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Sample records for coal seam fire

  1. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

  2. Mercury emission from coal seam fire at Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanci; Liang, Handong; Zhu, Shuquan

    2014-02-01

    The underground coal seam fire in the Wuda, Inner Mongolia of china is one of the most serious coal fires in the world with a history over 50 years and endangers the neighboring downwind urban area. To investigate the potential mercury emission and migration from the coal seam fire, in situ real-time measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentration using Lumex RA-915 + mercury analyzer were implemented on the fire zone and the urban area. The results show an average TGM concentration of 464 ng m-3 in the fumes released from surface vents and cracks on the fire zone, which leads to an elevated TGM concentration of 257 ng m-3 (211-375 ng m-3) in the near-surface air at the fire zone and 89 ng m-3 (23-211 ng m-3) at the peripheral area. The average TGM concentration in the adjoining downwind urban area of Wuda is 33 ng m-3. This result suggests that the coal seam fire may not only contribute to the global mercury inventory but also be a novel source for mercury pollution in the urban areas. The scenario of urban areas being adjacent to coal seam fires is not limited to Wuda but relatively common in northern China and elsewhere. Whether there are other cities under influence of coal seam fires merits further investigation.

  3. Estimtion of the Energy Release of Coal Seam Fires and its Relevance for CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueter, Horst; Meyer, Uwe; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous coal seam fires contribute significant to the CO2 emissions world wide. As the coal fires are complicated regarding structure and dynamics it is not trivial to fins out how much CO2 is released by an individual fire. This value is basic also for a possible certificate trading in connection with the extinction of those fires in the context of CDM. Three basic methods were proposed to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted. 1. Direct gas measurements (direct approach) 2. Estimation of the coal burned (volume approach) 3. Energy releases (energy approach) The energy approach turned out to be the only practical solution. The energy balance of the fire is a composition of the components 1. Radiation 2. Energy release from subsurface to air 3. Energy transported by hot exhaust gases 4. Energy transported by matrix diffusion Those components are explained and a field case from a fire zone in China is presented.

  4. Emergency assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges, Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rea, Alan H.; Garcia, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff hydrograph generation. Post-burn rainfall-runoff parameters were determined by adjusting the runoff-curve numbers on the basis of a weighting procedure derived from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the National Resources Conservation Service) equation for precipitation excess and the effect of burn severity. This weighting procedure was determined to be more appropriate than simple area weighting because of the potentially marked effect of even small burned areas on the runoff hydrograph in individual drainage basins. Computed water-peak discharges from HEC-HMS models were increased volumetrically to account for increased sediment concentrations that are expected as a result of accelerated erosion after burning. Peak discharge estimates for potential floods in the South Platte River were increased by a factor that assumed a volumetric sediment concentration (Cv) of 20 percent. Flood hydrographs for the South Platte River and Mitchell Creek were routed down main-stem channels using watershed-routing algorithms included in the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. In areas subject to debris flows in the Coal Seam and Missionary Ridge burned areas, debris-flow discharges were simulated by 100-year rainfall events, and the inflow hydrographs at tributary mouths were simulated by using the objective calibration method. Sediment concentrations (Cv) used in debris-flow simulations were varied through the event, and were initial Cv 20 percent, mean Cv approximately 31 percent, maximum Cv 48 percent, Cv 43 percent at the time of the water hydrograph peak, and Cv 20 percent for the duration of the event. The FLO-2D flood- and debris-flow routing model was used to delineate the area of unconfined debris-flow inundation on selected alluvial fan and valley floor areas. A method was developed to objectively determine the post-fire recovery period for the Hayman and Coal Seam burned areas using runoff-curve numbers (RCN) for all drainage basins for a 50-year period. A

  7. Reservoir engineering in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, I.

    1983-11-01

    This study examines the behavior of coal seam gas reservoirs which are found to exhibit significantly different behavior from conventional gas reservoirs. These differences involve the nature of permeability variations and the method of gas storage. The permeability variations appear to be caused primarily by effective stress variations and to a lesser extent to water saturation changes. These effective stress changes are brought about both by fluid pressure variations and by coal matrix shrinkage and expansion with changing gas content. Directional permeability with cleat (joint) direction is shown to be important. Experimental work was conducted in underground mines of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia.

  8. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  9. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

  10. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  11. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  12. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  13. The geomechanics of gas recovery from coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, D. M.; Karev, V. I.; Kovalenko, Yu. F.

    2015-05-01

    A new approach for the creation of scientific foundations for effective and environmentally safe recovery of methane from coal seams is proposed. A virgin coal seam possesses very low permeability. Free gas is contained in isolated microscopic pores and cracks of the coal seam under a pressure close to the rock pressure. An oriented system of cracks, which forms a coupled system of filtration channels, can be formed by means of directed unloading of the rock pressure from the seam due to expanding gas energy. The parameters of the manufacturing effect on the seam are determined based on physical modeling of actual mechanical and filtration processes using the experimental installation of truly three-axial loading and mathematical modeling.

  14. Shield support selection based on geometric characteristics of coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    K. Goshtasbi; K. Oraee; F. Khakpour-yeganeh

    2006-01-15

    The most initial investment in longwall face equipping is the cost of powered support. Selection of proper shields for powered supports is based on load, geometric characterization of coal seams and economical considerations.

  15. Reservoir engineering in coal seams: Part 1 - The physical process of gas storage and movement in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, I.

    1987-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the movement of gas in coal seams. It deals directly with the physical behavior of the coal seam as a reservoir. Coal seams show considerable differences in behavior from normal porous gas reservoirs in both the mode of gas storage and permeability characteristics. Most of the storage of gas in coal is by sorption into the coal structure, while the coal permeability is cleat-(fracture-) or joint-controlled and may vary over a wide range during production. This permeability fluctuation is not solely a phase relative permeability effect, but is rather a result of the opposing effects of effective stress increase with fluid pressure reduction and shrinkage of the coal. Reducing fluid pressure tends to close the cleats, reducing permeability, while shrinkage tends to open them.

  16. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  17. Methane drainage from gassy Western US coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Methane gas retained in gassy coal seams is a valuable source of clean energy. However, methane is also a potential safety hazard. Its removal prior to mining improves mine safety by reducing the potential for explosions as well as economics by decreasing ventilation costs. A method of field evaluation of methane content in some Western US coal seams is presented. Results of pre-mining degasification in seams of similar methane content are described. The results indicate that degasification, or methane drainage, depends heavily on coal permeability. Since the permeability is affected by the presence of joints, fractures and cleats in coal and associated strata, their influence on the optimum direction of boreholes was studied. The results of methane drainage are discussed and recommendations as to the orientation of boreholes with respect to the main cleat systems in coal are suggested. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Selective agglomeration of a Pittsburgh Seam coal with isooctane

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B.; Richardson, A.; Sinha, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center initiated a research program in 1989 to investigate the fundamentals of selective agglomeration as applied to the cleaning of coals. The results of the initial study with Bruceton mine, Pittsburgh seam coal, using isooctane as an agglomerant, have been published. Subsequent to the successful reduction of the ash content of Bruceton coal to less than 0.9% after two cleaning stages, the study was extended to compare a coal from the same seam, but from Ohio. In the previous parameter optimization tests with Bruceton coal, particle size and slurry pH were found to be important parameters governing coal cleanability. Other researchers have obtained similar conclusions of the effects of particle size and coal slurry pH on the cleanability of various coals. In this study, the effects of these parameters on the cleanability of Powhatan coal were examined. Particle size reduction kinetics was examined first. Effects of size reduction (degree of mineral matter liberation), oil (isooctane)-to-coal ratio, and slurry pH on mineral matter rejection and combustible recovery were also examined. A petrographic comparison was conducted on the Powhatan and Bruceton coals to examine the degree of pyrite liberation as a function of particle size to elucidate why one coal from the same seam can be cleaned significantly better than another. (VC)

  19. Spatial Variation of Selenium in Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, L.; Tyner, J. S.; Perfect, E.; Yoder, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts from coal extraction have led to many investigations of the geochemistry of coal. Previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is an environmental contaminant due to its mutagenic effects on sensitive macro-organisms as a result of bioaccumulation in affected waters. Some regulatory authorities have responded by requiring the sampling of coal seams and adjacent rock for Se prior to authorizing a given coal mining permit. In at least one case, a single continuous rock core was sampled for Se to determine the threshold of Se across a 2.2 square kilometer proposed surface coal mine. To examine the adequacy of such an approach, we investigated the spatial variability and correlation of a West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) dataset of Se concentrations from coal seams collected within Appalachia (1088 samples). We conducted semi-variogram and Kriging cross-validation analyses on six coal seams from the dataset. Our findings suggest no significant spatial correlation of Se within a given coal seam.

  20. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States will be drawn.

  1. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas... other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was produced from a coal seam; (e) A statement by the applicant, under oath, that gas is produced from a coal...

  2. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas... other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was produced from a coal seam; (e) A statement by the applicant, under oath, that gas is produced from a coal...

  3. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas... other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was produced from a coal seam; (e) A statement by the applicant, under oath, that gas is produced from a coal...

  4. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas... other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was produced from a coal seam; (e) A statement by the applicant, under oath, that gas is produced from a coal...

  5. Hydraulic fracturing experiments in the Great Northern Coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.G.; Weber, C.R.; Vlahovic, W.; Enever, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Two field-scale hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in vertical boreholes on the lease of Munmorah Colliery located south of Newcastle, NSW. The treatments fractured the 3-meter thick, 220-meter deep Great Northern coal seam and were designed to provide a direct comparison between a borate-crosslinked gel and a water treatment. The fracture geometries were mapped during mining of the coal seam. Geologic mapping disclosed a well-defined coal face cleat and systematic full-seam joints perpendicular to bedding and trending NW. The vertical hydraulic fractures extended along the joint and face cleat direction. Evidence that an early slurry stage of fine mesh proppant acted to block off one of two competing parallel fractures was found at one of the mineback sites.

  6. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project - geologic and reservoir characterization for the Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Volume 2. Topical report, March 1983-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, C.M.; Briscoe, F.H.; Camp, B.S.; Koenig, R.A.; Malone, P.G.

    1986-12-01

    Commercialization of coalbed methane, especially in the eastern United States, has been primarily limited to gas production from a single coal seam per well. The Multi-Seam project is a multi-year joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Extensive geologic and reservoir characterization was performed during the early stages of the project to set the framework for evaluation of planned completion and production tests. Geologic evaluation included stratigraphic and structural evaluation, especially coal cleat, rock joint, coal seam gas content, coal chemistry, and coal petrography. Reservoir evaluation included single- and two-phase hydrologic testing of the coal seam reservoirs using single and multiple well configurations and in-situ state-of-stress testing of the target coal seams and the boundary rock.

  7. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project - geologic and reservoir characterization for the Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Volume 1. Topical report, March 1983-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, C.M.; Briscoe, F.H.; Camp, B.S.; Koenig, R.A.; Malone, P.G.

    1986-12-01

    Commercialization of coalbed methane, especially in the eastern United States, has been primarily limited to gas production from a single coal seam per well. The Multi-Seam project is a multi-year joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Extensive geologic and reservoir characterization was performed during the early stages of the project to set the framework for evaluation of planned completion and production tests. Geologic evaluation included stratigraphic and structural evaluation, especially coal cleat, rock joint, coal-seam gas content, coal chemistry, and coal petrography. Reservoir evaluation included single- and two-phase hydrologic testing of the coal seam reservoirs using single- and multiple-well configurations and in-situ state-of-stress testing of the target coal seams and the boundary rock.

  8. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  9. Megaspores from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Glasspool

    2000-07-01

    More than 300 megaspore specimens have been recovered from samples from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam of the Wittingham Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. Only two species are recognised: Singhisporites surangei (Singh) Potoni, emend. and a new species of Singhisporites. Species distribution within the seam is controlled by a major fire event, as recognised by coal petrology and mesofossil content: Singhisporites surangei is dominant before the event, but following it, it is subordinate to the new species.The abundance of megaspores recovered has allowed recognition of the full range of morphologic variation of Singhisporites surangei, which encompasses specimens assigned previously to Singraulispora Pant & Mishra, 1986 and Mammilaespora Pant & Srivastava, 1961; both are regarded as junior synonyms of Singhisporites Potoni, emend. Ultrastructurally, the new species shows affinities with Mesozoic isoetalean megaspores. PMID:10930606

  10. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  11. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  12. Coal firing of process heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, W.; Schoedel, J.; Ruggieri, R.; Vanrijnsoever, J.

    1982-04-01

    Coal firing as a standard practice was reviewed. With the recent resurgence of coal utilization, coal firing of modern process furnaces was studied in light of significant developments in boiler design. A process heater for coal firing was designed and results were compared with oil fired units. Typical furnaces with oil firing of recent manufacture were used. Results show that furnaces can be built with coal firing under various design philosophies, but all of them are more expensive than for oil firing. All these analyses do not even include coal storage, grinding and feed as well as dust collection and flue gas treatment. Hence, coal firing of process furnaces is far too expensive.

  13. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure) and coal seam properties (coal rank and temperature) affect this swelling. Although there are many related studies, a number of gaps exist, especially in the area of coal rank and how the effect of other factors varies with the rank of the coal seam. To date, there have been few CO2-ECBM field projects in the world. However, the reduction of CO2 injectability after some time of CO2 injection, due to coal matrix swelling near the well bore, is a common problem in the field. Therefore, various permeability-enhancing techniques, such as hydro-fracturing and injection of an inert gas such as N2 or a mixture of inert gases (N2 + CO2) into the seam to recover the swelled areas are under test in the field.

  14. Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Olovyanny, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

  15. Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N.

    2006-01-15

    The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

  16. Measuring Contours of Coal-Seam Cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Angle transducers measure angle between track sections as longwall shearer proceeds along coal face. Distance transducer functions in conjunction with angle transducers to obtain relative angles at known positions. When cut is complete, accumulated data are stored on cassette tape, and track profile is computed and displayed. Micro-processor-based instrument integrates small changes in angle and distance.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Australian Commonwealth and State Governments. Finally, parallels (and differences) between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States and Europe will be drawn.

  18. A new model of coal seam formation vis-a-vis banded structure and distribution of minerals in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S.

    1999-08-01

    In a new model of coal seam formation, advocating the allochthonous process, it has been suggested that the precursor of vitrain was deposited as chemical sediment in a dissolved state derived principally from cellulose segregated from wood tissues. Under acidic conditions, this sediment precipitated as humic acid and continued to float over the aqueous medium. Due to seasonal desiccation of the basin, the floated humic layer, free from contamination of argillaceous impurities, gradually descended and superimposed over the earlier-formed lithotypes. The precursors of durainous lithotypes, in contrast, composed principally of lignin-enriched residual plant cell walls, sticky hydrogen-rich plant ingredients, and agrillaceous dirts, were deposited in the basin as clastic sediments. With a fresh influx of chemical and clastic sediments, the horizontal deposition of basic infrastructures of lithotypes covering an extensive area was repeated, thereby developing the vertical height of the coal seam depicting alternate bands with characteristic affinity to argillaceous impurities.

  19. Coal-water slurries: a seam-to-steam strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Marnell, P.; Poundstone, W.N.; Halvorsen, W.

    1983-06-01

    Moderately loaded coal-water fuels (CWF) and coal-water transportation slurries are similar in design philosophy, and an integrated coal-water slurry system has been demonstrated with a coal-designed boiler. The primary emphasis in highly loaded coal-water fuels is achieving maximum coal content, a strategy which requires careful grinding and the use of expansive additives. Detailed technical and economic comparisons of the two CWF technologies have not been made, and it is not clear that the intensive emphasis on proprietary, highly loaded coal-water fuels is justified. In any event, the question, How clean is clean., must be answered and efficient mineral removal processes must be developed and/or existing ones modified to remove the ash constraints that prevent the use of coal-water fuels in many retrofit applications. This step will enhance the seam-to-steam strategy by providing a key element in an integrated clean coal-water slurry system. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  1. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground gasification enables them to become a source of additional energy for the economy. It should be noted, however, that the shaft-drilling method cannot be considered as an alternative to conventional methods of coal extraction, but rather as a complementary and cheaper way of utilizing resources located almost beyond the technical capabilities of conventional extraction methods due to the associated natural hazards and high costs of combating them. This article presents a completely different approach to the issue of underground coal gasification. Repurposing of the already fully depreciated mining infrastructure for the gasification process may result in a large value added of synthesis gas production and very positive economic effect.

  2. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam. PMID:26387357

  3. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  4. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  5. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  6. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  7. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  8. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  9. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  10. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  11. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Results of the programme to date will be provided (being nearly two years into the three-year study) with a focus on the preliminary results of numerical groundwater modelling. Once completed this modelling will be used to evaluate the impacts of the depressurisation of coal seams on aquifers and associated ecological, economic and socio-cultural water-dependent assets.

  13. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal regime in the coal fire zone 18. The occurrence of various thermal alteration products indicates temperatures in the range of 500-700°C.

  14. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Williams

    2004-03-01

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and recovered CBM, the program includes additional monitoring wells to further examine horizontal and vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. This is the fifth Technical Progress report for the project. Progress this period was focused on reclamation of the north access road and north well site, and development of revised drilling methods. This report provides a concise overview of project activities this period and plans for future work.

  15. Coal seam splits and transgressive-regressive coal couplets: A key to stratigraphy of high-frequency sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, I.; Kalkreuth, W.; Davies, Edward H.

    1996-11-01

    A model of the stratigraphy of sequences in coal, based on a subsurface case study of the coal-bearing Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Canada, posits basinward progressive splitting patterns of thick, regionally extensive paralic coal seams. Successive splits bounded by transgressive-regressive coal-seam couplets are interpreted to be fourth-order sequences produced in single base-level cycles. Stacked in a progradational pattern, these fourth-order sequences in turn form third-order sequences. Thick, regional seams form on top of a prograding platform by amalgamation of several fourth-order sequences. Vertical profiles of coal properties (geochemistry, petrology, and palynology) in the lower and upper leaves of a split seam which constitute a transgressive-regressive couplet would yield characteristic signatures revealing their transgressive and regressive nature, respectively.

  16. Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Pollock, J.D.; Klapheke, J.G.

    1986-05-01

    The Middle Pennsylvania/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern part of the county. Past studies of the seam by the US Bureau of Mines concentrated on the utility of the seam as a coking blend, with additional consideration of the megascopic and microscopic coal petrology. The authors research has focused on the regional variations in the Pond Creek seam, with emphasis on the petrographic variations.

  17. Numerical investigation of coal seam gas detection using airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Mohamed

    The use of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) techniques has been mostly utilized in the mining industry. The various AEM systems enable fast data acquisition to detect zones of interest in exploration and in some cases are used to delineate targets on a production scale. For coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs, reservoir thickness and the resistivity contrast present a new challenge to the present AEM systems in terms of detectability. Our research question began with the idea of using AEM methods in the detection of thin reservoirs. CSG reservoirs resemble thin reservoirs that have been and are currently being produced. In this thesis we present the results of a feasibility analysis of AEM study on coal seam reservoirs using synthetic models. The aim of the study is to contribute and bridge the gap of the scientific literature on AEM systems in settings such as CSG exploration. In the models we have chosen to simulate both in 1-D and 3-D, the CSG target resistivity was varied from a resistive to a conductive target (4 ohm.m, 150 ohm.m, and 667 ohm.m) to compare the different responses while the target thickness was fixed to resemble a stack of coal seams at that interval. Due to the differences in 1-D and 3-D modelling, we also examine the differences resulting from each modelling set up. The results of the 1-D forward modeling served as a first order understanding of the detection depths by AEM for CSG reservoirs. Three CSG reservoir horizontally layered earth model scenarios were examined, half-space, conductive/resistive and resistive/conductive. The response behavior for each of the three scenarios differs with the differing target resistivities. The 1-D modeling in both the halfspace and conductive/resistive models shows detection at depths beyond 300 m for three cases of target resistivity outlined above. After the 300-m depth, the response falls below the assumed noise floor level of 5% response difference. However, when a resistive layer overlies a conductive host, the resistive/conductive model, the signal is reduced for the resistive target cases, but the response is unchanged for the conductive target layer. For a better understanding of the responses from more complex reservoirs, a 3-D model was developed to incorporate additional geology. The 3-D models were based on the 1-D models and the modeling parameters were not altered except for the finite extent of the layers. The system properties such as the transmitter waveform, moment and time gates did not change. For the 3-D coal seam reservoir models, the same level of response is not observed for the 240 × 240 m areal extent target. For the halfspace and conductive/resistive model, the AEM response is small. Also noticeable is the decreased response below 50-m target depth. For the assumed noise floor level, the different targets would not be detectable in these instances beyond 50-m when compared to detection depths of up to 300-m in the 1-D scenario. If, however, a resistive overburden exists, i.e. the resistive/conductive model scenario, the 3-D response for the conductive case target is strong compared to the other target cases due to the preferential current flow. In this scenario, a conductive target seam can be detected at a depth of 150-m and possibly deeper depending on the thickness of the overburden layer. In contrast, for the case of the resistive targets, the anomalous body would be undetectable beyond 50-m depth. I apply the same modeling techniques to a more complex model adopted from the Queensland Surat Basin CSG reservoir. I simulate responses in both 1-D and 3-D. The 1-D responses show promise for detecting targets at up to 500 m deep. The 3-D models with an embedded a target with an areal extent of 240 × 240m display small responses and indicate shallow detection depths. However when I increased the target's areal extent to 480 × 480 m, a stronger response is observed that is larger then the 5% noise floor level for all three target cases. This is a good indication that the size of the CSG target is important for AEM application. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  19. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  20. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  1. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  2. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  3. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production in Multiple Appalachian Basin Coal Seams

    SciTech Connect

    Bromhal, G.S.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.K.

    2007-11-01

    A DOE-funded field injection of carbon dioxide is to be performed in an Appalachian Basin coal seam by CONSOL Energy and CNX Gas later this year. A preliminary analysis of the migration of CO2 within the Upper Freeport coal seam and the resulting ground movements has been performed on the basis of assumed material and geometric parameters. Preliminary results show that ground movements at the field site may be in a range that are measurable by tiltmeter technology.

