nonsaline land- scape. Given that many species in the boreal forest are not tolerant of salinity, we studied the effects of soil salin- ity on plant communities in natural saline landscapes to understand potential plant responses during the

Brett G. Purdy; S. Ellen Macdonald; Victor J. Lieffers

2005-01-01

274

Quantifying land use of oil sands production: a life cycle perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the inclusion of land use in life cycle assessment are not well established. Here, we describe an approach that compares land disturbance between spatially compact and diffuse activities that contribute to the life cycle of a single product, in this case synthetic crude from Alberta’s oil sands. We compare production using surface mining and in situ extraction technologies.

Sarah M Jordaan; David W Keith; Brad Stelfox

2009-01-01

275

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir

J. W. Castle; R. A. Bridges; C. J. Lorinovich; Fred J. Molz; C. L. Dinwiddie; S. Lu

2003-01-01

276

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz

2003-01-01

277

The Geological Challenge for Development of Heavy Crude and Oil Sands of Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many years of drilling has delineated the Heavy Crude and Oil Sands Deposits of Western Canada. Although the vast areal extent of these deposits is relatively well-known, an understanding of their depositional history is less clear. For the geologist, the challenge is not the discovery of new reserves, but rather the search for suitable recovery targets within the complex stratigraphy

Don McPhee; Michael J. Ranger

1998-01-01

278

Energy, the Exchange Rate, and the EconomyMacroeconomic Benefits of Canada's Oil Sands Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes potential benefits from Canada's expanding oil sands production, higher energy exports, and further improvements in the terms of trade. Contrary to the previous Canadian exchange rate literature, this paper finds that both energy and nonenergy commodity prices have an influence on the Canadian dollar, and some upward pressure on the exchange rate would therefore be expected. Model

Tamim Bayoumi; Martin Mühleisen

2006-01-01

279

Oilsand: A computer system for geostatistical modelling and evaluation of oil sand deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

OILSAND is a computer software system designed to perform all steps required for the geostatistical modelling, display, and preliminary evaluation of the in-situ reserves of an oil sand deposit. The system allows the integration of geological control descriptions with the techniques of ordinary kriging and conditional simulation. In addition, it permits the consideration of the mining method in the calculation

R. Dimitrakopoulos; W. H. Griffin

1990-01-01

280

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-01-01

281

WSN application in the harsh industrial environment of the oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a unique WSN platform specifically researched to monitor the health conditions of the vibration screens used by Oil Sand operators in Canada. Previous to WSN, wired sensing solutions have been attempted for this project, but failed to sustain integrity in the harsh conditions imposed by the environment. The researched platform allowed, for

Ahmad El Kouche; Louai Al-Awami; Hossam Hassanein; Khaled Obaia

2011-01-01

282

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

283

Optimal Carbon Tax with a Dirty Backstop - Oil, Coal, or Renewables?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. “Preference reversal” can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil,

Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

2011-01-01

284

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration. Phase I. Monthly report, August 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with various commercially available blending equipment is being investigated in the laboratory. Stability is also being evaluated using

Dunn

1977-01-01

285

Coal--Oil Slurry Combustion Demonstration, Phase I. Monthly Report, December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with v...

R. M. Dunn

1978-01-01

286

Physical and biological studies of coal and oil fly ash.  

PubMed Central

Studies were performed to compare the physical and chemical characteristics and the in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity of oil and coal fly ash. Sampling methodology was developed to collect size-fractionated particulate matter from the smokestack of either a coal-fired or an oil-fired power plant. Morphological studies demonstrated particle heterogeneity, although most coal fly ash particles appeared to be spherical. Oil fly ash contained two major morphologies; nonopaque amorphous particles and opaque amorphous particles. Elemental analysis indicates that the coal ash is predominantly composed of aluminosilicate particles, while the oil ash is predominantly inorganic sulfates and carbonaceous particles. In vitro macrophage assays demonstrate that the finest coal fly ash particles are the most cytotoxic; the cytotoxicity is significantly less than that of alpha-quartz, the positive control particle. In contrast, the oil fly ash particles are more cytotoxic than quartz. The cytotoxicity of oil fly ash is due to soluble components, possibly vanadium salts. Images FIGURE 2. A FIGURE 2. B FIGURE 2. C FIGURE 2. D

Fisher, G L; McNeill, K L; Prentice, B A; McFarland, A R

1983-01-01

287

Solute movement through unsaturated fen peat: Lab and greenhouse experiments for transport study of contaminants from Athabasca oil sands tailing pond water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Athabasca oil sands region, wetlands specially peatland dominate the landscape. Processing oil sands produces large volumes of wet material called oil sands tailing water. Discharge of organic liquid contaminants such as Naphthenic Acids (NA) and Sodium (Na) from tailing waters have a toxic effect on plants in this region. One of the greatest barriers to peatland creation will

J. S. Price; F. Rezanezhad; M. Graf; L. Rochefort

2009-01-01

288

Rapid assessment of the toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines.  

PubMed

Rapid and reliable toxicity assessment of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) is needed to support oil sands reclamation projects. Conventional toxicity tests using whole animals are relatively slow, costly, and often subjective, while at the same time requiring the sacrifice of test organisms as is the case with lethal dosage/concentration assays. A nonlethal alternative, using fish cell lines, has been developed for its potential use in supporting oil sands reclamation planning and to help predict the viability of aquatic reclamation models such as end-pit lakes. This study employed six fish cell lines (WF-2, GFSk-S1, RTL-W1, RTgill-W1, FHML, FHMT) in 24 h viability assays for rapid fluorometric assessment of cellular integrity and functionality. Forty-nine test water samples collected from the surface of oil sands developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, were evaluated in blind. Small subsample volumes (8 ml) were mixed with 2 ml of 5× concentrated exposure media and used for direct cell exposures. All cell line responses in terms of viability as measured by Alamar blue assay, correlated well with the naphthenic acids (NA) content in the samples (R (2) between 0.4519 and 0.6171; p<0.0001) when data comparisons were performed after the bioassays. NA or total acid-extractable organics group has been shown to be responsible for most of the acute toxicity of OSPW and our results further corroborate this. The multifish cell line bioassay provides a strong degree of reproducibility among tested cell lines and good relative sensitivity of the cell line bioassay as compared to available in vivo data that could lead to cost effective, high-throughput screening assays. PMID:23263937

Sansom, Bryan; Vo, Nguyen T K; Kavanagh, Richard; Hanner, Robert; Mackinnon, Michael; Dixon, D George; Lee, Lucy E J

2013-01-01

289

Stable nitrogen isotopes of nestling tree swallows indicate exposure to different types of oil sands reclamation.  

PubMed

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) inhabiting reclaimed wetlands on the oil sands in northern Alberta are potentially exposed to elevated levels of oil sands constituents such as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) through diet. While increased detoxification enzyme activity as measured using 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in nestlings is a generally accepted indicator of exposure to oil sands constituents, there is no apparent method to detect dietary exposure specific to oil sands processed material (OSPM). In this study, stable C and N isotopes were analyzed from muscle and feathers of nestling tree swallows (15 d old) to distinguish dietary exposure of birds near reference and OSPM wetlands. High ?¹?N and low ?¹³C values in the nestling tissues differentiated those from the OSPM wetlands and reference sites. Lower ?¹?N values of nestlings compared to the ?¹?N values of larval chironomids from an earlier study suggested that the majority of the diet of the nestlings was derived from non-OSPM sources, despite residence near and on the OSPM wetlands. Our finding of limited utilization of OSPM resources by tree swallows indicates either low abundance or diversity of dietary items emerging from OSPM wetlands, or sensory avoidance of prey from those wetlands. Minimal consumption of OSPM-derived dietary sources may be attributed to published findings of limited adverse effects on tree swallow reproduction, or growth and development for these same nestlings. This study demonstrated that stable isotope analysis, particularly for N isotopes, may serve as a useful tool to trace dietary exposure to OSPM constituents as part of avian ecotoxicology assessments of reclaimed wetlands on the oil sands. PMID:24627996

Farwell, A J; Harms, N J; Smits, J E G; Dixon, D G

2014-01-01

290

An airborne assessment of atmospheric particulate emissions from the processing of Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign, two NASA research aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, were outfitted with extensive trace gas (the DC-8) and aerosol (both aircraft) instrumentation. Each aircraft spent about a half hour sampling air around the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities near Ft. McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The DC-8 circled the area, while the P-3B flew directly over the upgrading plants, sampling close to the exhaust stacks, then headed downwind to monitor the aerosol as it aged. At short range, the plume from the oil sands is a complex mosaic of freshly nucleated ultrafine particles from a SO2- and NO2-rich plume, soot and possibly fly ash from industrial processes, and dust from dirt roads and mining operations. Shortly downwind, organic aerosol appears in quantities that rival SO4, either as volatile organic vapors condense or as they react with the H2SO4. The DC-8 pattern allowed us to integrate total flux from the oil sands facilities within about a factor of 2 uncertainty that spanned values consistent with 2008 estimates from reported SO2 and NO2 emissions, though there is no reason to expect one flyby to represent average conditions. In contrast, CO fluxes exceeded reported regional emissions, due either to variability in production or sources missing from the emissions inventory. The conversion rate of SO2 to aerosol SO4 of ~6% per hour is consistent with earlier reports, though OH concentrations are insufficient to accomplish this. Other oxidation pathways must be active. Altogether, organic aerosol and black carbon emissions from the oil sands operations are small compared with annual forest fire emissions in Canada. The oil sands do contribute significant sulfate and exceed fire production of SO2 by an order of magnitude.

Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C. S.; Kapustin, V.; Brekovskikh, V.; Jimenez, J.-L.; Cubison, M. J.

2014-05-01

291

Cell abundance and microbial community composition along a complete oil sand mining and reclamation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbons constitute an important energy source for microbes but can also be of environmental concern. Microbial activity causes hydrocarbon degradation and thereby loss of economical value, but also helps to remove hydrocarbons from the environment. The present study characterizes the abundance of microbes along the oil sand mining process in Alberta, Canada, as a first approach to assess the impact of mining and oil extraction on the microbial population. After mining the oil is extracted from the sediment by a hot-water extraction (50-60°C), resulting in three major fractions: crude oil, tailings sand and fine tailings. The tailings sand is used as substratum for newly developing soils on the reclamation areas. The very liquid fine tailings still have a TOC content of about 4.3% and are pumped into tailings ponds, where they need up to three decades to settle and solidify. After deposition, these mature fine tailings (MFTs) are enriched in organics (TOC content between 9.6 and 16.8%) and dredged out of the ponds and put on dumps for several years for dewatering. Finally they are brought out onto the reclamation sites and deposited below the sand layer. Cells were extracted from oily sediments according to the protocol of Lappé and Kallmeyer (2011), stained with SYBR Green I and counted by fluorescence microscopy. Cell abundance in the unprocessed oil sand is around 1.6 x 107 cells cm-3. After processing the fresh fine tailings still contain around 1.6 x 107 cells cm-3. Cell counts in the processed MFTs are 5.8 x 107 cells cm-3, whereas in the sand used as substratum for newly developing soils, they are twice as high (1.4 x 108). In root-bearing horizons, cell counts reach 1.1 x 109 cell cm-3. Cell numbers calculated from cultivation experiments are in the same range. Higher cell counts in the tailings sand are probably due to a higher nitrogen supply through the addition of a 35 cm top layer of a peat-mineral mix. In the sand nitrate concentrations are high (~0.37 mmol/L), whereas in the MFTs nitrate concentrations are much lower (~0.04 mmol/L). In some MFT samples sulphate appears to be the most abundant electron acceptor (up to 94 mmol/L) but no hydrogen sulphide could be detected. High cell counts in root-bearing layers might be related to a supply with otherwise unavailable nutrients, especially phosphorus. Another plausible explanation is that the cells are brought in the sand with the peat-mineral mix, because it seems that the mix contains a significant amount of roots. Samples with low amounts or no roots showed lower cell abundances. Sand and MFTs also differ in the microbial community composition. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates of samples with different oil content show that ?-Proteobacteria dominate the cultivable bacterial population in substrates with a high residual content of oil, whereas in the low oil content sand they play a minor role. The data of corresponding metagenomic analyses confirm these results. In MFTs ?-Proteobacteria make up about 80% of the total bacterial population. The surprisingly stable cell abundance indicates that microbial processes take place throughout the entire production process. Rising cell numbers in root-bearing horizons show that a plant cover fosters microbial abundance and diversity, helping to restore full ecosystem functionality.

Lappé, M.; Schneider, B.; Kallmeyer, J.

2012-12-01

292

Gulf/Aostra Surmont Project - south Athabasca oil sands deposit, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

In September 1979, Gulf Canada Resources Inc. and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority entered into an agreement to determine the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of recovering bitumen from oil sands utilizing a system of horizontal wells and a steam recovery process. Two methods of access to the bitumen-bearing formation were to be considered: wells drilled from the surface and whipstocked to the horizontal, and wells drilled from tunnels located either above, within, or below the pay zone. It is believed that a horizontal well system is more cost effective, will have better recoveries, and have less environmental impact than a vertical well system. The project site is located ca. 330 km northeast of Edmonton, Alta, in the southern extent of the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The oil-bearing, lower Cretaceous McMurray formation occurs at a depth of 275 m and ranges in thickness from 64 to 87 m. Gross oil pays range in thickness from 25 to 43 m.