  4. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of gasified coal seams and their surrounding rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Aeckersberg, R.; Li, D.; Kunz, E.; Krooss, B.; Golz, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernández-Steeger, T.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is considered a viable approach for the development of deep and structurally complex coal deposits that are not economically extractable by conventional mining techniques. The combination of UCG and the subsequent combustion of the resulting synthesis gas in a combined cycle plant with the storage of carbon dioxide formed during this process could provide a relevant contribution to the so called clean coal technologies. Carbon dioxide captured from the flue gas of the combined cycle plant would be injected into already gasified coal seams using the existing UCG borehole infrastructure. Within the present study different coal seams and their surrounding rocks were sampled in all German hard coal mining districts. The coal samples were treated in a laboratory gasification device to produce combustion residues comparable to those formed in the UCG process. High-pressure carbon dioxide sorption experiments were then conducted on the original coal samples, their gasified residues and the surrounding rocks. The results indicate a significant increase of porosity and carbon dioxide sorption capacity of the residual coal after gasification. Furthermore, notable carbon dioxide sorption capacities were observed for the surrounding rocks. The assessment of the carbon dioxide storage potential in gasified coal seams has to take explicitly into account the newly generated pore space, the increased sorption capacity of the gasified coals and the sorption capacity of the surrounding rocks. Furthermore, the reduction of subsurface void volumes due to mechanical compaction after gasification as well as the resulting enhanced accessibility of adjacent seams have to be equally considered.

  5. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2–3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam. PMID:26435557

  6. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  7. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam: a case study on the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pinkun; Cheng, Yuanping

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  8. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  9. Microseismic activity induced by hydraulic mining of steeply inclined coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, T.; Sato, K.; Mori, N.; Goto, T.

    1984-01-01

    A microseismic monotoring facility was applied to observe rock failure associated with the hydraulic mining of steeply inclined coal seams, where seismometers were so arranged on the surface and underground that a seismic array could almost enclose the mining panels. The seismic foci distributed uniformly at one view over the mining panels, however, a considerable number of seismic events were concentrated within a few zones bounded on the pre-existing faults. The distribution of seismic foci in regard to the distance from the plane of the coal seam was approximated by the normal distribution whose mean value and standard deviation were 16 - 34 m from the seam plane and 43 - 51 m around the mean value respectively. An analysis revealed that the maximum compression axis at the seismic focus might be in good agreement with the dip direction of the coal seam, whilst the maximum tension axis was nearly allied to the normal direction of the coal seam. A comparison of microseismic activity between before and after mining of seams showed that the spatial rate of seismic energy in preceding mining was about more than 7.0 times higher than that of in successive mining.

  10. Interactive computer system to prepare borehole data for coal seam mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, S.S.

    1982-10-01

    The paper describes a method of building up a body of coal data that is accurate, precise, readily available and easy to manipulate. The system is a set of interactive computer procedures consisting of: (a) data gathering (core hole and geophysical logs) and standardised computer printouts; (b) graphic printouts of coded logs (log strips) using an on-line electrostatic plotter; (c) determination of seam continuity via relative movements of the log strips on an interactive graphic display terminal; (d) calculation of the seam parameters (mineable seam thickness, volume of in-seam dirt, ash and sulphur content of the raw or prepared product, roof and floor characteristics); (e) posting of seam parameters using an on-line drum plotter controlled by a microprocessor on-line to the mini-computer.

  11. Rock Creek Methane from Multiple-Coal-Seams Completion Project. Semiannual report, July 1987-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, C.D.; Dobscha, F.X.; Green, C.D.; Lambert, S.W.; Boyer, C.M.

    1988-03-01

    Phase I of the Rock Creek Methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a multiyear joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Project activities at the Rock Creek site in 1987 focused on well drilling and completion, with special emphasis on wellbore acess and hydraulic stimulation. Data on drawdown analysis of the Mary Lee coal group, and testing limited-entry applications to multiseam simulation are included.

  12. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  13. Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T.

    2007-09-15

    Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

  14. Determination of the limit of oxidation in zones of sub-outcropping Chipanga Coal Seam, Moatize Coal Basin, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Lopo; Chafy, Algy; Xerinda, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Moatize Coal Basin (MCB) in Mozambique is a graben with sediments of Karoo age with thick coal seams that are under exploration and exploitation by the Vale Moçambique company. Presently, the exploitation is as an open-pit mine and in the future the works will extend to the area where formerly underground mines were under exploitation. It is well known throughout the World that Moatize basin is a World class deposit for coking and thermal coal and therefore Vale Moçambique is developing studies to rationalize the coal resources of the area. Due to its geological and tectonic story, the general structure of the sedimentary (and coal) layers shows wide open synclines and anticlines, and, as a consequence, in many areas coal seams approach the surface or even outcrop. Therefore, the sub-outcropping/outcropping zones of the seams are subjected directly to the weathering agents, subjecting the coal to oxidation phenomena, which are considered as a factor altering negatively the coking properties of coals. The objective is to study down to which depth the oxidation zone goes, i.e., to trace the Line of Oxidation, also known as LOX. The study deals with Chipanga seam, which is the thickest of all seams and the one with a more wide representation throughout the graben. This seam also sub-outcrops/outcrops in many places, and therefore it is essential to define the LOX. A drilling and coal sampling campaign was then developed along profiles defined according to the seam dip to determine the depth at which the LOX is located. Samples were subjected to washability tests, and the crucible swelling index (CSI) of the Float 1.35 was determined. The study shows a direct relationship between the depth of the Chipanga seam and its degree of oxidation, shown by the sudden decrease of the CSI when the coal seam approaches the surface. The sudden change of CSI generally occurs at a depth of ca. 10 m, with small variations around this value. Therefore it can be said that the depth of the Limit of Oxidation (LOX) is 10 m.

  15. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  16. Adult Education and Radical Habitus in an Environmental Campaign: Learning in the Coal Seam Gas Protests in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollis, Tracey; Hamel-Green, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the adult learning dimensions of protestors as they participate in a campaign to stop coal seam gas exploration in Gippsland in Central Victoria, Australia. On a global level, the imposition of coal seam gas exploration by governments and mining companies has been the trigger for movements of resistance from environmental…

  17. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  18. The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor

    2004-07-01

    The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest a useful control procedure. Drill casings in voids in the D coal seam on the western slope trail are useful for collecting gas samples, monitoring the temperature of subsurface burning, and measuring the concentration of gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the field. Coal fire gas and mineral condensates may contribute to the destruction of floral and faunal habitats and be responsible for a variety of human diseases; hence, the study of coal gas and its condensation products may prove useful in understanding environmental pollution created by coal mine fires. The 2002 Coal Seam Fire, which burned over 12,000 acres and destroyed numerous buildings in and around Glenwood Springs, exemplifies the potential danger an underground coal fire poses for igniting a surface fire.

  19. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  20. Detecting voids in a 0.6 m coal seam, 7 m deep, using seismic reflection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south railroad line in an undermined area of southeastern Kansas, USA. Water-filled cavities responsible for sinkholes in this area are in a 0.6 m thick coal seam, 7 m deep. Dominant reflection frequencies in excess of 200 Hz enabled reflections from the coal seam to be discerned from the direct wave, refractions, air wave, and ground roll on unprocessed field files. Repetitive void sequences within competent coal on three seismic profiles are consistent with the "room and pillar" mining technique practiced in this area near the turn of the century. The seismic survey showed that the apparent active sinkhole was not the result of reactivated subsidence but probably erosion. ?? 1991.

  1. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURES GOVERNING DETERMINATIONS FOR TAX CREDIT PURPOSES DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements...

  2. Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov

    2006-01-15

    An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

  3. Bibliography on the recovery of methane from coal seams. [115 citations

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, H.N.; Waters, G.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled prior to the initiation of a major study for the US Department of Energy under subcontract with the School of Mines and Energy Development of the University of Alabama. The study will focus on the economic and technologic feasibility of recovering methane from coal seams. The bibliography was prepared as background for this feasibility study. 115 citations.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Maddingley, Isolated from Coal-Seam Gas Formation Water.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Bradbury, Mark I; Midgley, David J; Hendry, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium sp. Maddingley was isolated as an axenic culture from a brown coal-seam formation water sample collected from Victoria, Australia. It lacks the solventogenesis genes found in closely related clostridial strains. Metabolic reconstructions suggest that volatile fatty acids are the main fermentation end products. PMID:23405323

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Maddingley, Isolated from Coal-Seam Gas Formation Water

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Bradbury, Mark I.; Midgley, David J.; Hendry, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium sp. Maddingley was isolated as an axenic culture from a brown coal-seam formation water sample collected from Victoria, Australia. It lacks the solventogenesis genes found in closely related clostridial strains. Metabolic reconstructions suggest that volatile fatty acids are the main fermentation end products. PMID:23405323

  6. Blast-free mining of coal seams by excavators equipped with rotary dynamic buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Labutin, V.N.; Mattis, A.R.; Zaitseva, A.A.

    2005-04-01

    The necessity to equip cable excavators with rotary buckets is substantiated. The results of graphic-analytical analysis of the rotary bucket operation are presented, and its main advantages are determined in comparison with conventional buckets in mining coal seams of complex structure.

  7. The influence of hydrogeological disturbance and mining on coal seam microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, M J; Gagen, E J; Evans, P; Tyson, G W; Golding, S D; Southam, G

    2016-03-01

    The microbial communities present in two underground coal mines in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia, were investigated to deduce the effect of pumping and mining on subsurface methanogens and methanotrophs. The micro-organisms in pumped water from the actively mined areas, as well as, pre- and post-mining formation waters were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The methane stable isotope composition of Bowen Basin coal seam indicates that methanogenesis has occurred in the geological past. More recently at the mine site, changing groundwater flow dynamics and the introduction of oxygen in the subsurface has increased microbial biomass and diversity. Consistent with microbial communities found in other coal seam environments, pumped coal mine waters from the subsurface were dominated by bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and the family Rhodocyclaceae. These environments and bacterial communities supported a methanogen population, including Methanobacteriaceae, Methanococcaceae and Methanosaeta. However, one of the most ubiquitous micro-organisms in anoxic coal mine waters belonged to the family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae'. As the Archaeal family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae' has not been extensively defined, the one studied species in the family is capable of anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction. This introduces the possibility that a methane cycle between archaeal methanogenesis and methanotrophy may exist in the anoxic waters of the coal seam after hydrogeological disturbance. PMID:26541089

  8. Numerical investigations on mapping permeability heterogeneity in coal seam gas reservoirs using seismo-electric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Shaw, S.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping the horizontal distribution of permeability is a key problem for the coal seam gas industry. Poststack seismic data with anisotropy attributes provide estimates for fracture density and orientation which are then interpreted in terms of permeability. This approach delivers an indirect measure of permeability and can fail if other sources of anisotropy (for instance stress) come into play. Seismo-electric methods, based on recording the electric signal from pore fluid movements stimulated through a seismic wave, measure permeability directly. In this paper we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that the seismo-electric method is potentially suitable to map the horizontal distribution of permeability changes across coal seams. We propose the use of an amplitude to offset (AVO) analysis of the electrical signal in combination with poststack seismic data collected during the exploration phase. Recording of electrical signals from a simple seismic source can be closer to production planning and operations. The numerical model is based on a sonic wave propagation model under the low frequency, saturated media assumption and uses a coupled high order spectral element and low order finite element solver. We investigate the impact of seam thickness, coal seam layering, layering in the overburden and horizontal heterogeneity of permeability.

  9. Numerical simulation of the transient behavior of coal seam degasification wells

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.R.; Ertekin, T.; Schwerer, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Described in this paper are the mathematical and numerical developments for a series of finite difference models which simulate the two-phase, transient behavior of coal seam degasification wells. Included in this series are models for unstimulated, as well as hydraulically stimulated, wells. The hydraulically stimulated wells are assumed to have either a single infinite or finite conductivity vertical fracture. The natural fracture system of the coal seam, the butt and face cleat, is identified with a porous network and assigned effective porosities, nominally less than ten percent, and absolute permeabilities, generally less than 25 md with values extending into the microdarcy range. A time dependent sorption term has been included to describe the phenomenon of gas desorbing from the coal matrix to the porous network. The coal seam is then modeled with the mathematics of multiphase flow through porous media. All models described in this paper are single well, mesh centered models in radial-cylindrical coordinate geometry. The fully implicit, generalized Newton-Raphson procedure has been employed to solve the coupled, nonlinear equations generated by the models. An intensive sensitivity analysis of the models is included. All models have been verified with successful history matches against stimulated and unstimulated methane drainage wells producing from coal gas reservoirs.

  10. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Ram Chandra; Khan, Zahid A.

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12-30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain ? Clarain ? Durain ? Fusain ? Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain ? Vitrain ? Fusain ? Durain ? Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  11. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

  12. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Annual report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dodscha, F.X.; Headley, A.L.; Lambert, S.W.; Lanier, J.B.; Robb, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a joint venture developing drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. During the report period, much well testing was conducted. Slug tests and injection tests were performed on Wells P6 and P7 in addition to slug tests on several offsite wells. Hydrological testing of Well P4 indicates there is communication between the Black Creek and Mary Lee Coal Groups. A drawdown study of the field and a mass balance analysis indicate about 10 percent of the gas within the area of drawdown has been produced. Production summaries of gas and water production is stable or declining for all of the wells. Production is good from Well P5 that was completed in the rock above the bottom seams in both the Mary Lee and Black Creek Groups. The sand packed rock interval has screened out coal fines and proppant which are normally produced during dewatering. This has allowed Well P5 to be pumped for 530 consecutive days with no pump problems. Treatment of water produced from the wells has been modified to adjust for the increasing proportion of water from the Black Creek Group with a higher TDS and iron levels.

  13. Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

    2008-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation strongly depends on permeability variations. For the assumed model, no fire exists for permeabilities k < 10-10m2, whereas the fire propagation velocity ranges between 340ma-1 for k = 10-8m2, and drops to lower than 3ma-1 for k = 5 × 10-10m2. Additionally, strong temperature variations are observed for the permeability range 5 × 10-10m2 < k < 10-8m2.

  14. Applications of reflection seismics to mapping coal-seam structure and discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Dobecki, T.L.; Bartel, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    As a means of demonstrating the effectiveness of reflection seismology in determining continuity of coal seams, three US field projects are reviewed. The three projects involve coals of varied thickness (2 to 14 m) and age (Pennsylvanian to Eocene) from three coal areas of the US (Pennsylvania, Wyoming, and Washington). Each projet also employed its own particular seismic technique, recording system, and seismic energy source although all are considered state-of-the-art, high resolution, digital seismic surveys. Project 1 (thin, Pennsylvania coal) sought detection of sand channels using dynamite and standard in-line (2-D) seismic technique. Project 2 (thick, Wyoming underground coal gasification) involved a gas-explosion (Dinoseis) source with areal (3-D) acquisition methods. Project 3 (thick Washington underground coal gasification) employed a shotgun-type source and standard in-line methods. Data processing was handled by different contractors for each project. Each project was successful in accomplishing its own particular objective; however, data quality and interpretation seem to be more a function of thickness of the target seam, complexity of the overburden, and processing contractor than a seismic source, acquisition scheme (2-D versus 3-D), or recording instrumentation.

  15. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Topical report. Rock Creek coalbed methane data summary, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dobscha, F.X.; Headley, A.L.; Lambert, S.W.; Lanier, J.B.; Robb, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a joint venture, investigating the drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for the economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. The report summarizes research conducted at Rock Creek to date. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed to provide a basis for stimulation design, production analysis and reservoir testing. Geologic characterization included stratigraphic and structural evaluation along with coal cleat, rock joint, seam thickness, coal methane content, coal chemistry and coal petrography studies. Extensive reservoir data has been collected from permeability testing, hydrologic testing, stress testing, production and pressure monitoring, and a gas and water analysis program. Stimulation design and post testment diagnostics have been performed to optimize stimulation designs.

  16. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  17. Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

  18. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  19. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    PubMed Central

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  20. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  1. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of the trace elements are correlated with the ash content, and may be associated with the mineral matter in the coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpretation of Coal-Seam Sequestration Data Using a New Swelling and Shrinkage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Smith, D.H.

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the influence of swelling and shrinkage of coal on the production of methane from, and sequestration of carbon dioxide in, a coalbed reservoir. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model was developed. It is based on constitutive equations that account for coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium that undergoes swelling and shrinkage. The swelling and shrinkage strains are computed on the basis of the amounts of different gases (e.g., CO2, CH4) sorbed or desorbed. The amounts of sorption and desorption are computed from measured isotherms with the aid of the Ideal Adsorbed Solution model for mixed gases. The permeability of the reservoir is modified according to the swelling-shrinkage model. The paper presents numerical results for the influence of swelling and shrinkage on reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide. The paper includes results from a number of examples, and analysis of a field injection into a coal seam at a site in the San Juan basin. Results show that with the incorporation of swelling and shrinkage into the analysis, it is possible to get a better history-match of production data. Results also show that coal swelling can reduce the injection volumes of carbon dioxide significantly. The interpretation of field data with the new swelling-shrinkage model shows that the coal swelling during carbon dioxide sequestration in coal-seams is an important factor that can influence field performance.

  3. Microseismic study of an outburst-prone coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.; Brown, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Outbursts of coal and gas present a danger to life and can severely inhibit production. This paper describes the development of a microseismic monitoring technique as an aid to outburst prediction and its application at an anthracite colliery in the UK. Results of initial laboratory and field trials are presented and show that the method is feasible. A review is made of previous work in the field of microseismic monitoring at outburst-prone mines and indicates the varied degree of success hitherto achieved with this technique.

  4. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An analysis of injury claims from low-seam coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.; Moore, S.; Dempsey, P.G.

    2009-07-01

    The restricted workspace present in low-seam coal mines forces workers to adopt awkward working postures (kneeling and stooping), which place high physical demands on the knee and lower back. This article provides an analysis of injury claims for eight mining companies operating low-seam coal mines during calendar years 1996-2008. All cost data were normalized using data on the cost of medical care (MPI) as provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Results of the analysis indicate that the knee was the body part that led in terms of claim cost ($4.2 million), followed by injuries to the lower back ($2.7 million). While the average cost per injury for these body parts was $13,100 and $14,400, respectively (close to the average cost of an injury overall), the high frequency of these injuries resulted in their pre-eminence in terms of cost. Analysis of data from individual mining companies suggest that knee and lower back injuries were a consistent problem across companies, as these injuries were each among the top five most costly part of body for seven out of eight companies studied. Results of this investigation suggest that efforts to reduce the frequency of knee and low back injuries in low-seam mines have the potential to create substantial cost savings.

  6. Geochemistry of autochthonous and hypautochthonous siderite-dolomite coal-balls (Foord Seam, Bolsovian, Upper Carboniferous), Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Lyons, P.C.; Millay, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The 11-13 m thick Foord Seam in the fault-bounded Stellarton Basin, Nova Scotia, is the thickest seam from the Euramerican floral province known to contain coal-balls. In addition to the first discovery of autochthonous coal-balls in the Foord Seam, Nova Scotia, its shale parting also contains hypautochthonous coal-balls with histologically preserved plant structures. The coal-ball discovery helps fill a stratigraphic gap in coal-ball occurrences in the upper Carboniferous (Bolsovian) of Euramerica. The autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls have a similar mineralogical composition and are composed of siderite (81-100%), dolomite-ankerite (0-19%), minor quartz and illite, and trace amounts of 'calcite'. Similar is also their permineralizing mineralogy, which consists of dolomite-ankerite and siderite. Their low pyrite content and carbonate mineralogy, and nonmarine origin, differentiates the Foord Seam coal-balls from other Euramerican coal-ball occurrences. A preliminary geochemical model, which is based on oxygen and carbon isotopic data, indicates that siderite in both the autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls is of very early diagenetic (nonmarine) origin from 13C-enriched bicarbonate derived from bacterial methanogenesis of organic matter.

  7. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica-Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-06-01

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, M. and Nowak, J. 2013. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 271-281. Warszawa. The paper presents results of research on tonstein, which constitutes an interburden in coal seam 405 at the Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Makoszowy field (mining level 600 m), Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The mineral and chemical compositions of the tonstein differ from the typical compositions described earlier for tonsteins from Upper Silesia Coal Basin area. Additionally, minerals present in the tonsteins include kaolinite, quartz, kaolinitised biotite and feldspars. The presence of the phosphatic minerals apatite and goyazite has been recognized. The presence of gorceixite and crandallite is also possible. The contents of CaO (5.66 wt%) and P2O5 (6.2 wt%) are remarkably high. Analysis of selected trace elements demonstrated high contents of Sr (4937 ppm) and Ba (4300 ppm), related to the phosphatic minerals. On the basis of mineral composition the tonstein has been identified as a crystalline tonstein, transitional to a multiplied one.

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  9. Evaluation of data gathered from unmineable coal seams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) programs directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources INTERCOMP Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. (INTERCOMP) is under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide for the reduction of uncertainties in critical parameters related to the methane recovery from unmineable coals in the United States. To accomplish this objective INTERCOMP has assisted in test site selection, planning, and monitoring when requested and evaluated the results of test in terms of methane production potential and economics for selected well sites, geologic settings, and geographical areas. This is a continuation of two earlier contracts in which an optimized test program was specified and in which the results of that program were partially implemented and evaluated. In this report INTERCOMP's effort in assisting the Bureau of Mines to understand the nature of a communication problem between the vertical dewatering hole and the three horizontal degasification legs in the Emerald Mines Horizontal Drilling project is described. Recommendations made by INTERCOMP on how to determine the amount of communication and the answers to several other questions asked are given in the section Assistance in Test Planning. The use of INTERCOMP's numerical simulation model was necessary in this effort. The section entitled Resource Assessment gives the evaluation of each specific well site tested for methane production that furnished to INTERCOMP by METC.

  10. Quarterly review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 9, Number 2, January 1992. Rept. for Apr-Jun 91

    SciTech Connect

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    The following reports summarize the results of recent exploration, testing, and production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming; Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Greater Green River Coal Region, Wyoming and Colorado; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama and the Northern and Central Appalachian Basins. Contents also include: Advances in Laboratory Measurement Techniques of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure for Coal Seams; Methane from Coal Seams Research; and Technical Events.