Glenday, K.S.; Lenox, T.R.

1982-05-01

293

InSAR Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Alberta's Oil Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alberta's oil sands are among the world's largest deposits of crude oil, and more than 80% of it is too deep to mine, so unconventional in-situ methods are used for extraction. Most in situ extraction techniques, such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), use steam injection to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen, allowing it to flow into wells to be pumped to the surface. As part of the oil sands safety and environmental monitoring program, the energy regulator uses satellite radar to monitor surface deformation associated with in-situ oil extraction. The dense vegetation and sparse infrastructure in the boreal forest of northern Alberta make InSAR monitoring a challenge; however, we have found that surface heave associated with steam injection can be detected using traditional differential InSAR. Infrastructure and installed corner reflectors also allow us to use persistent scatterer methods to obtain time histories of deformation at individual sites. We have collected and processed several tracks of RADARSAT-2 data over a broad area of the oil sands, and have detected surface deformation signals of approximately 2-3 cm per year, with time series that correlate strongly with monthly SAGD steam injection volumes.

Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Shipman, T.; Froese, C. R.

2013-05-01

294

Tar sands development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands (also known as oil sands and bituminous sands) are sand deposits which are impregnated with dense viscous petroleum. Ultimate world reserves of bitumen in tar sands are about equal to ultimate reserves of crude oil in the U.S. However, the only tar-sand deposit of present commercial importance is in the Athabasca area of Alberta, Canada. The pioneer venture

1973-01-01

295

High-pressure ignition of oil sands samples in oxygen atmospheres containing various concentrations of diluents  

SciTech Connect

In-situ recovery of oil from oil sands deposits by combustion requires the injection of vast quantities of oxygen into the bed of deposits. Accordingly, there is a need to establish the ignition characteristics of high-grade Athabasca oil sands in environments containing pure oxygen at high-pressure and including the role of the presence of various diluents with the oxygen. A high-pressure constant volume bomb with a water calorimeter was employed as the test apparatus over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa to 4.0 MPa at ambient temperature. The paper presents the results of an experimental program that examined the effects of changes in the pressure, amounts of diluents and ignition energy on the ignition limits and subsequent combustion processes at ambient initial temperature. Moreover, the morphological changes to the samples at various stages of the process were also examined and discussed.

Mehta, S.A.; Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mehanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

296

Air quality over the Canadian oil sands as seen from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada contain the second largest reserve of oil globally. However, only recently has extraction of the oil and sand mixture and its conversion into synthetic crude become economically viable. This energy intensive process generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. As part of a larger effort by Environment Canada to better understand air quality in the region, a multi-satellite examination of trace gases and aerosols has been undertaken. This presentation will discuss the methodologies used to investigate this intense but spatially-small source as well as initial findings including high-resolution maps, recent trends, and satellite-derived emissions of some key pollutants. These results will be placed in a global context through comparisons with other point sources.

McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; Pommier, M.

2012-04-01

297

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

2014-01-01

298

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.  

PubMed

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

2014-03-15

299

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One

McHale

1980-01-01

300

Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.  

PubMed

Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of indigenous microorganisms, as well as the removal of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH) over a 45-day study period. PMID:24229785

Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

2013-12-15

301

Litho-Magnetostratigrapy of the Athabasca Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic mineral variations can be sensitive indicators of changes in sediment source, transport mechanism, and depo- sitional environment. Applying a number of diff e re n t magnetic property measurement techniques it is possible to detect magnetic mineral content, composition and grain size changes. The result is a quantitative expression of lithological changes, or magnetostratigraphy. Used in the Athabasca Oil

W. A. Morris; H. A. Ugalde

302

Oil shale and coal in intermontane basins of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The Mae Tip intermontane basin contains Cenozoic oil shales in beds up to 1 m (3.3 ft) thick interbedded with coal and mudstone. The oil shales contain lamosite-type alginite, and give a maximum oil yield of 122 L/MT (29.3 gal/ton). The beds are laterally continuous for at least 1.5 km (1.0 mi), but pass into mudstones toward the basin margin. The oil shales originated when peat swamps close to a steep basin margin were flooded by shallow lakes, allowing algae to replace rooted vegetation. This distinctive oil shale-coal assemblage is known from many small intermontane basins in Thailand, where locally high geothermal gradients suggest potential for hydrocarbons.

Gibling, M.R.; Srisuk, S.; Ukakimaphan, Y.

1985-05-01

303

Assessing accumulation and biliary excretion of naphthenic acids in yellow perch exposed to oil sands-affected waters.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30 km north of Fort McMurray Alberta: the Demonstration Pond, containing oil sands tailings capped with natural surface water, and the South Bison Pond, integrating lean oil sands. Yellow perch were also sampled from three lakes: Mildred Lake that receives water from the Athabasca River, Sucker Lake, at the edge of oil sands extraction activity, and Kimowin Lake, a distant reference site. Naphthenic acids were measured in perch muscle tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bile metabolites were measured by GC-MS techniques and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at phenanthrene wavelengths. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to evaluate naphthenic acids in bile. Tissue analysis did not show a pattern of naphthenic acids accumulation in muscle tissue consistent with known concentrations in exposed waters. Bile fluorescence and LC-HRMS methods were capable of statistically distinguishing samples originating from oil sands-influenced waters versus reference lakes. Although the GC-MS and HPLC fluorescence methods were correlated, there were no significant correlations of these methods and the LC-HRMS method. In yellow perch, naphthenic acids from oil sands sources do not concentrate in tissue at a measurable amount and are excreted through a biliary route. LC-HRMS was shown to be a highly sensitive, selective and promising technique as an indicator of exposure of biota to oil sands-derived naphthenic acids. PMID:24182406

van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Berrue, Fabrice; Young, Rozlyn F; Arens, Collin J; Kerr, Russell G; Fedorak, Phillip M

2014-01-01

304

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

1992-11-10

305

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

1992-01-01

306

Fuel Production from Coal by the Mobil Oil Process Using Nuclear High-Temperature Process Heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have sever...

G. Hoffmann

1982-01-01

307

A physical chemical explanation for deterioration in the hot water processability of Athabasca oil sand due to aging  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of sulphide minerals during storage of Athabasca oil sands cause solubilization of inorganic salts which affect recovery of bitumen during hot water extraction. DLVO and Ionizable Surface Group Model theories accurately predict that the level of soluble salts produced is sufficient to cause coagulation of the fine particles during the process which leads to a deterioration in froth quality and loss of bitumen recovery. The rate of aging is specific to each oil sand but storage of oil sands under an inert atmosphere in air-tight container at sub-zero temperatures will minimize oxidation.

Wallace, D.; Henry, D.; Takamura, K. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Research Dept.)

1989-01-01

308

Tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The

Wennekers; J. H. N

1981-01-01

309

Sovent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery for In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under

Norman Munroe

2009-01-01

310

High-temperature relative permeabilities for Athabasca oil sands--  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of Athabasca bitumen/water relative permeabilities which has revealed little or no temperature effect on the relative permeabilities to water and bitumen over a range of 100 to 250{degrees}C (212 to 482{degrees}F). Comparable results were obtained with both steady- and unsteady-state relative permeability measuring techniques. It was determined that the oil-phase relative permeability curve was convex. Measured curves are compared with those obtained by history matching.

Polikar, M. (Canada's Wolf Lake Operations, BP Co (CA)); Farouq Ali, S.M. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (CA)); Puttagunta, V.R. (Lakehead Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering (USA))

1990-02-01

311

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.  

PubMed

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. Here we describe the chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water. We conclude that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters. PMID:21391632

Rowland, Steven J; Scarlett, Alan G; Jones, David; West, Charles E; Frank, Richard A

2011-04-01

312

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10

313

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

2011-03-01

314

Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene concentration was almost double that measured in the Houston area, even though Houston is the largest petrochemical manufacturing center in the United States. Together, propene and acetaldehyde contributed 40% of the OH reactivity in the most strongly polluted plumes, based on the VOCs that we measured. We recommend systematic, independent monitoring in this region because of the strong impact of industrial emissions on local air quality and potentially on human health.

Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

2012-12-01

315

Kentucky tar sand project  

SciTech Connect

Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

1985-03-01

316

Santa Rosa Oil Sands Project. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

A continuous 25-barrel-per-day pilot plan to recover bitumen from tar sands was built and operated by Solv-Ex Corp. to test and develop its process for a proposed 4000 BPSD commercial plant at Santa Rosa, NM. A small test mine was opened near Santa Rosa and some s5000 tons of ore were mined and crushed for processing. A crater test program was carried out in the floor of the test mine. Crushing tests showed a low abrasivity with low fines generation enabling crushing equipment selections to be made. Capital and operating costs including surface mining for the 4000 BPSD were developed together with a favorable financial analysis and socioeconomic assessment. The environmental impact of the project was determined to be minimal with the plant designed to meet all current regulations. A chronological recounting of the history of the reserve estimates from 1933 is included with references. Whereas the project was based on an economically recoverable resource estimate of 19.2 million barrels of bitumen in ore of 4% or greater content (average 5.42%), an extensive 65-core hole exploration program failed to determine an adequate resource. A new tetrahydrofuran solvent extraction assay method was developed after discovery that the previously used loss on ignition method overstated the ore bitumen content. Finally on 942 acres, the average bitumen concentration was 3.78%; the mineable reserves was estimated at 8.8 million barrels with only a small amount recoverable at the projected mining cost of $10 per barrel. Consequently the project was terminated for economic reasons. 14 references, 6 figures, 10 tables.

Forster, G.M.

1984-03-01

317

Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast amount of oil sands exists in the Athabasca area, Alberta, Canada. These oil sands consist of bitumen (extra-heavy oil) and unconsolidated sand distributed from surface to a depth of 750 meters. Including conventional crude oil, the total number of proved remaining oil reserves in Canada ranks second place in the world after Saudi Arabia. For the production of bitumen from the reservoir 200 to 500 meters in depth, the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) method (Steam Injection EOR) has been adopted as bitumen is not movable at original temperatures. It is essential to understand the detailed reservoir distribution and steam chamber development extent for optimizing the field development. Oil sands reservoir characterization is conducted using 3D seismic data acquired in February 2002. Conducting acoustic impedance inversion to improve resolution and subsequent multi-attribute analysis integrating seismic data with well data facilitates an understanding of the detailed reservoir distribution. These analyses enable the basement shale to be imaged, and enables identification to a certain degree of thin shale within the reservoir. Top and bottom depths of the reservoir are estimated in the range of 2.0 meters near the existing wells even in such a complex channel sands environment characterized by abrupt lateral sedimentary facies changes. In March 2006, monitoring 3D seismic data was acquired to delineate steam-affected areas. The 2002 baseline data is used as a reference data and the 2006 monitoring data is calibrated to the 2002 seismic data. Apparent differences in the two 3D seismic data sets with the exception of production related response changes are removed during the calibration process. P-wave and S-wave velocities of oil sands core samples are also measured with various pressures and temperatures, and the laboratory measurement results are then combined to construct a rock physics model used to predict velocity changes induced by steam-injection. The differences of the seismic responses between the time-lapse seismic volumes can be quantitatively explained by P-wave velocity decrease of the oil sands layers due to steam-injection. In addition, the data suggests that a larger area would be influenced by pressure than temperature. We calculate several seismic attributes such as RMS values of amplitude difference, maximum cross correlations, and interval velocity differences. These attributes are integrated by using self-organization maps (SOM) and K-means methods. By this analysis, we are able to distinguish areas of steam chamber growth from transitional and non-affected areas. In addition, 3D P-SV converted-wave processing and analysis are applied on the second 3D data set (recorded with three-component digital sensor). Low Vp/Vs values in the P-SV volume show areas of steam chamber development, and high Vp/Vs values indicate transitional zones. Our analysis of both time-lapse 3D seismic and 3D P-SV data along with the rock physics model can be used to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively the rock property changes of the inter-well reservoir sands in the field.

Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

2008-12-01

318

Quality of groundwater in the Agbabu oil sands area of the Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agbabu area is currently the focus of geological investigations for oil sands by several multinational companies. Mining and associated activities will require substantial quantities of water, hence the aim of this study is to evaluate the groundwater quality in the area. Total dissolved solids in the range 1260-1460 mg I -1 exceed the upper limit of 1000 mg I -1 for fresh water, and indicate brackish, non-potable water. Using relevant indices, the groundwater is found to be not suitable for irrigated agriculture and most industrial uses without further treatment. On the basis of dominant cations and anions, the groundwater is classified as a sodium chloride (NaCl) type. Detailed and systematic hydrogeological study of the entire oil sands area is recommended to provide information on the nature, origin, occurrence and quality characteristics of the groundwater found in this area.

Ajayi, Owolabi

1998-08-01

319

Technology Assessment: Environmental, Health, and Safety Impacts Associated with Oil Recovery from US Tar-Sand Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) sy...