  11. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  12. Structure instability forecasting and analysis of giant rock pillars in steeply dipping thick coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Sun, Huan; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Ming; Cao, Jian-tao; Cui, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Structure stability analysis of rock masses is essential for forecasting catastrophic structure failure in coal seam mining. Steeply dipping thick coal seams (SDTCS) are common in the Urumqi coalfield, and some dynamical hazards such as roof collapse and mining- induced seismicity occur frequently in the coal mines. The cause of these events is mainly structure instability in giant rock pillars sandwiched between SDTCS. Developing methods to predict these events is important for safe mining in such a complex environment. This study focuses on understanding the structural mechanics model of a giant rock pillar and presents a viewpoint of the stability of a trend sphenoid fractured beam (TSFB). Some stability index parameters such as failure surface dips were measured, and most dips were observed to be between 46° and 51°. We used a digital panoramic borehole monitoring system to measure the TSFB's height (Δ H), which varied from 56.37 to 60.50 m. Next, FLAC3D was used to model the distribution and evolution of vertical displacement in the giant rock pillars; the results confirmed the existence of a TSFB structure. Finally, we investigated the acoustic emission (AE) energy accumulation rate and observed that the rate commonly ranged from 20 to 40 kJ/min. The AE energy accumulation rate could be used to anticipate impeding seismic events related to structure failure. The results presented provide a useful approach for forecasting catastrophic events related to structure instability and for developing hazard prevention technology for mining in SDTCS.

  13. Effects of a no-proppant foam stimulation treatment on a coal-seam degasification borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, J.V.; Stubbs, P.B.; Schwerer, F.C. III; Dobscha, F.X.

    1981-11-01

    A vertical borehole drilled into a friable coal seam was stimulated by using 53,000 gal (200.6 m/sup 3/) of foam. Proppant materials were omitted from the treatment fluids and colored, fluorescent pigments were included. The borehole produced 6.6 MMcf (0.187*10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of methane at an average rate of 49 Mcf/D (1390 m/sup 3//d) during its 4.5-month lifetime. After the wellbore was mined through, both vertical and horizontal fracture surfaces were found decorated with fluorescent material. No significant penetration of the fluid into the overlying strata was found. 5 refs.

  14. Trace element distribution in the No. 9 coal seam, Farmington, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, D.T.; Kuellmer, F.J.; Kyle, P.R.; Campbell, F.W.; Brandvold, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty three, 0.3 foot thick samples were taken from two drill cores of a 14 foot thick Fruitland coal seam near Farmington, New Mexico. Thirty three trace and minor elements were determined for each sample, using INAA, AA and, SIE. Proximate and ultimate analyses were made. Most of the analyzed elements can be distributed into one of three groups based on their vertical distribution patterns. Group one elements (Cs, F, Hf, Li, Na, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, and REE) show a positive correlation with ash, and are likely to associate with allochthonous mineral matter. The light REE show a very strong correlation with ash, but this correlation decreases as atomic number increases. Heavy REE abundances are greater adjacent to partings indicating selective leaching of heavy REE from the partings. Group two (Co, Ni, Sb, Zn, U) shows distribution patterns where abundances increase sharply at one or both seam boundaries. This type of distribution is interpreted as secondary enrichment or redistribution within the seam. Group three elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Mn) show markedly increased abundances just above partings where cleat development and filling is more significant. Other elements, such as Fe and S show patterns which do not fit any of the above groups but show components of several.

  15. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  16. Comparative evaluation of vertical and horizontal drainage wells for the degasification of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.R.; Ertekin, T.

    1988-05-01

    A two-phase, single-well, numerical simulator capable of modeling the performance of either vertical or horizontal wells (drilled from a shaft bottom) has been developed. For vertical wells, the model allows for the prediction of postfracture performance. The hydraulically induced fractures can be specified as either infinite conductivity or finite (constant) conductivity, so that conventional, as well as massive, treatments can be modeled. Although the simulator allows for multiple fracture wings, only the classic, two-wing, hydraulic fracture is considered in this paper. For coal seams, the formation to be modeled is a dual-porosity reservoir. The natural fracture network of the coal seam (the butt and face cleat) has been assigned an effective porosity and permeability. A time-dependent, quasisteady-state sorption term has been included to describe the phenomenon of gas desorbing from the formation matrix and diffusing into the fracture network. The model was used to sift through the many parameters associated with the two production schemes to determine those that affect production most significantly. Where possible, these parameters, along with their effects, are put into dimensionless form. Type curves for estimating recovery were generated from these dimensionless groups. Finally, a comparison between the performance of vertical and horizontal boreholes was made with actual field data.

  17. Recycling of coal seam gas-associated water using vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, Farideh; Shi, Jeffrey; Chae, So-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas-associated water (CSGAW), which is a by-product of coal seam gas (CSG) production typically contains significant amounts of salts and has potential environmental issues. In this study, we optimized a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process with flat-sheet hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the treatment of synthetic CSGAW (conductivity = 15 mS/cm). To study performance of the VMD process, we explored the effects of feed temperature (T(f) = 60, 70, and 80°C), feed flow rate (V(f) = 60, 120, and 240 mL/min), and vacuum pressure (P(v) = 3, 6, and 9 kPa) on water permeability through the PTFE membrane in the VMD process. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. T(f) = 80°C, V(f) = 240 mL/min, P(v) = 3 kPa), water permeability and rejection efficiency of salts by the VMD process were found to be 5.5 L/m(2)/h (LMH) and 99.9%, respectively, after 2 h filtration. However, after 8 h operation, the water permeability decreased by 70% compared with the initial flux due to the formation of fouling layer of calcium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, and potassium on the membrane surface. PMID:26360750

  18. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity near to the surface. The inversion into 1D models confirmatively reveals this layer indicating thermally altered coal respectively the mineralisation zone above the burning seam. This likewise is seen in the vertical resistivity section derived from 1D inversion of the AEM data as within the mapped burning zone decreased electrical resistivity is ascertained. From the difference of permittivities between burning and intact zones respectively the method of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is able to discriminate one from the other. Fissures, cracks and the collapsing of whole areas are caused as well by the heat as by the loss of volume as the coal is burnt. The knowledge regarding crevices as paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire is essential for extinguishing fires. The resulting resolution of such crevices depends on the frequency chosen for the GPR survey. The amount of CO2 and the vertical temperature gradient above a fire are measured using a thermal camera mounted onto an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV).

  19. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  20. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents. PMID:20071005

  1. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Williams

    2004-10-01

    This is the sixth semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made on drilling the north, center, and south well sites. Water production commenced at the center and south well sites. New drilling plans were formulated for the last remaining well, which is in the Upper Freeport Seam at the north site. Core samples were submitted to laboratories for analytical testing. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  2. Analysis of close seam interaction problems in the Appalachian coal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.

    1987-01-01

    Mining into strata disturbed by previous mining operations either above or below may sometimes result in severe strata control problems. These interaction problems, associated with most multiple-seam mining operations, are very common in the Appalachian coal region and are the subject of this dissertation. On the basis of both theoretical and empirical analyses, using statistical analysis, numerical modeling, and photoelastic modeling methods in conjunction with the analysis of numerous case studies, a comprehensive, integrated model has been constructed and represented by a computer program called MSEAM. Using this comprehensive model, possible interaction problems under certain geological and mining conditions can be first predicted based on rules determined either empirically or statistically. Then, detailed analyses using different interaction mechanisms - pillar load transfer, arching effect, upper seam subsidence, innerburden bending, and innerburden shearing - can further determine the area or degree of possible interaction in both under- and over-mining situations. Special geologic and mining factors controlling interaction are also summarized by indices for an independent interaction prediction. This integrated model has been validated by back-analysis of several case studies. Full descriptions of multivariate statistical analysis, photoelastic modeling technique, quantization of various interaction mechanisms, and development of the comprehensive model are included.

  3. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport trough the coal core, thus including mass balances accounting for gas flow, gas sorption and swelling, and mechanical constitutive equations for the description of porosity and permeability changes during injection. The combination of the experimental data with the model predictions allow to successfully relate the dynamics of gas flow to parameters such as the effective pressure on the sample, sorption capacity and swelling, and to estimate important parameters, such as the mass transfer coefficient describing gas diffusion into the porous matrix of the coal. In particular, an increase in permeability is observed with decreasing effective pressure on the sample and, when an adsorbing gas is injected, a reduction in permeability caused by swelling, with CO2 having a much stronger effect as compared to N2. This last observation represents the starting point to the investigation of attractive options aimed at optimizing the ECBM operation, such as the use of CO2/N2 mixtures (flue gas) as a way of keeping the permeability in the reservoir sufficiently high. Acknowledgment Luigi Burlini was at the heart of this co-operation, and made it possible a synergy between engineers and geologists that has been extremely fruitful. With this contribution we would like to acknowledge Luigi's humanity and scientific visions and to remember a friend.

  4. Thermal characteristics of coal fires 2: Results of measurements on simulated coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia; Tetzlaff, Anke; Oertel, Dieter; Zhukov, Boris; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured during simulated fires under an experimental setting in Germany in July 2002. It is thus a continuation of the previously published paper "Thermal surface characteristics of coal fire 1: Results of in-situ measurement", in which we presented temperature measurements of real subsurface coal fires in China [Zhang, J., Kuenzer, C., accepted for publication. Thermal Surface Characteristics of Coal Fires 1: Results of in-situ measurements. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics.]. The focus is on simulated coal fires, which are less complex in nature than fires under natural conditions. In the present study we simulated all the influences usually occurring under natural conditions in a controllable manner (uniform background material of known thermal properties, known ventilation pathways, homogeneous coal substrate), creating two artificial outdoor coal fires under simplified settings. One surface coal fire and one subsurface coal fire were observed over the course of 2 days. The set up of the fires allowed for measurements not always feasible under "real" in-situ conditions: thus compared to the in-situ investigations presented in paper one we could retrieve numerous temperature measurements inside of the fires. Single temperature measurements, diurnal profiles and airborne thermal surveying present the typical temperature patterns of a small surface-and a subsurface fire under undisturbed conditions (easily accessible terrain, 24 hour measurements period, homogeneous materials). We found that the outside air temperature does not influence the fire's surface temperature (up to 900 C), while fire centre temperatures of up to 1200 C strongly correlate with surface temperatures of the fire. The fires could heat their surrounding up to a distance of 4.5 m. However, thermal anomalies on the background surface only persist as long as the fire is burning and disappear very fast if the heat source is removed. Furthermore, heat outside of the fires is transported mainly by convection and not by radiation. In spatial thermal line scanner data the diurnal thermal patterns of the coal fire are clearly represented. Our experiments during that data collection also visualize the thermal anomaly differences between covered (underground) and uncovered (surface) coal fires. The latter could not be observed in-situ in a real coal fire area. Sub-surface coal fires express a much weaker signal than open surface fires and contrast only by few degrees against the background. In airborne thermal imaging scanner data the fires are also well represented. Here we could show that the mid-infrared domain (3.8 ?m) is more suitable to pick up very hot anomalies, compared to the common thermal (8.8 ?m) domain. Our results help to understand coal fires and their thermal patterns as well as the limitations occurring during their analysis. We believe that the results presented here can practicably help for the planning of coal fire thermal mapping campaigns including remote sensing methods and the thermal data can be included into numerical coal fire modelling as initial or boundary conditions.

  5. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  6. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  7. A comparative evaluation of vertical and horizontal drainage wells for the degasification of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.R.; Ertekin, T.

    1984-09-01

    A two-phase, single well numerical simulator capable of modeling the performance of either vertical wells, or horizontal wellbores drilled from a vertical shaft, has been developed. For the vertical wells, the model allows for the prediction of post-fracture performance. The hydraulically induced fractures can be specified as either infinite conductivity or finite (constant) conductivity, so that conventional, as well as massive treatments, can be modeled. For the horizontal boreholes the problem is idealized as N infinite conductivity boreholes distributed uniformly around a vertical shaft and extending radially outward. The problem is then reduced by considering a symmetric element defined by theta /SUB sym/ . The value of theta /SUB sym/ is solely dependent on the value of N. This symmetric element can then be modeled in radial coordinates by placing a single horizontal borehole along theta=O, and a no flow boundary along theta=theta /SUB sym/ . For coal seams, the formation to be modeled is a dual porosity reservoir. The natural fracture network of the coal seam (the butt and face cleat) has been assigned an effective porosity and permeability. A time dependent, quasi-steady state sorption term has been included to describe the phenomenon of gas desorbing from the formation matrix to the fracture network. All the equations generated by the model are solved simultaneously by the fully implicit, NewtonRaphson procedure. Both the numerical and mathematical developments are presented in detail. The model has been used to sift through the many parameters associated with the two production schemes in order to determine those which most significantly affect production. Where possible these parameters, along with their effects, are put into dimensionless form, and type curves for predicting recovery, based on these dimensionless groups are presented.

  8. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  9. Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams

    SciTech Connect

    Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A.

    2005-07-01

    Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  10. Palaeochannels (stone-rolls) in coal seams: Modern analogues from fluvial deposits of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairncross, B.; Stanistreet, I. G.; McCarthy, T. S.; Ellery, W. N.; Ellery, K.; Grobicki, T. S. A.

    1988-05-01

    Two varieties of fluvial sandstones are associated with coal seams in the Permian Witbank Coalfield of South Africa. The first comprises lenticular channel-fill sandstone, minor conglomerate and siltstone encased entirely within the coal seam. Medium- to coarse-grained arkosic sandstones are structured by planar cross-bedding and fine upwards into carbonaceous siltstone and overlying coal. These palaeochannel-fill deposits are 5 km wide in proximal basin areas and narrow down palaeoslope to less than 1 km in width. The second variety of channel fill consists of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone which occurs below the floor of the coal seam. These deposits form undulating ridges that occur either in sub-parallel groups or as isolated shoe-string type bodies at the coal-floor rock contact. Both features are referred to as stone-rolls in colliery terminology. These ancient deposits are compared with active and abandoned fluvial systems from the Okavango Delta in Botswana, southern Africa. Active channels are flanked by extensive peat swamps which effectively confine and stabilize the channel margins. Clastic sedimentation is therefore completely confined to the channels by the vegetation and deposition occurs by vertical aggradation. Recently abandoned channels in the Okavango Delta display a variety of well preserved bed-forms which alternate with scoured depressions along the thalweg producing an undulating topography to the channel floor. These features provide a modern analogue for the stone-rolls in the coalfield deposits. The subsequent channel abandonment, vegetation encroachment and peat formation over the sand bodies would form a coal seam superimposed on the irregular surface, provided channel abandonment was followed by subsidence, overlying sediment deposition, compaction and coalification of the peat. Although the Okavango rivers are narrower and transport finer-grained sand than their Permian counterparts, the mechanism of formation and style of deposition was similar for both systems.

  11. Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.

    2005-09-01

    For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

  12. Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reinink-Smith, L.M.

    1985-04-01

    Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the coal with any one parting cannot be predicted, and the contacts of the partings with the coal range from very sharp to predominantly gradational. These bedding relationships provide clues about the surface on which the ashes fell and on which the coal was accumulating. For example, some ashes fell in standing water, others on irregular subaerial surfaces. The partings are in various stages of alteration to kaolinite and bentonite, and vary in thickness from a few millimeters to about 10 cm. The consistency and texture of the partings depend on the degree of alteration; the less altered partings display visible pumice fragments and euhedral feldspars, commonly within a finer grained matrix. Separate pumice fragments, excluding matrix, can also occur as partings in the coal. The more altered partings may be wet and plastic, or they may be well indurated claystones; the colors range from gray-yellow to dark brown. The indurated prints are more common in older part of the section. The coal seams may be capped by volcanic ash partings and are commonly underlain by a pencil shale of nonvolcanic origin.

  13. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  14. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of lithofacies trends along northwest-southeast trends, especially beneath modern valleys where overburden thickness decreases sharply. Differentiating roof falls related to these trends can aid in predicting roof quality in advance of mining.The Pond Creek-Lower Elkhorn seam has been an important exploration target because it typically has very low sulfur contents and ash yields. Geologic research in several large Pond Creek mines suggested variability in roof quality and coal thickness. Due to mine access, geologic problems encountered during mining are documented and described.

  15. Fire-hazard control during coal handling

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for serious power plant fires and explosions is growing along with the increased use of volatile, low-sulfur coal use and environmental regulations requiring closed conveyor systems for handling coal. The volume of coal handled and the range of physical characteristics in different coals intensifies the problem. Western coal produces more dust because it is more friable than eastern coal and is more prone to sponaneous combustion. Closed storage and handling systems increase the hazards of methane and carbon monoxide. The article described prevention, detection, and firefighting techniques, and notes that a variety of systems is needed to cover all the hazards. Human behavior and coordination are also essential ingredients. ll figures.

  16. Rock creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project: Rock Creek coalbed methane completion project data summary update. Topical report, December 1990-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ellard, J.; Lambert, S.W.; Litzinger, L.A.; Saulsberry, J.L.; Steidl, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testing were conducted to optimize stimulation methods for multiple thin coal seams. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed to provide a basis for stimulation design, production analysis and reservoir testing. Geologic characterization included stratigraphic and structural evaluation along with coal cleat, rock joint, seam thickness, coal methane content, coal chemistry and coal petrography studies. The report summarizes the data collected over the 10 year life of the project.

  17. Spaceborne remote sensing for detection and impact assessment of coal fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öttl, Herwig; Roth, Achim; Voigt, Stefan; Mehl, Harald

    2002-07-01

    China has tremendous coal fields in its Northern regions. Not all of them are accessible for mining yet despite the fact, that China is the world's largest coal producer (about 1 billion tons annually). Many coal seams are reaching the surface and show self-ignited fires of considerable extension. Furthermore, fires occur in mines or in the underground. 56 areas of large fires are known to the Chinese authorities and numerous small ones exist in addition. Due to the vast dimensions of some burning coal fields, extinguishing the fires requires a huge effort. Besides the economic losses caused by burning coal (more than 20 million tons p.a.); 3 to 5 times of this amount is heavily affected by the fire and is therefore of no economic use. The environmental impact regionally and globally must not be neglected. It has been estimated by Chinese scientists that the carbon dioxide produced by these uncontrolled fires contributes with approximately 3 % to the Chinese CO 2 production. Spaceborne remote sensing offers important information such as digital elevation models (DEMs) as basic data for geologic formations and routes for access to burning areas, such as hot spot detection for fire assessment, such as land use classification and deposit estimation, such as estimation of environmentally harmful gases. Multitemporal measurements (e.g. differential SAR interferometry) offer a measure for ground subsidence and estimations of burned coal volumes. Furthermore, it is an efficient means for an early warning system of new fires. In the paper, examples of burning areas will be shown and some relevant computed DEMs. Furthermore, some land use data and some infrared data will be presented. The application of these data for other involved disciplines like modelling of the geologic vicinity surrounding the burning coal seams, analysis and modelling of the fire and its 3-dimensional propagation also based on ground and underground air (oxygen) supply (chimneys) will be mentioned. Based on these models, the best method for extinguishing the fire under observation may be derived as well as methods to prevent new self ignition by oxidation processes. But this will not be covered in the paper.

  18. Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, M.A. . Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Methanobacterium sp. Maddingley, Reconstructed from Metagenomic Sequencing of a Methanogenic Microbial Consortium Enriched from Coal-Seam Gas Formation Water

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J.; Hendry, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of Methanobacterium sp. Maddingley was reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a methanogenic microbial consortium enriched from coal-seam gas formation water. It is a hydrogenotrophic methanogen predicted to grow using hydrogen and carbon dioxide. PMID:23405289

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Methanobacterium sp. Maddingley, Reconstructed from Metagenomic Sequencing of a Methanogenic Microbial Consortium Enriched from Coal-Seam Gas Formation Water.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J; Hendry, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of Methanobacterium sp. Maddingley was reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a methanogenic microbial consortium enriched from coal-seam gas formation water. It is a hydrogenotrophic methanogen predicted to grow using hydrogen and carbon dioxide. PMID:23405289

  1. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of extinguishing underground fires (fig. 2) (see 'Controlling Coal Fires'). In this fact sheet we review how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health. In addition, we describe recent efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and collaborators to measure fluxes of CO2, CO, CH4, and Hg, using groundbased portable detectors, and combining these approaches with airborne thermal imaging and CO2 measurements. The goal of this research is to develop approaches that can be extrapolated to large fires and to extrapolate results for individual fires in order to estimate the contribution of coal fires as a category of global emissions.

  2. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  3. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-04-01

    This is the first Technical Progress report for the subject agreement. During the first six months of the project, progress was made in arranging participation by other CONSOL departments, identifying a prospective site, developing an environmental assessment report, and securing land and coal rights. In addition, correspondences were drafted in response to NETL inquiries. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  4. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  5. Personal equipment for low seam coal miners: Improved knee pads, a modified design

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.S.; Shaw, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the development and field test to improve knee protection for underground coal miners working in low seam mines. In a previous phase of this contract (Sanders, 1982), experimental knee pads were developed and field tested. The field test revealed several design deficiencies with the knee pads, and suggestions for improving the design were made. The work summarized in this report, therefore, consists of modifying the design and method of fabrication of the knee pads originally described by Sanders (1982), and of field testing the improved design. The new prototype was shorter and wider than the original design, and used a neoprene pass-through strap design rather than a cloth strap molded into the pad itself. The new prototype was constructed by slush molding a hollow bladder that was then filled with foam. Initial reactions to the pads in the field test were very positive. However, after 2 months, the opinions about the new prototype became less positive. They were judged, generally, to be no better or worse than the pads usually worn by the field-test participants. Problems were encountered in the field with respect to durability. Water seeped into the inner cavity of many of the pads and caused the foam to deteriorate. It was concluded that it would not be cost-effective or feasible to significantly improve upon current commercially available knee pad designs.

  6. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  7. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

  8. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  9. Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov., a methylotrophic methanogen isolated from a deep subsurface coal seam.

    PubMed

    Doerfert, Sebastian N; Reichlen, Matthew; Iyer, Prabha; Wang, Mingyu; Ferry, James G

    2009-05-01

    A methanogenic organism from the domain Archaea (SD1(T)) was isolated from saline water released from a coal seam located 926 m below the surface via a methane-producing well near Monroe, Louisiana, USA. Growth and methanogenesis were supported with methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine, but not with dimethylsulfide, formate, acetate or H(2)/CO(2). Cells grew in high-salt minimal medium but growth was stimulated with yeast extract or tryptone. Cells were single, non-motile, irregular coccoids 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter and the cell wall contained protein. Conditions for the maximum rate of growth were 40-50 degrees C, 0.2-0.6 M NaCl, 100->or=200 mM MgCl(2), and pH 7.0-8.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42+/-1mol %. A comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SD1(T) was most closely related to Methanolobus oregonensis DSM 5435(T) with 96 % gene sequence similarity. It is proposed that strain SD1(T) represents a novel species, Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov. The type strain is SD1(T) (=ATCC BAA-1601(T)=DSM 21339(T)). PMID:19406794

  10. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  11. Improving the quality of Lower Freeport Seam coal to reduce electricity costs, Coal Quality Development Center: Campaign Report No. 9: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R.; Cavalet, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the results of a characterization of the coal's response to cleaning and an assessment of how modifying the coal's quality affects a new power plant. The Lower Freeport Seam extends over large areas of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia - a reserve conservatively estimated to contain over five billion tons. The specific coal characterized is from an underground mine in Indiana County, Pennsylvania. The characterization involved cleaning the coal to two different quality levels: (1) intense cleaning to produce clean coal meeting an SO/sub 2/ emission limit of 1.20 lb/MBtu (1971 New Source Performance Standards) and (2) conventional cleaning aimed at reducing SO/sub 2/ as much as possible while recovering at least 80% of the raw coal's original energy. Intensive cleaning produced clean coal with an SO/sub 2/ emission potential of 1.26 lb/MBtu; approaching but did not meet the SO/sub 2/ emission potential target because of difficulty in removing sulfur from the finest size coal (100 mesh x 0). On the other hand, conventional cleaning reduced the SO/sub 2/ emission potential to 1.45 lb/MBtu (a 48.5% reduction) while recovering nearly 83% of the energy. Even with a delivered price nearly $10/ton more than the raw coal, the conventionally cleaned coal combined with partial flue gas scrubbing, provides a 0.5% lower 30-year levelized annual power plant capital, operating, and maintenance cost. This report also contains detailed laboratory washability data, identifies the degree of additional ash and sulfur liberation attainable by crushing the coal, and provides data on the response of the fine coal to cleaning by froth flotation. The report serves as an in-depth source of information about the quality and cleanability of Lower Freeport Seam coal from one mine. 18 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Numerical simulation of the simultaneous flow of methane and water through dual porosity coal seams during the degasification process

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.

    1985-01-01

    Described in this study are the mathematical and numerical developments for a series of finite difference models which simulate the unsteady state behavior of coal seam degasification wells. Included in this series are models capable of predicting the performance of vertical drainage wells and horizontal drainage wells drilled from a shaft bottom. For the vertical wells the models allow for the simulation of post-fracture performance. The hydraulically induced fractures can be specified as either infinite or finite (constant) conductivity. The natural fracture system of the coal seam, the face and butt cleat, is identified as a porous network and assigned effective permeability and porosity values representative of coal. A time-dependent diffusion/sorption model is included to describe the phenomenon of gas desorbing from the coal matrix and diffusing into the porous network. The coal seam is then modeled as a dual porosity reservoir using a pseudosteady state approach. Unique to the models developed in this study is the dual mechanism transport of gas. In this treatment gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of two fields: a concentration field and a pressure field. The combination of these two flow mechanisms yields a pressure, saturation, and composition dependence slippage factor. The models have been used to evaluate the many parameters associated with the methane drainage process, in order to determine those which most significantly affect production. Where possible these parameters, along with their effects, are put into dimensionless form, and type curves for predicting recovery, based on these dimensionless groups, are presented.

  13. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  14. Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of δ13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and baseline signals were evaluated and statistically compared to test for the presence of fugitive methane emissions. In addition, a time series model of the methane baseline was developed in order to generate alternative realizations of the baseline signal. These were used to provide measures of both the likelihood of detecting fugitive emissions at various emission levels and of the false alarm rate. Results of the statistical analysis and an indicative minimum fugitive methane emission rate that can be detected using a single monitoring station are presented.

  15. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  16. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  17. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  18. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  19. Inferring Hydraulic and Fracture Properties of a Fracked Coal Seam Aquifer by Using GLUE Uncertainty Analysis using TOUGH2 reservoir simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Askarimarnani, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal seam gas (also called coal bed methane) is a form of natural gas that occurs in some coal seams. In the coal seam gas industry, hydraulic fracturing is performed to enhance the extraction of the gas from the coal seam. This paper presents flow simulation results for a fractured coal seam and its associate production well, and an investigation of the well piezometric head drawdown curves resulting from hydraulic pumping tests. The aim is to infer the hydraulic and fracture properties of the coal and associated well, such as length, width, conductivity of fractures, and the proportion of the water and gas contained in the coal seam. For this purpose the TOUGH2/EOS7C numerical simulator is applied. It is capable of modelling multiphase flow in fractured and porous system. The EOS7C is an "equation of state" module for TOUGH2 that is used to model the methane dissolved and free gas multiphase component. The Wingridder grid generator has been used to generate the 2D, 3D and MINCE (multiple interacting continua) grids for TOUGH2. The simulation results provide some constraints on hydraulic and fracture properties. However, there is still have significant uncertainty. In order to assess the uncertainty and increase our knowledge of the hydraulic properties, uncertainty analysis using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), which is a Monte-Carlo methodology, is applied. We will discuss how the Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses is used to infer the properties of a hydraulically fractured well from pump test data. One major outcome of this work will be the development of a fast and routine method for assessing the post-development performance and safety of a production gas well, and to provide reassurance that the fracking that has actually occurred in the field is within design parameters.

  20. Summary of the completion optimization and assessment laboratory (coal) site. Appendices. Western cretaceous coal seam project. Topical report, November 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.; Pratt, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This second volume of the summary report of the Completion Optimization and Assessment Laboratory (COAL) Site of the Western Cretaceous Coal Seam Project, whose purpose was to quantify the reasons for the increased productivity of San Juan Basin, Fruitland Formation (Upper Cretaceous) coalbed gas wells, contains the appendixes, which provide, in tabular form, the following sets of data for each of the discussed wells: Summary of Coring Operations and Descriptions; Sample Identification Details; Desorbed Gas Composition Data; Gas Desorption Data; Drilling Operations Reference Pages; Sorption Isotherm Data; and Fracture Description and Orientation Data.

  1. Development and evaluation of technology for methane production from a deep coal seam in the Piceance Basin. Annual report, June 1, 1985-May 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schwoebel, J.J.; Logan, T.L.; Decker, A.D.; Cooper, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    The Red Mountain Site, leased and operated by Resource Enterprises, Inc. is the focus of a six-year, multi-well project with a main objective to develop, improve, evaluate and communicate the technology required to produce gas from deeply buried coal. To understand the parameters controlling coalbed gas production, project efforts are focused on a single coal reservoir (the Cameo Coal 'D' Seam) at the test site. Last year, 1 Deep Seam was stimulated with a nitrogen foam fracture. Post-stimulation stabilized gas production is approximately 20 Mcfd, accompanied by water production of 1 Bpd. Extensive pre-frac testing was performed on 2 Deep Seam including step-rate tests, pump-in/flow-back tests, and a 20,000 gallon mini-frac. The well was successfully fracture stimulated with approximately 122,00 gallons of 40-lb linear gel and 260,000 lbs of 20/40 mesh sand. The well stimulation was designed to selectively place the proppant in the D coal seam. Post-stimulation gas production reached over 100 Mcfd; however, it has declined to 40 Mcfd at present. A horizontal drainhole will be attempted in 3 Deep Seam. The overall objective is to test and evaluate the effectiveness of drainhole completion technology in a coal reservoir.

  2. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  3. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  4. The Outburst Risk as a Function of the Methane Capacity and Firmness of a Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mirosław; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    In most coal basins that are currently being exploited, gas and rock outbursts pose a considerable safety threat. The risk of their occurrence is frequently assessed by means of a parameter known as the methane capacity of coal. In a lot of countries, the evaluation of the mechanical properties of coal is conducted by means of another parameter: the firmness of coal. Due to the laboratory investigations and in situ observations carried out by the authors of this paper, it was possible to determine a function space in which the outburst risk can be described as a function of the methane capacity and firmness of a coal seam. This, in turn, made it possible to link the "gas factor" to the "mechanical factor", and thus provide a more comprehensive risk analysis. Wyrzuty gazów i skał stanowią duże zagrożenie w większości obecnie eksploatowanych zagłębi węglowych. Bardzo często wykorzystywanym parametrem oceny stanu zagrożenia wyrzutowego jest zawartość metanu w węglu. W wielu krajach do oceny mechanicznych parametrów węgla wykorzystuje się zwięzłość. Autorzy przeprowadzili badania laboratoryjne polegające na prowokacjach wyrzutów w skali laboratoryjnej. Jako materiał badawczy wykorzystane zostały brykiety węglowe. W trakcie badań wstępnych ustalona została zależność pomiędzy porowatością brykietów, a ich zwięzłością f oraz pomiędzy ciśnieniem nasycania metanem, a wskaźnikiem intensywności desorpcji dP. Pozwoliło to na przygotowywanie eksperymentów o kontrolowanych parametrach gazowych (wskaźnik intensywności desorpcji) oraz wytrzymałościowych (zwięzłość). Opracowana została metoda kontrolowania intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu poprzez określenie tempa spadku ciśnienia gazu przed czołem brykietu. Dzięki temu dla siatki parametrów f-dP możliwe było poszukiwanie minimalnej, skutecznej intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu. Znormalizowana wartość stałej czasowej spadku ciśnienia przed czołem brykietu powodującej skuteczną inicjację wyrzutu uznana została za miarę zagrożenia wyrzutowego dla rozpatrywanych parametrów f-dP. Dysponując wartościami tak określonych miar zagrożenia wyrzutowego dla całej siatki parametrów f-dP można wykreślić przestrzeń zagrożenia wyrzutowego w funkcji rozpatrywanych parametrów. Równoległa faza badań dotyczyła poszukiwania korelacji pomiędzy wskaźnikiem intensywności desorpcji, a zawartością gazu w węglu (metanonośnością Mn) na przykładzie pomiarów wykonanych w pokładzie 412 KWK "Zofiówka". W pokładzie tym zaobserwowano bardzo wyraźną, liniową zależność pomiędzy wskaźnikiem intensywności desorpcji, a metanonośnością. Poznanie funkcyjnej zależności Mn(dP) umożliwiło przedstawienie wyników prac laboratoryjnych jako przestrzeni zagrożenia wyrzutowego w funkcji zwięzłości i metanonośności. Analiza uzyskanej przestrzeni zagrożenia wskazuje na jej zgodność zarówno z intuicją, jak i z kopalnianym doświadczeniem. Dla progowej w polskim górnictwie węglowym wartości zwięzłość (f = 0.3) stan zagrożenia wyrzutowego na poziomie 50% występuje przy Mn około 7 m3CH4/Mgcoaldaf. Aby zagwarantować podobny stan zagrożenia wyrzutowego dla kryterialnej wartości metanonośności na poziomie 8 [m3CH4/Mgcoaldaf] węgiel powinien mieć zwięzłość f powyżej 0.5. Oczywiście wartość izolinii na poziomie 50% jest umowna, a interpretacji powinny podlegać raczej kształty izolinii, niż ich wartości.

  5. Lead isotopes as a tool for understanding the formation of the coal seam in the Cenozoic Most Basin (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Ladislav; Mihaljevic, Martin; Semikova, Hana; Sebek, Ondrej; Mach, Karel

    2010-05-01

    The deposition of the Cenozoic (Oligocene to Miocene) sedimentary sequences of the Most Basin in northern part of the Czech Republic is connected with the formation of the NE-trending Eger-rift zone. Determination of the lead isotopic composition in coal is important for the understanding of numerous aspects of the formation of coal seams in this area. Lead can be present in coal in the form of its own minerals such as galena (PbS), as admixtures in Ba minerals, in the pyrite crystalline structure substituting for Fe, or can be bonded to organic matter (Mihaljevi? et al., 2009, Int. J. Coal Geol., 78, 38-46). The isotopic composition of lead was studied on selected coal samples from the 220-m-deep drill core of the Most Basin. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb ratios were measured using quadrupole-based ICP-MS after mineralization by the dry ashing and total digestion in mineral acids (HF+HClO4). The total content of Pb in coal samples varies from 0.20 to 80 ppm. The Pb isotopic data exhibit wide range of compositions and split statistically into two main intervals: 206Pb/207Pb = 1.169 - 1.189 for coals with low (< 10 %) content of mineral fraction, and 206Pb/207Pb = 1.190 - 1.215 for coals with high (> 10 %) content of mineral fraction, composed mainly of clays and corresponding to lithogenic isotopic signature. Significant variation of isotopic data is probably reflecting complex tectono-sedimentary evolution and post-sedimentary geochemical processes in the basin.

  6. Investigation into the gas-dynamic state of a coal seam under degassing and moistening

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, A.D.; Zaburdyaev, G.S.; Zaburdyaev, V.S.

    2005-04-01

    Statistics are cited for the violation of gas and dust conditions in mines of Russia and the material damage caused by gas and dust explosions. It is shown that degassing and moistening of a seam is the most efficiently conducted by the hydraulic pulse action.

  7. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  8. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

  9. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate, that in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial stage of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine. 9 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Lithology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Fire Clay coal, eastern Kentucky: Implications concerning the peat-forming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yalan, Rimmer, S.M.; Ferm, J.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    In a study of polished block samples of ten columns of the Fire Clay coal seam in the Hyden East, Hazard South, and Vicco geological quadrangles, eastern Kentucky, eight different lithotypes were recognized on the basis of brightness, texture, and percentage of vitrain bands versus matrix. The lithotypes are: A, very bright luster, banded (vitrain bands > 90%); B, very bright luster, non-banded; C, bright luster, highly banded (vitrain bands > 50%); D, medium luster, moderate banded (vitrain bands 30--50%); E, medium luster, slightly banded (vitrain bands < 30%); F, dull luster non-banded; G, silky luster, fibrous; and F, disturbed. Point-count analysis of the different lithotypes revealed that the lithotypes can be differentiated according to maceral composition (telocollinite content, desmocollinite content, and others which includes the liptinite, inertinite, and minerals). The Fire Clay coal contains thick-walled, dumbell-shaped sporinite and framboidal pyrite in the upper parts of the two benches which are divided by the flint clay parting. High ash contents occur near the base, the roof, and the parting. High sulfur contents occur near the top of the two benches, corresponding to the occurrence of framboidal pyrite. A coal facies analysis of the Fire Clay coal suggests that for individual benches the peat-forming environment developed from a low-lying swamp to a raised swamp. In the early stages of swamp development, the existence of a fresh-water, low-lying swamp is suggested by the presence of banded lithotypes in the lower portion of the seam. In the later stages of swamp development, there was a transition to a raised swamp, as suggested by the presence of dull, non-banded lithotype in the upper portion of the seam.

  11. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate control. From the brown coal seam dating, the coal appears to have accumulated during a considerable part of the allocated 30 Ma Cenozoic time period. These brown coal carbon isotope and palynological data appear to record a more gradual atmospheric carbon isotope change compared to the marine record.

  12. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Estimating Effective Seismic Anisotropy Of Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs from Sonic Log Data Using Orthorhombic Buckus-style Upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Lutz; Tyson, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Fracture density and orientation are key parameters controlling productivity of coal seam gas reservoirs. Seismic anisotropy can help to identify and quantify fracture characteristics. In particular, wide offset and dense azimuthal coverage land seismic recordings offers the opportunity for recovery of anisotropy parameters. In many coal seam gas reservoirs (eg. Walloon Subgroup in the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia (Esterle et al. 2013)) the thickness of coal-beds and interbeds (e.g mud-stone) are well below the seismic wave length (0.3-1m versus 5-15m). In these situations, the observed seismic anisotropy parameters represent effective elastic properties of the composite media formed of fractured, anisotropic coal and isotropic interbed. As a consequence observed seismic anisotropy cannot directly be linked to fracture characteristics but requires a more careful interpretation. In the paper we will discuss techniques to estimate effective seismic anisotropy parameters from well log data with the objective to improve the interpretation for the case of layered thin coal beds. In the first step we use sonic log data to reconstruct the elasticity parameters as function of depth (at the resolution of the sonic log). It is assumed that within a sample fractures are sparse, of the same size and orientation, penny-shaped and equally spaced. Following classical fracture model this can be modeled as an elastic horizontally transversely isotropic (HTI) media (Schoenberg & Sayers 1995). Under the additional assumption of dry fractures, normal and tangential fracture weakness is estimated from slow and fast shear wave velocities of the sonic log. In the second step we apply Backus-style upscaling to construct effective anisotropy parameters on an appropriate length scale. In order to honor the HTI anisotropy present at each layer we have developed a new extension of the classical Backus averaging for layered isotropic media (Backus 1962) . Our new method assumes layered HTI media with constant anisotropy orientation as recovered in the first step. It leads to an effective horizontal orthorhombic elastic model. From this model Thomsen-style anisotropy parameters are calculated to derive azimuth-dependent normal move out (NMO) velocities (see Grechka & Tsvankin 1998). In our presentation we will show results of our approach from sonic well logs in the Surat Basin to investigate the potential of reconstructing S-wave velocity anisotropy and fracture density from azimuth dependent NMO velocities profiles.

  14. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

    2014-05-01

    A series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

  15. SNCR experience with coal fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.D.; Casper, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cogentrix owns and operates a 220 MW coal fired cogeneration power plant that uses selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control. The SNCR was required as an air permit condition as specified by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ). The SNCR system is urea based and was supplied by Nalco FuelTech. The system has been in operation for over 3 years and, although the SNCR system has reduced NOx as expected, it has created operational and maintenance problems with the steam generators and flue gas desulfurization equipment. This paper documents the decision process used by the VDEQ in requiring the SNCR, the air permit conditions restricting the operation of the plant with the SNCR, the operational and maintenance problems associated with the SNCR system and the equipment and operational modifications that have been made to the plant in an effort to mitigate the problems.

  16. Fayalite from Fe-rich paralavas of ancient coal fires in the Kuzbass, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Fayalite is a common mineral of Fe-rich paralavas related to spontaneous combustion of coal seams. Fayalite has also been found in parabasalts from burned coal waste piles of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. Among paralavas from different combustion metamorphic (CM) complexes of the world, fayalite is the most widespread in the fused rocks of the Kuznetsk coal basin (Kuzbass) and the Ravat area in Tajikistan. The optimal conditions for fayalite formation as products of coal fires in the Kuzbass and Ravat resulted from a favorable combination of the composition of fused protolith (parental rocks) composed of pelitic and Fe-rich sediments and the redox conditions of the deep subsurface ( f_{O_2 } is lower than the QFM buffer). In the Kuzbass, fayalite is commonly hosted in high-silica aluminous Fe-rich paralavas composed of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite), tridymite, hercynite-magnetite, cristobalite, aluminous clinoferrosilite, and Al-K silicic glass. The composition of all Kuzbass fayalites is close to the Fe2SiO4 end member. Kuzbass fayalites are characterized by a negligibly low CaO content and higher MnO and P2O5 contents like fayalites from burned rocks of other CM complexes. In Kuzbass paralavas, Fe-olivine is the late phase that crystallized after sekaninaite and tridymite, immediately before melt quenching.

  17. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

  18. Western cretaceous coal seam project natural fractures in bituminous coal gas reservoirs. Topical report, January 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.

    1991-11-26

    The paper discusses the issues of natural fracture (cleat) occurrence and geometry, and cleat permeability recognition, evaluation and prediction for bituminous coal gas reservoirs. The Darcy flow of gas and water in coal gas reservoirs takes place in cleat permeability avenues during depressurization. Cleat permeability is often the most important characteristic that influences coal gas project success or failure. Often the most important and difficult task associated with coal gas projects is to locate commercial permeability. An hypothesis on the genesis of cleats in bituminous coal gas reservoirs, which incorporates the results of coal gas research and the history of exploration success and failure in several coal basins, is suggested as a starting point in the search for commercial coal gas reservoirs. Coals with interbedded vitreous and non-vitreous lithotypes, and interbedded shale layers, are favored targets because of the greater possibility that these reservoirs are characterized by well developed cleat systems and commercial cleat permeability. The coals must also have sufficient net thickness and adequate reservoir pressure to contain significant gas in-place resources formed during active coalification. The operator should initially find high volatile A to low volatile bituminous rank coals at depths of less than approximately 1,525 meters. These coals are also often characterized by more favorable gas desorption and diffusion characteristics with respect to critical desorption pressure, particularly in areas where reservoir pressure has been maintained after active gas generation.

  19. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  20. The age, palaeoclimate, palaeovegetation, coal seam architecture/mire types, paleodepositional environments and thermal maturity of syn-collision paralic coal from Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Say-Gee; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Konjing, Zainey; Koraini, Ahmad Munif

    2014-02-01

    The Mukah coal accumulated in the Balingian Formation where the time-stratigraphic position is poorly defined by fauna, though a probable Late Miocene age has always been assigned to this formation. Samples collected in the present study that yielded an abundance of Casuarina pollen associated with occurrences of Dacrydium, Stenochlaena palustris, Florschuetzia levipoli and also Stenochlaena areolaris spores, compare closely to zone PR9 of the palynological zonation of the Malay Basin, and can be tied to depositional sequences of Malay Basin Seismic sequences I2000/I3000, indicating an Early Miocene age for the studied coal. The Early Miocene age shows that the Mukah coal was formed during the collision between Luconia Block-Dangerous Grounds with the Borneo that lasted from Late Eocene to late Early Miocene. The rapid increase of deposition base-level caused by the collision is clearly reflected by the architecture of the Mukah coal seams that were generally thin, and also by the reverse order of the paleo-peat bodies.