J. I. Daniels L. R. Anspaugh Y. E. Ricker

1981-01-01

320

Toxicity of seawater and sand affected by the Prestige fuel-oil spill using bivalve and sea urchin embryogenesis bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the toxicity of seawater and sand sampled from an area of the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula), highly impacted by the Prestige fuel-oil spill, was attempted by using marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays with bivalves and sea urchins. Water samples were frozen and toxicity testing was delayed until the reproductive season of the sea urchins. Sand samples were

Ricardo Beiras; Liliana Saco-álvarez

2006-01-01

321

Microwve inducdd catalytic decomposition of some alberta oil sands and bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of oil sands materials and upgrading of bitumens present a variety of problems for conventional technologies.\\u000a This article describes a preliminary study of the concept of using microwave induced catalytic techniques to decompose the\\u000a complex and viscous hydrocarbon compounds contained in these materials to allow efficient extraction of volatile and economically\\u000a useful organic products such as C2 and

M. C. Depew; S. Lem; J. K. S. Wan

1991-01-01

322

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-aqueous bitumen extraction process was studied where only toluene and heptane, with no water additions, were used to extract bitumen from two Alberta oil sands ore samples. One sample had a high bitumen (13.5wt.%) and low fine (5.3wt.%<45?m) contents, while the other sample had an intermediate bitumen (10.5wt.%) and high fine (23.3wt.%) contents. Bitumen recovery and product quality were

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell; Douglas G. Ivey

323

Atmospheric deposition of mercury and methylmercury to landscapes and waterbodies of the athabasca oil sands region.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition of metals originating from a variety of sources, including bitumen upgrading facilities and blowing dusts from landscape disturbances, is of concern in the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest as methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin which bioaccumulates through foodwebs, can reach levels in fish and wildlife that may pose health risks to human consumers. We used spring-time sampling of the accumulated snowpack at sites located varying distances from the major developments to estimate winter 2012 Hg loadings to a ?20 000 km(2) area of the Athabasca oil sands region. Total Hg (THg; all forms of Hg in a sample) loads were predominantly particulate-bound (79 ± 12%) and increased with proximity to major developments, reaching up to 1000 ng m(-2). MeHg loads increased in a similar fashion, reaching up to 19 ng m(-2) and suggesting that oil sands developments are a direct source of MeHg to local landscapes and water bodies. Deposition maps, created by interpolation of measured Hg loads using geostatistical software, demonstrated that deposition resembled a bullseye pattern on the landscape, with areas of maximum THg and MeHg loadings located primarily between the Muskeg and Steepbank rivers. Snowpack concentrations of THg and MeHg were significantly correlated (r = 0.45-0.88, p < 0.01) with numerous parameters, including total suspended solids (TSS), metals known to be emitted in high quantities from the upgraders (vanadium, nickel, and zinc), and crustal elements (aluminum, iron, and lanthanum), which were also elevated in this region. Our results suggest that at snowmelt, a complex mixture of chemicals enters aquatic ecosystems that could impact biological communities of the oil sands region. PMID:24873895

Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Gleason, Amber; Wang, Xiaowa; Lawson, Greg; Frank, Richard A; Lehnherr, Igor; Wrona, Fred

2014-07-01

324

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, J.W.; Molz, F.J.; Brame, S.E.; Falta, R.W.

2003-02-07

325

An oil sand pseudo-elastic model for determining ground deformation under large mobile mining equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain softening of oil sand under dynamic loading from large mining equipment inhibits the ability of the equipment to function\\u000a at optimal design performance. This paper looks at the findings of dynamic plate load tests, which effectively mimick the\\u000a loading and unloading action of a shovel track pad. A pseudo-elastic model was proposed based on the results of the dynamic

Ardeshir Dehmoobed Sharif-abadi; Tim Grain Joseph

2010-01-01

326

Legacy of a half century of Athabasca oil sands development recorded by lake ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The absence of well-executed environmental monitoring in the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has necessitated the use of indirect approaches to determine background conditions of freshwater ecosystems before development of one of the Earth’s largest energy deposits. Here, we use highly resolved lake sediment records to provide ecological context to ?50 y of oil sands development and other environmental changes affecting lake ecosystems in the region. We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within lake sediments, particularly C1-C4–alkylated PAHs, increased significantly after development of the bitumen resource began, followed by significant increases in dibenzothiophenes. Total PAH fluxes in the modern sediments of our six study lakes, including one site ?90 km northwest of the major development area, are now ?2.5–23 times greater than ?1960 levels. PAH ratios indicate temporal shifts from primarily wood combustion to petrogenic sources that coincide with greater oil sands development. Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines for PAHs have been exceeded since the mid-1980s at the most impacted site. A paleoecological assessment of Daphnia shows that this sentinel zooplankter has not yet been negatively impacted by decades of high atmospheric PAH deposition. Rather, coincident with increases in PAHs, climate-induced shifts in aquatic primary production related to warmer and drier conditions are the primary environmental drivers producing marked daphniid shifts after ?1960 to 1970. Because of the striking increase in PAHs, elevated primary production, and zooplankton changes, these oil sands lake ecosystems have entered new ecological states completely distinct from those of previous centuries.

Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wang, Xiaowa; Evans, Marlene S.; Smol, John P.

2013-01-01

327

Organic matter accumulation in western boreal saline wetlands: A comparison of undisturbed and oil sands wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructing landscapes after open pit mining of the Canadian oil sands presents enormous challenges. Freshwater peatlands dominate the pre-disturbance landscape; however, elevated salinity in the post-disturbance landscape will exclude the use of many freshwater vegetation species for reclamation. Successful reclamation will require plants to grow and accumulate peat despite elevated salinity. We evaluated the potential of salt-tolerant plants to accumulate

Marsha Trites; Suzanne E. Bayley

2009-01-01

328

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California’s heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Robert A. Bridges; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Caitlin J. Lorinovich; Silong Lu

2000-01-01

329

Characterization of naphthenic acids in oil sands wastewaters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands is toxic to aquatic organisms due largely to a group of naturally occurring organic acids, naphthenic acids (NAs), that are solubilized from the bitumen during processing. NAs are a complex mixture of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids, with the general chemical formula CnH2n+ZO2, where n is the carbon

Fervone M Holowenko; Michael D MacKinnon; Phillip M Fedorak

2002-01-01

330

Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry.  

PubMed

Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO(-) 3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics. PMID:24711805

Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M

2014-01-01

331

Naphthenic acids in athabasca oil sands tailings waters are less biodegradable than commercial naphthenic acids.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are natural constituents in many petroleum sources, including bitumen in the oil sands of Northern Alberta, Canada. Bitumen extraction processes produce tailings waters that cannot be discharged to the environment because NAs are acutely toxic to aquatic species. However, aerobic biodegradation reduces the toxic character of NAs. In this study, four commercial NAs and the NAs in two oil sands tailings waters were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These NAs were also incubated with microorganisms in the tailings waters under aerobic, laboratory conditions. The NAs in the commercial preparations had lower molecular masses than the NAs in the tailings waters. The commercial NAs were biodegraded within 14 days, but only about 25% of the NAs native to the tailings waters were removed after 40-49 days. These results show that low molecular mass NAs (C < or =17) are more readily biodegraded than high molecular mass NAs (C > or =18). Moreover, the results indicate that biodegradation studies using commercial NAs alone will not accurately reflect the potential biodegradability of NAs in the oil sands tailings waters. PMID:16294878

Scott, Angela C; MacKinnon, Michael D; Fedorak, Phillip M

2005-11-01

332

Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.  

PubMed

We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE-cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc-in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

Kelly, Erin N; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Short, Jeffrey W; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C

2010-09-14

333

Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

PubMed Central

We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE—cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc—in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development.

Kelly, Erin N.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C.

2010-01-01

334

Screening of oil sands naphthenic acids by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

Oil sands extracted naphthenic acids fractions are known to contain impurities with various levels of unsaturation and aromaticity. These constituents contain functional groups that absorb ultraviolet-visible wavelength (UV-Vis) radiation and give intense fluorescence emission in contrast to the fully saturated alicyclic naphthenic acids. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectrophotometry are presented here as inexpensive and quick screening methods that the detection of chromophoric surrogate compounds that serve as an internal standard for the indirect analysis of oil sands naphthenic acids. The method detection limit for the screening techniques was approximately 1 mg/L with an observed linear range of 1-100 mg/L. The precision of measurements was generally within 10% r.s.d. There was generally good agreement (within 20% r.s.d) for isotherm parameters from non-linear fitting of Langmuir, BET and Freundlich models for sorption of Athabasca oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures to activated carbon samples determined by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and conventional direct injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:18988108

Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M

2008-12-01

335

Ozonation of oil sands process water removes naphthenic acids and toxicity.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are naturally-occurring, aliphatic or alicyclic carboxylic acids found in petroleum. Water used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands becomes toxic to various organisms due to the presence of naphthenic acids released from the bitumen. Natural biodegradation was expected to be the most cost-effective method for reducing the toxicity of the oil sands process water (OSPW). However, naphthenic acids are poorly biodegraded in the holding ponds located on properties leased by the oil sands companies. In the present study, chemical oxidation using ozone was investigated as an option for mitigation of this toxicity. Ozonation of sediment-free OSPW was conducted using proprietary technology manufactured by Seair Diffusion Systems Inc. Ozonation for 50min generated a non-toxic effluent (based on the Microtox bioassay) and decreased the naphthenic acids concentration by approximately 70%. After 130min of ozonation, the residual naphthenic acids concentration was 2mgl(-1): <5% of the initial concentration in the filtered OSPW. Total organic carbon did not change with 130min of ozonation, whereas chemical oxygen demand decreased by approximately 50% and 5-d biochemical oxygen demand increased from an initial value of 2mgl(-1) to a final value of 15mgl(-1). GC-MS analysis showed that ozonation resulted in an overall decrease in the proportion of high molecular weight naphthenic acids (n> or = 22). PMID:18068212

Scott, Angela C; Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Smith, Daniel W; Fedorak, Phillip M

2008-03-01

336

Metabolism of BTEX and naphtha compounds to methane in oil sands tailings.  

PubMed

Naphtha, comprising low molecular weight aliphatics and aromatics (C3-C14), is used as a diluent in processing of bitumen from oil sands. A small fraction (<1%) is lost to tailings waste and incorporated into mature fine tailings (MFT). BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and whole naphtha were assessed for biodegradation under methanogenic conditions using MFT from an oil sands tailings settling basin. MFT spiked with 0.05-0.1% w/v of BTEX compounds produced up to 2.1 (+/-0.1) mmol of methane during 36 weeks of incubation. Metabolism of 0.5-1.0% w/v naphtha in MFT yielded up to 5.7 (+/-0.2) mmol of methane during 46 weeks of incubation. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that BTEX degraded in the sequence: toluene > o-xylene > m- plus p-xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene. Only 15-23% of whole naphtha, mainly n-alkanes (in the sequence: nonane > octane > heptane) and some BTEX compounds (toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene), was metabolized. Other naphtha constituents, such as iso-paraffins and naphthenes, remained unchanged during this period. These results suggest that the microbial communities in the MFT can readily utilize certain fractions of unrecovered naphtha in oil sands tailings and support methanogenesis in settling basins. Current study findings could influence extraction process, MFT management, and reclamation options. PMID:17438786

Siddique, Tariq; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Foght, Julia M

2007-04-01

337

Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system. PMID:24446583

Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

2014-03-01

338

Estimating the in situ biodegradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process waters by HPLC\\/HRMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry in Northern Alberta produces large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) containing high concentrations of persistent naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+ZO2). Due to the growing volumes of OSPW that need to be reclaimed, it is important to understand the fate of NAs in aquatic systems. A recent laboratory study revealed several potential markers of microbial biodegradation

Xiumei Han; Michael D. MacKinnon; Jonathan W. Martin

2009-01-01

339

Observations on the Effects of Natural Oil Seeps in the Coal Oil Point Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available data from population, community, and ecosystem studies from an area of natural marine oil seepage, Coal Oil Point, California, are reviewed and a hypothesis presented to explain the information. This suggests a relation that exists through time and space. Exposure to a large volume of petroleum results initially in total or almost total destruction of all organisms, followed by

Dale Straughan; D. H. Dalby; D. J. Crisp; J. M. Baker; A. J. Southward; A. D. McIntyre; J. H. Vandermeulen

1982-01-01

340

Beneficiation of a bituminous coals and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

SciTech Connect

Illinois No. 6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (IndianHead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed, mixing time, particle size, and oil-to-coal ratio. Results indicated that, although the ash reduction was significant in the Mandan decant/rectisol naphtha binder for both coals, greater reduction was achieved with the Mandan decant/p-xylene. Higher mixing speeds, longer mixing times, smaller particle size, and binder to coal ratio of 0.35 gave the greatest ash reductions. Agglomeration time was shortened substantially when either p-xylene or rectisol naphtha was added to the Mandan decant in place of using Mandan decant alone as binder.

Timpe, R.C.; Knudson, C.L.; Mack, P. (Univ. of North Dakota Energy and Mineral Research Center, Grand Forks (USA))

1988-01-01

341

Beneficiation of a bituminous coal and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

SciTech Connect

Illinois number6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (Indianhead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed, mixing time, particle size, and oil-to-coal ratio. Results indicated that, although the ash reduction was significant in the Mandan decant/rectisol naphtha binder for both coals, greater reduction was achieved with the Mandan decant/p-xylene. Higher mixing speeds, longer mixing times, smaller particle size, and binder to coal ratio of 0.35 gave the greatest ash reductions. Agglomeration time was shortened substantially when either p-xylene or rectisol naphtha was added to the Mandan decant in place of using Mandan decant alone as binder.

Timpe, R.C.; Knudson, C.L.; Mack, P. (Univ. of North Dakota Energy and Mineral Research Center, P.O. Box 8213, University Station, Grand Forks, ND (US))

1988-06-01

342

Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract  

SciTech Connect

The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

1980-02-14

343

Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery using sand pack column.  

PubMed

Bacillus licheniformis K125, isolated from an oil reservoir, produces an effective bioemulsifier. The crude bioemulsifier showed 66% emulsification activity (E(24)) and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN/m. It contains substantial amount of polysaccharide, protein and lipid. This bioemulsifier is pseudoplastic non-Newtonian in nature. It forms oil in water emulsion which remains stable at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity. It gave 43+/-3.3% additional oil recovery upon application to a sand pack column designed to simulate an oil reservoir. This is 13.7% higher than that obtained from crude lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by the standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2 and 8.5% higher than hot water spring isolate, Bacillus licheniformis TT42. The increased oil recovery obtained by using the crude bioemulsifier can be attributed to its combined surface and emulsification activity. Its mechanism of oil recovery must be similar to the mechanism exhibited by surfactant-polymer flooding process of chemical enhanced oil recovery. PMID:18625271

Suthar, Harish; Hingurao, Krushi; Desai, Anjana; Nerurkar, Anuradha

2008-10-01

344

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

345

Improving the Efficiencies of Insitu Energy Production from the Oil Sands and Did the Formation of the Oil Sands Contribute to Global Warming at the Paleocene\\/Eocene Thermal Maximum 55Ma ago?  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOTS (heavy oil and tar sands) oils and bitumens dominate the world petroleum inventory and are becoming significant in world and Canadian production yet current employed recovery technologies (Cyclic Steam Stimulation-CSS, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage-SAGD, mining) are inefficient in terms of recovery, energy and water intensity and cost to the environment. Much of the worlds' and most of the Canadian

S. Larter; Jennifer Adams; Ian Gates

346

Differences in phytotoxicity and dissipation between ionized and nonionized oil sands naphthenic acids in wetland plants.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are composed of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and, because they are acutely toxic to fish, are of toxicological concern. During the caustic hot-water extraction of oil from the bitumen in oil sands deposits, NAs become concentrated in the resulting tailings pond water. The present study investigated if dissipation of NAs occurs in the presence of hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus) to determine the potential for phytoremediation of these compounds. Plants were grown with oil sands NAs (pKa approximately 5-6) in medium at pH 7.8 (predominantly ionized NAs) and pH 5.0 (predominantly nonionized NAs) to determine if, by altering their chemical form, NAs may be more accessible to plants and, thus, undergo increased dissipation. Whereas the oil sands NA mixture in its nonionized form was more toxic to wetland plants than its ionized form, neither form appeared to be sequestered by wetland plants. The present study demonstrated that plants may selectively enhance the dissipation of individual nonionized NA compounds, which contributes to toxicity reduction but does not translate into detectable total NA dissipation within experimental error and natural variation. Plants were able to reduce the toxicity of a NA system over 30 d, increasing the median lethal concentration (LC50; % of hydroponic solution) of the medium for Daphnia magna by 23.3% +/- 8.1% (mean +/- standard error; nonionized NAs) and 37.0% +/- 2.7% (ionized NAs) as determined by acute toxicity bioassays. This reduction in toxicity was 7.3% +/- 2.6% (nonionized NAs) and 45.0% +/- 6.8% (ionized NAs) greater than that in unplanted systems. PMID:19469588

Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

2009-10-01

347

Do Massive Oil Sands Developments in a Northern Watershed Lead to an Impending Crisis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands developments in northern Alberta are land disruptions of massive proportions, with potentially major impacts on watersheds. Alberta has one of the largest known oil reserves in the world, and developments have about 25,000 sqkm of lease areas, and have approvals for plants to develop over half a million ha (or 54 townships). This is 91% the size of Lake Erie covered mainly with tailings dams, open-pit mines and associated massive removal of forests, wetlands, and soils. With rising oil prices and declining conventional reserves, the current production of about 900,000 barrels per day will dramatically increase. There is considerable confusion over how much water is needed to extract and refine the oil. Best estimated by oil companies are 6 to 10 barrels of water for each barrel of oil. Shell Oil is aiming to bring the water to oil ratio down to 3, however, this is not yet achieved. Trend analysis of the Athabasca streamflow shows that the streamflow is declining, particularly the low flow during winter. In order to sustain a minimum flow that ensures a relatively healthy aquatic environment, the only option the oil sands companies have to ensure uninterrupted production during winter is to build large water reservoirs, which would be filled during the high flow period in spring or summer. A disturbing fact is that this need for reservoirs was never considered until a science panel initiated by the Mikesew Cree First Nation participated in two hearings in the fall of 2003, when two major oil companies applied for licenses of a massive scale each. In the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), water was to be extracted throughout the year, consequently threatening in-stream flow needs at some point in the future. Less than 1% has been reclaimed so far, with questionable success, as the new landscape will be a relatively sterile landscape with minimal biological diversity. Reclamation liabilities need to be included in mining leases. The release of naphthenic acids into water bodies through oil sands refining and potential tailings pond leaks could have huge impacts on the water quality for a large region. The short-comings in the EIAs submitted during the past two and a half years are manifold: a) the hydrological science of the EIAs is extremely sparse, with hardly any references to peer-reviewed journals; b) uncertainty analysis was not included until the 2003 hearings, and today uncertainty analysis is carried out inadequately; c) climate change impacts on streamflow and the water cycle have been totally ignored until the 2003 hearings, and today climate change impact analyses are totally inadequate; d) impacts quantification calculations are based on comparing impacted areas, such as the change of open water areas, to the total study area, instead of the associated pre-development areas, which results in highly underrated impacts quantification; e) the regions of potentially affected impacts from oil sands operations are defined to end at the inflow into Lake Athabasca, which is insufficient as substances carried with the water will flow into Lake Athabasca; f) frequency analyses are based on the wrong frequency distribution, subsequently resulting in inadequate predictions of streamflow extremes.

Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.; Schindler, D.; Komers, P.

2005-12-01

348

Studies for the Stabilization of Coal--Oil Slurries (COM). Technical Progress Report , August--November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment for measuring viscosities, grinding and classifying coal powders, grinding COM, and blending rubber and coal were obtained. Coal samples covering the whole spectrum of ranks as well as oils for the whole investigation were procured. Coal surface...

G. D. Botsaris Y. M. Glazman R. Z. Naar M. A. Viola

1978-01-01

349

Tertiary development of heavy oil sands through thermal stimulation in the Wilmington Oil Field, California: A geological perspective  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, a DOE cost share project was initiated to extend thermal recovery in the Tar Zone, Fault Block 11 of the West Wilmington Oil Field, California. The project involved the collection of old oil well data and the construction of a modern digital data base in order to develop a deterministic geological model. The plan was to rigorously define the geology such that horizontal wells could be accurately placed within the sands containing heavy oil to facilitate gravity drainage. A detailed deterministic geological model was constructed using a state of the art 3D mapping and modeling package. Beginning in July, 1995, five observation wells were drilled. Data inconsistencies were revealed when core hole OB2-003 was drilled. It was discovered that the data used to make the maps was corrupted; as a result, the predicted coring point was missed by more than 20'. Significant modifications to the data base were required due to inaccurate subsidence corrections in the original data set. Horizontal wells were then laid out based on the revised data and the geological model was completely reconstructed. Detailed cross sections extracted from the model were use for geosteering. These cross sections proved to be highly accurate and five more wells are now planned for the target sands. This detailed deterministic model will be further refined and combined with our geostatistical mode for geological control in an advanced reservoir simulator. If successful, the thermal stimulation project will be expanded to other fault blocks.

Clarke, D.D. (Department of Oil Properties, Long Beach, CA (United States)); Henry, M.J.; Strehle, R.W. (Dept. of Oil Properties, Long Beach, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

350

Stratigraphy, coal occurrence, and depositional history of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Sand Wash basin, northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Fort Union Formation in the Sand Wash basin is divided into the massive Cretaceous and Tertiary (K/T) sandstone unit, lower coal-bearing unit, gray-green mudstone unit, basin sandy unit, and upper shaly unit. Lithofacies and coal-occurrence maps of the stratigraphic units indicate that sandstone bodies and coal beds occur along south-north oriented, intermontane fluvial systems. Net-sandstone-thickness trends of the massive K/T sandstone unit reveal laterally extensive channel-fill sandstones formed in north-flowing fluvial systems. The massive K/T sandstone unit's dominant source was in the Sawatch Range. Sandstones within the lower coal-bearing unit consist of similar north-flowing fluvial systems, but they are laterally discontinuous and have several tectonically active source areas, including the Uinta and Sierra Madre-Park uplifts, and Sawatch Range. Coal-occurrence maps of the lower coal-bearing unit indicate that maximum coal-bed thicknesses are greatest along the south-north-oriented fluvial axes. Coal beds thin and split to the east and west, confirming a direct relation between the position of thick, fluvial-sandstone bodies, which form a stable platform for peat accumulation, and the location of the thick coal beds. Above the lower coal-bearing unit, the gray-green mudstone unit forms north-trending belts centered R91W and R100W. The gray-green mudstone thins to the north and into the basin center and probably is lacustrine in origin, reflecting tectonic quiescence and cessation of coarse clastic sedimentation. The basin sandy unit is best developed in the central parts of the basin, where its fluvial depositional axis is oriented south-north. The upper shaly unit directly overlies the basin sandy unit and includes a thin Cherokee coal zone. The upper shaly unit has variable thicknesses due to erosion at the base of the Wasatch Formation and lateral facies changes.

Tyler, R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

351

Using reproductive endpoints in small forage fish species to evaluate the effects of Athabasca Oil Sands activities.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of naturally occurring oil sands-related compounds (OSRC) on reproductive function in fish in order to assess the impacts of anthropogenic point-source inputs. The health of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) collected from the Alberta Athabasca Oil Sands (Canada) watershed were examined. Two rivers were selected for study: the Steepbank and the Ells. These rivers originate outside the oil sands formation, where fish are unexposed (Ref), exposed to naturally occurring oil sands-related compounds (Nat), or exposed to naturally occurring compounds as well as adjacent to surface mining activity (Dev). Assessment endpoints included gonadosomatic indices (GSI), fecundity, and in vitro gonadal steroid production. In vitro gonadal incubations demonstrated lower levels of steroid production at sites along the Steepbank River within the oil sands deposit. Hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, an indicator of exposure to OSRC, was elevated twofold at the site with natural compounds and up to 10-fold at the site adjacent to development compared to EROD activity in fish from the reference site. Fish collected in the Ells River had a threefold induction in EROD activity but no significant reduction in steroid production when compared to reference fish. No consistent alterations in gonadal development were seen in fish collected from sites within the oil sands deposit. This research in the Athabasca River basin provides baseline information of the health of fish populations within the oil sands deposit prior to further development in the area. PMID:14587921

Tetreault, Gerald R; McMaster, Mark E; Dixon, D George; Parrott, Joanne L

2003-11-01

352

Dirty LED: effect of dust, fat, fingerprints, water, oil and coal on light output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output power of a light-emitting diode (LED) not only is affected by aging but also by dirt buildup. Environment and surroundings are typically characterized by the presence of substances, dust, liquids or vapors that may stick to the LED, reducing its light output. Knowing the effect of dirt on light output, manufacturers and users can efficiently design a cleaning or maintenance program. In this work, both 5-mm LEDs and high-power LEDs were subjected to output power tests for different degrees and types of dirt. In particular, I measure the light flux changes due to deposition of dust (sand), drops of water, coal dust, oil drops, fat (soldering paste), and fingerprints.

Moreno, Ivan

2010-02-01

353

Reservoir characterization for Chevron's HASDrive field trial, Athabasca oil sands area, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Chevron is currently field testing an in-situ thermal recovery process termed Heated Annulus SteamDrive (HASDrive) on the Lower Cretaceous Athabasca tar sand deposit at the Alberta Oil Sands Technology Research Authority (AOSTRA) Underground Test Facility (UTF) site. The HASDrive process applies heat through a subsurface horizontal pipe to the base of the bitumen-rich reservoir sands of the McMurray Formation. A vertical steam-injection well aids in mobilization of the heavy crude and sweeps hydrocarbons toward a horizontal subsurface producing well. To evaluate the HASDrive technology, a geologic model was developed to predict the distribution and geometry of reservoir sands and intervening shales. Core studies indicated deposition took place in an estuarine environment, with sands representing tidal channel deposits and shales relating to tidal flat sedimentation. A thorough program of conventional and special core analysis was done on samples from five wells. Special core analysis consisted of miscibly cleaning samples prior to determination of brine permeability. Vertical and horizontal permeability were determined for massive to cross-bedded sandstone as well as four types of shale-bearing sandstone. Of these four, thin shale beds and shale breccia were more effective in reducing permeability and may form barriers to fluid flow. Thin discontinuous shale laminae or shaly wisps merely impede flow. Interactive workstation programs used core and log data petrophysical parameters as input to build a simulator grid of 2,600 blocks in 10 layers to represent a field trial area of approximately 2,000 m{sup 2}. Potential barriers capable of preventing or reducing the flow rate were identified, incorporated into the model, and treated as dimensionless shales (i.e., shaly beds with negligible thickness). The simulator model was then used to the match history of field trial fluid production.