  1. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks, and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety, and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal-producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers, and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. This US Bureau of Mines report includes information from a variety of sources, i.e., agencies of the Federal Government, State agencies, research reports, conference proceedings, product information, and technical literature. This information has been collated into a comprehensive discussion of AML fire problems. Data on past fire control projects and on the estimated extent of the current problem have been compiled. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation, and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated. Information on the hazards of AML fires and safety considerations is included. The status of current technology, recent improvements in fire control methods, and areas of current research are discussed.

  2. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  3. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-11-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity.

  4. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium.

    PubMed

    Iverach, Charlotte P; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; France, James L; Nisbet, Euan G; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ(13)C-CH4), groundwater tritium ((3)H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ(13)C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and (3)H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  5. 6. JL photographer, summer 1978. View of Sterling coal fired ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. JL photographer, summer 1978. View of Sterling coal fired furnaces in pumping station. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  7. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ~73 Bcf (median) to ~46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ~2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines. PMID:26191095

  8. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ∼73 Bcf (median) to ∼46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ∼2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

  9. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, February-April 1980. [Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-06-01

    The basic objective of this program is to invetigate systematic relationships between the properties of US coals and macerals. Thirty-five samples from the Lower Kittanning seam have been collected to study the vertical and lateral variability of petrographic, chemical, mineralogical and plastic characteristics within a single coal seam. The ratio of aromatic to aliphatic C-H groups as measured by the integrated absorption or peak areas shows a linear relationship with coal rank (reflectance). Uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C on -20 mesh sizes of selected coals (PSOC-1166, 1171, 1197, and 1201) has been measured. From Dubinin-Polanyi plots, micropore surface areas and micropore volumes were obtained. Displacement of mercury was used to estimate particle densities for -20 mesh and -100 mesh sizes of coals and vitrinite concentrates. Some uncertainty in this measurement is introduced because of the difficulty of knowing at what pressure filling of voids between particles with mercury is complete. A new helium density apparatus has been constructed which promises to speed up measurements. Two coals from China were found to have very unusual characteristics. The extremely high liptinite (cutinite) content of one would account for its anamolous chemical composition and liquefaction behavior. Several organic and inorganic components of liquefaction residues can be recognized under the microscope. The proportions of these components in residues from experiments performed by PETC appear to be related to process conditions. Major, minor element and mineralogical analyses are reported for up to 21 coals.

  10. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  11. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  12. Coal combustor retrofits to gas- and oil-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, L.

    1982-02-22

    The Wormser Grate is an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combustor designed to fire new or existing gas or oil-fired boilers of capacities from 10,000-100,000 lb/h of steam. The fluidized bed boiler produces 60% of the steam output, and the rest is produced by gas or oil firing. The Wormer Grate uses two separate, shallow fluidised beds: one for combustion and the other for desulphurization.

  13. Coal Fire Fighting: Removal of Thermal Energy by Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Suhendra; Rueter, H.

    2009-04-01

    Fires are mainly controlled by the availability of three parameters: fuel, oxygen and thermal energy (heat). Hence, all extinction methods are related to the reduction of one or more of these parameters. The extensive removal of one of these parameters will stop a fire. The ability of so called heat pipes to remove thermal energy from the underground coal fire was tested by laboratory and field experiments. A heat pipe is a device of very high thermal conductance. By using a heat pipe, considerable quantities of heat can be transported from the underground to the surface. The heat pipe is filled with a working fluid selected for the present temperature range. Heat is applied and conducted from the coal fire to the evaporator part of the heat pipe and causes the liquid to vaporize. The vapor moves to the condenser section above the surface. The vaporized fluid is condensed and the condensate flows back to the evaporator section by gravity force. The energy removed from the fire is rapidly transferred to the condenser section when the fluid condenses there. From there the energy will finally flow to the surrounding air and extended cooling areas (paddles) may facilitate this transfer. Once installed, the process will run continuously. Within the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in North China" prototypes of heat pipes were tested in laboratory scale as well as in the coal fire area in Wuda, China. As the result of the investigations it will become possible to determine the amount of removed heat to define the needed number of installations. The effect of installed heat pipes on the coal fire propagation will be estimated by means of numerical simulations.

  14. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    PubMed

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  15. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control site to ∼467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ∼3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  16. Stochastic reservoir simulation for the modeling of uncertainty in coal seam degasification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The study helped to determine the realization bundle that consisted of the spatial maps of coal properties, which resulted in minimum error. In addition, it was shown that both E-type and the average of realizations that gave the best match for invidual approximated the same properties resonably. Moreover, the determined realization bundle showed that the study field initially had 151.5 million m3 (cubic meter) of gas and 1.04 million m3 water in the coal, corresponding to Q90 of the entire range of probability for gas and close to Q75 for water. In 2013, in-place fluid amounts decreased to 138.9 million m3 and 0.997 million m3 for gas and water, respectively.

  17. Origin and distribution of tonsteins in late permian coal seams of Southwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Yinzhu; Ren, Y.-L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed the areal and stratigraphic distribution of tonsteins in Late Permian coalfields of southwestern China over an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. We studied the relationship between tonstein distribution and sedimentary environment. Based on mineralogical and petrographic data, we have concluded that these tonsteins originated as air-fall volcanic ashes. Following accumulation in the peat swamps, in situ alteration of the vitric and lithic components took place under acidic conditions, leading to the formation of kaolinite. Based on petrologic, mineralogic, and chemical analytical data, we have determined that the application of mineralogic and geochemical criteria for tonsteins may be useful in correlating coal beds, predicting coal qualities and reconstructing related sedimentary paleoenvironmental conditions. ?? 1982.

  18. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to modeling software to enhance model robustness. Research was also conducted to improve algorithms and generalized adsorption models to facilitate realistic simulation of CO2 sequestration in coal seams and shale gas reservoirs. The interaction among water and the adsorbed gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrogen (N2) in coalbeds is examined using experimental in situ laboratory techniques to comprehensively model CBM production and CO2 sequestration in coals. An equation of state (EOS) module was developed which is capable of predicting the density of pure components and mixtures involving the wet CBM gases CH4, CO2, and N2 at typical reservoir condition, and is used to inform CO2 injection models. The final research objective examined the effects adsorbed CO2 has on coal strength and permeability. This research studied the weakening or failure of coal by the adsorption of CO2 from empirically derived gas production data to develop models for advanced modeling of permeability changes during CO2 sequestration. The results of this research effort have been used to construct a new and improved model for assessing changes in permeability of coal reservoirs due CO2 injection. The modules developed from these studies and knowledge learned are applied to field validation and basin assessment studies. These data were used to assess the flow and storage of CO2 in a shale reservoir, test newly developed code against large-scale projects, and conduct a basin-oriented review of coal storage potential in the San Juan Basin. The storage potential and flow of CO2 was modeled for shale sequestration of a proprietary Marcellus Shale horizontal gas production well using COMET3 simulation software. Simulation results from five model runs indicate that stored CO2 quantities are linked to the duration of primary production preceding injection. Matrix CO2 saturation is observed to increase in each shale zone after injection with an increase in primary production, and the size of the CO2 plume is also observed to increase in size the longer initial production is sustained. The simulation modules developed around the Coal-Seq experimental work are also incorporated into a pre-existing large-scale numerical simulation model of the Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM pilot in the San Juan Basin. The new model was applied to re-history match the data set to explore the improvements made in permeability prediction against previously published data sets and to validate this module. The assessment of the new data, however, indicates that the impact of the variable Cp is negligible on the overall behavior of the coal for CO2 storage purposes. Applying these new modules, the San Juan Basin and the Marcellus Shale are assessed for their technical ECBM/AGR and CO2 storage potential and the economic potential of these operations. The San Juan Basin was divided into 4 unique geographic zones based on production history, and the Marcellus was divided into nine. Each was assessed based upon each zone’s properties, and simulations were run to assess the potential of full Basin development. Models of a fully developed San Juan Basin suggest the potential for up to 104 Tcf of CO2 storage, and 12.3 Tcf of methane recovery. The Marcellus models suggest 1,248 Tcf of CO2 storage and 924 Tcf of AGR. The economics are deemed favorable where credits cover the cost of CO2 in the San Juan Basin, and in many cases in the Marcellus, but to maximize storage potential, credits need to extend to pay the operator to store CO2.

  19. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Pulverized-coal firing of aluminum-melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. Information on the fabrication of Burner A; the testing of Burner A; the reappraisal of the design of the coal feeding system; experimental testing with various particle sizes of coal feed; completion of the installation of process equipment for the 300 lb/h Alcoa/DOE coal combustion facility; and completion of the slag handling system is summarized. A description of the process and design layouts is included. (MCW)

  1. Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, J.; Wenglarz, R.; Hart, P.; Mongia, H.

    1993-11-01

    The combustion/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean coal technologies using gas turbines results from the CFTCC system having been designed as an adaptation to coal of a natural gas-fired combined cycle plant. Gas turbines are built for compactness and simplicity. The RQL combustor is designed using gas turbine combustion technology rather than process plant reactor technology used in other pressurized coal systems. The result is simpler and more compact combustion equipment than for alternate technologies. The natural effect is lower cost and improved reliability. In addition to new power generation plants, CFTCC technology will provide relatively compact and gas turbine compatible coal combustion/emissions control islands that can adapt existing natural gas-fired combined cycle plants to coal when gas prices rise to the point where conversion is economically attractive. Because of the simplicity, compactness, and compatibility of the RQL combustion/emission control island compared to other coal technologies, it could be a primary candidate for such conversions.

  2. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono możliwości wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metodą określania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym do określania skłonności węgla do samozapłonu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek węgla z trzynastu kopalni w obrębie Indyjskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w różnych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewnić standaryzację metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla każdej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metodą badania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z własnościami danego węgla przez przeprowadzenie badania petrograficznych i wytrzymałościowych parametrów węgla. Procedurę korelacji wykonano z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania Design Expert 7.0.0, następnie przeprowadzono analizę z wykorzystaniem sieci neuronowych w celu opracowania najkorzystniejszej kombinacji warunków eksperymentu do wykorzystania dla uzyskania optymalnych wyników. Badania wykazały, że najkorzystniejsze warunki dla procesu to zastosowanie roztworu 0.2 N KMnO4 z 1 N KOH przy 45°C dla uzyskania optymalnych wyników określania skłonności pokładów do samozapłonu. Walidację wyników przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki badania metodą określania temperatury przejścia (Crossing Point Temperature), szeroko stosowaną w przemyśle wydobywczym w Indiach.

  3. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  4. Modeling and interpretation of two-phase flow and tracer studies from a subbituminous coal seam in the San Juan basin of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Travis, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were performed to characterize two-phase flow within the natural cleat structure of an upper Cretaceous subbituminous coal seam. A two borehole pattern with open completion was used in a study of dewatering and tracer residence time distribution. Air was pumped into a five meter thick seam located about 170 meters below the surface. Krypton 85 was used as the airborne tracer. Air inflow and air and water production rates and tracer arrival times were monitored. The field tests were simulated with a two-phase, three component, porous flow code. Results showed that the air inflow and air and water outflow rates and breakthrough times could not be modeled assuming a uniform darcy-type permeability. The use of a pressure dependent permeability did provide, however, a much better match with the field data.

  5. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  6. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations. PMID:26867097

  7. Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae. PMID:23837320

  8. INJECTION INTO COAL SEAMS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CO2 MITIGATION AND ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COALBED METHANE

    SciTech Connect

    Francis M. Carlson; Charles G. Mones; Lyle A. Johnson; Floyd A. Barbour; L. John Fahy

    1997-04-01

    Because of confidentiality requirements of this task, this topical report is necessarily brief and is based on quarterly reports that have been previously approved for release by Amoco Production Company (Amoco). More detailed topical reports have been written and will continue to be written as the project proceeds. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved that these detailed reports can be held in confidence for a period not to exceed three years from their dates of publication. When this three-year period has transpired, or earlier with Amoco's approval, the more detailed topical reports will be provided to DOE for its discretionary use. Three detailed technical reports have been written that cover the two-well pilot test, the laboratory work, and modeling using a coal reservoir description and Amoco's coalbed methane simulator. The document covering the two-well pilot test elicited many comments from Amoco personnel and a major revision of the document is in progress. The other two documents are essentially complete. History matching of the Allison Unit CO{sub 2} injection project has been completed and long-term performance predictions have been made using the resulting reservoir description. Idealized predictions for a quarter of a five-spot pattern of the process have been made and economics of the process evaluated.

  9. Hydrochemical evolution within a large alluvial groundwater resource overlying a shallow coal seam gas reservoir.

    PubMed

    Owen, Daniel D R; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-08-01

    A combination of multivariate statistical techniques, simple hydrochemical mixing models and inverse geochemical modelling was used to investigate the major hydrochemical evolutionary pathways of a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine River alluvium, south-east Queensland, Australia. Hydrochemical similarities between alluvium and sedimentary bedrock groundwater imply some mixing between alluvial and sedimentary bedrock aquifers, but spatial assessment showed that this was localised around outcrops of sedimentary bedrock in upstream areas. Within the alluvium, a distinct shift towards a low salinity Na-HCO3 water type and a brackish Na-HCO3-Cl water type was obvious in two separate locations. Both of these water types are unique to the alluvium, and inverse modelling shows that they can evolve via a combination of in situ alluvial processes, including diffuse recharge of rainfall or river water or the evolution of basalt-derived groundwater via gypsum dissolution plagioclase weathering, cation exchange and some carbonate precipitation/dissolution. The evolution of these water types is potentially influenced by overlying sodic alkaline soils, and often is associated with a source of sulfate. Evapotranspiration is the dominant salinization process in the alluvium and increases in calcium cations during salinization indicate that brackish Na-HCO3-Cl groundwater in the underlying Walloon Coal Measures are unlikely to have a major influence on salinization in the alluvium. The most saline water types observed were endemic to shallow zones of the alluvium where evapotranspiration is likely. Results demonstrate that a combination of multivariate statistics and inverse geochemical modelling can be successfully used to delineate hydrochemical pathways in complex hydrogeological settings where a range of environmental and anthropogenic factors may be influencing the evolution of water types with similar hydrochemical compositions. PMID:25863513

  10. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires. Report of investigations/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number of smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate that, in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial state of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine.

  11. Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.; Lloyd, G.M.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and a portion of the carbonaceous char; flue gas desulfurization means for contacting the SO{sub 2}-containing flue gas with lime and limestone; gypsum desulfurization means for heating the gypsum and the remaining portion of carbonaceous char under reducing conditions utilizing burning of the remaining portion of the combustible gas stream; means for recycling the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream to the coal gasification means.

  12. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  14. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  15. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  17. Overview of the influence of syn-sedimentary tectonics and palaeo-fluvial systems on coal seam and sand body characteristics in the Westphalian C strata, Campine Basin, Belgium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreesen, Roland; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dusar, Michiel; Flores, R.M.; Verkaeren, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Westphalian C strata found in the northeastern part of the former Belgian coal district (Campine Basin), which is part of an extensive northwest European paralic coal basin, are considered. The thickness and lateral continuity of the Westphalian C coal seams vary considerably stratigraphically and areally. Sedimentological facies analysis of borehole cores indicates that the deposition of Westphalian C coal-bearing strata was controlled by fluvial depositional systems whose architectures were ruled by local subsidence rates. The local subsidence rates may be related to major faults, which were intermittently reactivated during deposition. Lateral changes in coal seam groups are also reflected by marked variations of their seismic signatures. Westphalian C fluvial depositional systems include moderate to low sinuosity braided and anastomosed river systems. Stable tectonic conditions on upthrown, fault-bounded platforms favoured deposition by braided rivers and the associated development of relatively thick, laterally continuous coal seams in raised mires. In contrast, rapidly subsiding downthrown fault blocks favoured aggradation, probably by anastomosed rivers and the development of relatively thin, highly discontinuous coal seams in topogenous mires.

  18. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  19. Development of single stage toroidal flow coal fired MHD combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Stankevics, J.O.A.; Beals, R.C.; Mattsson, A.C.J.; Stewart, C.C.

    1982-08-01

    Studies and testing done at the Avco Everett Research Laboratory, Inc. (AERL) have considerably advanced the state-of-the-art of MHD coal-fired combustor design and operation. A prototype 20 MW MHD coal-fired combustor was designed, fabricated and tested. The slagging coal combustor design concept is a single-stage configuration which enables the achievement of high overall thermal efficiency. The vertical combustor has a downward flow, a cylindrical chamber, and a horizontal exit nozzle for directing the seeded plasma to a MHD generator channel. Combustion experiments at operating pressures up to 6 atm yielded the following data: combustion temperature of 2650-2800/sup 0/K, electrical gas conductivity of 6 to 7 mhos/meter, carbon utilization greater than 99.5%, and stable steady state operation.

  20. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2014-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  1. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  2. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  3. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. The report includes information from a variety of sources. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated.

  4. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  5. Compacting biomass waste materials for co-firing with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.; Kiesler, J.; Morgan, A.; Liu, H.; Marrero, T.R.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a process that allows for the optimum compaction of various biomass waste materials to form fuels that can be co-fired with coal in conventional coal-fired power plants. Previous studies have shown that the use of biomass fuels in conjunction with coal in power plants is beneficial for several reasons. The use of biomass fuels reduces the amount of harmful gases that are emitted into the atmosphere by the firing of coal alone. In addition, the biomass used is primarily waste products that would be placed in a municipal landfill. By using this waste material as a fuel, the volume of waste being disposed of in landfills can be decreased significantly. However, in an uncompacted state these biomass wastes are bulky and costly to handle and transport. Compacting the biomass will increase its density and decrease the difficulty in handling and shipping costs. Four biomass products, wood chips, sawdust, low quality waste paper, and tree trimmings were compacted at various pressures into 1.91-inch diameter logs. After compaction, the logs were subjected to ASTM standard tests for unconfined compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. Tumbling tests and drop tests were also performed according to ASTM standards. The logs were also subjected to a water absorption test. Finally, each log will be tested to determine its thermal characteristics, such as the heating value and the gases each log produces when burned.

  6. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  7. Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.

    PubMed Central

    Alfheim, I; Bergström, J G; Jenssen, D; Møller, M

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples. PMID:6825617

  8. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  9. Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langsjoen, P. L.; Burlingame, J. O.; Gabrielson, J. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of 18 coal stoker boilers including spreader stokers, mass fired overfeed stokers, and mass fired underfeed stokers are reported. Particulate loading is largely dependent on stoker type and degree of flyash reinjection. It increases with heat release rate, but can be controlled with proper use of overfire air in many cases. Nitric oxide increases with excess air and grate heat release rate. Overfire air, as it exists in current boiler designs, does not affect NOx. Relationships between operating variables and measured emissions and efficiency are also reported.

  10. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  11. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  12. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    PubMed

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash. PMID:21090555

  13. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  14. Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    During 1999-2001 ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories and others evaluated the feasibility of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric power plant. The power plant analysed was the Conesville No. 5 unit, operated by AEP of Columbus, Ohio. This unit is a nominal 450 MW, pulverized coal-fired, subcritical pressure steam plant. One of the CO{sub 2} capture concepts investigated was a post-combustion system, which used the Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global, Inc.'s commercial MEA process. More than 96% of CO{sub 2} was removed, compressed, and liquefied for usage or sequestration from the flue gas. Based on results from this study a follow-up study is investigating the post-combustion capture systems with amine scrubbing as applied to the Conesville No. 5 unit. The study evaluated the technical and economic impacts of removing CO{sub 2} from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using advanced amine-based post combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems. The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO{sub 2} capture systems. An advanced amine CO{sub 2} scrubbing system is used for CO{sub 2} removal from the flue gas stream. Four (90%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) CO{sub 2} capture levels were investigated in this study. These results indicate that the advanced amine provided significant improvement to the plant performance and economics. Comparing results with recent literature results for advanced amine based capture systems (Econamine FG{sup +} and KS-1) as applied to utility scale coal fired power plants shows very similar impacts.

  15. Analysis of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power generator experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.

    1998-07-01

    Data from proof-of-concept MHD generator tests have been analyzed and compared with computer analyses. These analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the 50-MW coal-fired Integrated Topping Cycle MHD power generator and to provide an explanation for and solutions to eliminate the unusual internal channel flow patterns that were observed during testing. The model results were also used to investigate the generator's internal leakage as a function of its operating condition.

  16. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J.

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  18. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  19. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  20. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  1. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  2. Modeling arsenic partitioning in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, Constance L.; Lignell, David O.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Mehta, Arun

    2006-11-15

    Vapor-phase arsenic in coal combustion flue gas causes deactivation of the catalysts used in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the behavior of arsenic in the postcombustion region of a coal-fired boiler as a function of gas residence time. The purpose of the model is to calculate the partitioning of arsenic between the vapor phase from volatilization and arsenic on the ash particles due to surface reaction and/or condensation at temperatures characteristic of SCR systems. The model accounts for heterogeneous condensation of arsenic on the fly ash, as well as surface reaction for two regimes: (1) the free molecular regime (submicrometer ash particles) and (2) the continuum regime (supermicrometer ash particles). All gas properties are computed as functions of gas temperature, pressure, and composition, which are allowed to vary. The arsenic model can be used to calculate the impact of coal composition on vapor-phase arsenic at SCR inlet temperatures, which will help utilities better manage coal quality and increase catalyst lifetimes on units operating with SCR. The arsenic model has been developed and implemented and was tested against experimental data for several coals. (author)

  3. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  4. Tungsten and tungsten-copper for coal-fired MHD power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, L. C.; Shields, J. A.

    1992-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHO) can improve the thermal efficiency and reduce levels of SOx and NO emissions of existing coal-fired power generation plants. Although the thermal and electrochemical environments for a coal-fired MHO channel challenge the materials used, platinum, tungsten, and tungsten-copper have been found to be suitable choices. Evaluations indicate these materials perform adequately as electrodes and other gas-side surfaces in the coal-fired MHO channel. Analysis of test elements has resulted in the identification of wear mechanisms. Testing of a prototypical coal-fired MHO channel incorporating these materials is under way and will be completed in 1993.