Chalcraft, R.G.; Grant, C.W. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

354

An analytical examination of the behaviour of oil sand fragments in heated streams  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical processes that occur typically within and around an oil sand fragment are considered when the fragment is suddenly introduced into a hot, low-uniform velocity, gaseous oxidizing stream. In this analytical study, the extent of bitumen volatilization was obtained from a consideration of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer within spherical oil sand fragments combined with a simplified cracking scheme of the heavy oil and asphaltene into coke and distillate. The resulting system of equations together with the boundary conditions arising from subjecting the fragments to hot convective streams were solved using Laplace transformation. The transient concentrations of bitumen and temperature within the fragments were then obtained under a wide range of operating conditions. The similarity of the expression obtained for the extent of bitumen volatilization to the expression derived from simplified analysis, based on a dropletlike model, was demonstrated for cases where the transient effects within the fragments were considered to be negligible. The results of the theoretical analysis show relatively good agreement with their corresponding experimental values at high stream temperatures, while they showed relatively inferior agreement at low temperatures.

Hanafi, A.; Karin, G.A.

1982-06-01

355

Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

Rochefort, Line

2013-04-01

356

Microbial communities in wetlands of the Athabasca oil sands: genetic and metabolic characterization.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are a complex family of naturally occurring cyclic and acyclic carboxylic acids that are present in the acidic fraction of petroleum. Naphthenic acids are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Previous studies showed that wetland sediments exposed to oil sands process water containing naphthenic acids had higher rates of naphthenic acid degradation in vitro compared with unexposed wetlands. In this study we compare the microbial community structures in sediments from wetlands exposed to different amounts of oil sands process water using BIOLOG, phospholipid fatty acid analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of total bacterial DNA. Community profiles were compared using cluster analysis. BIOLOG profiles were primarily influenced by seasonal trends rather than naphthenic acids content. In contrast, phospholipid fatty acid analysis comparisons clustered communities that had higher levels of residual oil, although this association was not strong. In contrast, cluster diagrams produced from the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis data clearly separated bacterial communities according to naphthenic acids concentrations, indicating that naphthenic acids content was a major influence on the composition of the bacterial community. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that naphthenic acids-exposed bacterial communities were homogeneous on a scale of meters, whereas unexposed (off-site) wetlands were less homogeneous. PMID:16420616

Hadwin, Alisonk M; Del Rio, Luis F; Pinto, Linda J; Painter, Morgan; Routledge, Richard; Moore, Margo M

2006-01-01

357

Constraining Microbial Community Response During Oil Sands Reclamation via Lipid and Isotope Biosignatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot scale reclamation project in the Athabasca oil sands region (Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada) has created an artificial freshwater fen typical of the boreal forest region in which the oil sands occur. At this site, composite tailings (CT) residue was overlain with a thick sand cap and a freshwater fen constructed on top. This project began in 2009, with most wetland development occurring over the summer of 2012. It is recognized that the response of microbial communities to reclamation activities has the potential to play a significant role in the outcome of reclamation. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum residues may improve reclamation outcomes, while production of by-products, particularly hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) via bacterial sulphate reduction, must be assessed to manage any potential negative impacts. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration and isotopic analysis were used to characterize the response of in situ microbial communities within the reclamation fen system. Increases in PLFA concentrations were observed in sediment taken from the sand layer at sample sites within the fen from during its establishment. Initial values equivalent to circa 106 cells/gram in July 2011 increased to values equivalent to 107cells/gram in August 2012 and then to 108 cells/gram in November 2012. Analysis of the radiocarbon (?14C) content of total organic carbon shows an increase in ?14C from highly depleted values (-983×2‰) in July 2011, consistent with petroleum hydrocarbons dominating the total organic carbon, to more 14C enriched values as fen development progressed (-423×2.1‰ in August 2012 and -417×1.4‰ in November 2012). This indicates inputs of more modern organic matter potentially associated with the peat used to construct the fen and/or inputs from recent photosynthesis. The correlation between the observed PLFA increases and this increase in modern carbon inputs suggests that reclamation activities have stimulated the increase in the microbial population. Ongoing compound specific radiocarbon analysis of microbial PLFA will elucidate the connection between the observed biomass increase and these potential carbon sources. This work will identify the primary carbon sources controlling microbial redox cycling and thus petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and/or production of byproducts such as H2S. Complementary analyses of naphthenic acid distribution, sulphur geochemistry, and microbial genetics are being undertaken by collaborating research groups. Combined, this research will increase our understanding of the environmental impact of oil sands reclamation activities and enable management decisions and future design of large scale reclamation projects.

Bradford, L. M.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Ngonadi, N.; Warren, L. A.; Slater, G. F.

2013-12-01

358

Bringing Context to the Oil Sands Debate: understanding the role of nature versus man  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian oil sands represent an important resource to the national economy, and a strategic supply-line to the United States of America. These hydrocarbon deposits reside beneath a vast area in northern Alberta, and have been exposed to the environment for millennia as a result of erosion by the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Further complexity to the geochemical setting occurs due to the existence of faulted pathways extending from deeper, highly saline, Devonian intervals to surface. Situated within this natural setting are large waste management structures used to contain mine tailings and oil sands produced water. Many of these structures are situated in close proximity to aquatic receptors and have the potential to affect local water quality due to seepage losses. As such, these structures are coming under increasing scrutiny as a potential source of environmental impact. Discharge of oil sands contaminants to the rivers, and the accumulation of these materials in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, has been cited as a factor leading to adverse health effects at downstream communities. However, the role that natural discharge of contaminants plays has never been fully acknowledged. To address this critical gap, a reconnaissance of the Athabasca River was conducted. Areas of elevated terrain conductivity (detected by EM31 survey) were identified both in background locations and areas suspected of industrial releases. Water samples were collected from various sites and from multiple depth intervals (up to 3 m) within the hyporheic zone of the river sediments. This was achieved using drive-point wells. Each sample was then analyzed for a comprehensive suite of parameters including: i) major ions; ii) dissolved trace elements; iii) dissolved organics; and iv) selected stable and radiogenic isotopes. Results of the investigation identified large areas (in excess of 10km) of groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River well outside the influence of oil sands development. Mineralization of water samples from these natural discharge zones ranged up to 64,000 mg/L TDS. Elevated levels of ammonia (up to 4.5 mg/L) were also detected, as well as certain trace elements (e.g., arsenic), dissolved organics (e.g., phenols and naphthenic acids), and certain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Geophysical anomalies identified near active oil sands developments yielded similar results. The data generated by this, and other, studies was used to create geochemical fingerprints to identify likely sources and associated risk to aquatic receptors. In the end this multi-disciplined investigation, employing physical and chemical sciences in a forensic manner, identified the significant role that nature plays in contaminant loading to the Athabasca River. This paper will highlight key geochemical findings (consistent with the physical setting) leading to a refined understanding of risks related to oil sands development, and the importance of a holistic approach when assessing and attributing environmental effects.

Fennell, J.; Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Jasechko, S.; Moncur, M. C.

2013-12-01

359

Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in wetland sediments and aquatic insects in the oil sands area of Northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense volume of tailings and tailings water is accumulating in tailings ponds located on mine leases in the oil sands\\u000a area of Alberta, Canada. Oil sands mining companies have proposed to use tailings- and tailings water-amended lakes and wetlands\\u000a as part of their mine remediation plans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of concern in oil sands tailings\\u000a and

Mark Wayland; John V. Headley; Kerry M. Peru; Robert Crosley; Brian G. Brownlee

2008-01-01

360

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.  

PubMed

Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 ?S/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ?40 mg/l and conductivity ?2000 ?S/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 ?S/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction. PMID:20980067

Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2011-01-17

361

Reproductive development of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed to oil sands-affected waters.  

PubMed

In similar experiments conducted in 1996 and 2009, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into two experimental systems: a demonstration lake where oil sands fine tailings were capped with natural water and a lake in a watershed containing bitumen-bearing sodic clays. In both experiments, yellow perch were captured in May from a nearby reservoir and released into the experimental ponds. Perch were recaptured in the experimental systems, the source lake, and two reference lakes in late September and lethally sampled to examine reproductive parameters. In the 1996 experiment, gonad size and steroid hormones were not affected in either pond environment. In the 2009 experiment, male perch in the water-capped tailings pond showed a significant reduction in the testicular development and reductions in circulating testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, while no reductions were seen in the second experimental pond. No changes were observed in ovarian size or circulating steroid levels in female perch. In the pond containing tailings, the release of water from underlying tailings caused approximately a twofold increase in salinity, alkalinity, and naphthenic acids, and a pH increase from 8.4 to 9.4 over the 13-year period of the study. In the pond influenced by unextracted oil sands materials, total dissolved solids, major ions, and pH did not change substantially. However, naphthenic acids in this system dropped more than twofold post-watershed reclamation. Because the selective reproductive effect observed in male perch in the experimental end-pit lake were accompanied by increases in naphthenic acids, alkalinity, and pH, a specific cause cannot be determined. The present study adds to the evidence, suggesting the presence of endocrine-disrupting substances in oil sands. PMID:22189895

Heuvel, Michael R van den; Hogan, Natacha S; Roloson, Scott D; Kraak, Glen J Van Der

2012-03-01

362

Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and ?15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. ?15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest ?15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. ?15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated ?15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background ?15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to atmospheric NH4 deposition. References: Sebilo et al., 2004: Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 1, 99-103. Proemse et al., 2012: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 60, 555-563. Proemse et al., 2013: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 182, 80-91.

Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

2013-12-01

363

Transport of Colloid-Size Oil Droplets in Saturated and Unsaturated Sand Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil in wastewater poses significant treatment and subsequent environmental challenges. Accumulation of oils in soil leads to hydrophobicity, and the transport of colloidal-sized oil droplets may facilitate the co-transport of oil soluble contaminants such as pesticides or pharmaceutical materials. In order to determine transport characteristics of colloidal-sized, edible oil droplets, short-pulse column breakthrough experiments were conducted. Oil droplets (mean diameter 0.7 ?m, ?-potential -34±1, density 0.92 g cm-3) were injected simultaneously with latex microspheres (0.02, 0.2 and 1.0 ?m, ?-potentials -16±1, -30±2, and -49±1, respectively, density 1.055 g cm-3) and bromide in saturated and unsaturated quartz sand (?-potential -63±2 mV). Breakthrough of oil droplets was consistently detected first and recovery of oil droplets from the column was 20% greater than similarly sized microspheres in the saturated column, and 16% greater in high (0.18±0.01) volumetric water content (VWC) unsaturated columns. Higher variability was observed in the lower VWC (0.14±0.01) column experiments, and oil droplet recovery was just slightly greater than similarly sized microspheres and statistically higher only compared to the 0.02 ?m microspheres. The research demonstrated that oil droplets are able to be transported as colloids in both saturated and unsaturated porous media. An important finding was that transport of oil droplets exceeded that of microspheres within the same size range and similar electrostatic properties. Classical filtration theory indicates that oil droplets in the diameter range of about 0.5 to 2 ?m will exhibit reduced deposition due to buoyancy. However, current improvements to the theory do not accommodate prediction of buoyant particle transport and the theory needs review. High recovery of oil droplets in unsaturated porous media is a novel finding. As expected, straining appeared to be an important removal mechanism in unsaturated conditions. Future research should be conducted with various density colloids and solutions to determine the effect of buoyancy on the transport characteristics of colloids.

Weisbrod, N.; Travis, M.; Gross, A.

2011-12-01

364

A wintertime investigation of atmospheric deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.  

PubMed

With planned expansion of oil sands facilities, there is interest in being able to characterize the magnitude and extent of deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta. A study was undertaken using a bulk collection system to characterize wintertime atmospheric deposition of selected inorganic and organic contaminants in the AOSR. The study was carried out from January to March 2012 at two sampling sites near (within a 20km circle of oil sands development) and two sampling sites distant (>45km) to oil sands development. Triplicate bulk samplers were used to estimate precision of the method at one distant site. Monthly deposition samples were analyzed for 36 metals, ultra-low mercury, and 25 PAHs (including alkylated, and parent PAH). At the two sites located within 20km of oil sands development, 3-month wintertime integrated deposition for some priority metals, alkylated and parent PAH were higher compared to distant sites. Deposition fluxes of metals and PAH were compared to other available bulk deposition studies worldwide. Median bulk measurement uncertainties of metals and both PAH classes were 26% and within ±15%, respectively suggesting that the bulk sampling method is a potential alternative for obtaining future direct measures of wintertime metals and PAH deposition at locations without access to power in the AOSR. PMID:24727036

Bari, M A; Kindzierski, W B; Cho, S

2014-07-01

365

Unconventional Hydrocarbons: Oil Shales, Heavy Oil, Tar Sands, Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many decades conventional oil which could be produced at low cost was present in abundance. A low oil price gave no incentive\\u000a to look for other types of resources. It is now clear, however, that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins\\u000a to explore and that the reserves of conventional oil which can be produced cheaply are

Knut Bjørlykke

366

Decrease in natural marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California, associated with offshore oil production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolific natural hydrocarbon seepage occurs offshore of Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Within the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets. Using 3.5 kHz sonar data, seep distribution offshore of Coal Oil Point was mapped for August 1996, July 1995, and July 1973. Comparison of the seep distributions over time reveals more than 50% decrease in the areal extent of seepage, accompanied by declines in seep emission volume, in a 13 km2 area above a producing oil reservoir. Declines in reservoir pressure and depletion of seep hydrocarbon sources associated with oil production are the mechanisms inferred to explain the declines in seep area and emission volume.

Quigley, Derek C.; Hornafius, J. Scott; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Francis, Robert D.; Clark, Jordan; Washburn, Libe

1999-11-01

367

Study of surface and liberation characteristics in coal beneficiation by oil agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three high volatile bituminous Ohio coals of varying ash contents were beneficiated by oil agglomeration using No. 2 fuel oil, Varsol, and pentane. The degree of mineral matter removal varied with the different coal-oil combinations. To explain these differences, both surface and liberation characteristics were examined. The Washburn method for surface characterization was modified so as to remove the limitations

Tampy

1988-01-01

368

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

369

Economics of fuel alternatives - oil, coal and bark boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for comparing the relative economics of burning oil, bark or wastewood, and coal to generate steam is illustrated through several case plans. It was assumed that a 150,000-lb\\/h (68 ton\\/h) boiler will generate 600-psig (4134-kPa), 700 degrees F (371 degrees C) steam, that it will be added to an existing steam generating plant, and that it will be

W. E. Knight; B. M. Jansen; J. C. May

1984-01-01

370

Characteristics of China’s coal, oil and electricity price and its regulation effect on entity economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Price of coal, electricity and oil are key factors affecting economy. Taking the yearly data of 1980-2007 as a sample, we tested the fluctuation characteristics and causality of coal, electricity and oil price, and indicated that there is dual-causality between the coal and electricity price. Through Cointegration test and State Space Model, effect of coal, electricity, oil price on output

He Ling-yun; Li Yan

2009-01-01

371

Sovent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery for In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO{sub 2}. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO{sub 2} density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

Norman Munroe

2009-01-30

372

Process and apparatus to produce crude oil from tar sands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A two-staged fluidized-bed reactor for the energy-efficient, thermal recovery of bitumen from Utah tar sands has been constructed. This reactor is a scaled-up version of an earlier system investigated at the University of Utah, and involves the use of three liquid-potassium heat pipes which thermally couple an upper pyrolysis bed with a lower combustion bed. The reactor has been studied to determine the effect of multiple heat pipes, increased feed rate, and longer duration run times. The process consists essentially of three steps. In the first step, mined and suitably sized tar sand, being fed into the reactor at a constant rate, is pyrolyzed at temperatures of 440/sup 0/C to above 500/sup 0/C in an inert atmosphere to volatilize and partially crack most of the contained bitumen. The vaporized products of the pyrolysis section are condensed and coalesced to give a synthetic crude oil. In the second step, coked sand, formed as a by-product in the pyrolysis reactor, is combusted with air at temperatures between 550 and 600/sup 0/C. In the third step, heat is recovered from the hot spent sand leaving the combustion bed by a fluidized-bed heat exchanger using vertical copper cooling tubes. Over 30 runs, with tar sand from the Sunnyside, PR Springs, and Whiterocks deposits, have been made to study controllability of the process, heat requirements, and liquid product yield with respect to process variables such as pyrolysis-bed temperature and average solids-residence times. The highest liquid yield obtained was 71 weight percent of the original tar sand bitumen. Typically, coke yield is from 15 to 20 weight percent, with gas yield making up the difference. As a result of the study, recommendations have been developed for a design procedure suitable for scale-up to a 15,000 barrel/day production unit. Included are typical operating conditions and product properties. 31 references, 35 figures, 12 tables.

Seader, J.D.; Smart, L.M.

1984-07-01

373

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.  

PubMed

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. PMID:22575093

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

2012-08-01

374

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (? 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. PMID:21036440

Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

2011-02-01

375

Evaluation of microbial biofilm communities from an Alberta oil sands tailings pond.  

PubMed

Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta has resulted in millions of cubic meters of waste stored on-site in tailings ponds. Unique microbial ecology is expected in these ponds, which may be key to their bioremediation potential. We considered that direct culturing of microbes from a tailings sample as biofilms could lead to the recovery of microbial communities that provide good representation of the ecology of the tailings. Culturing of mixed species biofilms in vitro using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) under aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic growth conditions was successful both with and without the addition of various growth nutrients. Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing revealed that unique mixed biofilm communities were recovered under each incubation condition, with the dominant species belonging to Pseudomonas, Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Rhodoferax, and Acidovorax. This work used an approach that allowed organisms to grow as a biofilm directly from a sample collected of their environment, and the biofilms cultivated in vitro were representative of the endogenous environmental community. For the first time, representative environmental mixed species biofilms have been isolated and grown under laboratory conditions from an oil sands tailings pond environment and a description of their composition is provided. PMID:22029695

Golby, Susanne; Ceri, Howard; Gieg, Lisa M; Chatterjee, Indranil; Marques, Lyriam L R; Turner, Raymond J

2012-01-01

376

Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.  

PubMed

Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. PMID:20657616

Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

2010-06-01

377

Transcriptional responses of male fathead minnows exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is produced by the oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. OSPW has acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms, but the suite of effects of OSPW, and mechanisms of effects, are not understood. The goal of this study was to use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to quantify abundances of transcripts in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW and ozone-treated OSPW to investigate sublethal effects of untreated OSPW and to determine whether ozonation imparts toxicity upon OSPW. A reference transcriptome of 25,342 contigs was constructed from RNA from livers of fathead minnows exposed to various experimental conditions. Exposure to untreated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 104 transcripts and lesser abundances of 91 transcripts. Oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and immune function were identified as processes affected by OSPW. Exposure to ozone-treated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 57 transcripts and lesser abundances of 75 transcripts. However, in general, putative pathways for effects of OSPW in fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW were not identified in minnows exposed to ozone-treated OSPW, and pathways by which ozone-treated OSPW might have effects were not identified. PMID:23246600

Wiseman, Steve B; He, Yuhe; Gamal-El Din, Mohamed; Martin, Jonathan W; Jones, Paul D; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P

2013-03-01

378

Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry  

PubMed Central

Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT) during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae, and Desulfobulbaceae) and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) transformed FeIII minerals in MFT to amorphous FeII minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O) and goethite (?-FeOOH) were the dominant FeIII minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators.

Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Li, Carmen; Young, Rozlyn; Arocena, Joselito M.; Foght, Julia M.

2014-01-01

379

Coupling bioelectricity generation and oil sands tailings treatment using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

In this study, four dual-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFC1-4) were constructed and filled with different ratios of mature fine tailings and oil sands process-affected water to test the feasibility of MFCs to simultaneously generate electricity and treat oil sands tailings. After 800 h of operation, the maximum voltage was observed in MFC4 at 0.726 V with 1.2k? external resistance loaded. The maximum power density reached 392 ± 15 mW/m(2) during the 1,700 h of MFC4 operation. With continuous electricity generation, MFC4 removed 27.8% of the total COD, 81.8% of the soluble COD and 32.9% of the total acid extractable organics. Moreover, effective removal of eight heavy metals, includes 97.8% of (78)Se, 96.8% of Ba, 94.7% of (88)Sr, 81.3% for (66)Zn, 77.1% of (95)Mo, 66.9% of (63)Cu, 44.9% of (53)Cr and 32.5% of Pb, was achieved. PMID:23669071

Jiang, Yaxin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

2013-07-01

380

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.  

PubMed

The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 ?g/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality. PMID:23134288

Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-12-01

381

Characterization of naphthenic acids from athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization: the significant influence of solvents.  

PubMed

There is a need to develop routine and rugged methods for the characterization of oil sands naphthenic acids present in natural waters and contaminated soils. Mass spectra of naphthenic acids, obtained using a variant of electrospray ionization coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, are shown here to vary greatly, reflecting their dependence on solubilities of the acids in organic solvents. The solubilities of components in, for example, 1-octanol (similar solvent to fatty tissue) compared to polar solvents such as methanol or acetonitrile are used here as a surrogate to indicate the more bioavailable or toxic components of naphthenic acids in natural waters. Monocarboxylic compounds (CnH2n+zO2) in the z=-4, -6, and -12 (2-, 3-, and 6-ring naphthenic acids, respectively) family in the carbon number range of 13-19 were prevalent in all solvent systems. The surrogate method is intended to serve as a guide in the isolation of principle toxic components, which in turn supports efforts to remediate oil sands contaminated soils and groundwater. PMID:17602673

Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barrow, Mark P; Derrick, Peter J

2007-08-15

382

Effect of carboxylic acid content on the acute toxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids.  

PubMed

Fractions of methylated naphthenic acids (NAs) isolated from oil sands process-affected waterwere collected utilizing Kugelrohr distillation and analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. 1H NMR analysis revealed that the ratio of methyl ester hydrogen atoms to remaining aliphatic hydrogen atoms increased from 0.130 to 0.214, from the lowest to the greatest molecular weight (MW) fractions, respectively, indicating that the carboxylic acid content increased with greater MW. Acute toxicity assays with exposure to monocarboxyl NA-like surrogates demonstrated that toxicity increased with increasing MW (D. magna LC50 values of 10 +/- 1.3 mM and 0.59 +/- 0.20 mM for the respective lowest and highest MW NA-like surrogates); however, with the addition of a second carboxylic acid moiety, the toxicity was significantly reduced (D. magna LC50 values of 10 +/- 1.3 mM and 27 +/- 2.2 mM forthe respective monocarboxyl and dicarboxyl NA-like surrogates of similar MW). Increased carboxylic acid content within NA structures of higher MW decreases hydrophobicity and, consequently, offers a plausible explanation as to why lower MW NAs in oil sands process-affected water are more toxic than the greater MW NAs. PMID:19238950

Frank, Richard A; Fischer, Katharina; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Arsenault, Gilles; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Solomon, Keith R

2009-01-15

383

Limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.  

PubMed

Fluorescence spectrophotometry has been proposed as a quick screening technique for the measurement of naphthenic acids (NAs). To evaluate the feasibility of this application, the fluorescence emission spectra of NAs extracted from three oil sands process water sources were compared with that of commercial NAs. The NAs resulting from the bitumen extraction process cannot be differentiated because of the similarity of the fluorescence spectra. Separation of the fluorescent species in NAs using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector proved unsuccessful. The acidic fraction of NAs is fluorescent but the basic fraction of NAs is not fluorescent, implying that aromatic acids in NAs give rise to the fluorescent signals. The concentrations of NAs in oil sands process water were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence spectrophotometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). Commercial Merichem and Kodak NAs are the best standards to use when measuring NAs concentration with FTIR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In addition, the NAs concentrations measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry are about 30 times higher than those measured by FTIR and UPLC-TOF/MS. The findings in this study underscore the limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of NAs. PMID:23379948

Lu, Weibing; Ewanchuk, Andrea; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Sego, Dave; Ulrich, Ania

2013-01-01

384

Biodegradation of naphthenic acids in oils sands process waters in an immobilized soil/sediment bioreactor.  

PubMed

Aqueous extraction of bitumen in the Alberta oil sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) containing naphthenic acids (NAs), a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Although aerobic biodegradation reduces NA concentrations and OSPW toxicity, treatment times are long, however, immobilized cell reactors have the potential to improve NA removal rates. In this study, two immobilized soil/sediment bioreactors (ISBRs) operating in series were evaluated for treatment of NAs in OSPW. A biofilm was established from microorganisms associated with sediment particles from an OSPW contaminated wetland on a non-woven textile. At 16months of continuous operation with OSPW as the sole source of carbon and energy, 38±7% NA removal was consistently achieved at a residence time of 160h at a removal rate of 2.32mgNAsL(-1)d(-1). The change in NA profile measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that biodegradability decreased with increasing cyclicity. These results indicate that such treatment can significantly reduce NA removal rates compared to most studies, and the treatment of native process water in a bioreactor has been demonstrated. Amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequencing using Ion Torrent sequencing characterized the reactors' biofilm populations and found as many as 235 and 198 distinct genera in the first and second bioreactor, respectively, with significant populations of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizers. PMID:24602345

McKenzie, Natalie; Yue, Siqing; Liu, Xudong; Ramsay, Bruce A; Ramsay, Juliana A

2014-08-01

385

Harnessing oil sands microbial communities for use in ex situ naphthenic acid bioremediation.  

PubMed

The caustic hot water extraction process used to release bitumen from the Alberta oil sands generates large volumes of tailings waste, or oil sands process water (OSPW). OSPW contains several components of environmental concern including diluents, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and naphthenic acids (NAs); the latter are of particular concern as they are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms and mammals. Studies have demonstrated that the naturally occurring OSPW bacteria are capable of metabolizing the NAs. However, this in situ process takes place over hundreds of years, and is incomplete, leaving a recalcitrant fraction of NAs intact. In this study we explore options for recovering and harnessing the naturally occurring OSPW bacteria for potential future use in an aerobic ex situ OSPW treatment system. Here we evaluate our recovered microbes on their ability to degrade two model NAs, cyclohexane carboxylic acid and cyclohexane acetic acid. Using OSPW as a source for a bacterial inoculum, we were able to compare single and multispecies OSPW cultures, grown as either a biofilm, or as a planktonic suspension. Furthermore, we examined the effect of available nutrients on the ability of these cultures to degrade NAs. All biofilms were grown using the Calgary Biofilm Device. GC-MS, and GC-FID reveal that multispecies biofilm and planktonic cultures are each capable of degrading both NAs; a trait not observed for single species cultures. Moreover, complementary carbon sources have a tangible effect on the ability of the cultures to initiate the degradation of the NAs. PMID:24325800

Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joe; George, Iain; Yue, Gordon; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

2014-02-01

386

Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry.  