  5. Personal equipment for low seam-coal miners. 10. Improved knee pads, a modified design. Open file report (Final) 1982-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.S.; Shaw, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to develop and field test improved knee protection for underground coal miners working in low-seam mines. In a previous phase of this contract (Sanders, 1982), experimental knee pads were developed and field tested. The work summarized in this report, therefore, consists of modifying the design and method of fabrication of the knee pads originally described by Sanders (1982), and of field testing the improved design. The new prototype was shorter and wider than the original design, and used a neoprene pass-through strap design rather than a cloth strap molded into the pad itself. The new prototype was constructed by slush molding a hollow bladder that was then filled with foam.

  6. Optical flue gas measurements at the Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Winkleman, B.C.; Giel, T.V. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Optical sensor flue gas measurement experience at the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is summarized. The CFFF is a Department of Energy facility built for experimental research and development of advanced coal utility cycles, most notably the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic cycle being developed for increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. Optical diagnostics described include the line reversal measurements for gas temperature, emissivity and gaseous species, luminosity and pyrometry measurements of gas and wall emissions for temperatures and velocities, and light scattering measurements for gas velocity, gas mixing and suspended particle characteristics. Line reversal has proved to be a reliable technique for accurate, relatively high gas temperature ({ge}2100{degrees}F) monitoring where thermocouple measurements, including measurements from aspirated, shielded thermocouples, are unreliable due to radiation losses and ash fouling. Line reversal and luminosity measurements are shown to capably measure not only mean gas and surface temperatures, but also provide evaluations of fluctuating flue gas properties. Finally, optical scattering measurements of particles in the flue gas are shown to be useful for gas velocity and mixing diagnosis (laser velocimetry measurements) as well as continuous, near real-time monitoring of effluent particle loading and size distribution.

  7. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  8. Sequential simulation approach to modeling of multi-seam coal deposits with an application to the assessment of a Louisiana lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple ways to characterize uncertainty in the assessment of coal resources, but not all of them are equally satisfactory. Increasingly, the tendency is toward borrowing from the statistical tools developed in the last 50 years for the quantitative assessment of other mineral commodities. Here, we briefly review the most recent of such methods and formulate a procedure for the systematic assessment of multi-seam coal deposits taking into account several geological factors, such as fluctuations in thickness, erosion, oxidation, and bed boundaries. A lignite deposit explored in three stages is used for validating models based on comparing a first set of drill holes against data from infill and development drilling. Results were fully consistent with reality, providing a variety of maps, histograms, and scatterplots characterizing the deposit and associated uncertainty in the assessments. The geostatistical approach was particularly informative in providing a probability distribution modeling deposit wide uncertainty about total resources and a cumulative distribution of coal tonnage as a function of local uncertainty.

  9. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  10. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  11. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  12. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  13. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  14. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: II. Dexterity, protection and performance with padded gloves. Phase II report, number 2. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    Krohn, G.; Sanders, M.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report investigates the effects of adding a layer of extra padding to the palm area of leather gloves typically worn by low seam coal miners.

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  16. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  17. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  18. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

  19. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  20. Improved low NOx firing systems for pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.; Rosin, T.; Hausman, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    More stringent emission limits or the addition of post combustion NOx control create the need for improvements of NOx emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Many boilers retrofitted with Low NOx technology during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the CAAA fail or marginally meet their requirements. Technical solutions range from addition of overfire air and state-of-the-art low NOx burners to low cost additions of combustion enhancements. Regardless of the combustion NOx control method used, stoichiometries local to the burners must be maintained at the designed values at all times to provide high NOx performance at low efficiency loss due to unburned fuel. This paper describes Foster Wheeler's approach to NOx emission improvements for existing low NOx firing systems. The technology to measure air and coal flow individually for each burner and to control the parameters for optimum combustion are presented and discussed. Field experience shows the installation and advantages of the technology.

  1. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  2. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  3. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  4. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Romn-Coln, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. PMID:22326311

  5. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

  6. A GUIDE TO CLEAN AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF COAL-STOKER-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a guide for those in charge of operating coal-stoker-fired boilers. It explains and illustrates the types of coal-fired stokers in operation today. It explains the combustion process in simple terms. It explains the various heat losses in stoker boilers. And, it dis...

  7. APPLICABILITY OF THE THERMAL DENOX PROCESS TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a projection of the performance and cost of the Exxon Thermal DeNOx Process applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Eight units were selected, representing different boiler manufacturers, sizes, firing methods, and coal types. Thermal DeNOx performance was project...

  8. Radiation hazard stemming from coal-fired thermal power stations for population and production personnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.

    2009-07-01

    Matters concerned with radiation hazard for people stemming from coal-fired thermal power stations are discussed. Information on the influence of coal-fired thermal power stations on the production personnel and population living in the regions around such facilities is presented.

  9. Coal fire mapping from satellite thermal IR data - A case example in Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. S.

    Coal fire has been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining processes. Coal fire burns valuable coal reserve and prevents access to proven reserve in the affected area. Moreover, it leads to severe environmental degradation of the region by an overall increase of the ambient atmospheric temperature, by the emission of obnoxious gases (e.g., SO 2, NO, CO, CH 4) along fissures and cracks and by causing land subsidence and collapse. Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India, is known for being the exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for hosting the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in the country. In this paper, some of the important issues of coal fire mapping from satellite thermal IR data have been addressed in particular reference to Jharia Coalfield. Namely, these are: retrieval of true spectral radiance from raw digital data using scene-specific calibration coefficients of the detectors, thermal emissivity of surface materials to obtain kinetic temperature at each ground resolution cell of satellite data, field-based modelling of pixel-integrated temperature for differentiating surface and subsurface fire pixels in Landsat TM thermal IR data, identification of surface coal fire locations from reflected IR data and lateral propagation of coal fire.

  10. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  11. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  12. Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

    1995-08-01

    Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

  13. Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application as thermal transport systems for integrating fluidized bed combustors (FBC) with prime movers ranging from Stirling engines in total energy systems (approx.10 MWe) to closed-cycle gas turbines in central power plants (approx.1000 MWe). The results of initial investigations at ANL demonstrated that high-temperature sodium heat pipes provided the best heat exchanger technology for integrating Stirling engines with coal-fired FBC systems. A major accomplishment included the development and validation of a computer code (ANL/HTP) which calculates heat pipe operating limits and other significant characteristics necessary for power plant design. A number of developmental and prototype heat pipes were designed and fabricated through a subcontract effort with Thermacore, Inc., and delivered to ANL for performance testing. Preliminary test results from ANL's Heat Pipe Test Facility, using induction heating and a gas-water calorimeter to establish energy balances, are given in the report. Test data obtained to date are consistent with ANL/HTP code predictions. 47 refs., 53 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  16. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jeffrey; Yager, Janice

    2006-08-01

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m3 to 96 mg/m3 (mean of 1.8 mg/m3). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m3 (mean value of 0.048 mg/m3). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 microm and 8 microm. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected. As compared with air samples, bulk samples from the same work areas consistently yielded lower relative amounts of quartz. Controls to limit coal fly ash exposures are indicated during some normal plant operations and during episodes of short term, but high concentrations of dust that may be encountered during maintenance activities, especially in areas where ash accumulations are present. PMID:16862716

  17. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-07-27

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

  18. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  19. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  20. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  1. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

  2. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that neither of these conditions have been met.

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  4. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter and shakedown testing was begun at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. Talks continued with two utilities that have expressed interest in hosting a demonstration.

  5. Co-firing wood waste and coal at Naantali-3 power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostamo, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    Co-firing tests with coarse sawdust and Polish coal have been carried out at FORTUM's Naantali-3 CHP power plant (315 MWfuel). Naantali-3 plant is a tangentially fired pulverized coal unit with a Sulzer flow-through boiler that produces 79 MW electricity, 124 MW district heat and 70 MW steam. Naantali-3 is equipped with roller coal mills (Loesche), modern low-NOx-burners (IVO RI-JET), OFA, ESP and FGD. Coal and sawdust were blended in the coal yard, and the mixture was fed into the boiler through coal mills. Performance tests were being conducted over a period of three weeks. A total of 670 tonnes (as received, 38-51% moisture) of pine and spruce sawdust from the sawmill were burned. The first test week was used to define, in the technical sense, the maximum proportion of wood in the blend when the coal/wood waste blend was introduced to one coal mill. Based on these experiments, the coal/sawdust mixture was introduced to all coal mills. During the actual co-firing tests, the proportion of sawdust in the blend varied between 4 and 10 per cent by mass (1 to 4 per cent from the fuel input). The co-firing tests were successful in many ways, but the behavior of the coal mills caused some problems, and therefore the simultaneous feed might not be the solution in a long-term use.

  6. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  8. Southern thailand coal fired project: Feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report addresses various technical, environmental, and economic aspects of developing four 1,000 MW units of coal fired electric generating facilities at a site near Prachuap Khiri Khan. The study includes a cost estimate for the units and the fuel delivery port as well as the major conceptual design decisions made for the project. This volume of the report is the Feasibility Study and is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction/Summary; (2) Generation Planning Study; (3) Site Selection Study; (4) Project Description; (5) Fuel Resource Assessment; (6) Water Resource Assessment; (7) Technical Information to Support the Environmental Impact Assessment; (8) Plant Conceptual Design; (9) Transmission Interconnection; (10) Project Capital Cost Estimate; (11) Project Schedule; (12) Project Implementation Plan; (13) Project Risk Analysis.

  9. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2001-04-30

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test, up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was co-milled Pratt seam coal. In the second test, also with Pratt seam coal, up to 10% by weight dry hardwood sawdust was injected through the center of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preliminary results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments.

  11. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Yager, J.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m{sup 3} to 96 mg/m{sup 3} (mean of 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} (mean value of 0.048 mg/m{sup 3}). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected.

  12. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  13. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  14. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  16. New technology tackles coal-fired power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Prachi Patel-Predd

    2006-05-01

    Tests conducted at three coal-fired power plants show that a new technology can reduce mercury emissions at higher rates and lower costs than current methods, according to its developers, Chem-Mod LLC. The Chem-Mod system is able to capture Hg{sup 0} by using a liquid sorbent to oxidize it to Hg{sup 2+} or trap it on its surface. A second, powder sorbent captures SO{sub 2} and heavy metals. The two sorbents combine to trap the emissions in a ceramic-like matrix that is locked into the fly ash. The technology removed up to 98%, 90%, and 86% of the mercury in week-long tests with different bituminous and subbituminous grades of coals. In addition, the system cut SO{sub 2} emissions by 40-75% and those of arsenic, chloride, and heavy metals by 75-90%. A full-scale commercial facility using the technology is expected to start soon.

  17. Observation of induced fractures intercepted by mining in the Warrior Basin, Alabama. Topical report. Rock Creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project

    SciTech Connect

    Steidl, P.F.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes research and inspection of induced fractures that have been intercepted by mining. Induced fractures from 13 wells intercepted by mining were inspected at the Jim Walter Resources' (JWR) No. 4 and 5 Mines in Tuscaloosa County, and the Oak Grove Mine in Jefferson County, Alabama. In this area the Mary Lee and Blue Creek coalbeds average 1.3 ft and 4 to 5.5 ft, respectively at depths of about 2,000 ft at the JWR mines and 1,000 ft in the Oak Grove Mine. These seams are usually separated by 2 to 10 ft of rock parting. The wells were completed open hole from 1982 to 1986. Hydraulic fracture treatments were used to stimulate production. Some expected results include: in general, the fractures followed the coal face cleat direction; they were vertical, and were sandpacked close to the wall. Other observations include the following: (1) most of the fractures and proppant were present in the parting and roof rock, (2) results were similar in the JWR and Oak Grove Mines even though there is 1,000 ft less overburden at the Oake Grove Mine, and (3) no horizontal fractures were observed in the study; though other stimulations have propagated horizontal fractures at Oak Grove.

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS program. The CETF design effort continued through this quarter with the completion of the following systems: 1. Char Storage and Transport System 2. Reheat Burner The char storage system is required for the HIPPS program because the ball mill needs to be de-coupled from the burner. This de-coupling of the mill and the burner allows greater flexibility in changing char particle size distribution � one of the main test variables under the HIPPS program. The reheat burner is employed to prevent condensation of the flue gas in the baghouse.

  19. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

  20. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considered subject to demand concerns, supply concerns, or both demand and supply concerns.

  1. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  2. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  3. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  4. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  5. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  6. Unified process assessment for resources use and waste emissions by coal-fired power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2010-09-01

    A unified process assessment is carried out to integrate various resources and emissions associated with the life cycle of typical coal-fired power generation systems, based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy as a common objective measure. For a comprehensive assessment of industrial production systems, three indicators termed as ecological efficiency, resources use efficiency and environmental emission intensity are devised to evaluate the overall efficacy. Concretely assessed in the present work are three typical modes of coal-fired power generation systems, i.e., the Average mode that represents the average emissions and efficiency of coal-fired power plants operating in the US in 1999, the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) mode that meets the New Source Performance Standards, and the low emission boiler system (LEBS) mode as a kind of highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler, as benchmark cases in related NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) report.

  7. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  8. MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

  9. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  12. Use of multiple opportunity fuels in coal-fired cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.A.; Hus, P.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), with support from USDOE-EERE, the USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, and EPRI, is installing a materials handling system to fire a combination of wood waste and petroleum coke with the base coal in the No.7 boiler of Bailly Generating Station. The No.7 boiler is a 160 MW{sub e} (net) unit fired with four cyclones. It is typically fired with a blend of Illinois coal and Western coal. The gaseous combustion products from this boiler are ducted to a precipitator and then to a Pure Air scrubber for sulfur oxides removal. The Pure Air scrubber converts the SO{sub 2} into artificial gypsum. Typically the unit burns about 70 tons/hr of coal at full load. The Bailly Generating Station program, being implemented by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, involves blending petroleum coke and wood waste with coal for combination opportunity fuel firing. Multiple fuel firing is intended to capture the advantages of each fuel: high volatility of biofuels and high Btu content of petroleum coke are among these characteristics. The objective of the program, then, is to reduce fuel costs at the station while improving combustion. The program involves constructing a fuel handling and blending system, and then testing the impacts of individual opportunity fuels with coal plus blends of opportunity fuels with coal. This paper reviews the program concept, the combustion modeling, the blending system design, and the results of baseline and laboratory testing to date.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  15. Detection, Analysis and Risk Assessment of Coal Fires in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian; Li, Jing; Wu, Jianjun; Erhler, Christoph; Jiang, Weiguo; Guo, Shan; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion of coal is a serious problem on a global scale. Since coal can easily be oxidized and often has a prominent “self-heating” capacity, many coal types have a tendency to combust spontaneously once sufficient oxygen is available and natural cooling is prevented. The rapid expansion of uncontrolled small-scale coal mining activities during the last 30-40 years and the increasing amount of not adequate closed down and now abandoned coal mine sites are supposed to have led to an increase of human-induced coal fires. Thus, coalfield fires need to be not only inventoried at regional scales through rapid and cost effective methods, but also assessed, monitored and secured, wherever appropriate. This leads to major research and technological development objectives: Easy-to-use, routine remote and in-situ monitoring techniques, based on airborne and space borne imagery, to become part in an integrated long-term monitoring framework.

  16. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-09-20

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WATERTUBE BOILER FIRING A COAL-WATER SLURRY. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results from field testing a watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry (CWS) containing about 60% coal. Emission measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas,...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  19. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

  20. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  4. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  5. Suppressing pollutant emissions from boilers firing stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kolat, P.

    1994-12-31

    Industrial plants are often unaware that simple adjustment of the combustion process can significantly reduce the NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and fly ash emissions. A systematic approach to the problem indicates that the character and adjustment of the combustion process not only can create favorable conditions for binding solid combustion residues and minimizing their amounts at the point of combustion, but can also modify their physical, chemical, and/or electrical properties to make them easier to trap in electrostatic precipitators. Similarly, gaseous pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, F, Cl{sub 2}, HCl, and HF, as well as heavy metals and simple hydrocarbons, can be bound more easily by aerodynamic interventions, which also allow further reductions of pollutant emissions by suitably dosed additions of limestone and dolomite. This work covered the measurement methods employed in the furnaces, mathematical three-dimensional modeling of the furnaces, and isothermal two-component modeling of the burners. In order to cover as many types of pollution-generating combustion equipment as possible and to define the fundamental measures needed to limit their contaminating effect to a bare minimum, the work was divided into four areas: stroke-fired boilers, fluid bed boilers, pulverized coal boilers, and flue gas cleaning.

  6. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  7. Emissions of mercury and other trace elements from coal-fired power plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takahisa; Asakura, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate trace element emissions from modern coal-fired power plants into the atmospheric environment in Japan, trace elements in the coal used in electric utility boilers, stack concentrations, emission rates and emission ratios of coal-fired power plants, and proportions of trace elements in coal-fired power plants were studied. The elements were As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and V, which are designated in the Law of Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. The particulate trace elements were collected in an electrostatic precipitator and a wet desulfurization scrubber. Emissions into the atmosphere were lower than 1% of the quantity in coal, but the volatile trace elements showed somewhat higher emission ratios. For mercury, the mean concentration in coal was 0.045 ppm, the mean emission rate was 4.4 microg/kW h, and the mean emission ratio was 27%, the highest ratio among all elements in this study. The total annual emission of mercury from coal-fired power plants of the electric power industry in Japan was estimated to be 0.63 t/y. On the basis of these data, the atmospheric environment loads from a coal-fired power station were investigated. The calculation of stack gas dispersion showed that maximum annual mean ground level concentrations were in the order of 10(-2) to 10(-5) of the background concentrations, and that the adverse effect of the emissions from the coal-fired power station was small. PMID:16225907

  8. Coal Seam Methane Pressure as a Parameter Determining the Level of the Outburst Risk - Laboratory and in Situ Research / Ciśnienie Złożowe Jako Parametr Określający Stan Zagrożenia Wyrzutami Metanu I Skał - Badania Laboratoryjne I Kopalniane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Scarcity of research focusing on the evaluation of the coal seam methane pressure as a parameter determining the outburst risk makes it difficult to assess the value for which the level of this risk increases considerably. It is obvious that, apart from the gas factor, the evaluation of the threat should also take into account the strength factor. The research presented in this paper attempted at estimating the level of the outburst risk on the basis of the coal seam methane pressure value and firmness of coal. In this work, the author seeks to present both the relevant laboratory research and the measurements carried out in mines.

  9. Performance of a small scale burner with the firing of coal:manure blends

    SciTech Connect

    Frazitta, S.; Annamalai, K.; Sweeten, J.

    1994-12-31

    Due to increasingly harsh environmental regulations, the demand for low sulfur (S) coal has dramatically increased. This increase in demand is expected to cause the price of coal to rise. Such a scenario has caused the utilities to explore the possibilities of supplementing coal with fuel alternatives such as the byproducts of process industries. The supplemental fuel for utilities located near feedlots (e.g. Northwest Texas) happens to be feedlot manure. Feedlot manure is attractive because it is nearly ten times cheaper than coal and is relatively inexpensive to transport. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (1) Low sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency of 66 % was measured; (2) Emissions measurements were recorded and it was seen that emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} increased as the burnt mass fraction increased. however, all emissions were within NSPS guidelines; (3) The successful firing of coal and feedlot manure was achieved, a gasification efficiency in the range of 86% was measured, which is higher than 66% obtained when firing coal along; (4) When the fuel blend is fully burnt, the NO{sub x} emissions with the blend firing was lower than the firing with coal alone.

  10. Real-time tracking of CO₂ injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO₂ was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO₂ with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO₂ was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO₂ was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO₂ provided clear evidence that injected CO₂ had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO₂ injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

  11. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  12. Optimization of high efficiency and low pollution of coal fired boilers for new and retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Morii, A.

    1994-12-31

    The Japanese government regulation of NOx emissions from thermal power stations has been amended four times since it was first introduced in 1973 and has become more strict each time as shown. Especially in the last decade, the regulation on pulverized coal firing has been strengthened, and a low NOx level close to that of oil firing is now being required. Reduction of NOx emissions generally meant a decrease of combustion efficiency, as has been the case for cars. In coal fired units, reducing NOx emissions caused an increase of unburnt carbon and resulted in a decrease of efficiency of the unit.

  13. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  14. Development of coal-gas production simulators and mathematical models for well test strategies (computer models for single- or two-phase flow of methane and water in heterogeneous coal seams to a single, vertical production well connected to a finite conductivity vertical fracture). Topical report Aug 81-Oct 82

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, T.; King, G.R.

    1983-07-01

    A series of unique, computer-based, finite-difference models for the production of methane from coal seams by vertical wells are presented along with FORTRAN source codes. Included in this series are single-phase (gas), one-dimensional; two-phase (gas-water), one-dimensional; and two-phase (gas-water), two-dimensional models for a single vertical production well. The two-phase, two-dimensional model allows for a single, infinite- or finite-conductivity, vertical fracture extending radially from the wellbore. The natural fracture network (butt and face cleat) of the coal seam has been identified with a porous network and assigned an effective porosity and absolute permeability. A time-dependent source term, based on a first order kinetic model and a Langmuir equilibrium sorption isotherm is used to describe gas desorbing from the coal matrix into the porous network.

  15. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; Turnes-Carou, I; Muinategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2003-06-01

    Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the gaseous emission the main target between the residues. The influence of combustion parameters is not clearly established. Several analytical techniques (ion selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography) are employed to determinate the halide concentration in the different samples taken in the power plants studied (coal, slag, fly ash and flue gases). PMID:12868523

  18. Summary of the completion optimization and assessment laboratory (coal) site. Western cretaceous coal seam project. Topical report, November 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.; Pratt, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    San Juan Basin, Fruitland Formation coalbed natural gas wells completed with open hole cavities using a controlled injection-blowout technique are often producing significantly greater gas and water rates than cased, hydraulically fractured wells in similar geologic environments. The cavity completion effectively connects the coal natural fracture system and the well. At the COAL Site, the pre-cavitation fluid productivity appeared to be controlled by the lower permeability butt cleat system. Post-cavitation productivity appears to be controlled by the greater permeability face cleat system. The 13 fold increase in gas productivity at the Site caused by the cavitation process is due to increased well-reservoir connectivity. The presence of the cavity is responsible only for a 60% increase in productivity. Formation damage was minimized by the lack of contact between the coal reservoir rock and drilling fluids. The near-cavity permeability appears to be temporarily increased during the cavitation operations. The near-cavity permeability increase is non-existent after extended production.

  19. Toxic emissions from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, C.L.; Bool, L.E. III; Morency, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Of the 189 substances identified as HAPs by Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), 37 species, including 11 metals, have been detected by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the flue gases of pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. Over the past decade, a large database identifying the partitioning and emitted concentrations of several of these species has been developed. Laboratory data have also been generated to help define the general behavior of several elements in combustion systems. These data have been used to develop empirical and probabilistic models to predict species emissions. While useful for providing average emissions of toxic species, these empirically based models fail when extrapolated beyond their supporting database. To ensure that coal-fired power generation proceeds in an environmentally benign fashion, methods for the prediction and control of toxic species in a broad range of coal fired systems must be developed. A team of researchers are conducting a detailed research program with three major objectives: (1) to elucidate the important mechanisms of toxics formation and partitioning; (2) to develop submodels for the appropriate trace toxic species transformations; and (3) to incorporate these mechanisms into an Engineering Model to predict trace toxic formation, partitioning, and fate based upon coal and combustion parameters. In the two-year Phase 1 program described here, preliminary experiments were performed to decide upon the relevant mechanisms for trace element transformations. The three-year Phase 2 program which has recently begun will contain more detailed experiments and model development activities. The authors chose four coals for detailed study in Phase 1. Variation in source and coal mineralogy were criteria for selection, as well as economic importance. The four coals are as follows: Pittsburgh Seam: Northern Appalachian bituminous coal; Elkhorn and Hazard Seams: Eastern Kentucky, low sulfur, compliance coal; Illinois 6 Seam: Illinois basin bituminous coal; Wyodak Seam: Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME II. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative multimedia assessment of coal firing and oil firing in an industrial boiler was conducted. The assessment consists of several parts. First, comprehensive emissions assessments of each fuel were conducted. These comprehensive emissions assessments were used to develo...

  1. An evaluation of micronized coal reburning for nitrogen oxide emissions reduction in pulverized coal-fired electric utility boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelo, Joseph Gerard

    Recent increases in the prices of imported fuels and increases in the cost of natural gas have underscored the need to consider other sources of energy for electric production in the United States. Our most abundant fuel source is coal, however the use of coal brings with it a set of environmental problems. This dissertation presents an investigation into the use of micronized coal reburning. This technology may provide a cost-effective solution to the requirements to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal-fired electric generating stations. This research effort evaluated the use of micronized coal as a reburning fuel to lower nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers. The research effort included: (1) an investigation of all available literature on the subject, (2) planning and supervision of a number of baseline and parametric tests on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The testing was carried out on the former NYSEG generating unit, Milliken 1. Milliken Unit 1 is a 150 MW coal-fired electric utility boiler located in Lansing, NY on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, (3) development of a model to predict NOx emissions from a coal-fired boiler, and (4) completion of a conceptual design for a micronized coal reburning system. The original plan of the research effort was to include a full-scale micronized coal reburn installation and subsequent modeling and testing. However, in 1998 the deregulation of the electric utility industry in New York caused the focus of the dissertation to be narrowed. The test site, Milliken Station was sold to another entity, and the installation of the micronized coal reburn system was cancelled. The following conclusions were drawn from the research: (1) Testing showed that nitrogen oxide production was significantly influenced by changes in controllable boiler operating parameters. (2) The predictive model for baseline nitrogen oxide production was fairly accurate in estimating NOx emissions. The model had an average error of 10.14%, with about half of the 27 model runs being within 10% accuracy, and only two runs having greater than a 20% error. (3) The conceptual design shows that in most cases, the physical characteristics of existing coal fired boilers, and existing operating methods will allow for installation of micronized coal reburn systems. (4) An estimate of micronized coal reburning performance was made. It is estimated from a review of existing bench and pilot scale tests, modeling, and natural gas reburn projects that nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by about 60%, to a level of approximately 0.128 pounds per mmbtu of heat input. (5) Given impending, more stringent NOx regulations, and the high cost of natural gas, which has been demonstrated as a successful reburn fuel, micronized coal reburning is a cost effective alternative to current methods of NO x control.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

  3. Predictions of boiler performance when firing beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, M.; Gurvich, B.; Kwasnik, A.; Liljedahl, G.; Miemiec, L.

    1994-12-31

    The development of advanced coal beneficiation and utilization technologies is being sponsored by the United States Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, to encourage the use of our abundant coal reserves. A comprehensive program is being conducted by ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB/CE), regarding the use of these fuels in existing utility boilers. Physical, chemical, combustion and fireside characteristics of these beneficiated products and their parent coals are being evaluated in laboratory testing. Characterization tests provide the information required to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCF) in existing coal and oil utility boilers. Two utility steam generators designed for either coal or oil firing were selected for performance evaluation. The study units were selected to be representative of a large portion of the current boiler population: a 560 MW coal-designed boiler purchased in 1973; and a 600 MW oil-designed boiler purchased in 1970. Both of these units were built by ABB/CE, but the fuel related design parameters are similar to those used by other manufacturers. An Upper Freeport medium volatile bituminous (mvb) parent coal and its respective Spherical Oil Agglomeration Product (SOAP) fuel were evaluated. This paper summarizes the results of the performance analysis and describes the economic impacts that can be expected when firing BCF`s.

  4. Analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Information circular/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pomroy, W.H.; Carigiet, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Fires were analyzed by year, state, coal bed thickness, mine size, mining method, ignition source, burning substance, location, equipment involved, detection, time of day, time of year, number of injuries and fatalities, method of extinguishment, and evacuation measures taken. In all, 164 fires are included, an average of 10.8 fires per year.

  5. The research of underground coal fires based on thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2009-07-01

    Coal mine fires has become a very severe geologic disaster that affects the sustainable development of China's national economy. They result in a reduction of the coal reserve, attribute to atmospheric pollution through the emission of greenhouse related gases, cause land subsidence and negatively impact human health in nearby areas. Fire source localization is an important direction in the research area of fire detection at present. For application researches of fire source localization in fire nonage, a method of fire source localization and its algorithm are presented in the paper. The method is applied to estimate the characterization of infrared image for fire source localization in condition of radiation of fire source having a character of approximate spherical wave, and its convenience of fine orientation distinguishing ability is also presented. The coherence of detection precision for fire source localization applied with the method is similarity while detected in the closed or semi-closed space. Fine feasible and compatible of this detection method is represented in the paper, and especially suited for fire source localization in the rectangle restricted space.

  6. Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    1980-06-01

    Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  8. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-10-24

    This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Various subsystems of BYU's Catalyst Characterization System (CCS) were upgraded this quarter. Work on the CCS hardware and software will continue in the coming quarter. A preliminary test matrix of poisoning experiments in the CCS has been drafted that will explore the effects of at least three poisons: sodium, potassium and calcium. During this quarter, we attempted to resolve discrepancies in previous in situ measurements of catalyst sulfation. Modifications were made to the XPS analysis procedure that allowed analyses of uncrushed samples. Although the XPS and FTIR results are now more consistent in that both indicate that the surface is sulfating (unlike the results reported last quarter), they disagree with respect to which species sulfates. The CEM system for the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor arrived this quarter. Minor modifications to the reactor and control system were completed. The reactor will be shipped to AEP Rockport plant next quarter for shakedown and installation. In a parallel effort, we have proposed to make mercury oxidation measurements across the catalysts at the start of the field test. Pending approval from DOE, we will begin the mercury measurements next quarter.

  10. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  11. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-04-30

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ({approx}1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO{sub x} burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ({approx}70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ({approx}90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002.

  13. Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Krajick, K.

    2005-05-01

    China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

  14. Methods and costs of thin-seam mining. Final report, 25 September 1977-24 January 1979. [Thin seam in association with a thick seam

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, T.E.; Fidler, E.L.

    1981-02-01

    This report defines the state of the art (circa 1978) in removing thin coal seams associated with vastly thicker seams found in the surface coal mines of the western United States. New techniques are evaluated and an innovative method and machine is proposed. Western states resource recovery regulations are addressed and representative mining operations are examined. Thin seam recovery is investigated through its effect on (1) overburden removal, (2) conventional seam extraction methods, and (3) innovative techniques. Equations and graphs are used to accommodate the variable stratigraphic positions in the mining sequence on which thin seams occur. Industrial concern and agency regulations provided the impetus for this study of total resource recovery. The results are a compendium of thin seam removal methods and costs. The work explains how the mining industry recovers thin coal seams in western surface mines where extremely thick seams naturally hold the most attention. It explains what new developments imply and where to look for new improvements and their probable adaptability.

  15. Testing of the low mass flow test train in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Schulz, R.J.; Johanson, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    The initial shakedown testing and evaluation of The Department of Energy (DOE) Coal Fired Flow Facility and the Low Mass Flow Magnetohydrodynamic Test Train are described. The testing included system and component performance determination and initial evaluation of the NO(x) relaxation through the flow train and SO2 level existing in the exhaust. Satisfactory performance was obtained from the facility systems and flow train components including the vitiation heater, coal fired combustor, radiant slagging furnace and secondary combustor. The effect of primary stoichiometry and N/O ratio on NO(x) levels throughout the flow train was clearly demonstrated. The exhaust stack NO(x) and SO2 levels for coal-fired operation are shown to be well below current EPA limits. Heat flux and wall static pressure distributions along the flow train are presented and were found to be consistent with previous experience in a smaller research facility. The facility is operational as a test facility for coal and oil fired combustion systems and is capable of operation over a range of conditions from 100% coal to 100% fuel oil or any combination of coal/fuel oil mixture.

  16. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  17. An economic and technical feasibility of pulverized coal-fired slab preheaters

    SciTech Connect

    Burhanuddin, S.

    1988-01-01

    Pulverized coal instead of natural gas as a fuel for slab preheating furnaces is evaluated for economic and technical feasibility. Pulverized coal firing is more complex than natural gas firing and requires higher equipment and operating costs including the cost of flue gas cleaning. However, coal is cheaper than natural gas on a unit heat energy cost basis. Savings in fuel energy cost easily compensate for higher equipment and operating costs of pulverized coal fired slab preheating systems. The effect of coal burning environment on the chemistry of slabs is also included in the evaluation. The experimental results from the operation of a small scale laboratory furnace indicate loss of carbon content in steel slabs preheated with pulverized coal. But the depth of decarburization is limited to within one half of a millimeter of the surface for 1 inch thick slabs. No change in the sulfur content of slab material is observed. The experimental results also show that the flue gas can effectively be desulfurized by mixing lime with pulverized coal prior to combustion. This process does not require a scrubbing plant and therefore, has much lower equipment cost as compared to the lime slurry process. The amount of lime required, however, is about 50% more than that for the lime slurry process.

  18. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.

    1992-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) completed the design engineering and presented the design to DOE on February 21, 1992. DOE then released EER to begin material procurement. This project is a demonstration for firing coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler. The specific objective of this contract is to demonstrate the potential for coal-water fuels to be burned effectively in a fire-tube boiler designed for oil or gas. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. The host boiler is a Cleaver Brooks fire-tube boiler located at the University of Alabama Tuscaloosa campus. EER has negotiated a host agreement with the University for the use of the boiler on the test program and has prepared a site plan. Based on the initial design that was presented in the proposal, EER prepared a detailed design of the slurry retrofit. It included additional site specific analysis of toe combustion and heat transfer processes occurring in the fire-tube. The design was submitted to DOE in the form of a design package for the components and a design package for the component integration. After receiving DOE approval at the formal review meeting, EER began to procure the material and installation will follow. At the completion of Task 1, the host boiler will be fully equipped to fire slurry.

  19. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    PubMed

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-06-24

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner. PMID:24963094

  20. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  1. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  2. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Keener, T.C.

    2009-09-15

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  4. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The influence of burner injection mode on pulverized coal and biomass co-fired flames

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Kandamby, N.H.; Lockwood, F.C.; Ou, J.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    A new dual fuel burner designed for the co-firing of waste-derived solid fuels (e.g., biomass, refuse-derived fuel, sewage sludge) with pulverized coal in practical combustors was evaluated through trials undertaken in a 0.5 MW down-fired furnace. A new mathematical procedure was also constructed that accounts for multimode combustion of these fuels. Results included for sawdust-coal flames, show the significant effect of co-firing ratio and fuel injection mode on flame ignition, combustion aerodynamics, and nitric oxide emissions. Predicted indices of the coal devolatilization rate along the particle trajectories emphasize the influence of the faster devolatilization and ignition of the sawdust on coal combustion in the near burner region. When the sawdust particles are injected through the center of the burner, surrounded by the annular coal jet, they immediately ignite thereby enhancing the combustion intensity of the coal within the internal recirculation zone. This injection mode leads to a subsequent reduction in the nitric oxide formation along with a higher combustion efficiency as compared with a flame where the sawdust and coal injection positions are reversed. An optimum co-firing ratio which the sawdust provided 30% of the total heat input was obtained for a lower reactivity and higher nitrogen content fuel (pulverized sewage sludge) as compared with sawdust, show that the fuel injection mode had a marginal effect on burnout and NO emissions. The sawdust and sewage sludge co-firing results emphasize the need to consider both the reactivity and nitrogen content of the fuel prior to selecting an injection mode.

  6. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  7. REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

  9. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, J.

    2008-07-15

    Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rey, José R; López-Vilariño, José M; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase. PMID:14655716

  11. Design and implementation of a pulverised coal flow monitoring system for coal-fired power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Hu, Yonghui; Huang, Xiaobin; Yan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    On-line continuous monitoring of pulverised coal in fuel injection pipelines will allow power plant operators to understand fuel conveying conditions and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. This paper presents the design, implementation and trials of an instrumentation system for on-line non-intrusive measurement of pulverised coal in a power plant environment. An array of three identical electrostatic electrodes is housed in a sensing head to determine multiple measurement results from different electrode pairs. Flow parameters such as flow velocity, relative mass flow rate and fuel distribution between injection pipes can be obtained by fusing the multiple results. On-plant trials on 488 mm bore pneumatic conveying pipelines at a 600 MW coal-fired power plant were undertaken following preliminary system evaluation tests on a 50 mm bore laboratory test rig. Experimental results demonstrate that monitoring of pulverised coal flow is achieved using the developed instrumentation system under real industrial conditions. The developed technology is likely to find immediate applications, leading to improved performance of coal-fired power plants, efficient use of fuel, and subsequent reductions in emissions.

  12. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  13. Degasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.R.

    1985-10-01

    A coal seam is degasified in advance of its being mined by drilling one or more generally horizontal holes from a working face into the seam, and placing a particulate propping agent into the borehole to maintain its integrity.

  14. Coal mine subsidence and fires in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Subsidence and fire studies in the Sheridan, Wyo., area are discussed. Construction of a strip mine firebreak or isolation trench is proposed as the best method to control large underground fires such as those burning in the New Monarch and Acme mines in the Sheridan area. 10 refs.

  15. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world. PMID:23000720

  16. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  17. Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L.

    2009-03-15

    Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

  18. Tri-firing wood waste and tire-derived fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.; McLellan, D.; Stahl, R.

    1996-12-31

    During 1994 and 1995, parametric tests of wood/coal co-firing and wood/tire-derived fuel (TDF)/coal tri-firing were conducted at the Allen Fossil Plant in Memphis, Tennessee. The wood used was sawdust from local wood processing industries, the TDF was supplied from a local tire processor, and the coal employed was a Utah bituminous coal. The tests were conducted to evaluate the influence of co-firing and tri-firing on fuel yard operations; boiler operations with emphasis on stability, efficiency, operating temperatures, and slagging and fouling; and airborne emissions with emphasis on opacity, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} formation and control. These tests represented progression from 1994, when co-firing sawdust and coal was tested using an interior province bituminous coal as the base fuel. Fuel blends tested included 0% to 5% TDF and 0% to 20% sawdust. Tests were conducted over 4-hour periods with data taken every 10 minutes, and the results were, consequently, parametric in nature. Boiler stability was measured by computing the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. Efficiency was calculated on a heat-loss basis. Flame temperatures were calculated using standard computer codes, and furnace exit temperatures were measured using optical pyrometry. Slagging and fouling were evaluated by analyzing the temperatures of the gaseous combustion products entering the air heater as a function of elapsed time during a test. Airborne emissions were evaluated using plant CEMS data. Factors influencing NO{sub x} emissions also were considered.

  19. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, R.B.; Montgomery, M.; Larsen, O.H.

    2007-07-01

    In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes, the corrosion during these experiments was monitored. Various ferritic and austenitic materials were investigated at steam temperatures ranging from 520 to 580{degree}C and flue gas temperatures ranging from 925 to 1100{degree}C. The results obtained in the demonstration program led to the rebuilding of the 350 MW pulverized coal fired boiler, Studstrup unit 4, into a co-firing boiler with straw in 2002. During the rebuilding, test tube sections of X20CrMoV12 1 and TP347H FG were built into the superheater and the reheater loops. The temperature ranges during these exposures was for the steam from 470 to 575{degree}C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300{degree}C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the corrosion products.

  20. ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

  1. Investigation of subsidence event over multiple seam mining area

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K.K.

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the sequence of events which caused the 1987 surface subsidence and related damage to several homes in Walker County, Alabama, USA. Surface affects compared to mine maps indicated the subsidence to be mine related. However, two coal seams had been worked under this area. The upper seam, the American seam, ranged from 250 to 280 feet beneath the surface in the area in question. It was mined-out before 1955 by room-and-pillar method leaving in place narrow-long pillars to support the overburden strata, and abandoned in 1955. The lower seam, the Mary Lee seam, ranged from 650 to 700 feet beneath the surface. The Mary Lee seam had been abandoned in 1966 and subsequently became flooded. The dewatering of the Mary Lee seam workings in 1985 caused the submerged pillars to be exposed to the atmosphere. Due to multiple seam mining and the fact that workings had been inundated then dewatered, a subsurface investigation ensued to determine the sequence and ultimate cause of surface subsidence. Core sample tests with fracture analysis in conjunction with down-the-hole TV camera inspections provided necessary information to determine that the subsidence started in the lower seam and progressed through the upper coal seam to the surface. Evidence from the investigation program established that dewatering of the lower seam workings caused the marginally stable support pillars and the roof to collapse. This failure triggered additional subsidence in the upper seam which broadened the area of influence at the surface.

  2. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: I. Comparison of 10/60 and standard self-rescue devices. Phase II report, number 1. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.; Krohn, G.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report compares a proposed 10/60 'piggyback' 02-generating, self-rescue unit with the standard CO self-rescue unit with respect to work task interference. A simulated low seam coal mine was constructed and workers performed locomotion, shoveling, cart pushing, and timbering tasks with the 10/60 and standard self-rescue units attached to their belts.

  3. Integrated coal-fired gas turbine power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.; Lipstein, N.J.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes an apparatus for the utilization of coal. This apparatus consists of: 1.) a coal combustion system including a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 2.) a gas cleanup segment in flow communication with the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 3.) an expansion turbine in flow communication with the gas cleanup segment; 4.) a mechanism for substantially isothermally producing a pressurized fluid at a temperature below about 650/sup 0/F. This mechanism is in flow communication with the coal combustion system, including a hydraulic compressor and a regenerator connected intermediately with the hydraulic compressor and the coal combustion system. The regenerator has a heat exchange relationship with the exhaust of the expansion turbine. 5.) a supply of cooling fluid flows from the pressurized fluid producing a flow to the gas cleanup segment; 6.) a gas cleanup segment consisting of an alkali scrubber system for circulating the flow of cooling fluid.

  4. 76 FR 23768 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil... Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small...

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not deactivate the catalyst to the extent that these same poisons do in the deliberately wet-impregnated laboratory-prepared samples (1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-9%WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}). At least in this case, the fouling deposits generated by field exposure present little if any chemical deactivation or barrier to mass transfer. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 1000 hours on flue gas. Periodic NO{sub x} reduction measurements were made, showing some decrease in activity relative to fresh catalyst samples. Plans are being made to take the reactor out of service at the Rockport plant and move it to Plant Gadsden. At Gadsden, inlet and outlet ports were installed on Unit 1 for the slipstream reactor during an outage.

  6. SEAMING OF GEOSYNTHETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Owners of containment facilities are using geosynthetics at an increased rate. ajor concern in their use is the ability to field seam the materials such that the design function of the geosynthetic is transferred through the seam. his paper discusses potential concerns and descri...

  7. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  8. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  10. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  11. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  12. OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

  13. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

  14. A FIELD TEST USING COAL:DRDF BLENDS IN SPREADER STOKER-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-...

  15. Coal-fired plant meets strict standards from air to aesthetics. [New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The 625 MW coal-fired Somerset power station in New York State is the first plant to be constructed and operated under new, strict siting laws. More than one-third of the capital cost was required for environmental controls, and these are outlined.

  16. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

  18. ANALYSIS TEST DATA FOR NOX CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the analyses of a large quantity of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale, multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing coal fuel. Objectives of the study include: (1) evaluation of the effects of combustion mod...

  19. AIR POLLUTION STUDIES NEAR A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of dry deposition of sulfur dioxide were investigated near a new 540-MW coal-fired generating station located in a rural area 25 miles north of Madison, Wisconsin. Monitoring data for 2 yr before the start-up in July 1975 and for the year 1976 were used to assess t...

  20. EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

  1. APPLICATION OF THE DUAL ALKALI PROCESS AT A 280 MW COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of applying the dual alkali (D/A) flue gas resulfurization (FGD) process to a 280-MW coal-fired power plant. (NOTE: D/A is a generic term applied to FGD systems that use soluble alkali to absorb SO2 and then react the spent scrubber solution with lime and/...

  2. PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

  3. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  4. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  5. EVALUATION OF NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS DATA FROM TVA COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study during which nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission rates from 30 boilers at 11 TVA coal-fired plants were calculated and compared with the calculated rate for each boiler type using EPA emission factors (AP-43). urrent AP-42 emission factors for NOx fr...