PubMed

Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT) during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae, and Desulfobulbaceae) and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) transformed Fe(III) minerals in MFT to amorphous Fe(II) minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O) and goethite (?-FeOOH) were the dominant Fe(III) minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators. PMID:24711806

Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Li, Carmen; Young, Rozlyn; Arocena, Joselito M; Foght, Julia M

2014-01-01

387

Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-06-15

388

Salting-out effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids from Athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in the mass spectrometric characterization of oil sands acids present in natural waters and contaminated soils. This interest stems from efforts to isolate the principal toxic components of oil sands acid extractable organics in aquatic environment. Salting-out effects are demonstrated for nanospray ionization mass spectra of Athabasca oil sands acid extractable organics (naphthenic acids), using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The differences in spectra obtained for the sodium naphthenates in dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvents compared to spectra obtained in the absence of saturated sodium chloride salts, are used here as a surrogate to indicate the more bioavailable or toxic components in natural waters. Whereas, monocarboxylic compounds (C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) were prevalent in the Z =-4, -6, and -12 (2, 3 and 6-ring naphthenic acids respectively) family in the carbon number range of 13 to 19 in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent systems, salting-out effects resulted in a general enhancement of Z =-4 species, relative to others. Likewise, the shift in relative intensities of species containing O(1), O(3), O(4), O(2)S and O(3)S was dramatic for systems with and without saturated salts present. The O(4) and O(3)S species for example, were prevalent in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent but were non-detected in the presence of saturated salts. Interactions of oil sands acids with salts are expected to occur in oil sands processed waters and natural saline waters. As evident by the distribution of species observed, salting-out effects will play a major role in limiting the bioavailability of oil sands acids in aquatic systems. PMID:21714625

Headley, John V; Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Derrick, Peter J

2011-01-01

389

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

390

Microbial turnover and incorporation of organic compounds in oil sand mining reclamation sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms play an important role in the development of new soils and in the reclamation of disturbed landscapes. Especially in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils their ability to degrade organic matter and pollutants makes them essential to re-establish full ecosystem functionality. Microbes are also involved in the mobilization of nutrients for plant growth and in the production of greenhouse gases. Reclamation sites from oil sand mining activities in Alberta, Canada, contain residual bitumen as well as other hydrocarbons. So, these areas provide a great opportunity to study microbial degradation of residual contaminants from oil sand. To get an impression of degradation rates as well as metabolic pathways, incubation experiments were performed in the lab. We measured microbial turnover (catabolic metabolism) and incorporation (anabolic metabolism) rates of different common organic compounds in samples from differently treated reclamation sites - with plant cover and without plant cover. About 10 g of sample material was suspended in 10 mL of a solution that mimics the in-situ concentration of dissolved ions. Radioactively labelled 14C-acetate was added as a common substrate, whereas 14C-naphthenic acid was chosen to investigate the microbial community's capability to utilize a typical hydrocarbon pollutant in oil sand tailings as a nutrient source. To test for the influence of fertilizers on microbial activity, phosphate, nitrate and potassium were added to some samples in different combinations. Incubations were run over two different time periods (7 and 14 days). At the end of each incubation experiment, the amount of produced 14CO2, 14C incorporated into the cells and the remaining unreacted 14C in the slurry were measured. First results show that most of the added 14C-acetate is used for respiration as it is mostly released as 14CO2. In upper soil layers only about 3% of 14C is incorporated into cells, whereas in deeper horizons with lower cell abundances about 14% of 14C is used to build up biomass. The results also show that microorganisms use 14C-naphthenic acid as a carbon source, but at a lower rate. About half of the degraded naphthenic acid is incorporated into cells; the other half is released as 14CO2. The results give an impression of how fast and to what amount microorganisms can degrade residual oil compounds. Additionally, our study allows for rough estimates of greenhouse gas emissions of reclamation areas.

Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

2013-12-01

391

Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse particulate fugitive emissions from these sources. The impact of the general urban source was found to be enhanced in the southern portion of the sampling domain in the vicinity of the Fort McMurray urban area. The receptor model results also indicated lower Mn concentrations in lichen tissues near oil sands production operations suggesting a biogeochemical response. Overall the largest impact on elemental concentrations of Hypogymnia physodes tissue in the AOSR was related to fugitive dust, suggesting that implementation of a fugitive dust abatement strategy could minimize the near-field impact of future mining related production activities.

Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

2013-12-01

392

Larvicidal efficacy and biological stability of a botanical natural product, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical analysis on Curcuma zedoaria rhizome volatile oil, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometer techniques, demonstrated the presence of ?-tumerone (19.88%),\\u000a 1,8-cineole (8.93%), and 7-zingiberene (7.84%) as major constituents. Larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes of zedoary oil and its formulated preparation, zedoary oil-impregnated sand granules, were investigated and compared\\u000a with that of Abate®sand (temephos). Zedoary oil exhibited pronounced potential against the

Daruna Champakaew; Wej Choochote; Yanee Pongpaibul; Udom Chaithong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Benjawan Tuetun; Benjawan Pitasawat

2007-01-01

393

Vapor-liquid equilibrium of aromatic oil from coal hydrogasification  

SciTech Connect

The need for appropriate phase equilibrium data in the design of emerging coal conversion technology and particularly for the coal hydrogasification process has been the primary reason for the initiation of this project. A recirculation type vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) apparatus has been constructed for obtaining phase equilibrium data for complex hydrocarbon mixtures at high pressures and temperatures. A specially designed value has been used for obtaining equilibrium phase samples. The performance of the apparatus was tested for attainment of equilibrium in comparison with published data on VLE and N/sub 2/-n-decane systems. A systematic and complete VLE data for Ch/sub 4/-aromatic oil and H/sub 2/-aromatic oil systems, for pressures in the range of 20 to 110 atm and temperatures in the range of 400 to 550 K is presented. The multicomponent aromatic oil is a simulated light oil from coal hydrogasification without the presence of any highly polar components. Correlations for the estimation of hypothetical liquid phase pure component fugacities of hydrogen and methane, based on binary hydrocarbon VLE data, are presented. The correlations are to be used in conjunction with (1) the Prausnitz-Chueh modification of the Redlich-Kwong equation state for estimation of the vapor phase fugacity coefficients; (2) a slightly modified regular solution theory for estimation of activity coefficients and (3) the Lee-Edmister correlation for estimation of pure component hydrocarbon liquid phase fugacities at subcritical conditions. The methodology presented here has been tested for the computation of the VLE of a few ternary and quaternary systems at high pressures and temperatures with fair success. The technique presented here offers a viable means of estimation of high pressure and temperature VLE of complex hydrocarbon systems.

Srinivasan, R.

1981-01-01

394

Increased thyroid hormone levels in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands of the athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are one of the world's largest reserves of crude oil. Oil sands mining companies are now investigating the ecological impacts of reclamation strategies in which wetlands are used for the bioremediation of waste materials. To examine the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals in Oil Sands Process Materials (OSPM), thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in plasma and thyroid glands of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands partly filled with mine tailings. Plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and thyroxine (T(4)) content within thyroid glands were elevated in nestlings from OSPM sites compared to those from the reference site. Results suggested enhanced hormone synthesis by the thyroid glands independently of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as increased deiodination of T(4) into T(3) in peripheral tissues. This might have resulted from exposure to oil sands associated chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and from environmental factors such as food availability. Modulation of thyroid function might have negative effects on metabolism, behavior, feather development, and molt, which could compromise postfledging survival. PMID:17549538

Gentes, Marie-Line; McNabb, Anne; Waldner, Cheryl; Smits, Judit E G

2007-08-01

395

Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined

N. Jane Harms; Graham D. Fairhurst; Gary R. Bortolotti; Judit. E. G. Smits

2010-01-01

396

Coal and oil mixture injection into blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The results of the transportation loop tests indicate that the pressure drop of coal oil mixture (COM) in the pipe can be precisely estimated under the condition that the rheological characteristics of COM are determined by a pseudo-plastic fluid model and the apparent viscosity is measured by the cone and plate viscometer. Through the COM combustion test by LBF it was found that 70 to 85% intected fine coal was combustible in the raceway and there was little difference in the gas permeability between COM and oil injection. The replacement ratio of COM to heavy fuel oil was estimated to be about 0.8 to 0.9 by the mathematical blast furnace simulation model. The injection test into three tuyeres of a large commercial blast furnace has been performed with remarkable success since September 1980. The useful results obtained from these test will be reflected to the commercializing injection test into all tuyeres of Kashima No. 1 blast furnace. 36 figures, 1 table.

Yabe, S.; Kurashige, I.; Miyazaki, T.; Iba, T.; Kojima, M.; Kojima, M.; Shoji, Y.; Kamei, Y.

1981-01-01

397

Biogeochemical characterization of MC252 oil:sand aggregates on a coastal headland beach.  

PubMed

MC252 oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were sampled for physical, chemical and microbial characteristics from different tidal zones on a coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. Supratidal SRBs were smaller, had low moisture content, and salinities that were <2 ppt. Intertidal SRBs were hypersaline and had higher N and sulfate concentrations, consistent with regular tidal inundation. Crude oil components were highest in the intertidal "oil mat" SRBs with C1- and C2-phenanthrenes, C2- and C3-dibenzothiophenes comprising the majority of the PAH concentrations. In the other SRB categories, PAHs and alkanes were depleted and profiles were skewed toward higher molecular weight compounds. Oxygen microelectrode measurements demonstrated that saturated O2 is present immediately after wetting, but O2 consumption in the interior of the aggregate occurs after a few days. Microbial populations varied with position on the beach but sequences similar to known PAH-degrading taxa (Mycobacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp.) were observed. PMID:24210008

Urbano, Marilany; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H

2013-12-15

398

A numerical\\/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical

Theodore Henry Leshchyshyn

1999-01-01

399

Studies for the Stabilization of Coal--Oil Slurries (COM). Technical Progress Report, August--November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following tasks were undertaken: a) equipment for measuring viscosities, grinding and classifying coal powders, grinding COM, and blending rubber and coal were obtained, and coal samples covering the whole spectrum of ranks as well as oils for the who...

G. D. Botsaris Y. M. Glazman R. Z. Naar M. A. Viola

1978-01-01

400

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. (Quarterly progress report), December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal....

G. V. Smith R. D. Gaston R. Song J. Cheng F. Shi

1995-01-01

401

Oxidation of nitric oxide controlled by turbulent mixing in plumes from oil sands extraction plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of airborne measurements taken in oil sands extraction plant plumes in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. Measurements with fast response monitors at a high sampling rate illustrate the narrow reaction zone in the plume caused by a turbulent diffusion reaction of NO to NO 2 as suggested by theoretical and laboratory studies. The measured conversion rates of NO to NO 2 varied considerably from day to day, from 0.2 to 21.4% min -. Analysis of the oxidation rate of NO to NO 2 and of the atmospheric turbulence parameter reveals that, over the distances and time scales within which the plumes are distinguishable from the background, the nitrogen oxides chemistry in the plumes is controlled by the rates at which the plumes mix with the ambient air (containing ozone), rather than by chemical kinetics.

Cheng, L.; Peake, E.; Rogers, D.; Davis, A.

402

Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program  

SciTech Connect

Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

Radvanyi, A.

1980-12-01

403

ETP (electromagnetic propagation tool) interpretation procedure and application in fresh water, shaly, oil sands  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the basic electromagnetic field theory of microwave propagation and the techniques used to measure, process, and interpret the data obtained with the electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT). The theoretical basis for an interpretation procedure for the EPT log is developed and the application of EPT derived porosity and apparent fluid resistivity to the dual water model is reviewed. The application of this interpretation model using the Schlumberger Cyber service unit for processing is discussed and the formats of the Cyberlook well site processing are reviewed. The application of this interpretation technique to fresh water, shaly, low gravity oil sands is discussed. Several examples are reviewed showing the comparisons between log computations and conventional core data.

Delano, J.M. Jr.; Wharton, R.P.

1982-01-01

404

Metabolic and Molecular Approaches to the Study of Bacterial Communities in Wetlands of the Alberta Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities in wetlands from the Athabasca region (Alberta, Canada) were surveyed and their utility as bio-indicators for wetland reclamation was assessed. Sediment samples were collected from wetlands categorized as: (1) natural (off mining leases), (2) reference (on mining sites but not directly impacted by oil sands processed material (OSPM)), and (3) OSPM (directly affected by OSPM). Wetlands of the

Jessica Dawn Morrison

2009-01-01

405

Phytotoxicity and naphthenic acid dissipation from oil sands fine tailings treatments planted with the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During reclamation the water associated with the runoff or groundwater flushing from dry stackable tailings technologies may become available to the reclaimed environment within an oil sands lease. Here we evaluate the performance of the emergent macrophyte, common reed (Phragmites australis), grown in chemically amended mature fine tailings (MFT) and simulated runoff\\/seepage water from different MFT drying treatments. The present

Sarah A. Armstrong; John V. Headley; Kerry M. Peru; Randy J. Mikula; James J. Germida

2010-01-01

406

Growing season energy and water exchange from an oil sands overburden reclamation soil cover, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands mining industry in Canada is required to return mining areas to a land capability equivalent to that which existed prior to mining. During the reclamation process, ecosystems are created that bear little similarity to boreal forests that existed prior to mining. Quantifying the water balance of reclaimed ecosystems is critical in establishing whether there is sufficient moisture

Sean K. Carey

2008-01-01

407

LIDAR first results from the Oil Sands Region: A complex vertical atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment Canada is using LIDAR technology to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere over the oil sands region. This provided the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. The trailer that contains the LIDAR system includes a roof hatch assembly, basic meteorological tower, radar interlock system, climate control system and leveling stabilizers. A precipitation sensor is used to operate the roof hatch and three pan/tilt webcams capture sky conditions and monitor the Lidar system's health. A remote control interface is used to monitor all vital components of the system, including the ability to provide hard resets to the various electronic devices onboard. Every 10 seconds the system provides vertical aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects three channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization). The depolarization channel provided key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events and when aircraft fly over the site. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. First results from an intensive field campaign will be presented. LIDAR false color plot showing the bottom 7 km of the atmosphere during a forest fire event. Note the forest fire plume is between 1.5 and 5 km.