  6. ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

  7. [Characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in fine particles emitted from coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Zi-Zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-Kun; Ye, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Currently, China suffers from serious pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Coal-fired power plant is one of the most important sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. To achieve the national goals of total emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan, most of coal-fired power plants in China have installed or will install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and flue gas denitrification (DNO(x)) systems. As a result, the secondary PM2.5, generated from gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, would be decreased. However, the physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in flue gas would be affected, and the emission of primary PM2.5 might be increased. This paper summarized the size distributions of PM2.5 and its water soluble ions emitted from coal-fired power plants, and highlighted the effects of FGD and DNO(x) on PM2.5 emission, especially on water soluble ions (such as SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NH4+) in PM2.5. Under the current condition of serious PM2.5 pollution and wide application of FGD and DNO(x), quantitative study on the effects of FGD and DNO(x) installation on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is of great necessity. PMID:25929084

  8. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  10. ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

  11. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

  12. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  13. FIELD STUDY TO OBTAIN TRACE ELEMENT MASS BALANCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify mass flow rates of minor and trace elements from streams of a coal-fired utility boiler (Colbert Steam Plant Unit No. 1). This information was used to obtain a mass balance for 25 elements. The mass balances used inlet and outlet fl...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

  15. SAMPLING AND MODELING OF NON-POINT SOURCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, included measurement of overland...

  16. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  17. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  18. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  19. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

  20. ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

  1. EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

  2. PILOT-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-NOX COAL-FIRED TANGENTIAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirem...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  5. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  6. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  7. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  8. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  10. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  11. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  12. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary for further reduction of elemental Hg discharge in the long-term. PMID:22696807

  13. Status of Proof-Of-Concept testing at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Chapman, J.N.; Johanson, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Proof-of-concept (POC) testing, and collection and evaluation of data continued at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility during the past year. Following four preliminary tests firing Rosebud coal in 1991 to establish base conditions for the Rosebud coal POC tests, three POC tests were run in 1992, and a fourth test early in 1993. Major equipment additions or modifications included installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which replaced a badly deteriorated venturi. This component also provides improved capability to meet Tennessee pollution regulations while operating the dry ESP and/or baghouse off design, or if one of these two control devices does not function properly. Improvements were also made to the dry ESP prior to the 1993 test, which appear to have improved the performance of this equipment. This paper will present an overview of the major results obtained during the Rosebud coal POC tests, including the performance of the dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Differences between the Rosebud and Illinois coals will be described, but it is emphasized that these observations are based on incomplete results for the Rosebud coal.

  14. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

  15. A Coal-Fired Power Plant with Zero Atmospheric Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Smith, J R; Brandt, H

    2003-05-27

    This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive multiple turbines to produce electricity. The turbine discharge gases pass to a condenser where water is captured. A stream of carbon dioxide then results that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, or for sequestration. This analysis is based on a 400 MW electric power generating plant that uses turbines that are currently under development by a U.S. turbine manufacturer. The power plant has a net thermal efficiency of 42.6%. This efficiency is based on the lower heating value of the coal, and includes the energy necessary for coal gasification, air separation and for carbon dioxide separation and sequestration. The paper also presents an analysis of the cost of electricity (COE) and the cost of conditioning carbon dioxide for sequestration for the 400 MW power plant. Electricity cost is compared for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coals (Illinois No.6 and Wyodak). Cost of electricity ranges from 5.16 {cents}/kWhr to 5.42 {cents}/kWhr, indicating that the cost of electricity varies by 5% for the three gasification processes considered and the two coal types used.

  16. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  17. Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, R.F.

    1988-09-29

    Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

  18. Theory and application of magnetic and self-potential methods in the detection of the Heshituoluogai coal fire, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing

    2014-05-01

    Coal fires are a major problem throughout the world. They threaten the environment and the health of people living nearby and result in significant economic losses. Efficient and economical control of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fire be delineated. In this paper, we first present laboratory experiments, revealing that new preferential alignment of magnetic moments, newly formed magnetite and thermoremanent magnetization are the root causes of magnetic anomalies in coal fire area. The redox potential and Thomson potential, which are the basis of the self-potential anomalies, are proposed additionally for application. Then, the geological setting and an overview of the Fifth Fire Area (FFA) of the Heshituoluogai coal fire in Xinjiang are introduced in detail. Finally, the magnetic and self-potential methods are combined to delineate the extent of the fire. Several data processing methods such as diurnal fluctuation rectification, reduction to pole and upward continuation are used to process the data to make the interpretation of results more straight forward. The locations of subsurface fire regions delineated by the magnetic and self-potential methods are consistent with the results of ground surveys, indicating that these two methods can be used effectively as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  19. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-05-10

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 3 (12/15/00-3/14/01): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies - Task 1; (2) Continue to perform re-burn experiments. - Task 2; (3) Design fixed bed combustor. - Task 3; and (4) Modify the PCGC2 code to include moisture evaporation model - Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 3 (12/15/0-3/14/01): (1) Conducted TGA and Fuel Characterization studies (Appendix I). A comparison of -fuel properties, TGA traces etc is given in Appendix I. Litter has 3 and 6 times more N compared to coal on mass and heat basis. The P of litter is almost 2 % (Task 1). Both litter biomass (LB) and feedlot biomass (FB) have been pulverized. The size distributions are similar for both litter and FB in that 75 % pass through 150 {micro}m sieve while for coal 75 % pass through 60 {micro}m sieve. Rosin Rammler curve parameters are given. The TGA characteristics of FB and LB are similar and pyrolysis starts at 100 C below that of coal; (2) Reburn experiments with litter and with FB have been performed (Appendix II) -Task 2. Litter is almost twice effective (almost 70--90 % reduction) compared to coal in reducing the NOx possibly due to presence of N in the form of NH{sub 3}; (3) Designed fixed bed gasifier/combustor (Appendix III) - Task 3; and (4) Modified PCGC2 to include moisture evaporation model in coal and biomass particles. (Appendix IV) - Task 4.

  1. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  2. Development of the technology of using mechanically activated microgrinded coals for firing and lighting of coal boilers of acting thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Popov, V. I.; Chernova, G. V.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Chernetskaya, N. S.; Markova, V. M.; Churashev, V. N.; Yusupov, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    A new technology of using the microgrinded coals in power boilers as well as the results of experimental studies and numerical modeling of microgrinding processes, preparing the air-dust mixture, and combustion of mechanically activated coals are presented. Pilot combustion of microgrinded coals on a firing stand with a power of 5 MW using disintegrator mills showed the possibility of reaching the stable autothermal combustion mode for coals with various degrees of metamorphism. Using mathematical modeling, the design solution for a two-step burner, which provides a stable high level of temperatures of the air-dust mixture at the output from the second step as well as makes it possible to minimize the cost for the production of mechanically activated coal, is suggested. These results indicate the possibility to develop burners intended for using mechanically activated coal, involving the replacement of the highly reactive liquid fuel used for firing the combustion chambers.

  3. Review of fire test methods and incident data for portable electric cables in underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E.

    1981-06-01

    Electrically powered underground coal mining machinery is connected to a load center or distribution box by electric cables. The connecting cables used on mobile machines are required to meet fire performance requirements defined in the Code of Federal Regulations. This report reviews Mine Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA) current test method and compares it to British practices. Incident data for fires caused by trailing cable failures and splice failures were also reviewed. It was found that the MSHA test method is more severe than the British but that neither evaluated grouped cable fire performance. The incident data indicated that the grouped configuration of cables on a reel accounted for a majority of the fires since 1970.

  4. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, thhat constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y + ??REE): total Y + ??REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y + ??REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y+???REE): total Y+???REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y+???REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.

  5. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  6. Coal-fired CAES system using fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, S.; Schaeffer, R.

    1983-11-01

    Utility requirements for peaking power can be addressed with coal through the unique marriage of the compressed air energy storage and fluidized bed combustion technologies. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of a pressurized fluidized bed combustion system at air storage pressures from 27 to 68 atm. A conceptual design of the PFBC configuration in a CAES system is presented. Major components of the system are identified as either state-of-the-art or requiring further R and D. The performance of the compressed air energy storage system with an efficiency of 83.4% (based on coal input energy) is presented. The effects of recovery of rejected heat are discussed also.

  7. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  8. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  9. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    In Phase I of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired high performance power system was developed, and small scale R&D was done in critical areas of the design. The current Phase Of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage, and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team of companies in this effort: AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. The following goals have been identified that relate to the efficiency,emissions, costs and general operation of the system: total station efficiency of at least 4 percent on a higher heating value basis; emissions--NOx {lt} 0.06 lb/MMBtu, SOx {lt} 0.06 lb/MMBtu, particulates {lt} 0.003 lb/MMBtu; all solid wastes must be benign with regard to disposal; over 95 percent of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65 percent of the heat input; 10 percent lower cost of electricity relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS. The base case arrangement of the HIPPS cycle is a combined cycle plant, and is referred to as the All Coal HIPPS because it does not require any other fuels for normal operation. An alternative HIPPS cycle uses a ceramic air heater to heat the air to temperatures above what can be achieved with alloy tubes. This arrangement is referred to as the 35 percent natural gas HIPPS. 2 refs., 11 figs. 3 tabs.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  11. Radiological characterization around the Afsin-Elbistan coal-fired power plant in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur Cevik; Nevzat Damla; Bahadir Koz; Selim Kaya

    2008-01-15

    A radiological characterization of soil samples around the Afsin-Elbistan coal-fired thermal power plant in the Mediterranean region of Turkey was carried out. Moreover, activity concentrations and chemical analyses of coal samples used in this power plant and fly ash and slag samples originating from coal combustion were measured. For this purpose, coal, fly ash, slag, and soil samples were collected from this region. The analysis shows that the samples include relevant natural radionuclides such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K were 167, 44, and 404 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. Obtained values shows that the average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index for all samples are 258 Bq.kg{sup -1}, 121 nGy.h{sup -1}, 148 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and 0.7, respectively. The environmental effect of natural radionuclides caused by coal-fired power plants was considered to be negligible because the Ra{sub eq} values of the measured samples are generally lower than the limit value of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.y{sup -1}. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work with other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the samples is not significantly different. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  13. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  14. Coal-fired power generation: Proven technologies and pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2008-07-01

    During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the reduction of emissions from coal-fired power generating plants. New technologies include better understanding of the fundamentals of the formation and destruction of criteria pollutants in combustion processes (low nitrogen oxides burners) and improved methods for separating criteria pollutants from stack gases (FGD technology), as well as efficiency improvements in power plants (clean coal technologies). Future demand for more environmentally benign electric power, however, will lead to even more stringent controls of pollutants (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

  15. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  18. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. However, many uncertainties still remain in our knowledge of primary anthropogenic releases of mercury to the atmosphere in China. In situations involving large uncertainties, our previous mercury emission inventory that used a deterministic approach could produce results that might not be a true reflection of reality; and in such cases stochastic simulations incorporating uncertainties need to be performed. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed as an uncertainty case study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content of coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  19. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2009-11-01

    A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  20. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

  2. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  3. Assessment of fouling, erosion, and corrosion of coal-fired gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    The development of coal-fired gas turbines requires deposition, erosion, and corrosion (DEC) protection of turbines from ash contaminants in the products of combustion. The present task has been concerned with the development of semi-phenomenological models for predicting DEC modes of interaction between and contaminants and the blade surface as a function of turbine operating conditions and fuel chemistry. The contaminants entering a coal-fired gas turbine will consist of particulate matter (flyash, nucleated ash and unburnt char) and vapor species (primarily alkali sulfates). Previous work entailed analytical models that describe the following: condensation of alkali sulfate and refractory oxide vapors in a gas turbine environment; deposition of particles/vapor on pressure/suction surfaces of turbine blades; effect of boundary layer nucleation on mass transfer of alkali sulfates to cooled turbine blades; corrosion correlations for turbine alloys; and flyash adhesion on pressure surface. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  5. European legislation in the United Kingdom: a threat to coal-fired power station product utilization?

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, K.A.

    2006-07-01

    The author considers that the European Union has not taken the approach adopted in the USA where environmental regulators are keen to promote the use of coal-fired power station ash by-product and recycled materials. The United Kingdom has seen, with some dismay, the effects EU legislation is having on the ash industry. This article outlines only some of the problems being tackled. The Waste Framework Directive is difficult to interpret and fails to define critical aspects of the problem. This directive is discussed at some length in the article. A total of nine directives effect the operation of coal-fired power plant. Many are imprecise and open to interpretation and cause a deal of frustration, delays and confusion to the ash supplier and contractor. This is causing markets to suffer.

  6. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  7. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  8. Study of coal mine fire in Damodar River basin, India using thermal remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Alokesh; Bhattacharya, Asis; Mukherjee, Amitava; Pramanik, Tanmoy

    Coal mine fires are a serious socio-economic problem because of hazards to health and the environment including toxic fumes, and subsidence of surface infrastructures. Globally, thou-sands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning today, especially in China and India. In India, Damodar River basin is the repository of the 46The entire Damodar River basin exhibits in an almost linear fashion in the central part of the Jharkhand and western part of West Bengal States of India. The coal fields are adjacent to the Damodar River or its tributaries. The general trends of coalfields are nearly east-west and showing gentle dip towards south. The area is bounded within Latitude 2330 -2350N and Longitude 8456 -8648E. Since all the coal deposits of Damodar River basin were formed in almost similar sedimentary environmental condition and are of equivalent geologic age; and the coal grades are more or less comparable, it is highly probable that the other coal fields in this region are also vulnerable to mine fires. Aerial and Space borne Thermal Infra-Red Remote Sensing method has been proved to be the most cost effective and time saving method to find out the thermal anomalies present in an area. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the presence of coalmine fire and their aerial extent in Damodar River basin including the well known Jharia and Raniganj coalfields using Space borne single band thermal IR data of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor. Two daytime Landsat ETM+ images (path / row:140/44), acquired on 07.03.2001 and 24.01.2003, covering visible, one near Infrared (NIR), two short wave infrared (SWIR), one thermal infrared (TIR) and a panchromatic band, were used for the present study. Standard procedure of calculating surface temperature from band 6 of Landsat ETM+ data was followed. These include atmospheric corrections, data normalization for sun elevation angle, conversion of image DN values to spectral radiance and spectral radiance to radiant temperature, and cal-culation of surface temperature from radiant temperature. In the month of late January 2003, day-time temperature of the land surface features like agricultural crops, soil, road, etc. varies in the range of 15-27C. Therefore, the threshold temperature is fixed as 27.5C to delineate fire from background. Moreover, fieldwork has been carried out to validate the present findings and to isolate coal-fire pixels from other non-coal-fire high temperature pixels. The study of thermal data processing reveals that almost all major coalfields of Damodar River basins are affected by severe coalmine fire. Other than Jharia and Raniganj, coalfields of East and West Bokaro, North and South Karanpura are also highly fire affected.

  9. Study of coal mine fire in Damodar River basin,India using thermal remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Alokesh; Bhattacharya, Asis

    Coal mine fires are a serious socio-economic problem because of hazards to health and the environment including toxic fumes, and subsidence of surface infrastructures. Globally, thou-sands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning today, especially in China and India. In India, Damodar River basin is the repository of the 46The entire Damodar River basin exhibits in an almost linear fashion in the central part of the Jharkhand and western part of West Bengal States of India. The coal fields are adjacent to the Damodar River or its tributaries. The general trends of coalfields are nearly east-west and showing gentle dip towards south. The area is bounded within Latitude 2330 -2350N and Longitude 8456 -8648E. Since all the coal deposits of Damodar River basin were formed in almost similar sedimentary environmental condition and are of equivalent geologic age; and the coal grades are more or less comparable, it is highly probable that the other coal fields in this region are also vulnerable to mine fires. Aerial and Space borne Thermal Infra-Red Remote Sensing method has been proved to be the most cost effective and time saving method to find out the thermal anomalies present in an area. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the presence of coalmine fire and their aerial extent in Damodar River basin including the well known Jharia and Raniganj coalfields using Space borne single band thermal IR data of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor. Two daytime Landsat ETM+ images (path / row:140/44), acquired on 07.03.2001 and 24.01.2003, covering visible, one near Infrared (NIR), two short wave infrared (SWIR), one thermal infrared (TIR) and a panchromatic band, were used for the present study. Standard procedure of calculating surface temperature from band 6 of Landsat ETM+ data was followed. These include atmospheric corrections, data normalization for sun elevation angle, conversion of image DN values to spectral radiance and spectral radiance to radiant temperature, and cal-culation of surface temperature from radiant temperature. In the month of late January 2003, day-time temperature of the land surface features like agricultural crops, soil, road, etc. varies in the range of 15-27C. Therefore, the threshold temperature is fixed as 27.5C to delineate fire from background. Moreover, fieldwork has been carried out to validate the present findings and to isolate coal-fire pixels from other non-coal-fire high temperature pixels. The study of thermal data processing reveals that almost all major coalfields of Damodar River basins are affected by severe coalmine fire. Other than Jharia and Raniganj, coalfields of East and West Bokaro, North and South Karanpura are also highly fire affected.

  10. Flue gas Hg measurements from coal-fired boilers equipped with wet scrubbers

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, M.S.; Rosenhoover, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA has instituted an Information Collection Request{at} to obtain information regarding mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. EPA is in the process of collecting information regarding the Hg concentrations of the coals fired in over 1,000 utility boilers, and flue gas Hg emission and speciation data at {approximately}100 utility boilers. EPA will review these data to determine if Hg emission reduction from the utility industry is necessary. Presently, there is no proven mercury-control technology for this source category. Hg removal by carbon injection has been tested at the pilot scale level. The mercury removal costs for this technology is estimated to be $10 million to $40 million per ton of Hg removed. CONSOL Inc. completed flue gas Hg measurements at five coal-fired boilers and one industrial boiler equipped with conventional wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2} control. Based on a minimum of triplicate scrubber inlet and outlet measurements at each site, the Hg removal by the scrubber systems was 54%, with a standard deviation of 7%. Accounting for the Hg collected on the ash particles, the total plant Hg removal was 67 {+-} 6%. These data show that utility boilers equipped with ESP scrubber combinations are removing two-thirds of the Hg in the as-fired coal at no added cost. The Hg speciation data showed that 80% to 95% of the oxidized Hg fraction, as determined from the Ontario Hydro method, was removed by the scrubber. The average Hg material balance closure at the six test sites was 103 {+-} 8%. The Hg removed from the flue gas was accounted for in the scrubber solids. Standard leachate testing conducted on fixated and unfixated scrubber sludge from one test site showed no Hg leaching. Volatility testing conducted by heating this sludge to 140 F for 11 weeks showed no loss of Hg.

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-10-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

  12. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  13. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds in emissions by coal-fired power stations from Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, G; López-Vilariño, J M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2001-05-01

    This study concerns the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by coal fired power stations. The main compounds are monoaromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds have less importance. The influence of combustion parameters can not be clearly established. Emissions factors were calculated and they are smaller than those of other anthropogenic combustions. A comparative study of two sources of VOCs, power stations and motor vehicles, indicates that the environmental impact of the latter are most important. PMID:11424734

  15. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  16. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS PHASE II AND III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 "Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III." The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: à thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; à NOx, SOx, and particulates <10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); à coal providing >65% of heat input; à all solid wastes benign; à cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: à Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; à Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  18. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  19. Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M.D.; Wesnor, J.D.; Bender, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposable. Net station (HHV) efficiency can be increased to 45 percent without increasing the cost of electricity.

  20. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

  2. Pulverized-coal firing of aluminum-melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. During the report period, startup operations and system checkout were completed for the two-stage Alcoa/DOE slagging coal combustor. Process flow diagrams and an equipment layout (Figures 12.1-12.4) and a process description for the pilot facility are presented. The unit is designed to burn 300 lb/h coal with an additive for sulfur removal such that downstream cleanup of the products of combustion is not required. Following completion of startup and debugging operations, combustion tests with coal were begun. However, a coal dust explosion and fire which occurred on February 3, 1981 in the coal handling area halted work for an estimated 4 to 6 months. The indicated activities are described in detail.

  3. Pulverized-coal firing of aluminum-melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.L. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. The program began with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace.

  4. IMPACT OF PRIMARY SULFATE AND NITRATE EMISSIONS FROM SELECTED MAJOR SOURCES. PHASE 1. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers Phase one of a two phase study of the near source impacts of primary sulfate and nitrate emission sources. The phase one portion of the study was an investigation of the impact of a coal fired power plant burning high sulfur coal. The study was designed to measu...

  5. CONTROL OF WASTE AND WATER POLLUTION FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: SECOND R AND D REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas cleaning waste treatment, utilization, and disposal, as well as water reuse technology for coal-fired utility power plants are discussed. Significant areas treated include: coal-pile drainage; ash characterization and disposal; chemical and physical properties and leachi...

  6. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  7. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions. PMID:26545153

  8. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  9. Distribution of volatile organic compounds during the combustion process in coal-fired power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, G.; López-Mahía, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Prada-Rodríguez, D.; Fernández-Fernández, E.

    This study concerns the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted during combustion processes in coal-fired power stations. Thermal desorption technique was employed to analyse VOC concentrations in gaseous emissions (trapped onto Carbotrap B sorbent) and solid samples (coal, fly ash and slag). An empirical parameter ( Y) was employed to evaluate the relationships between the compounds emitted during a real combustion process and those obtained in coal analysis by thermal desorption. The Y calculation does not provide any information about VOC emissions through solid effluents as fly ash or slag. A comparison method was created for this purpose. The results obtained using this method confirm that combustion is almost complete for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Chlorinated compounds are mainly formed during the combustion.

  10. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  11. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  12. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  13. Mercury speciation measurements on a 10 MW{sub e} coal-fired boiler simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Nevitt, K.D.

    1997-06-01

    The current trends towards deregulation of electric utilities, air toxic regulations and stringent fine particulate emissions reflect an increased need for coal-based research. In response, Babcock and Wilcox invested in the state-of-the-art 100 million Btu/hr (10 MW, equivalent) Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located in Alliance, Ohio. The representative combustion conditions, flow patterns and residence times permit direct scale-up of CEDF test results to commercial boilers and pollution control devices. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Office of Development, B&W is employing the CEDF to conduct a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. The project specifically targets the control of mercury, the trace element under close scrutiny by the EPA. Due to the various forms of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, accurate mercury speciation measurements are required to develop mercury control strategies. Current uncertainty in the accuracy and mercury speciation capability of mercury sampling methods led B&W to use both EPA Method 29 and the O