Strawbridge, K. B.

2012-12-01

408

Mercury trends in colonial waterbird eggs downstream of the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury levels were measured in colonial waterbird eggs collected from two sites in northern Alberta and one site in southern Alberta, Canada. Northern sites in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and Lake Athabasca were located in receiving waters of the Athabasca River which drains the oil sands industrial region north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Temporal trends in egg mercury (Hg) levels were assessed as were egg stable nitrogen isotope values as an indicator of dietary change. In northern Alberta, California and Ring-billed Gulls exhibited statistically significant increases in egg Hg concentrations in 2012 compared to data from the earliest year of sampling. Hg levels in Caspian and Common Tern eggs showed a nonstatistically significant increase. In southern Alberta, Hg concentrations in California Gull eggs declined significantly through time. Bird dietary change was not responsible for any of these trends. Neither were egg Hg trends related to recent forest fires. Differences in egg Hg temporal trends between northern and southern Alberta combined with greater Hg levels in eggs from northern Alberta identified the likely importance of local Hg sources in regulating regional Hg trends. Hg concentrations in gull and Common Tern eggs were generally below generic thresholds associated with toxic effects in birds. However, in 2012, Hg levels in the majority of Caspian Tern eggs exceeded the lower toxicity threshold. Increasing Hg levels in eggs of multiple species nesting downstream of the oil sands region of northern Alberta warrant continued monitoring and research to further evaluate Hg trends and to conclusively identify sources. PMID:24070029

Hebert, Craig E; Campbell, David; Kindopp, Rhona; MacMillan, Stuart; Martin, Pamela; Neugebauer, Ewa; Patterson, Lucy; Shatford, Jeff

2013-10-15

409

Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p???0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. PMID:21898553

Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

2011-11-01

410

Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21 d. Half of the fish from the 21 d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100 mg/kg dose. However, at 21 d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100 mg/kg dose. In the 21 d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose × A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells. PMID:23159729

MacDonald, Gillian Z; Hogan, Natacha S; Köllner, Bernd; Thorpe, Karen L; Phalen, Laura J; Wagner, Brian D; van den Heuvel, Michael R

2013-01-15

411

Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and estradiol imply that such compounds may account for some of the environmental estrogenic activity reported in OSPW acid-extractable organics and naphthenic acids. PMID:22014158

Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

2011-11-15

412

A comparative toxicogenomic investigation of oil sand water and processed water in rainbow trout hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of gene transcripts involved in toxic stress in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to oil sand water (OSW), lixiviate (OSLW), and processed water (OSPW). We pose the hypothesis that the changes in gene expression responses in cells exposed to a simulated oil sand extraction procedure (OSPW) differ from the gene expression responses of OSLW and OS. Rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of OSW, OSLW, and OSPW for 48 h at 15 °C. Cell viability was assessed by measuring membrane permeability, total RNA levels, and gene expression using an array of 16 genes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation (GST, CYP1A1, CYP3A4, MDR), metal homeostasis and oxidative stress (MT, SOD, and CAT), estrogenicity (VTG, ER?), DNA repair (LIG, APEX, UNG, and OGG), cell growth (GADD45 and PCNA), and glycolysis (GAPDH). The results showed that the toxicogenomic properties of OSPW differed from those of OSLW and OSW. Gene transcripts that were influenced by OSW and OSLW, and strongly expressed in OSPW, were MT, CAT, GST (induction), CYP1A1, VTG, UNG/OGG, and PCNA. These genes are therefore considered not entirely specific to OSPW but to water in contact with OS. We also found gene transcripts that responded only with OSPW: SOD, GST (inhibition), MDR (inhibition), CYP3A4, GAPDH, GADD45, and APEX. Of these gene transcripts, the ones strongly associated with toxicity (loss of cell viability and RNA levels) were CYP3A4, GST, and GAPDH. Genes involved in DNA repair were also strongly related to the loss of cell viability but responded to both OSLW and OSPW. The observed changes in cell toxicity and gene expression therefore support the hypothesis that OSPW has a distinct toxic fingerprint from OSLW and OSW. PMID:23515748

Gagné, F; André, C; Turcotte, P; Gagnon, C; Sherry, J; Talbot, A

2013-08-01

413

For oil: a mining alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shale development plans are surging again. The modern era of commercial extraction of oil from shales, tar sands, and other non-coal sources could be back-dated to 1967, the year that a Sun Oil Co. subsidiary dedicated a 90,000 short tons\\/day strip mine and a 50,000-bpd plant in the Athabasca tar sands of Alberta, Canada. Since then, Syncrude Canada Ltd.

Dayton

1981-01-01

414

Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion Program: Injection into a Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and ...

S. G. Jansto A. Mertdogan L. A. Marlin V. D. Beaucaire

1982-01-01

415

FUEL CONTAMINANTS: VOLUME 4. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TO COAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of oil agglomeration to coal wastes. There are an estimated 3000-5000 sizeable active and abandoned coal waste piles and impoundments in the eastern U.S. coal fields alone, containing 3 billion tons of refuse, part of which a...

416

Potential application of coal–fuel oil ash for the manufacture of building materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper coal–fuel oil ash has been characterized in terms of leaching behaviour and reactivity against lime and gypsum in hydratory systems for the manufacture of building materials. Its behaviour was also compared to that of coal ash. Metal release was measured in a dynamic leaching test with duration up to 16 days. The results have shown that coal–fuel

R. Cioffi; M. Marroccoli; L. Sansone; L. Santoro

2005-01-01

417

Coal conversion alternatives: one utility's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) presents its perceptions of utilizing coal in their major oil-fired plants by direct coal firing, coil\\/oil mixture, and coal\\/water slurry combustion. Port Jefferson would need a number of expensive physical modifications. If sulphur content no greater than 0.75% were allowed, scrubbers would be installed. Large sand pits on Long Island have been chosen for

Weismantle

1982-01-01

418

Performance of a constructed fen peatland: Reclamation of oil sands landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands cover >60% of the landscape in the Athabasca oils sands development region. These are predominantly fen peatlands, that rely to varying extent on base-rich surface- and/or ground-water derived from adjacent mineral lands. Large areas of peatland are removed by surface stripping to access the bitumen. Reclamation of post-mined landscapes to peatland has not previously been attempted. Groundwater modeling was used to guide design choices on the optimal geometry, placement (layering) and hydraulic properties of locally available materials; these include processed tailings sand, as well peat and forest soils from newly developed lease areas. The constructed system comprises a ~3 ha fen with 2 m of peat and an adjacent upland specifically designed to supply the requisite water to maintain suitable hydrological conditions. The upland is primarily tailings sand covered by a forest soil. The constructed fen/upland system was set within a ~30 ha basin that was reclaimed using standard techniques and materials, and supplements water inputs to the designed system. Both fen and upland were placed at water contents well below equilibrium levels, so there was concern about the wetland function during the years following construction. However, in its first year following construction (2013), a higher than normal snowpack flooded the system, but by surface inflow rather than seepage from the upland. Ground-ice in the fen limited the general infiltration and percolation of meltwater into the peat, although fortuitously a localized recharge pipe developed through thermal erosion and substantially recharged the fen. Water was redistributed beneath the fen through a highly permeable sublayer (petroleum coke) designed for this purpose, and created artesian pressures. Backflow into the upland also resulted, although much of the upland remains well below design water contents. Modification of the upland soils by plowing, and development of local recharge basins, is expected to improve upland function. Water quality issues related to the transport of residual process water in the tailings sand are part of the design. Initially these are less problematic than sediment entering the fen due to the overland flow caused by the large snowmelt and several extreme rainfall events that have occurred. The modifications to the upland, and a suite of sediment-trapping geotextile logs, will reduce the sediment issue. Monitoring continues.

Price, J. S.

2013-12-01

419

Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.  

PubMed

Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and a significant increase in the dry sand abrasion wear resistance when compared with the microstructured coating. PMID:19916449

Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

2009-07-01

420

Special report: Athabasca tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic crude oil is being produced from the Athabasca oil sands region of northeastern Alberta. The Athabasca operations are broken down into 3 divisions: mining, extraction of oil from the sand, and pipelining to market. The entire project, operated by Great Canadian Oil Sands, Ltd., an affiliate of Sun Oil Co., is self-sufficient except for the water supply. By-

W. A. Bachman; D. H. Stormont

1967-01-01

421

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

422

Gill and liver histopathological changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

The extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) produces significant volumes of process-affected water containing elevated levels of naphthenic acids (NAs), ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sublethal response of aquatic organisms exposed to oil sands constituents in experimental aquatic environments that represent possible reclamation options has been studied. In this study, the effects of process-affected waters on gill and liver tissues in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and caged goldfish (Carassius auratus) held in several reclamation ponds at Syncrude's Mildred Lake site have been assessed. Following a 3-week exposure, significant gill (epithelial cell necrosis, mucous cell proliferation) and liver (hepatocellular degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration) histopathological changes were noted in fish held in waters containing high levels of oil sands process-affected water. In addition, measurements of gill dimensions (gill morphometrical indices) proved sensitive and provided evidence of a physiological disturbance (gas exchange) with exposure to oil sands materials. Due to the complexity of oil sands process-affected water, the cause of the alterations could not be attributed to specific oil sands constituents. However, the histopathological parameters were strong indicators of exposure to oil sands process-affected water and morphometrical data were sensitive indicators of pathological response, which can be used to identify the interactive effects of ionic content, NAs, and PAHs in future laboratory studies. PMID:15964628

Nero, V; Farwell, A; Lister, A; Van der Kraak, G; Lee, L E J; Van Meer, T; MacKinnon, M D; Dixon, D G

2006-03-01

423

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids  

SciTech Connect

Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

2009-09-15

424

Application of solid state silicone-29 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the characterization of inorganic matter-humic complexes in Athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect

The ease of bitumen recovery from oil sand by hot or cold water separation techniques depends upon the surface properties of the components, especially water wet character of the clay and sand particles. Oil wetting of some of the oils and sand solids is believed to be caused by the presence of humic matter-non-crystalline inorganic complexes. Characterization of these complexes using solid state carbon-13 and silicon-29 magic spinning angle (MAS) NMR spectroscopy was the purpose of the present work.

Kotlyar, L.S.; Ripmeester, J.A.

1988-06-01

425

Pseudomonas Diversity in Crude-Oil-Contaminated Intertidal Sand Samples Obtained after the Prestige Oil Spill? †  

PubMed Central

The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations.

Mulet, Magdalena; David, Zoyla; Nogales, Balbina; Bosch, Rafael; Lalucat, Jorge; Garcia-Valdes, Elena

2011-01-01

426

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01

427

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

428

Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 ?m and a 1 ?m mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume often exceeds the detection limit. There is a rough correlation between NO2 and aerosol, so it may be possible to indirectly monitor aerosol production.

Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

2012-12-01

429

Multicomponent seismic reservoir characterization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) heavy oil project, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in situ heavy oil recovery method involving the injection of steam in horizontal wells. Time-lapse seismic analysis over a SAGD project in the Athabasca oil sands deposit of Alberta reveals that the SAGD steam chamber has not developed uniformly. Core data confirm the presence of low permeability shale bodies within the reservoir. These shales can act as barriers and baffles to steam and limit production by prohibiting steam from accessing the full extent of the reservoir. Seismic data can be used to identify these shale breaks prior to siting new SAGD well pairs in order to optimize field development. To identify shale breaks in the study area, three types of seismic inversion and a probabilistic neural network prediction were performed. The predictive value of each result was evaluated by comparing the position of interpreted shales with the boundaries of the steam chamber determined through time-lapse analysis. The P-impedance result from post-stack inversion did not contain enough detail to be able to predict the vertical boundaries of the steam chamber but did show some predictive value in a spatial sense. P-impedance from pre-stack inversion exhibited some meaningful correlations with the steam chamber but was misleading in many crucial areas, particularly the lower reservoir. Density estimated through the application of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) trained using both PP and PS attributes identified shales most accurately. The interpreted shales from this result exhibit a strong relationship with the boundaries of the steam chamber, leading to the conclusion that the PNN method can be used to make predictions about steam chamber growth. In this study, reservoir characterization incorporating multicomponent seismic data demonstrated a high predictive value and could be useful in evaluating future well placement.

Schiltz, Kelsey Kristine

430

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01

431

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05

432

Qualifying tight sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualifying parts of Kentucky's Big Sand gas field for tight sands designation will not be the only benefit to come out of the work now being done by the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association's Tight Sands Committee. The committee plans to evaluate all oil and gas producing formations in E. Kentucky for possible designation. Committee members are gathering detailed information

Harbert

1981-01-01

433

Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez