Sample records for coal seam fire

  1. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

  2. Exemplary geophysical investigations on coal seam fires in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Meyer, U.; Rüter, H.; Gundelach, V.; Lindner, H.; Schaumann, G.; Schlömer, S.; Guangliang, L.; Bing, K.; Jianjun, W.

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" different geophysical methods have been applied. The investigation area was the coal fire district of Wuda, located in the south-central part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Northern China. The Wuda coalfield is bordering in southeast with the Helan Shan (Helan Mountains), in the east with the mountains of the Ordos Massif, while in the west and north with the Gobi desert. It is a gentle north-south striking structural syncline with an aerial extent of 40 km2 and with elevations ranging between 1100 and 1300 m above sea level. The survey area is covered mainly by sandstone. Up to 18 mined coal seams extend to greater depths varying from a few metres down to several hundreds of metres below surface. The objective of subsequent geophysical surveys was to detect areas affected by coal seam fires by means of physical parameters acquired over the burning and burnt coal seams, to find out which methods are useful for fire detection, to accompany the extinguishing process and to control successful extinction. Airborne methods used are helicopter borne electromagnetics (HEM) and magnetics. Ground surveys for measuring transient electromagnetics, magnetics, ground penetrating radar and near surface temperature were carried out in selected parts of the helicopter survey. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an ideal method to detect voids in depth less than 50 m. An important point to extinguish a coal fire is to know the paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. Some crevices which are potential paths for oxygen can be determined by GPR due to the resolution of the chosen frequency. The GPR system applied was built by GSSI and utilized for three different antennae length. The centre frequencies are 40, 80 and 200 MHz. A 200 MHz system was used to get detailed information close to the surface and a 40 MHz antenna was used to get maximum penetration depth. The heat and fluid transport included in the burning process presumably changes the permittivity of the rock which affects the attenuation of the radar signal and reduces the conductivity of the rock. This enables GPR measurements to discriminate burning zones from intact zones. The border line of the fire zone in the southern and the northern part of the investigated fire zone could be found. At the burning areas it was possible to discriminate different layers in the subsurface. Anywhere else the soil was highly conductive and full of clefts. The clefts were visible in the radar data only close to the surface. Magnetic was measured area-wide with a QuickTracker (GSM-19T) console from GEM Systems over different fire zones and shows positive anomalies in the coal fire area. The stratigraphy in the area shows no magnetic rocks above the coal seam, which leads to the interpretation that the positive magnetic anomalies are caused through the thermal induced magnetism of the stones lying above the coal seam. Over 100 rock samples (Sandstone, Coal and clinkers) has been taken for in-situ determination of the magnetic susceptibility. The positive magnetic anomaly is distinguished by the high magnetisation of the clinkers and therefore important for the detection of coal fires. TEM measurements were performed along profile lines across the fire zone or at single localities selected in the actual area. The spacing of the TEM sites was adapted to the terrain. Profiles crossing the area where the hot burning zone can be found, the TEM curves change their shape clearly. The vertical resistivity section shows a highly conductive layer which seems to coincides with the thermally affected coal seam. Temperature variations are most extreme at the surface of the soil. The peak temperature below the surface occurs about 2 hours after the maximum ambient air temperatures are attained. Temperature measurements in the gas emanating vents showed intense fluctuations not directly related to meteorological condit

  3. Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  4. Coal seam fracing method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perlman

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid

  5. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff hydrograph generation. Post-burn rainfall-runoff parameters were determined by adjusting the runoff-curve numbers on the basis of a weighting procedure derived from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the National Resources Conservation Service) equation for precipitation excess and the effect of burn severity. This weighting procedure was determined to be more appropriate than simple area weighting because of the potentially marked effect of even small burned areas on the runoff hydrograph in individual drainage basins. Computed water-peak discharges from HEC-HMS models were increased volumetrically to account for increased sediment concentrations that are expected as a result of accelerated erosion after burning. Peak discharge estimates for potential floods in the South Platte River were increased by a factor that assumed a volumetric sediment concentration (Cv) of 20 percent. Flood hydrographs for the South Platte River and Mitchell Creek were routed down main-stem channels using watershed-routing algorithms included in the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. In areas subject to debris flows in the Coal Seam and Missionary Ridge burned areas, debris-flow discharges were simulated by 100-year rainfall events, and the inflow hydrographs at tributary mouths were simulated by using the objective calibration method. Sediment concentrations (Cv) used in debris-flow simulations were varied through the event, and were initial Cv 20 percent, mean Cv approximately 31 percent, maximum Cv 48 percent, Cv 43 percent at the time of the water hydrograph peak, and Cv 20 percent for the duration of the event. The FLO-2D flood- and debris-flow routing model was used to delineate the area of unconfined debris-flow inundation on selected alluvial fan and valley floor areas. A method was developed to objectively determine the post-fire recovery period for the Hayman and Coal Seam burned areas using runoff-curve numbers (RCN) for all drainage basins for a 50-year period. A

  6. Coal seam fracing method

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages, the injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution being at a rate of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

  7. Coal Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Prakash, Anupma

    This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

  8. Coal Mining on Pitching Seams

    E-print Network

    Brown, George MacMillan

    1915-01-01

    is located just east or McAlester, and is worked through a shaft 480 feet deep, and by a blind slope. The mine is on the McAlester seam, whose thickness at this point is 4 feet* The seam at this place is unusual in that it is very uniform in quality... r f a c e . Iron p.- Air Shaft • F t Shaft- No . I t Piano Wire, u s ^ c L a fon Pm 7 7T7-7-T773 Engine / f/ Roorrx^ KmShaft nam Shaft Angles M-4-Y N-ArM. N-A-C A...

  9. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gusat; C. Drebenstedt

    2009-01-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So

  10. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

  11. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wündrich; A. A. Korten; U. H. Barth

    2009-01-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative \\

  12. Research and Design of Coal Seam Water Infusion Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Wei; Liu Jian-hui

    2009-01-01

    After detailed analysis of the coal seam water infusion mathematical model and principle of automatic control system, we design a water infusion control system based on single-chips in this paper. It has improved the effect of coal seam water infusion by monitoring and controlling of flow and pressure of the multi-way water holes at the same time. It is much

  13. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  14. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  15. Method of completing production wells for the recovery of gas from coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.E.

    1987-07-14

    A method is described of completing production wells for the recovery of gas from a coal seam and having a casing cemented in the well, comprising the steps of: (a) providing perforations in the casing opposite earth formations located above and/or below the coal seam; and (b) hydraulically fracturing the coal seam through the perforations in the casing, the fracturing of the coal seam propagating initially through the earth formations located above/or below the coal seam and providing a filter for the coal fines to prevent their migration toward the perforations and plugging or impairment of the perforations during withdrawal of gas from the coal seam through the perforations.

  16. Spatial Variation of Selenium in Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, L.; Tyner, J. S.; Perfect, E.; Yoder, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts from coal extraction have led to many investigations of the geochemistry of coal. Previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is an environmental contaminant due to its mutagenic effects on sensitive macro-organisms as a result of bioaccumulation in affected waters. Some regulatory authorities have responded by requiring the sampling of coal seams and adjacent rock for Se prior to authorizing a given coal mining permit. In at least one case, a single continuous rock core was sampled for Se to determine the threshold of Se across a 2.2 square kilometer proposed surface coal mine. To examine the adequacy of such an approach, we investigated the spatial variability and correlation of a West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) dataset of Se concentrations from coal seams collected within Appalachia (1088 samples). We conducted semi-variogram and Kriging cross-validation analyses on six coal seams from the dataset. Our findings suggest no significant spatial correlation of Se within a given coal seam.

  17. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other...

  18. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other...

  19. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other...

  20. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams...after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other...

  1. Coal seam temperature variation as an indicator of mechanical and physicochemical processes in the seam

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, I.L.; Kovaleva, I.B.; Lidin, G.D.; Radchenko, S.A.; Shul'man, N.V.

    1985-07-01

    Most publications on coal seam temperature field variations do not indicate the reference point for temperature change, which makes it inconvenient for identifying the causes of variation. The absolute values of the temperature rise in the support pressure zone will of course depend on whether the reference point is the temperature at the face edge or the temperature of the enclosing rocks. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the need for establishing a constant monitoring of seam temperature in the zone affected by mining operations.

  2. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  3. Multiple-stage coal seam fracing method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perlman

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well, comprising: providing the well with casing of at least 7 inches in nominal diameter having perforations adjacent the coal formation; injecting a fracing fluid through the perforations into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has suspended therein fine

  4. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure) and coal seam properties (coal rank and temperature) affect this swelling. Although there are many related studies, a number of gaps exist, especially in the area of coal rank and how the effect of other factors varies with the rank of the coal seam. To date, there have been few CO2-ECBM field projects in the world. However, the reduction of CO2 injectability after some time of CO2 injection, due to coal matrix swelling near the well bore, is a common problem in the field. Therefore, various permeability-enhancing techniques, such as hydro-fracturing and injection of an inert gas such as N2 or a mixture of inert gases (N2 + CO2) into the seam to recover the swelled areas are under test in the field.

  5. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  6. Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N. [Rostov State University, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

  7. Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Olovyanny, A.G. [All Russian Science Research Institute for Mine Surveying, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

  8. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Australian Commonwealth and State Governments. Finally, parallels (and differences) between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States and Europe will be drawn.

  9. Measuring Contours of Coal-Seam Cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Angle transducers measure angle between track sections as longwall shearer proceeds along coal face. Distance transducer functions in conjunction with angle transducers to obtain relative angles at known positions. When cut is complete, accumulated data are stored on cassette tape, and track profile is computed and displayed. Micro-processor-based instrument integrates small changes in angle and distance.

  10. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  11. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. 75.501 ...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  12. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  13. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  14. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  15. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

  16. Multiple-stage coal seam fracing method

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, W.

    1987-05-19

    A method is described for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well, comprising: providing the well with casing of at least 7 inches in nominal diameter having perforations adjacent the coal formation; injecting a fracing fluid through the perforations into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has suspended therein fine proppants with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages. The injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution are at a rage of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

  17. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kami?ski, Pawe?; Klich, Jerzy; Tajdu?, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground gasification enables them to become a source of additional energy for the economy. It should be noted, however, that the shaft-drilling method cannot be considered as an alternative to conventional methods of coal extraction, but rather as a complementary and cheaper way of utilizing resources located almost beyond the technical capabilities of conventional extraction methods due to the associated natural hazards and high costs of combating them. This article presents a completely different approach to the issue of underground coal gasification. Repurposing of the already fully depreciated mining infrastructure for the gasification process may result in a large value added of synthesis gas production and very positive economic effect.

  18. Finite element modeling of flow in a coal seam with underground coal gasification cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contractor, Dinshaw N.

    1988-03-01

    A two-dimensional, finite element groundwater flow model was developed to study the movement of water in a coal seam in which large cavities were created by underground coal gasification (UCG) burns. The burns extract natural gas from the coal without any environmental disturbance at the ground level. On completion of the burn, groundwater mixes with the products of combustion in the cavity and the pollutants move into the coal seam. Mathematical modeling is used to study the movement and fate of these pollutants with time. Water quality modeling has to be preceded by flow modeling to determine velocities as a function of time. This paper studies the flow aspects of the problem. A new code was developed because of the unique requirements of the model. The model utilizes linear triangles to discretize the coal seam in plan and takes into account unsteady flow, anisotropic media, internal boundary conditions imposed by the cavities and a time-varying domain of flow in plan. The model was applied to a series of UCG burns in Hanna, Wyoming. Estimates of the time of filling of the five cavities were obtained. Comparisons of measured and computed potential head are presented at different points in the coal seam. Flow modeling can thus be used to predict the movement of water into and out of UCG cavities while the output of velocities is necessary for water quality modeling.

  19. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  20. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  1. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  2. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  3. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...agency which contains the following items: (a) FERC Form No. 121; (b) All well completion reports. (c) A radioactivity, electric or other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was...

  4. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...agency which contains the following items: (a) FERC Form No. 121; (b) All well completion reports. (c) A radioactivity, electric or other log which will define the coal seams. (d) Evidence to establish that the natural gas was...

  5. Numerical investigation of coal seam gas detection using airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Mohamed

    The use of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) techniques has been mostly utilized in the mining industry. The various AEM systems enable fast data acquisition to detect zones of interest in exploration and in some cases are used to delineate targets on a production scale. For coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs, reservoir thickness and the resistivity contrast present a new challenge to the present AEM systems in terms of detectability. Our research question began with the idea of using AEM methods in the detection of thin reservoirs. CSG reservoirs resemble thin reservoirs that have been and are currently being produced. In this thesis we present the results of a feasibility analysis of AEM study on coal seam reservoirs using synthetic models. The aim of the study is to contribute and bridge the gap of the scientific literature on AEM systems in settings such as CSG exploration. In the models we have chosen to simulate both in 1-D and 3-D, the CSG target resistivity was varied from a resistive to a conductive target (4 ohm.m, 150 ohm.m, and 667 ohm.m) to compare the different responses while the target thickness was fixed to resemble a stack of coal seams at that interval. Due to the differences in 1-D and 3-D modelling, we also examine the differences resulting from each modelling set up. The results of the 1-D forward modeling served as a first order understanding of the detection depths by AEM for CSG reservoirs. Three CSG reservoir horizontally layered earth model scenarios were examined, half-space, conductive/resistive and resistive/conductive. The response behavior for each of the three scenarios differs with the differing target resistivities. The 1-D modeling in both the halfspace and conductive/resistive models shows detection at depths beyond 300 m for three cases of target resistivity outlined above. After the 300-m depth, the response falls below the assumed noise floor level of 5% response difference. However, when a resistive layer overlies a conductive host, the resistive/conductive model, the signal is reduced for the resistive target cases, but the response is unchanged for the conductive target layer. For a better understanding of the responses from more complex reservoirs, a 3-D model was developed to incorporate additional geology. The 3-D models were based on the 1-D models and the modeling parameters were not altered except for the finite extent of the layers. The system properties such as the transmitter waveform, moment and time gates did not change. For the 3-D coal seam reservoir models, the same level of response is not observed for the 240 × 240 m areal extent target. For the halfspace and conductive/resistive model, the AEM response is small. Also noticeable is the decreased response below 50-m target depth. For the assumed noise floor level, the different targets would not be detectable in these instances beyond 50-m when compared to detection depths of up to 300-m in the 1-D scenario. If, however, a resistive overburden exists, i.e. the resistive/conductive model scenario, the 3-D response for the conductive case target is strong compared to the other target cases due to the preferential current flow. In this scenario, a conductive target seam can be detected at a depth of 150-m and possibly deeper depending on the thickness of the overburden layer. In contrast, for the case of the resistive targets, the anomalous body would be undetectable beyond 50-m depth. I apply the same modeling techniques to a more complex model adopted from the Queensland Surat Basin CSG reservoir. I simulate responses in both 1-D and 3-D. The 1-D responses show promise for detecting targets at up to 500 m deep. The 3-D models with an embedded a target with an areal extent of 240 × 240m display small responses and indicate shallow detection depths. However when I increased the target's areal extent to 480 × 480 m, a stronger response is observed that is larger then the 5% noise floor level for all three target cases. This is a good indication that the size of the CSG target is important for AEM application. (Abstract sh

  6. Field trials of aquifer protection in longwall mining of shallow coal seams in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsheng Zhang; Gangwei Fan; Yude Liu; Liqiang Ma

    2010-01-01

    The large-scale mining of shallow coal seams has a significant impact on the overlying aquifers and surface ecological environment. To protect the aquifers and maximize the coal resource recovery, field trials were undertaken during the operation of the LW32201 in Bulianta coal mine, Shendong, China. With a severely weathered rock (SWR) layer and two key strata (KS) in the overlying

  7. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of gasified coal seams and their surrounding rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Aeckersberg, R.; Li, D.; Kunz, E.; Krooss, B.; Golz, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernįndez-Steeger, T.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is considered a viable approach for the development of deep and structurally complex coal deposits that are not economically extractable by conventional mining techniques. The combination of UCG and the subsequent combustion of the resulting synthesis gas in a combined cycle plant with the storage of carbon dioxide formed during this process could provide a relevant contribution to the so called clean coal technologies. Carbon dioxide captured from the flue gas of the combined cycle plant would be injected into already gasified coal seams using the existing UCG borehole infrastructure. Within the present study different coal seams and their surrounding rocks were sampled in all German hard coal mining districts. The coal samples were treated in a laboratory gasification device to produce combustion residues comparable to those formed in the UCG process. High-pressure carbon dioxide sorption experiments were then conducted on the original coal samples, their gasified residues and the surrounding rocks. The results indicate a significant increase of porosity and carbon dioxide sorption capacity of the residual coal after gasification. Furthermore, notable carbon dioxide sorption capacities were observed for the surrounding rocks. The assessment of the carbon dioxide storage potential in gasified coal seams has to take explicitly into account the newly generated pore space, the increased sorption capacity of the gasified coals and the sorption capacity of the surrounding rocks. Furthermore, the reduction of subsurface void volumes due to mechanical compaction after gasification as well as the resulting enhanced accessibility of adjacent seams have to be equally considered.

  8. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojun Cui; R. Marc Bustin; Laxmi Chikatamarla

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 and H2S into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of CO2 and H2S and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of CO2 and H2S into

  9. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  10. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam: a case study on the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pinkun; Cheng, Yuanping

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  11. Dispersion calculations for SH and P-SV waves in multilayered coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work by others has provided a means of calculating dispersion and amplitude distribution curves for SH channel waves in multilayered media. An alternative calculation procedure is presented and the P-SV wave type is also included. Numerical results are given for a coal seam containing a band of dirt of either higher or lower seismic velocities than the coal itself.

  12. Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geoscience

    2007-09-15

    Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

  13. Determination of the limit of oxidation in zones of sub-outcropping Chipanga Coal Seam, Moatize Coal Basin, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Lopo; Chafy, Algy; Xerinda, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Moatize Coal Basin (MCB) in Mozambique is a graben with sediments of Karoo age with thick coal seams that are under exploration and exploitation by the Vale Moēambique company. Presently, the exploitation is as an open-pit mine and in the future the works will extend to the area where formerly underground mines were under exploitation. It is well known throughout the World that Moatize basin is a World class deposit for coking and thermal coal and therefore Vale Moēambique is developing studies to rationalize the coal resources of the area. Due to its geological and tectonic story, the general structure of the sedimentary (and coal) layers shows wide open synclines and anticlines, and, as a consequence, in many areas coal seams approach the surface or even outcrop. Therefore, the sub-outcropping/outcropping zones of the seams are subjected directly to the weathering agents, subjecting the coal to oxidation phenomena, which are considered as a factor altering negatively the coking properties of coals. The objective is to study down to which depth the oxidation zone goes, i.e., to trace the Line of Oxidation, also known as LOX. The study deals with Chipanga seam, which is the thickest of all seams and the one with a more wide representation throughout the graben. This seam also sub-outcrops/outcrops in many places, and therefore it is essential to define the LOX. A drilling and coal sampling campaign was then developed along profiles defined according to the seam dip to determine the depth at which the LOX is located. Samples were subjected to washability tests, and the crucible swelling index (CSI) of the Float 1.35 was determined. The study shows a direct relationship between the depth of the Chipanga seam and its degree of oxidation, shown by the sudden decrease of the CSI when the coal seam approaches the surface. The sudden change of CSI generally occurs at a depth of ca. 10 m, with small variations around this value. Therefore it can be said that the depth of the Limit of Oxidation (LOX) is 10 m.

  14. The influence of an asymmetry in the sequence rock/coal/rock on the propagation of Rayleigh seam waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dresen, L.; Kerner, C.; Kubach, B.

    1985-06-01

    Small offsets in hard coal seams can be detected with the aid of seam (channel) waves. Transmission and reflection of seam waves depend, among other parameters, upon the symmetry properties of the sequence rock/coal/rock. Two typical unsymmetrical sequences are found in European coal deposits: coal seams with roof and floor of differing acoustic impedance and coal seams interlayered with rock and soil. Two-dimensional analog models with appropriate impedance contrasts are used to study the effect of the unsymmetrical layers upon the propagation of Rayleigh seam waves. Data analysis is based upon amplitude measurements both parallel and perpendicular to the layers and dispersion curves. The effect of unsymmetrical roof (rock 1) and floor (rock 2) was studied with models containing homogeneous coal seams. The influence of a dirt bed on wave propagation was studied in models where the roof and the floor have the same elastic properties. The maximum thickness of the dirt bed did not exceed 20% of the total seam thickness. The effect of the bed's location within the seam was also investigated. For all recorded normal-mode wave groups either the total seam or the coal layers could be regarded as wave guides. This was shown by the fact that the phases could be associated with the phase velocity dispersion curves calculated for the symmetrical sequence rock/coal/ rock. These curves are relevant under the condition that the thickness of the coal layer assumed under the calculation coincides with the thickness of the effective wave guide of the respective wave groups. Wave groups guided in the total seam are not influenced by either the thickness or the position of the dirt bed. On the other hand, for wave groups guided in the coal layers, the quotient of signal amplitudes in the coal layers is influenced by the position of the dirt bed.

  15. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  16. The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA (United States). Division of Science and Mathematics

    2004-07-01

    The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest a useful control procedure. Drill casings in voids in the D coal seam on the western slope trail are useful for collecting gas samples, monitoring the temperature of subsurface burning, and measuring the concentration of gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the field. Coal fire gas and mineral condensates may contribute to the destruction of floral and faunal habitats and be responsible for a variety of human diseases; hence, the study of coal gas and its condensation products may prove useful in understanding environmental pollution created by coal mine fires. The 2002 Coal Seam Fire, which burned over 12,000 acres and destroyed numerous buildings in and around Glenwood Springs, exemplifies the potential danger an underground coal fire poses for igniting a surface fire.

  17. A review on transport of coal seam gas and its impact on coalbed methane recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff G. X. Wang; Xiaodong Zhang; Xiaorong Wei; Xuehai Fu; Bo Jiang; Yong Qin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a summary review on mass transport of coal seam gas (CSG) in coal associated with the coalbed methane\\u000a (CBM) and CO2 geo-sequestration enhanced CBM (CO2-ECBM) recovery and current research advances in order to provide general knowledge and fundamental understanding of the CBM\\/ECBM\\u000a processes for improved CBM recovery. It will discuss the major aspects of theory and technology

  18. Aspects and Strategies of Numerical Modelling of Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Han, J.; Liu, G.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Gusat, D.; Fischer, Chr.; Hirner, A.; Meyer, U.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of underground coal fires has become a valuable tool even for practical fire extinction work. The approaches, methods and finally codes that are used depend on the targets that are aimed at by the particular modelling task. The most general one is to fully understand the processes that sustain or suppress the fire. Another purpose is to produce realistic data for regions that are not accessible (e . g. underneath a burning coal seam) or couldn't be investigated (e.g due to limited resources) to estimate the complete energy budget of the fire. Last but not least one would like to forecast the fire dynamics to predict the future damage or to assess the effectivenees of extinction work. These purposes require the consideration of all aspects with respect to thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. At the moment there is no single code that completely covers all these aspects with every degree of complexity. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" we apply existing codes with different foci with respect to THMC processes and try to combine all codes to one comprehensive model. Besides the sophisticated academic modelling approach we also pursue the concept of "Onsite" modelling to enable fire fighting personnel to perform simplified modelling tasks even by means of web-based applications.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-print Network

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  20. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

  1. Tectonically controlled distribution of thick mineable bodies of the Beckley seam coal in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    There are two principal facies; (1) a fluvial deltaic facies which is composed of greywacke sandstone, siltstone, shale and coal, some of which is very thick, and (2) a shoreline facies which is dominated by orthoquartzite sandstone with some siltstone and shale and thin coal seams. Greywacke sandstone occurs as tabular northeast-southwest oriented linear bodies with mainly southwest directed crossbeds presumably indicating a direction of longshore transport. The major coal seams occur on the crests or flanks of sandstone bodies and suggest that the thickest peats developed on topographic highs which were produced by less compactable substrate and which protected peats from detrital influx in the topographic lows. Where adjacent topographic lows contained marine or brackish water, the sulfur content of the coal is higher than where the lows contained fresh water. The general pattern of deposition appears to have been characterized by episodic detrital influx and intense shoreline reworking similar to that in the modern Burdekin, Irrawaddy and Mekong deltas. The basic control of sediment distribution seems to have been a large northwest-southwest oriented fault or narrow zone of faults that, for the most part, restricted thick fluvial deltaic sediments to the southeastern part of the area and the thinner orthoquartzite facies to the northwestern part. Within blocks subsidence was not uniform and in the southeastern block slower subsidence is reflected by offset positions of greywacke sandstone in contrast to stacked sandstones produced by more rapid subsidence. Persistence of this structural feature both before and after Beckley deposition is indicated by similar patterns of sediment and coal distribution in the Pocahontas No. 3 Seam 300 to 400 feet below and the Sewell Seam 250 to 400 feet above the Beckley.

  2. Organic geochemical study of sequences overlying coal seams; example from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian), Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Stankiewicz, A.B.; Salmon, G.; Kvale, E.P.; Millard, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Roof successions above two coal seams from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) in the Indiana portion of the Illinois Basin have been studied with regard to sedimentary structures, organic petrology and organic geochemistry. The succession above the Blue Creek Member of the Mansfield Formation is typical of the lithologies covering low-sulphur coals ( 2.%). The transgressive-regressive packages above both seams reflect the periodic inundation of coastal mires by tidal flats and creeks as inferred from bioturbation and sedimentary structures such as tidal rhythmites and clay-draped ripple bedforms. Geochemistry and petrology of organic facies above the Blue Creek coal suggest that tidal flats formed inland in fresh-water environments. These overlying fresh water sediments prevented saline waters from invading the peat, contributing to low-sulphur content in the coal. Above the unnamed coal, trace fossils and geochemical and petrological characteristics of organic facies suggest more unrestricted seaward depositional environment. The absence of saline or typically marine biomarkers above this coal is interpreted as evidence of very short periods of marine transgression, as there was not enough time for establishment of the precursor organisms for marine biomarkers. However, sufficient time passed to raise SO42- concentration in pore waters, resulting in the formation of authigenic pyrite and sulphur incorporation into organic matter.

  3. Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

    2008-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation strongly depends on permeability variations. For the assumed model, no fire exists for permeabilities k < 10-10m2, whereas the fire propagation velocity ranges between 340ma-1 for k = 10-8m2, and drops to lower than 3ma-1 for k = 5 × 10-10m2. Additionally, strong temperature variations are observed for the permeability range 5 × 10-10m2 < k < 10-8m2.

  4. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    PubMed Central

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  5. Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R Ward

    2002-01-01

    The material described as “mineral matter” in coal encompasses dissolved salts in the pore water and inorganic elements associated with the organic compounds, as well as discrete crystalline and non-crystalline mineral particles. A range of technologies, including but not restricted to low-temperature oxygen-plasma ashing, may be used to evaluate the total proportions of minerals and other inorganic constituents in a

  6. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  7. Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

  8. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An analysis of injury claims from low-seam coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.; Moore, S.; Dempsey, P.G. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The restricted workspace present in low-seam coal mines forces workers to adopt awkward working postures (kneeling and stooping), which place high physical demands on the knee and lower back. This article provides an analysis of injury claims for eight mining companies operating low-seam coal mines during calendar years 1996-2008. All cost data were normalized using data on the cost of medical care (MPI) as provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Results of the analysis indicate that the knee was the body part that led in terms of claim cost ($4.2 million), followed by injuries to the lower back ($2.7 million). While the average cost per injury for these body parts was $13,100 and $14,400, respectively (close to the average cost of an injury overall), the high frequency of these injuries resulted in their pre-eminence in terms of cost. Analysis of data from individual mining companies suggest that knee and lower back injuries were a consistent problem across companies, as these injuries were each among the top five most costly part of body for seven out of eight companies studied. Results of this investigation suggest that efforts to reduce the frequency of knee and low back injuries in low-seam mines have the potential to create substantial cost savings.

  10. Geochemistry of autochthonous and hypautochthonous siderite-dolomite coal-balls (Foord Seam, Bolsovian, Upper Carboniferous), Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Lyons, P.C.; Millay, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The 11-13 m thick Foord Seam in the fault-bounded Stellarton Basin, Nova Scotia, is the thickest seam from the Euramerican floral province known to contain coal-balls. In addition to the first discovery of autochthonous coal-balls in the Foord Seam, Nova Scotia, its shale parting also contains hypautochthonous coal-balls with histologically preserved plant structures. The coal-ball discovery helps fill a stratigraphic gap in coal-ball occurrences in the upper Carboniferous (Bolsovian) of Euramerica. The autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls have a similar mineralogical composition and are composed of siderite (81-100%), dolomite-ankerite (0-19%), minor quartz and illite, and trace amounts of 'calcite'. Similar is also their permineralizing mineralogy, which consists of dolomite-ankerite and siderite. Their low pyrite content and carbonate mineralogy, and nonmarine origin, differentiates the Foord Seam coal-balls from other Euramerican coal-ball occurrences. A preliminary geochemical model, which is based on oxygen and carbon isotopic data, indicates that siderite in both the autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls is of very early diagenetic (nonmarine) origin from 13C-enriched bicarbonate derived from bacterial methanogenesis of organic matter.

  11. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams - article no. B10202

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Cui; R. M. Bustin; L. Chikatamarla

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of COā and HāS into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of COā and HāS and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of COā and HāS into

  12. Evaluation of data gathered from unmineable coal seams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) programs directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources INTERCOMP Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. (INTERCOMP) is under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide for the reduction of uncertainties in critical parameters related to the methane recovery from unmineable coals in the United States. To accomplish this objective INTERCOMP has assisted in test site selection, planning, and monitoring when requested and evaluated the results of test in terms of methane production potential and economics for selected well sites, geologic settings, and geographical areas. This is a continuation of two earlier contracts in which an optimized test program was specified and in which the results of that program were partially implemented and evaluated. In this report INTERCOMP's effort in assisting the Bureau of Mines to understand the nature of a communication problem between the vertical dewatering hole and the three horizontal degasification legs in the Emerald Mines Horizontal Drilling project is described. Recommendations made by INTERCOMP on how to determine the amount of communication and the answers to several other questions asked are given in the section Assistance in Test Planning. The use of INTERCOMP's numerical simulation model was necessary in this effort. The section entitled Resource Assessment gives the evaluation of each specific well site tested for methane production that furnished to INTERCOMP by METC.

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  14. Coal-fired steam locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, L. D.; Berkowitz, D. A.; Hamilton, C. C.; Withuhn, W. L.

    1984-01-17

    A coal-fired steam locomotive powered by reciprocating steam engines. The locomotive is a two-unit drawbar-coupled locomotive. The units, which are designated as a power unit and a support unit, are arranged back-to-back, with each having a cab-in-front. Operation of the locomotive is equally effective in both directions. The power unit basically contains a furnace and combustion system, an ash storage system, a gas cleanup and exhaust system, a boiler and steam generator, steam engines, a jet condenser, and a control cab. The support unit, on two 6-wheel trucks, contains a modular coal storage area, a stoker motor, a water storage area, heat transfer assemblies and fans for air-cooling circulating.

  15. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  16. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  17. Coal fire extinguishing and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.S.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

  18. Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Reinink-Smith

    1985-01-01

    Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the

  19. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, D.H.S.; Givens, E.N.; McDermott, W.T.

    1985-12-17

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, the maximum gas superficial velocity, and the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  20. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity near to the surface. The inversion into 1D models confirmatively reveals this layer indicating thermally altered coal respectively the mineralisation zone above the burning seam. This likewise is seen in the vertical resistivity section derived from 1D inversion of the AEM data as within the mapped burning zone decreased electrical resistivity is ascertained. From the difference of permittivities between burning and intact zones respectively the method of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is able to discriminate one from the other. Fissures, cracks and the collapsing of whole areas are caused as well by the heat as by the loss of volume as the coal is burnt. The knowledge regarding crevices as paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire is essential for extinguishing fires. The resulting resolution of such crevices depends on the frequency chosen for the GPR survey. The amount of CO2 and the vertical temperature gradient above a fire are measured using a thermal camera mounted onto an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV).

  2. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  3. Aquifer protection during longwall mining of shallow coal seams: A case study in the Shendong Coalfield of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsheng Zhang; Gangwei Fan; Liqiang Ma; Xufeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale underground mining of shallow coal seams can have significant impacts on ground surface and potentially leads to incidental damage to the overlying aquifer with subsequent environmental hazards. In order to deal with the apparent conflict between water protection and high production in underground mining, an aquifer protection mining technique was trialed in panel #51201 in the Shangwan colliery, the

  4. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport trough the coal core, thus including mass balances accounting for gas flow, gas sorption and swelling, and mechanical constitutive equations for the description of porosity and permeability changes during injection. The combination of the experimental data with the model predictions allow to successfully relate the dynamics of gas flow to parameters such as the effective pressure on the sample, sorption capacity and swelling, and to estimate important parameters, such as the mass transfer coefficient describing gas diffusion into the porous matrix of the coal. In particular, an increase in permeability is observed with decreasing effective pressure on the sample and, when an adsorbing gas is injected, a reduction in permeability caused by swelling, with CO2 having a much stronger effect as compared to N2. This last observation represents the starting point to the investigation of attractive options aimed at optimizing the ECBM operation, such as the use of CO2/N2 mixtures (flue gas) as a way of keeping the permeability in the reservoir sufficiently high. Acknowledgment Luigi Burlini was at the heart of this co-operation, and made it possible a synergy between engineers and geologists that has been extremely fruitful. With this contribution we would like to acknowledge Luigi's humanity and scientific visions and to remember a friend.

  5. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  6. An unusual pyroxene, melilite, and iron oxide mineral assemblage in a coal-fire buchite from Buffalo, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Jr. Foit; P. E. Rosenberg; R. L. Hooper

    2009-01-01

    Near-surface combustion of the Healy coal seam near Buffalo, Wyoming, baked and partially fused a 20-m-thick overlying sequence of sandstone, siltstone, and shale producing a multi-colored vesicular rock resembling slag (buchite). This coal-fire buchite is highly heterogeneous and consists largely of clinopyroxenes, melilites, and oxides, with minor glass. Clinopyroxene compositions straddle the diopside (Di)-ferri-aluminum Tschermaks (FATs) join in the system

  7. An unusual pyroxene, melilite, and iron oxide mineral assemblage in a coal-fire buchite from Buffalo, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FuNxr-rn F. Forr

    Ansrn-lcr Near-surface combustion of the Healy coal seam near Buffalo, Wyoming, baked and partially fused a 20-m-thick overlying sequence of sandstone, siltstone, and shale produc- ing a multi-colored vesicular rock resembling slag (buchite). This coal-fire buchite is highly heterogeneous and consists largely of clinopyroxenes, melilites, and oxides, with minor glass. The pyroxenes are unusually rich in Al and Fe3*, and

  8. Thermal characteristics of coal fires 2: Results of measurements on simulated coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia; Tetzlaff, Anke; Oertel, Dieter; Zhukov, Boris; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured during simulated fires under an experimental setting in Germany in July 2002. It is thus a continuation of the previously published paper "Thermal surface characteristics of coal fire 1: Results of in-situ measurement", in which we presented temperature measurements of real subsurface coal fires in China [Zhang, J., Kuenzer, C., accepted for publication. Thermal Surface Characteristics of Coal Fires 1: Results of in-situ measurements. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics.]. The focus is on simulated coal fires, which are less complex in nature than fires under natural conditions. In the present study we simulated all the influences usually occurring under natural conditions in a controllable manner (uniform background material of known thermal properties, known ventilation pathways, homogeneous coal substrate), creating two artificial outdoor coal fires under simplified settings. One surface coal fire and one subsurface coal fire were observed over the course of 2 days. The set up of the fires allowed for measurements not always feasible under "real" in-situ conditions: thus compared to the in-situ investigations presented in paper one we could retrieve numerous temperature measurements inside of the fires. Single temperature measurements, diurnal profiles and airborne thermal surveying present the typical temperature patterns of a small surface-and a subsurface fire under undisturbed conditions (easily accessible terrain, 24 hour measurements period, homogeneous materials). We found that the outside air temperature does not influence the fire's surface temperature (up to 900 °C), while fire centre temperatures of up to 1200 °C strongly correlate with surface temperatures of the fire. The fires could heat their surrounding up to a distance of 4.5 m. However, thermal anomalies on the background surface only persist as long as the fire is burning and disappear very fast if the heat source is removed. Furthermore, heat outside of the fires is transported mainly by convection and not by radiation. In spatial thermal line scanner data the diurnal thermal patterns of the coal fire are clearly represented. Our experiments during that data collection also visualize the thermal anomaly differences between covered (underground) and uncovered (surface) coal fires. The latter could not be observed in-situ in a real coal fire area. Sub-surface coal fires express a much weaker signal than open surface fires and contrast only by few degrees against the background. In airborne thermal imaging scanner data the fires are also well represented. Here we could show that the mid-infrared domain (3.8 ?m) is more suitable to pick up very hot anomalies, compared to the common thermal (8.8 ?m) domain. Our results help to understand coal fires and their thermal patterns as well as the limitations occurring during their analysis. We believe that the results presented here can practicably help for the planning of coal fire thermal mapping campaigns — including remote sensing methods and the thermal data can be included into numerical coal fire modelling as initial or boundary conditions.

  9. Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reinink-Smith, L.M.

    1985-04-01

    Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the coal with any one parting cannot be predicted, and the contacts of the partings with the coal range from very sharp to predominantly gradational. These bedding relationships provide clues about the surface on which the ashes fell and on which the coal was accumulating. For example, some ashes fell in standing water, others on irregular subaerial surfaces. The partings are in various stages of alteration to kaolinite and bentonite, and vary in thickness from a few millimeters to about 10 cm. The consistency and texture of the partings depend on the degree of alteration; the less altered partings display visible pumice fragments and euhedral feldspars, commonly within a finer grained matrix. Separate pumice fragments, excluding matrix, can also occur as partings in the coal. The more altered partings may be wet and plastic, or they may be well indurated claystones; the colors range from gray-yellow to dark brown. The indurated prints are more common in older part of the section. The coal seams may be capped by volcanic ash partings and are commonly underlain by a pencil shale of nonvolcanic origin.

  10. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  11. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  12. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of lithofacies trends along northwest-southeast trends, especially beneath modern valleys where overburden thickness decreases sharply. Differentiating roof falls related to these trends can aid in predicting roof quality in advance of mining.The Pond Creek-Lower Elkhorn seam has been an important exploration target because it typically has very low sulfur contents and ash yields. Geologic research in several large Pond Creek mines suggested variability in roof quality and coal thickness. Due to mine access, geologic problems encountered during mining are documented and described.

  13. Rock creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project: Rock Creek coalbed methane completion project data summary update. Topical report, December 1990-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ellard, J.; Lambert, S.W.; Litzinger, L.A.; Saulsberry, J.L.; Steidl, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testing were conducted to optimize stimulation methods for multiple thin coal seams. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed to provide a basis for stimulation design, production analysis and reservoir testing. Geologic characterization included stratigraphic and structural evaluation along with coal cleat, rock joint, seam thickness, coal methane content, coal chemistry and coal petrography studies. The report summarizes the data collected over the 10 year life of the project.

  14. Organic facies development within Middle Jurassic coal seams, Danish Central Graben, and evidence for relative sea-level control on peat accumulation in a coastal plain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, H. I.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1996-11-01

    During Middle Jurassic times peat accumulated in coastal plain environments in an overall transgressive setting in the Sųgne Basin, Danish Central Graben, in the North Sea. The coal seams occur in nonmarine to marginal marine deposits. Coal petrographic analyses of the seams in the West Lulu-2 well supplemented with a sequence stratigraphic analysis suggest that peat accumulation was controlled by relative sea-level changes. In West Lulu-2 the coal-bearing upper part of the Middle Jurassic is divided into sequences A and B. The sediments of sequence A are part of a transgressive systems tract, whereas the overlying sequence B contains lowstand and transgressive systems tract deposits. The coals are situated in the transgressive systems tracts. The coal seams formed during a rapid relative sea-level rise are generally characterized by petrographic features related to a permanently high groundwater table. Coals formed during a slow rise typically are 'drier' in their petrographic composition. The highest pyrite contents are observed in the 'wet' coals. The coal seams represent terrestrial equivalents to marine flooding surfaces or to transgressive surfaces if they are situated at the base of a transgressive systems tract. A thick coal seam zone is associated with the stratigraphic level of the maximum flooding surface, which correlates with the time of formation of the highest accommodation space.

  15. Spaceborne remote sensing for detection and impact assessment of coal fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öttl, Herwig; Roth, Achim; Voigt, Stefan; Mehl, Harald

    2002-07-01

    China has tremendous coal fields in its Northern regions. Not all of them are accessible for mining yet despite the fact, that China is the world's largest coal producer (about 1 billion tons annually). Many coal seams are reaching the surface and show self-ignited fires of considerable extension. Furthermore, fires occur in mines or in the underground. 56 areas of large fires are known to the Chinese authorities and numerous small ones exist in addition. Due to the vast dimensions of some burning coal fields, extinguishing the fires requires a huge effort. Besides the economic losses caused by burning coal (more than 20 million tons p.a.); 3 to 5 times of this amount is heavily affected by the fire and is therefore of no economic use. The environmental impact regionally and globally must not be neglected. It has been estimated by Chinese scientists that the carbon dioxide produced by these uncontrolled fires contributes with approximately 3 % to the Chinese CO 2 production. Spaceborne remote sensing offers important information such as digital elevation models (DEMs) as basic data for geologic formations and routes for access to burning areas, such as hot spot detection for fire assessment, such as land use classification and deposit estimation, such as estimation of environmentally harmful gases. Multitemporal measurements (e.g. differential SAR interferometry) offer a measure for ground subsidence and estimations of burned coal volumes. Furthermore, it is an efficient means for an early warning system of new fires. In the paper, examples of burning areas will be shown and some relevant computed DEMs. Furthermore, some land use data and some infrared data will be presented. The application of these data for other involved disciplines like modelling of the geologic vicinity surrounding the burning coal seams, analysis and modelling of the fire and its 3-dimensional propagation also based on ground and underground air (oxygen) supply (chimneys) will be mentioned. Based on these models, the best method for extinguishing the fire under observation may be derived as well as methods to prevent new self ignition by oxidation processes. But this will not be covered in the paper.

  16. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-04-01

    This is the first Technical Progress report for the subject agreement. During the first six months of the project, progress was made in arranging participation by other CONSOL departments, identifying a prospective site, developing an environmental assessment report, and securing land and coal rights. In addition, correspondences were drafted in response to NETL inquiries. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  17. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (?13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The ?13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the ?13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  18. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  19. Personal equipment for low seam coal miners: Improved knee pads, a modified design

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.S.; Shaw, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the development and field test to improve knee protection for underground coal miners working in low seam mines. In a previous phase of this contract (Sanders, 1982), experimental knee pads were developed and field tested. The field test revealed several design deficiencies with the knee pads, and suggestions for improving the design were made. The work summarized in this report, therefore, consists of modifying the design and method of fabrication of the knee pads originally described by Sanders (1982), and of field testing the improved design. The new prototype was shorter and wider than the original design, and used a neoprene pass-through strap design rather than a cloth strap molded into the pad itself. The new prototype was constructed by slush molding a hollow bladder that was then filled with foam. Initial reactions to the pads in the field test were very positive. However, after 2 months, the opinions about the new prototype became less positive. They were judged, generally, to be no better or worse than the pads usually worn by the field-test participants. Problems were encountered in the field with respect to durability. Water seeped into the inner cavity of many of the pads and caused the foam to deteriorate. It was concluded that it would not be cost-effective or feasible to significantly improve upon current commercially available knee pad designs.

  20. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  1. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration

    E-print Network

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed... combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However...

  2. Method of firing a tunnel kiln with coal, and coal firing installation for tunnel kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Leisenberg, M.

    1981-08-11

    A method is disclosed for firing a tunnel kiln with coal, in which the coal is stored in a preferably airtight bunker, and transported, by means of airtightly enclosed conveyor belts or chains connected to the bunker, to coal injectors operating as burners, which are provided in and distributed over the width of the firing zone of the kiln and connected to an air supply line, wherefrom compressed air is fed intermittently into the injectors, to blow in the coal which is there placed in a metered amount. Each firing place of a kiln is thus formed by a coal injector and the injectors are arranged in rows over the width of the firing zone of the kiln and each row is connected, respectively, by means of an associated conveyor belt and an air distributing pipe, to a conveyor belt extending in the longitudinal direction of the kiln and connecting to the coal bunker, and to a main compressed air line preferably extending parallel thereto. The coal injectors comprise a vertical coal feed tube which is connected to the conveyor belt and is open at its bottom, a receiving plate which is disposed below and spaced from the bottom end of the feed tube, and a casing surrounding the plate and the bottom end of the feed tube and connected to the compressed-air supply line and, through a blow or mixing pipe or directly, to the firing place.

  3. Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of ?13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and baseline signals were evaluated and statistically compared to test for the presence of fugitive methane emissions. In addition, a time series model of the methane baseline was developed in order to generate alternative realizations of the baseline signal. These were used to provide measures of both the likelihood of detecting fugitive emissions at various emission levels and of the false alarm rate. Results of the statistical analysis and an indicative minimum fugitive methane emission rate that can be detected using a single monitoring station are presented.

  4. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  5. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

  6. Data fusion for investigating land subsidence and coal fire hazards in a coal mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Prakash; E. J. Fielding; R. Gens; J. L. Van Genderen; D. L. Evans

    2001-01-01

    Coal mining areas all over the world are often threatened by serious environmental hazards such as the occurrence of coal fires, land subsidence, etc. Coal fires burn away the natural non-renewable coal resources, locally raise the temperature of the area, emit polluting gases such as oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen, and when present underground are even the cause of

  7. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  8. Externally fired combined cycle for electric power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The externally fired combined cycle is emerging as an economically viable repowering options for old non-competitive coal fired steam plants. This paper describes the initial operation of a pilot plant located at Kennebunk, Maine and the initial work on the repowering of a 48MW coal fired steam plant located in Warren, PA.

  9. EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIAL COAL STOKER FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements of 18 coal stoker-fired boilers including spreader stokers, mass-fired overfeed stokers, and mass-fired underfeed stokers. The test variables included stoker design, heat release rate, excess air, coal analysis and sizing, overfire a...

  10. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  11. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  12. The Outburst Risk as a Function of the Methane Capacity and Firmness of a Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Miros?aw; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    In most coal basins that are currently being exploited, gas and rock outbursts pose a considerable safety threat. The risk of their occurrence is frequently assessed by means of a parameter known as the methane capacity of coal. In a lot of countries, the evaluation of the mechanical properties of coal is conducted by means of another parameter: the firmness of coal. Due to the laboratory investigations and in situ observations carried out by the authors of this paper, it was possible to determine a function space in which the outburst risk can be described as a function of the methane capacity and firmness of a coal seam. This, in turn, made it possible to link the "gas factor" to the "mechanical factor", and thus provide a more comprehensive risk analysis. Wyrzuty gazów i ska? stanowi? du?e zagro?enie w wi?kszo?ci obecnie eksploatowanych zag??bi w?glowych. Bardzo cz?sto wykorzystywanym parametrem oceny stanu zagro?enia wyrzutowego jest zawarto?? metanu w w?glu. W wielu krajach do oceny mechanicznych parametrów w?gla wykorzystuje si? zwi?z?o??. Autorzy przeprowadzili badania laboratoryjne polegaj?ce na prowokacjach wyrzutów w skali laboratoryjnej. Jako materia? badawczy wykorzystane zosta?y brykiety w?glowe. W trakcie bada? wst?pnych ustalona zosta?a zale?no?? pomi?dzy porowato?ci? brykietów, a ich zwi?z?o?ci? f oraz pomi?dzy ci?nieniem nasycania metanem, a wska?nikiem intensywno?ci desorpcji dP. Pozwoli?o to na przygotowywanie eksperymentów o kontrolowanych parametrach gazowych (wska?nik intensywno?ci desorpcji) oraz wytrzyma?o?ciowych (zwi?z?o??). Opracowana zosta?a metoda kontrolowania intensywno?ci prowokacji wyrzutu poprzez okre?lenie tempa spadku ci?nienia gazu przed czo?em brykietu. Dzi?ki temu dla siatki parametrów f-dP mo?liwe by?o poszukiwanie minimalnej, skutecznej intensywno?ci prowokacji wyrzutu. Znormalizowana warto?? sta?ej czasowej spadku ci?nienia przed czo?em brykietu powoduj?cej skuteczn? inicjacj? wyrzutu uznana zosta?a za miar? zagro?enia wyrzutowego dla rozpatrywanych parametrów f-dP. Dysponuj?c warto?ciami tak okre?lonych miar zagro?enia wyrzutowego dla ca?ej siatki parametrów f-dP mo?na wykre?li? przestrze? zagro?enia wyrzutowego w funkcji rozpatrywanych parametrów. Równoleg?a faza bada? dotyczy?a poszukiwania korelacji pomi?dzy wska?nikiem intensywno?ci desorpcji, a zawarto?ci? gazu w w?glu (metanono?no?ci? Mn) na przyk?adzie pomiarów wykonanych w pok?adzie 412 KWK "Zofiówka". W pok?adzie tym zaobserwowano bardzo wyra?n?, liniow? zale?no?? pomi?dzy wska?nikiem intensywno?ci desorpcji, a metanono?no?ci?. Poznanie funkcyjnej zale?no?ci Mn(dP) umo?liwi?o przedstawienie wyników prac laboratoryjnych jako przestrzeni zagro?enia wyrzutowego w funkcji zwi?z?o?ci i metanono?no?ci. Analiza uzyskanej przestrzeni zagro?enia wskazuje na jej zgodno?? zarówno z intuicj?, jak i z kopalnianym do?wiadczeniem. Dla progowej w polskim górnictwie w?glowym warto?ci zwi?z?o?? (f = 0.3) stan zagro?enia wyrzutowego na poziomie 50% wyst?puje przy Mn oko?o 7 m3CH4/Mgcoaldaf. Aby zagwarantowa? podobny stan zagro?enia wyrzutowego dla kryterialnej warto?ci metanono?no?ci na poziomie 8 [m3CH4/Mgcoaldaf] w?giel powinien mie? zwi?z?o?? f powy?ej 0.5. Oczywi?cie warto?? izolinii na poziomie 50% jest umowna, a interpretacji powinny podlega? raczej kszta?ty izolinii, ni? ich warto?ci.

  13. Optimized post combustion carbon capturing on coal fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Stöver; Christian Bergins; Jürgen Klebes

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide coal contributes to over 40% of the electricity generation today and its share is expected to increase steadily over the coming decades. The continued dominance of coal in global energy structure and the growing concern of climate change necessitate accelerated development and deployment of new technologies for clean and efficient coal utilization. Coal fired power plants with CO2 capture

  14. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

  15. TEST FIRING REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN AN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Program entitled, 'Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler' evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler effic...

  16. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

  17. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope ? 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier ?13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier ?13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter ?13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant ?13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on ?13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate control. From the brown coal seam dating, the coal appears to have accumulated during a considerable part of the allocated 30 Ma Cenozoic time period. These brown coal carbon isotope and palynological data appear to record a more gradual atmospheric carbon isotope change compared to the marine record.

  18. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM UTILITY BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from dry-bottom utility boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Consuming about 320 million metric tons of the coal per year, this is the primary method of firing co...

  19. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  20. Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sami; K. Annamalai; M. Wooldridge

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified. Experimental results for

  1. Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications such as the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

  2. Field application of a finite-element water-quality model to a coal seam with UCG burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contractor, Dinshaw N.; El-Didy, Sherif M. A.

    1989-07-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element model has been developed to study the flow of water and the transport of water-quality constituents associated with underground coal gastification (UCG) burns in a coal aquifer. The flow model calculates the piezometric head and seepage velocity distributions in the aquifer as a function of time. These outputs are fed into a water-quality model that takes into account the dispersion, decay, and adsorption characteristics of a particular water-quality constituent. These models can be used to study the movement of contaminants within an aquifer. The models have been verified for accuracy by checking their output against analytic solutions that are available for simple aquifer geometries. These programs have been applied to the Hanna UCG burns in Wyoming, U.S.A. Steady-state flows are assumed in the coal seam and the movement of a constituent is studied as a function of time as the five burns were completed. This study illustrates how the model can be used by water-resource managers to understand the environmental impact of UCG burns.

  3. Public attitudes to coal-fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Fernando

    Though coal remains the world's most abundant, safe and secure form of energy, the public's perception of coal-fired power plant is not always favourable. Much of the environmental concerns regarding coal-fired plant focus on emissions such as SO2 and NOx emissions, mercury emissions, particulates and ash disposal. However, the greatest concerns are those relating to CO2 emissions leading to the

  4. Test firing refuse-derived fuel in an industrial coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.; Smith, M.L.; Ragland, K.W.; Ham, R.K.; Madding, R.P.

    1985-09-01

    The Research Program entitled, Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler efficiencies and stack emissions were also studied when co-firing RDF and coal. The economics of preparing and utilizing RDF in the boiler are evaluated. The operational characteristics of the RDF feed system and the reliability and practicability of receiving, storing, and firing RDF at an industrial operation are reported.

  5. The age, palaeoclimate, palaeovegetation, coal seam architecture/mire types, paleodepositional environments and thermal maturity of syn-collision paralic coal from Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Say-Gee; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Konjing, Zainey; Koraini, Ahmad Munif

    2014-02-01

    The Mukah coal accumulated in the Balingian Formation where the time-stratigraphic position is poorly defined by fauna, though a probable Late Miocene age has always been assigned to this formation. Samples collected in the present study that yielded an abundance of Casuarina pollen associated with occurrences of Dacrydium, Stenochlaena palustris, Florschuetzia levipoli and also Stenochlaena areolaris spores, compare closely to zone PR9 of the palynological zonation of the Malay Basin, and can be tied to depositional sequences of Malay Basin Seismic sequences I2000/I3000, indicating an Early Miocene age for the studied coal. The Early Miocene age shows that the Mukah coal was formed during the collision between Luconia Block-Dangerous Grounds with the Borneo that lasted from Late Eocene to late Early Miocene. The rapid increase of deposition base-level caused by the collision is clearly reflected by the architecture of the Mukah coal seams that were generally thin, and also by the reverse order of the paleo-peat bodies.

  6. Pneumatic stowing with lateral discharge in coal faces with thick seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielaff, H. D.

    1982-06-01

    A method of introducing early bearing and compact pneumatic stowing in thick coal beds was developed. In an early phase, the pneumatic stowing method with lateral discharge was tested in conjunction with special chock supports. Due to difficult geological conditions in the coal bed and to insufficient stability of the special chock support the trial failed after 7 months. The whole system was modified for pneumatic stowing with front discharge and shuttering. This method turned out to be unsuccessful as well. A shield support designed for pneumatic stowing with front discharge was used in another panel of the same coal bed. This method proved successful.

  7. Impact of tangential burner firing angle on combustion characteristics of large scale coal-fired boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Razali; M. H. Boosroh; H. Hasini; N. H. Shuaib

    2009-01-01

    Combustion characteristics in large scale boilers are influenced by a number of factors such as coal properties and burner operating conditions. Burner firing angle for example, will affect the fireball size and locations of heat release which affect the formation of ash slagging in a tangentially fired furnace. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of coal combustion

  8. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, February-April 1980. [Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-06-01

    The basic objective of this program is to invetigate systematic relationships between the properties of US coals and macerals. Thirty-five samples from the Lower Kittanning seam have been collected to study the vertical and lateral variability of petrographic, chemical, mineralogical and plastic characteristics within a single coal seam. The ratio of aromatic to aliphatic C-H groups as measured by the integrated absorption or peak areas shows a linear relationship with coal rank (reflectance). Uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C on -20 mesh sizes of selected coals (PSOC-1166, 1171, 1197, and 1201) has been measured. From Dubinin-Polanyi plots, micropore surface areas and micropore volumes were obtained. Displacement of mercury was used to estimate particle densities for -20 mesh and -100 mesh sizes of coals and vitrinite concentrates. Some uncertainty in this measurement is introduced because of the difficulty of knowing at what pressure filling of voids between particles with mercury is complete. A new helium density apparatus has been constructed which promises to speed up measurements. Two coals from China were found to have very unusual characteristics. The extremely high liptinite (cutinite) content of one would account for its anamolous chemical composition and liquefaction behavior. Several organic and inorganic components of liquefaction residues can be recognized under the microscope. The proportions of these components in residues from experiments performed by PETC appear to be related to process conditions. Major, minor element and mineralogical analyses are reported for up to 21 coals.

  9. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  10. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  11. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers

    E-print Network

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

  12. The role of sulphide and carbonate minerals in the concentration of chalcophile elements in the bituminous coal seams of a paralic series (Upper Carboniferous) in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henryk R. Parzentny; Lucyna Lewi?ska-Preis

    2006-01-01

    Sulphide and carbonate minerals from nine bituminous coal seams of a Paralic Series were investigated by means of polished-section microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and absorption spectral analyses. In addition to syngenetic accumulations of kaolinite, illite and quartz, diagenetic veinlets of subhedral pyrite and marcasite most often occur in vitrinite clast fissures and in post-tectonic fissures, nests and lenses with fusinite.

  13. Solution for Coal Seam Deaasi ication Wel s =ducing Under Two-Phase Flow Conditkms

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    and by whom the paper is presented. Wrife Publicafkws Manager, SPE, P.O. sax SS3SS0,Richardson,TX 7S0S3-SS36U tested extensively using a wide range of coal properties including desorption charac- teristics, and were as unconventional gas reservoirs. It has been estimated that total recoverable gas from these reservoirs ranges from

  14. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  15. MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

  16. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    PubMed

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  17. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ?390 ppm at the control site to ?467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ?3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  18. Coal Fire Fighting: Removal of Thermal Energy by Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Suhendra; Rueter, H.

    2009-04-01

    Fires are mainly controlled by the availability of three parameters: fuel, oxygen and thermal energy (heat). Hence, all extinction methods are related to the reduction of one or more of these parameters. The extensive removal of one of these parameters will stop a fire. The ability of so called heat pipes to remove thermal energy from the underground coal fire was tested by laboratory and field experiments. A heat pipe is a device of very high thermal conductance. By using a heat pipe, considerable quantities of heat can be transported from the underground to the surface. The heat pipe is filled with a working fluid selected for the present temperature range. Heat is applied and conducted from the coal fire to the evaporator part of the heat pipe and causes the liquid to vaporize. The vapor moves to the condenser section above the surface. The vaporized fluid is condensed and the condensate flows back to the evaporator section by gravity force. The energy removed from the fire is rapidly transferred to the condenser section when the fluid condenses there. From there the energy will finally flow to the surrounding air and extended cooling areas (paddles) may facilitate this transfer. Once installed, the process will run continuously. Within the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in North China" prototypes of heat pipes were tested in laboratory scale as well as in the coal fire area in Wuda, China. As the result of the investigations it will become possible to determine the amount of removed heat to define the needed number of installations. The effect of installed heat pipes on the coal fire propagation will be estimated by means of numerical simulations.

  19. Coal combustor retrofits to gas- and oil-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, L.

    1982-02-22

    The Wormser Grate is an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combustor designed to fire new or existing gas or oil-fired boilers of capacities from 10,000-100,000 lb/h of steam. The fluidized bed boiler produces 60% of the steam output, and the rest is produced by gas or oil firing. The Wormer Grate uses two separate, shallow fluidised beds: one for combustion and the other for desulphurization.

  20. Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1 Salomon B. Kroonenberg2 and Cor, the Netherlands Introduction Coal fires are one of the most serious problems for the Chinese coal indus- try. The estimated annual loss of coal by fires in China ranges from about 10Ā­20 million tonnes (Guan et al., 1998

  1. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono mo?liwo?ci wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metod? okre?lania potencja?u utleniaj?cego w procesie mokrym do okre?lania sk?onno?ci w?gla do samozap?onu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek w?gla z trzynastu kopalni w obr?bie Indyjskiego Zag??bia W?glowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w ró?nych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewni? standaryzacj? metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla ka?dej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metod? badania potencja?u utleniaj?cego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z w?asno?ciami danego w?gla przez przeprowadzenie badania petrograficznych i wytrzyma?o?ciowych parametrów w?gla. Procedur? korelacji wykonano z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania Design Expert 7.0.0, nast?pnie przeprowadzono analiz? z wykorzystaniem sieci neuronowych w celu opracowania najkorzystniejszej kombinacji warunków eksperymentu do wykorzystania dla uzyskania optymalnych wyników. Badania wykaza?y, ?e najkorzystniejsze warunki dla procesu to zastosowanie roztworu 0.2 N KMnO4 z 1 N KOH przy 45°C dla uzyskania optymalnych wyników okre?lania sk?onno?ci pok?adów do samozap?onu. Walidacj? wyników przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki badania metod? okre?lania temperatury przej?cia (Crossing Point Temperature), szeroko stosowan? w przemy?le wydobywczym w Indiach.

  2. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. CO dispersion from a coal fire in a mine entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Edwards; R. A. Franks; G. F. Friel; L. Yuan

    Five mine fire experiments were conducted in a 2.08m high and 2.90m wide, ventilated mine entryintheNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH)'sSafetyResearchCoalMine(SRCM) to determine the effect of the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) on mine fire detection. CO measurements were made at distances from 7.6m to 45.2m downwind from the fire with diffusion mode CO sensors positioned near the roof. For small intensity fires, less than

  4. Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae. PMID:23837320

  5. Preventing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants using environmentally preferable coal purchasing practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Johnson; Hoi-Yi Lai; David Wortman

    2008-01-01

    Electric utilities in the United States will soon be required under the federal Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Air Mercury Rule to significantly reduce mercury emissions. Coal-fired power plants, including the Lower Colorado River Authority's (LCRA) Fayette Power Project (FPP) have demonstrated that the selective purchasing of coal with low mercury content can result in significant reduction of pollution. This selective

  6. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  7. Land-cover change of the wuda coal fire area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Li, Jiahong; Wu, Jianjun; Jia, Yuerong; Cai, Danlu; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Tiejun; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    Coal fire generates a number of environmental problems and results in disorderly changes of landcover. Detecting the change of Land-cover is an important scientific issue of the land evaluation and the eco-environmental change forecasting. The temporal land cover maps with high accuracy make it possible to explore the eco-environmental changes of coal fire area. In thispaper, the multi-layer segmentation-based classification approach, Markov Transition Matrix methodology and Dynamic indexesby using Landsat TM data was carried out. The results reveal that coal mine and resident change are mostly in recent decades among all land cover types. Private coal mining exploitation and government administrative measures are the deriving factors.

  8. Coal-fired MHD combustion development project: Phase 3B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    The first quarterly technical progress report of the Coal Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase IIIB) presents the accomplishments during the period 13 January to 30 April, 1982. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report relates to those tasks associated with preparing the TRW 20 MW/sub t/ MHD coal combustor for delivery to AERL for integrated power tests and the work associated with the preliminary design of a 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired combustor. Progress during this reporting period is described. All new 20 MW/sub t/hardware was designed and fabricated. Interface coordination meetings were conducted with AERL and DOE. Interface control drawings were completed and a 20 MW/sub t/coal combustion User's manual was delivered to AERL. The User's manual contained a shipping plan, a crew training plan, an assembly manual, interface documentation and recommended operating procedures.

  9. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  10. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

  11. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

  12. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  13. Co-firing of pulverized coal with combustible industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, M.; Asahiro, N.; Kamijyo, T.

    1999-07-01

    In Japan, incineration of combustible industrial wastes is chiefly used to reduce their volume in waste disposal and has not been treated as an effective material compared with combustible non-industrial wastes, because cheap and stabilized electric power supply has not been expected from their incineration. In other words, it means that collecting and transporting of combustible industrial wastes are not easy for power generation, and it is too costly to install and to operate a facility and to assure the extraction of harmful materials contained in the wastes. Then, the generated power cost becomes inevitably too high. Consequently, CCUJ has tried to develop a technology to remove those harmful materials from the wastes, so as to produce cheap and stabilized power efficiently by co-firing. As a result, CCUJ has successfully made clear the following items: (1) Manufacturing conditions of RDF by coal and combustible industrial wastes; (2) Relation between combustibility and their mixing rates; (3) Adsorption of harmful materials (heavy metals) by coal ash and coal-char; (4) Removal method of dioxins by using activated carbon which is cheaply produced from coal; (5) Leaching of coal ash and utilization of coal ashes by melting; (6) Material and heat balance of co-firing; and (7) Generated power cost by co-firing.

  14. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Engle; Lawrence F. Radke; Edward L. Heffern; Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe; Charles D. Smeltzer; James C. Hower; Judith M. Hower; Anupma Prakash; Allan Kolker; Robert J. Eatwell; Arnout ter Schure; Gerald Queen; Kerry L. Aggen; Glenn B. Stracher; Kevin R. Henke; Ricardo A. Olea; Yomayra Romįn-Colón

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar

    E-print Network

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar and Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation

  16. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

  17. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Meyer; D. Chen-Brauchler; H. Rüter; C. Fischer; K. Bing

    2009-01-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires

  18. Coal-fired Stirling engine hydrostatic locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, V.; Walker, C.; Fauvel, R.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing price of diesel oil, there is a need to consider alternative fuels, such as coal, which is available in relative abundance and lower costs. A case is made to establish a 1000 hp 80 ton 2 bogie 4-axle coal-burning free-piston Stirling engine hydrostatic locomotive for shunting duty.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  20. Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology

    E-print Network

    Guide, J. J.

    2.1 I1l.B/HR AIR J 1---'2"'8"'0""0~P:"S"'IG'"-__......1....3wHLO!o!!B!.!/HR:!!!... .. IS PSIA . BFH 265?F ? 85B?F -o Figure 1. 263 MW CAT-PAC Utility Power Plant Simplified Flow Diagram for a commercial plant today. Supplementary fired (high... to approximately, 1750 o F. ' Today, CAT-PAC would require about 10% less fuel (or 1000 Btu/kwh) than the best coal-fired Utility Plant for the same net power output, at a comparable investment. With improved air heater metallurgy, and/or trim firing of a...

  1. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  2. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  3. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Second international conference on improved coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Armor; J. A. Bartz; G. Touchton; L. J. Jr. Valverde A

    1989-01-01

    Research programs, presented at the second international conference on improved coal-fired power plants, are presented. The conference consisted of five sessions: national or institutional programs; power plants; boiler design and materials; turbine design and materials; controls and balance of plant. A combined session on environmental controls was also held. Programs from sessions 4, 5, and environmental controls are presented in

  5. Specialized coal and pet-coke firing pipe design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Greco

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses specialized coal and pet-coke-firing, viewing the design of customized combustion systems in order to meet client's specific requirements. This is an approach to combustion subject that is becoming well known and widely accepted all over the world, fitting particularly well when the combustion takes place inside a clinker rotary kiln. The best way to perform this approach

  6. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-print Network

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  7. Co-firing Coal and Municipal Solid Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale

  8. METC research on coal-fired diesels

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E.H.; Addis, R.E. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The METC in-house Coal-Fueled Diesel Research project is part of the overall DOE effort to develop a technology base for diesel engines capable of operating on coal, shale oil or low-cost coal-derived fuels. The in-house effort started in 1985 as a test-bed for coal-derived liquid fuels and will end this fiscal year with the successful completion of METC`s diesel R&D program. Currently METC in-house research and development efforts focus on pilot chamber combustion in METC`s coal-water slurry (CWS) fueled diesel engine. A novel pilot chamber for a direct-injected, coal-fueled diesel engine has been designed and is being tested in METC`s single cylinder research diesel engine. The pilot chamber configuration allows for operation at extended load and speed conditions using 100 percent CWS and no other pilot fuel. The concept involves the use of a small volume chamber exterior to the main cylinder in which approximately 5 percent of the total fuel energy at full load conditions is injected. Lower NO{sub X} levels may be obtained due to leaner burning as well as broader stable performance using only CWS fuel.

  9. COAL FIRE QUANTIFICATION AND DETECTION USING THE DLR EXPERIMENTAL BI-SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTION (BIRD) SMALL SATELLITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Tetzlaff; Andreas Hirner; Boris Zhukov; Claudia Kuenzer; Stefan Voigt

    Coal fires cause severe environmental and economic problems worldwide. In the current paper we analyse the potential of the experimental bi-spectral infrared detection (BIRD) small satellite to register coal fire related spectral radiances and we present BIRD data acquired over two coal fire areas in Northern China. Based on field observations of coal fires in the investigated areas, we visually

  10. Sustainability assessment of algae cofiring in a coal-fired power plant: A hybrid LCA model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kucukvar; O. Tatari

    2011-01-01

    HE environmental performance of various algae cofiring scenarios in a 300 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated using an ecologically based hybrid LCA model. Scenarios included cofiring options utilizing 100% Coal, 75% Coal & 25% Algae, 50% Coal & 50% Algae, 25% Coal & 75% Algae, and 100% Algae. These percentage values represent the share of energy production (MJ) by

  11. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziku?, M.; ?asi?ski, K.

    2014-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  12. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  13. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  14. Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

  15. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  16. Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.

    PubMed Central

    Alfheim, I; Bergström, J G; Jenssen, D; Mųller, M

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples. PMID:6825617

  17. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  18. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  19. Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; John L. Marion; Robert Lewis; Chris Smith

    ALSTOM Power, Inc. (ALSTOM) is developing an Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants to address present and anticipated NOX emissions control legislation for US coal-fired boilers. The proposed system will build on ALSTOM's field-proven TFS 2000TM low NOX firing system to achieve furnace outlet NOX emissions at or below 0.15 lb\\/MMBtu for existing tangentially fired boilers firing

  20. Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langsjoen, P. L.; Burlingame, J. O.; Gabrielson, J. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of 18 coal stoker boilers including spreader stokers, mass fired overfeed stokers, and mass fired underfeed stokers are reported. Particulate loading is largely dependent on stoker type and degree of flyash reinjection. It increases with heat release rate, but can be controlled with proper use of overfire air in many cases. Nitric oxide increases with excess air and grate heat release rate. Overfire air, as it exists in current boiler designs, does not affect NOx. Relationships between operating variables and measured emissions and efficiency are also reported.

  1. Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury?

    E-print Network

    of contaminated fish. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of proximity to coal-fired power plantsDoes proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury? Dana K. Sackett Ā· D. Derek+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Much of the mercury contamination in aquatic biota originates from coal

  2. Nature and costs of fan erosion in coal-fired electric power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Glasser; W. J. Petlevich; E. F. Sverdrup

    1980-01-01

    One of the tasks set forth in this contract was to ascertain the quantity and severity of erosion damage occurring to fans in coal burning power plants. A telephone survey was conducted of power plants having units larger than 100 megawatts generating capacity and using pulverized coal fired boilers. This sample represented approximately 50% of the total coal-fired generating capacity

  3. COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

  4. Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass

    E-print Network

    Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

    2009-05-15

    . The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals...

  5. Aerosol nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Robin; Lonsdale, Chantelle; Brock, Charles; Makar, Paul; Knipping, Eladio; Reed, Molly; Crawford, James; Holloway, John; Ryerson, Tim; Huey, L. Greg; Nowak, John; Pierce, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    New-particle nucleation within coal-fired power-plant plumes can have large effects on particle number concentrations, particularly near source regions, with implications for human health and climate. In order to resolve the formation and growth of particles in these plumes, we have integrated TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a large-eddy simulation/cloud-resolving model (LES/CRM). We have evaluated this model against aircraft observations for three case studies, and the model reproduces well the major features of each case. Using this model, we have shown that meteorology and background aerosol concentrations can have strong effects on new-particle formation and growth in coal-fired power-plant plumes, even if emissions are held constant. We subsequently used the model to evaluate the effects of SO2 and NOx pollution controls on newparticle formation in coal-fired power-plant plumes. We found that strong reductions in NOx emissions without concurrent reductions in SO2 emissions may increase new-particle formation, due to increases in OH formation within the plume. We predicted the change in new-particle formation due to changes in emissions between 1997 and 2010 for 330 coal-fired power plants in the US, and we found a median decrease of 19% in new-particle formation. However, the magnitude and sign of the aerosol changes depend greatly on the relative reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions in each plant. More extensive plume measurements for a range of emissions of SO2 and NOx and in varying background aerosol conditions are needed, however, to better quantify these effects.

  6. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  8. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  10. Coal firing technology for side-and top-fired tunnel kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Sells, G.C.

    1983-04-01

    The use of granulated coal in an existing tunnel kiln specifically designed for either liquid or gaseous fuels is studied. At first, it was difficult to deliver the correct amount of properly sized coal at the right velocity to a large number of small volume fuel delivery points. Large volume single injectors were totally unsuitable to the kiln. In 1974 the ''solid fuel metering and delivery system'' was developed by General Shale. This system was capable of metering and delivering small quantities of granulated coal at a proper feed rate into the kiln (as schematicized). The firing of brick with coal increases efficiency by 30%. More favorable hydrogen loss factor, improved recirculation of heat, reduction of excess air temperatures, and favorable heat release profile are cited as reasons.

  11. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  12. Control Strategies of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hezhong Tian; Yan Wang; Ke Cheng; Yiping Qu; Jiming Hao; Zhigang Xue; Fahe Chai

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric Hg emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of

  13. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  14. Modeling arsenic partitioning in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, Constance L.; Lignell, David O.; Sarofim, Adel F. [Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Mehta, Arun [EPRI, 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Vapor-phase arsenic in coal combustion flue gas causes deactivation of the catalysts used in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the behavior of arsenic in the postcombustion region of a coal-fired boiler as a function of gas residence time. The purpose of the model is to calculate the partitioning of arsenic between the vapor phase from volatilization and arsenic on the ash particles due to surface reaction and/or condensation at temperatures characteristic of SCR systems. The model accounts for heterogeneous condensation of arsenic on the fly ash, as well as surface reaction for two regimes: (1) the free molecular regime (submicrometer ash particles) and (2) the continuum regime (supermicrometer ash particles). All gas properties are computed as functions of gas temperature, pressure, and composition, which are allowed to vary. The arsenic model can be used to calculate the impact of coal composition on vapor-phase arsenic at SCR inlet temperatures, which will help utilities better manage coal quality and increase catalyst lifetimes on units operating with SCR. The arsenic model has been developed and implemented and was tested against experimental data for several coals. (author)

  15. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration [OMB Control No...Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  16. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  17. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  18. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  20. Mercury control for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, P.

    2005-06-30

    On 15 March 2005 the US Environmental Protection Agency issued its Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMP) to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPRI is working with the US Department of Energy and the power industry to develop mercury control technologies needed to meet the final 2018 emission limits. Some improvements can be made by modifying existing SO{sub 2} or NOx control devices. Precombustion cleaning reduces mercury content of eastern coals by about one third. Adding a little halogen is another technology being researched - this promotes oxidation improving short-term mercury capture. EPRI is developing the TOXECON{trademark} technology to address a major problem of using sorbents to control mercury emissions: contamination of fly ash. 5 figs.

  1. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  2. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  3. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2000-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

  4. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  5. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  6. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2000-10-31

    This report summarizes the research that has been performed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) during the last three months on demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last six months have been on: (1) Field Tests for RRI at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) in cyclone fired boilers; (3) Applying the NOx model to evaluate RRI systems integrated into a boiler with Over Fired Air (OFA) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR); (4) Field Tests of the REI Corrosion Probe at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1; (5) Commence engineering study of ammonia adsorption mechanisms for Fly Ash; (6) Presentation of current program accomplishments and plans for future work to DoE staff members at NETL-FE (Pittsburgh); and (7) Presentation of preliminary field test results for RRI to EPRI CNCIG.

  7. Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance L Senior; Adel F Sarofim; Taofang Zeng; Joseph J Helble; Ruben Mamani-Paco

    2000-01-01

    Because mercury enters the food chain primarily through atmospheric deposition, exposure models require accurate information about mercury emission rates and mercury speciation from point sources. Since coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction of the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, the speciation of mercury in coal-fired power plant flue gas is currently an active topic of research. We

  8. Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  9. A GUIDE TO CLEAN AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF COAL-STOKER-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a guide for those in charge of operating coal-stoker-fired boilers. It explains and illustrates the types of coal-fired stokers in operation today. It explains the combustion process in simple terms. It explains the various heat losses in stoker boilers. And, it dis...

  10. APPLICABILITY OF THE THERMAL DENOX PROCESS TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a projection of the performance and cost of the Exxon Thermal DeNOx Process applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Eight units were selected, representing different boiler manufacturers, sizes, firing methods, and coal types. Thermal DeNOx performance was project...

  11. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

  12. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO2) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  13. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  14. Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

    2008-01-01

    The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

  15. Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

    Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant I coal-fired power plant. Aknowledgements: French environment agency ADEME (Contract number 04-74-C0018 that was carried out in March 2006 at a 600-MWe coal-fired power plant. 51 ineris-00973267,version1-4Apr2014 Author

  16. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  17. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  18. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elcock

    2011-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As

  19. A parametric evaluation of particle-phase dynamics in an industrial pulverized-coal-fired boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Bonin; M. Queiroz

    1996-01-01

    A parametric study on the variation of particle size, velocity and number density with boiler operating conditions has been completed in a full-scale, tangentially fired, 85 MWe pulverized-coal-fired boiler, using a laser-based diagnostic probe. Variables in the test included boiler load (60 or 85 MWe), coal type and excess air (2.5 or 4.5%). Two bituminous coals were used: HV and

  20. The Blue Flame produced by Common Salt on a Coal Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Hughes

    1922-01-01

    IT is sometimes stated that the blue flame which is seen when common salt is thrown on to a coal fire is due to traces of copper in the coal. It is much more likely that this flame is that of carbon monoxide produced by the cooling of the hot coal by the salt, and certain observations lend support to

  1. The Time Effect Research on Heavy Metal Elements Pollution of Urban Industrial Fire Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuhong Peng; Chengshi Qing; Bo Xu; Yongqin Ye; Shijun Ni; Hai Yang; Yuanwen Deng; Shishi Chen; Feng Cheng; Dong Yu; Jiangsu Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution made by industrial coal in city is receiving more and more attentions, but the time effect researches on fire coal capacity and heavy metal pollution after enterprise' relocation out of urban area are comparatively less. This paper studied the east Industrial zone, doing quantitative analysis on 5 types of heavy metal elements of coal samples, cinder,

  2. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  3. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  4. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  5. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-07-27

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

  6. Privately owned coal cars will serve new coal-fired plant. [Cajun Electric Power Cooperative, New Roads, Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burgin

    1976-01-01

    High transportation costs loomed as a potential problem when Cajun Electric Power Cooperative set plans for a coal-fired plant. Studies then revealed the advantages of operating utility-owned unit trains and the choice was made. Coal will be shipped from Sheridan, Wyoming, to St. Louis by unit train over the Burlington Northern tracks, then transferred to barges for the trip down

  7. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

  8. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  9. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

  10. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-21

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  11. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter and shakedown testing was begun at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. Talks continued with two utilities that have expressed interest in hosting a demonstration.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2001-04-30

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test, up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was co-milled Pratt seam coal. In the second test, also with Pratt seam coal, up to 10% by weight dry hardwood sawdust was injected through the center of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preliminary results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments.

  14. Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fariborz Goodarzi

    2006-01-01

    Fly ashes were collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESPs) and\\/or the baghouse of seven coal-fired power plants. The fly ashes were sampled from power plants that use pulverized subbituminous and bituminous feed coals. Fly ash from bituminous coals and limestone feed coals from fluidized-bed power plant were also sampled. The fly ashes were examined for their mineralogies and elemental compositions.

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  16. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  17. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. [Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States); Kimberley, J. [AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States); Itse, D. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  18. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. (Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)); Kimberley, J. (AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States)); Itse, D. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  19. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  20. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  1. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

  2. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

  3. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  4. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  5. SO2 impacts on forage and soil sulfur concentrations near coal-fired power plants

    E-print Network

    Beene, Jack Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine if S02 emissions from coal-fired power plants could be contributing to the copper deficiency in cattle. Copper deficiency in cattle can result from excessive sulfur intake which is attributed...

  6. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  7. MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

  8. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing

    E-print Network

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability....

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants

    E-print Network

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning is an in...

  10. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  11. Mercury concentrations in wetlands associated with coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Weir; Richard S. Halbrook; Donald W. Sparling

    2010-01-01

    There have been contradictory reports of the relative proportion of mercury from coal-fired power plants that deposits locally.\\u000a Our objective was to determine any local effect of coal-fired power plants on total mercury concentrations in wetland sediment\\u000a and tadpole samples. Four power plants and 45 wetlands were selected for study. Total mercury concentrations were determined\\u000a in 75 sediment samples (range:

  12. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongqun Yang; Zhenghe Xu; Maohong Fan; Alan E. Bland; Roddie R. Judkins

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas.Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000t\\/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions.Mercury

  13. Development of an Advisory System Based on a Neural Network for the Operation of a Coal Fired Power Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. L. Frenken; C. M. Rozendaal; H. E. Dijk; P. C. Knöster

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of neural networks to the operaton of a coal fired power plant. The performance of a pulverized coal fired power plant depends on the design and operation of the plant and the quality of the coals. Incorrect operation of a power plant may lead to lower efficiencies and higher emissions of toxic gaseous elements. During

  14. Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future James McNerney,a,b

    E-print Network

    Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future James Mc, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA Abstract We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy

  15. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal 2009 Keywords: Corbicula fluminea Coal-fired power plant Selenium Mercury Glutathione Condition index Bioaccumulation a b s t r a c t Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have

  16. Coal Seam Methane Pressure as a Parameter Determining the Level of the Outburst Risk - Laboratory and in Situ Research / Ci?nienie Z?o?owe Jako Parametr Okre?laj?cy Stan Zagro?enia Wyrzutami Metanu I Ska? - Badania Laboratoryjne I Kopalniane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Scarcity of research focusing on the evaluation of the coal seam methane pressure as a parameter determining the outburst risk makes it difficult to assess the value for which the level of this risk increases considerably. It is obvious that, apart from the gas factor, the evaluation of the threat should also take into account the strength factor. The research presented in this paper attempted at estimating the level of the outburst risk on the basis of the coal seam methane pressure value and firmness of coal. In this work, the author seeks to present both the relevant laboratory research and the measurements carried out in mines.

  17. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  20. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  1. Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

    Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  3. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chittatosh Bhattacharya

    2008-01-01

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on

  4. Status review of mercury control options for coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H Pavlish; Everett A Sondreal; Michael D Mann; Edwin S Olson; Kevin C Galbreath; Dennis L Laudal; Steven A Benson

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research related to mercury control technology for coal-fired power plants and identifies areas requiring additional research and development. It critically reviews measured mercury emissions; the chemistry of mercury transformation and control; progress in the development of promising control technologies: sorbent injection, control in wet scrubbers, and coal cleaning; and projects costs for mercury control.

  5. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Stoddard; M. R. Bary; K. M. Gray; P. G. LaHaye

    1995-01-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WATERTUBE BOILER FIRING A COAL-WATER SLURRY. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results from field testing a watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry (CWS) containing about 60% coal. Emission measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas,...

  7. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COAL-FIRED RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT FIELD TESTS, JUNE 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to quantify criteria pollutants and characterize atmospheric emissions from coal-fired residential heating equipment. Flue gas was sampled from a warm air furnace and a hot water boiler which burned three western coals. Tests were conducted wit...

  8. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Hower; Leslie F Ruppert; Cortland F Eble

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ?-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein

  9. Operating and capital costs of producing fired structural products from waste coal ash. Report No. 98

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humphreys

    1974-01-01

    A major deterrent to the use of the coal in boiler systems is the emission of finely divided flyash (pulverized fuel ash) from the exhaust stacks. When pulverized coal is fired in an electric utility boiler, about 70--80 percent of the ash is collected by mechanical or electrical means. The remaining 20--30 percent is collected in the furnace bottom. Capital

  10. Experiment Study of the Pilot Ammonia SCR System in a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Xu; Zhi-Yong Yan; Xu Xu; Yu Wang

    2011-01-01

    To comply with more stringent nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions regulations in China, selective catalyst reduction (SCR) technology is widely studied and used in coal-fired power plants. A series of pilot flue gas ammonia (NH3) SCR experiments were completed at a pulverized coal power plant in Zhejiang Province. Flue gas flux rate, particulate matter (PM) concentration, the denitration efficiency and other

  11. Monitoring NOx Emissions from Coal Fired Boilers Using Generalized Regression Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligang Zheng; Shuijun Yu; Minggao Yu

    2008-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) associated with coal combustion systems is a significant pollutant source in the environment as the utilization of fossil fuels continues to increase, and the monitoring of NOx emissions is an indispensable process in coal-fired power plant so as to control NOx emissions. A novel \\

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  13. Investigation of radiometric combustion monitoring techniques for coal-fired stoker boilers. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. V. Karlson; T. H. Parsons; M. J. Savoie; W. B. Scholten

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-ash bed disturbances are costly problems often encountered in operating coal-fired, mechanical-stoker boilers in military heat plants. In traveling grate, mechanical-stoker boilers, all or most of the coal burns on the traveling grate, so proper control of combustion grate fuel-ash bed thickness is critical for cost-effective, high-availability operation. In these plants, operators must adjust combustion equipment as the coal enters

  14. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam

    E-print Network

    Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, Franēois; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  16. Real-time tracking of CO? injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO? signature.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO? was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO? isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO? with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO? was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO? was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO? isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO? provided clear evidence that injected CO? had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO? signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO? injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

  17. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  2. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  3. Thin seam mines in Appalachia yield high production

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, S.J.

    1981-03-01

    One-unit coal mines operating in certain flat, dry, and non-gassey seams often have continuous haulage from the face to the surface. Though some seams are so thin that miners must crawl on hands and knees, production is excellent. In thin coal seams that many an experienced miner might feel are unminable, operators in Harlan County, Kentucky, United States, are cutting coal with marked success. One-unit operations in seams no thicker than 625 millimeters (25 inches) are producing up to 7,000 tons of coal per month while operating only one shift per day, five days per week. Good mining conditions and continuous haulage of coal from the face to the surface are two reasons why.

  4. 4-E (Energy, Exergy, Environment, and Economic) analysis of solar thermal aided coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. J. J. Suresh; K. S. Reddy; Ajit Kumar Kolar

    2010-01-01

    Solar aided feedwater heating (SAFWH) appears to be a prospective option for using solar thermal energy in existing or new coal-fired thermal power plants. This article deals with the 4-E (namely energy, exergy, environment, and economic) analysis of solar thermal aided coal-fired power plants to establish their techno-economic viability. An operating coal-fired subcritical (SubC) and the first supercritical (SupC) power

  5. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D. [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA (United States). Division for Science & Mathematics

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  6. Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Starley, G.P.; Slaughter, D.M.; Munro, J.M.; Pershing, D.W.; Martin, G.B.

    1985-10-01

    The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attention.) Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel-suspension phase, the conversion of fuel nitrogen during fixed-bed combustion, and the coupling between the two combustion phases. Results indicate that NO emissions from spreader-stoker coal-fired furnaces are the result of relatively high conversions of fuel nitrogen evolved from particles of < 0.1 in. diameter in the suspension phase and low conversion of fuel nitrogen during fixed-bed combustion.

  7. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

  8. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  9. Predictions of boiler performance when firing beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, M.; Gurvich, B.; Kwasnik, A.; Liljedahl, G.; Miemiec, L.

    1994-12-31

    The development of advanced coal beneficiation and utilization technologies is being sponsored by the United States Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, to encourage the use of our abundant coal reserves. A comprehensive program is being conducted by ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB/CE), regarding the use of these fuels in existing utility boilers. Physical, chemical, combustion and fireside characteristics of these beneficiated products and their parent coals are being evaluated in laboratory testing. Characterization tests provide the information required to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCF) in existing coal and oil utility boilers. Two utility steam generators designed for either coal or oil firing were selected for performance evaluation. The study units were selected to be representative of a large portion of the current boiler population: a 560 MW coal-designed boiler purchased in 1973; and a 600 MW oil-designed boiler purchased in 1970. Both of these units were built by ABB/CE, but the fuel related design parameters are similar to those used by other manufacturers. An Upper Freeport medium volatile bituminous (mvb) parent coal and its respective Spherical Oil Agglomeration Product (SOAP) fuel were evaluated. This paper summarizes the results of the performance analysis and describes the economic impacts that can be expected when firing BCF`s.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

  11. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  13. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-10-24

    This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Various subsystems of BYU's Catalyst Characterization System (CCS) were upgraded this quarter. Work on the CCS hardware and software will continue in the coming quarter. A preliminary test matrix of poisoning experiments in the CCS has been drafted that will explore the effects of at least three poisons: sodium, potassium and calcium. During this quarter, we attempted to resolve discrepancies in previous in situ measurements of catalyst sulfation. Modifications were made to the XPS analysis procedure that allowed analyses of uncrushed samples. Although the XPS and FTIR results are now more consistent in that both indicate that the surface is sulfating (unlike the results reported last quarter), they disagree with respect to which species sulfates. The CEM system for the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor arrived this quarter. Minor modifications to the reactor and control system were completed. The reactor will be shipped to AEP Rockport plant next quarter for shakedown and installation. In a parallel effort, we have proposed to make mercury oxidation measurements across the catalysts at the start of the field test. Pending approval from DOE, we will begin the mercury measurements next quarter.

  14. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  15. Water inrush and environmental impact of shallow seam mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jincai Zhang; Suping Peng

    2005-01-01

    Shallow seam mining is very common in China for enhancing coal recovery. However, this may cause a series of severe problems\\u000a in environment and mining safety in some cases, because the alluvium aquifers are directly above the shallow coal seams. Some\\u000a typical water and sand inrush incidents resulting from shallow mining in China are analyzed. Based on in-situ observation,\\u000a the

  16. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Emily M.

    Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples-5 Several technologies are available for use in reducing NOx emissions generated from fossil fuel combustion

  18. Research on co-firing of coal-water slurry in a chain-grate boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Wang Zuna [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    1998-12-31

    The main problems of small industrial boilers are their, low combustion efficiency and bad adaptability to coal types. Coal-water slurries can be combusted with atomization as a liquid fuel. Co-firing of atomized coal-water slurry can improve the combustion state in an industrial boiler. Co-firing of coal-water slurry at different loadings in an old chain-grate boiler, under full industrial condition has been made. The performance was as follows: boiler efficiency enhanced from 51.1% to 89.05%; carbon burn-out of whole fuel raised to 94.6%. and the boiler output raised from 58% to 96.6% in its rate capacity. Great economical and social benefits are expected when using this technology.

  19. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Nozdrenko, G. V.; Kuzmin, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

  1. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

  3. Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance C. Elwell; Willard S. Grant

    SUMMARY Concerns about global climate change have prompted interest in capturing and sequestering CO2 generated at coal-fired power plants. This document provides a technical introduction to methods of capturing CO2, which involves separating the CO2 from the other constituents in the flue gas. The methods discussed in this paper are post-combustion capture, oxygen-fired combustion, and pre-combustion capture: • Post-combustion capture

  4. Coal-fired gas turbine for locomotive propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Substitution of a deeply-cleaned coal-water slurry fuel for bulk solid coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor permits a sequence of evolutionary steps which can convert the conventional AFBC into a pressurized, combustion-stirred, fluidized-bed heat exchanger compact enough to propel a standard locomotive by use of a closed Brayton power cycle.

  5. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  6. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world. PMID:23000720

  7. Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2009-03-15

    Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

  8. ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

  9. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  10. Rio Escondido: Mexico's first major coal-fired power station

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the construction of a fossil-fuel power plant which will satisfy the rapidly growing electric demand in northern Mexico, particularly in the Monterrey industrial area. The Rio Escondido Power Station will consist of four units, each with 300 MW capability. The maximum rate of coal consumption will be approximately 4.5 million tons per year. Coal reserves are available to operate the plant for its design life of 30 years. Rio Escondido is interconnected electrically to the national electric grid that encompasses the major portion of Mexico. The development, mining, and delivery of the coal to the power station is the responsibility of an independent governmental organization. The coal is classified as subbituminous and has a heating value of approximately 8000 Btu/lb, a high ash content of 37 to 40%, 5% moisture, and 1% sulfur content.

  11. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. MERCURY RESIDUES IN SOIL AROUND A LARGE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventy soil samples were collected on a radial grid around the Four Corners power plant. The soil samples were analyzed for total mercury using a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Even though the plant emits 1-2% of all the mercury released by U.S. coal-fired utilities...

  13. SAMPLING AND MODELING OF NON-POINT SOURCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, included measurement of overland...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  15. OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

  16. AIR POLLUTION STUDIES NEAR A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of dry deposition of sulfur dioxide were investigated near a new 540-MW coal-fired generating station located in a rural area 25 miles north of Madison, Wisconsin. Monitoring data for 2 yr before the start-up in July 1975 and for the year 1976 were used to assess t...

  17. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  18. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Wang; L. Genens; J. Gonczy; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; E. Kraft; D. Gacek; Y. C. Huang; C. J. Chen

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic

  19. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-T. Wang; L. Genens; J. Gonczy; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; E. Kraft; D. Gacek; Y.-C. Huang; C.-J. Chen

    1981-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic

  20. The Flame of Chloride of Sodium in a Common Coal Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward T. Hardman

    1876-01-01

    SOME time ago a correspondent of NATURE (vol. xiii. p. 287) inquired for an explanation of the fact that while common salt (chloride of sodium) colours the flame of an ordinary spirit-lamp yellow, the same substance thrown upon a common coal fire gives rise to a blue flame. In the next number (p. 306) Dr. Schuster stated that the origin

  1. The Blue Flame produced by Common Salt on a Coal Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Smithells

    1922-01-01

    THE blue flame produced by sprinkling salt on a glowing coal fire is a good example of common knowledge, which, not finding a niche and an explanation in text-books, becomes a recurrent topic of inquiry and discussion in scientific journals. It may perhaps be of interest if I add a historical note to what Prof. Merton has stated in NATURE

  2. EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

  3. APPLICATION OF THE DUAL ALKALI PROCESS AT A 280 MW COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of applying the dual alkali (D/A) flue gas resulfurization (FGD) process to a 280-MW coal-fired power plant. (NOTE: D/A is a generic term applied to FGD systems that use soluble alkali to absorb SO2 and then react the spent scrubber solution with lime and/...

  4. PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

  5. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO? allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

  7. EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

  8. Safety in Mine Research EstablishmentPresent-day requirements for protection against fire in coal mines 

    E-print Network

    Kushnarev, A.; Koslyuk, A.; Petrov, P.

    Analysis of a statistical data shows that, on an average, about 50% of the total underground emergencies occurring in coal mines in the USSR are due to fires. Great attention is, therefore, paid in our country to the problem of protection against...

  9. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  10. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  11. A FIELD TEST USING COAL:DRDF BLENDS IN SPREADER STOKER-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-...

  12. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

  13. CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

  14. FIELD STUDY TO OBTAIN TRACE ELEMENT MASS BALANCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify mass flow rates of minor and trace elements from streams of a coal-fired utility boiler (Colbert Steam Plant Unit No. 1). This information was used to obtain a mass balance for 25 elements. The mass balances used inlet and outlet fl...

  15. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  16. PILOT-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-NOX COAL-FIRED TANGENTIAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirem...

  17. LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

  18. Modeling and control system design study of coal fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam

    1986-01-01

    A twelfth-order, physically based, nonlinear boiler-turbine model of a 360 MW coal fired power plant is developed for use in control system design. The existing computer controlled feedback and feedforward control system is modeled in the normal operating mode for use in validating the process model. The process and control system models simulate the plant well in the normal operating

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL FLY ASH PARTICLES EMITTED FROM COAL- AND OIL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous...

  1. EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

  2. A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

    2003-01-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside

  3. Failure analysis of high temperature superheater tube (HTS) of a pulverized coal-fired power station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Kamal Kadir

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the failure investigation of high temperature superheater (HTS) tubes. Samples were collected from one of the coal fired power plants in Malaysia, namely, Stesen Janakuasa Sultan Azlan Shah, Manjung (Manjung Power Station). After eight years of non-continuous services of three boilers, welded support-clips were completely separated (detached) from (HTS) tubes, which caused the wall thinning. Collected failed

  4. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  5. Operating Experience of a Coal Fired Fluidized Bed at Georgetown University

    E-print Network

    Lutes, I. G.; Gamble, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of the 100,000 lb/hr capacity, coal fired fluidized bed steam generator at Georgetown University began in July 1979. This project, which was co-funded by Georgetown University and the U. S. Department of Energy, involved expansion...

  6. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  7. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  8. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese Feng

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects

  9. Simulation of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangential coal fired utility boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghou Xu; Jianwei Yuan; Shifa Ding; Handing Cao

    1998-01-01

    For tangential coal fired boilers, the gas temperature deviation at the exit of the furnace will occur when boiler capacity becomes large. In this paper, the flow, heat transfer and combustion process in a boiler of 300 MWe unit at Shiheng Power Plant, Shandong, China and a boiler of 600 MWe unit at Shidongkou Power Plant, Shanghai are simulated. The

  10. Effect of BFG cofiring on unburned carbon formation in a coal-fired boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Ma; F. S. Wu

    1992-01-01

    One of the China Steel Corporation (SCS) 55MWe tangentially fired boilers, uses Australia Woodland (bituminous) coal as the fuel, cofiring with Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) caused a serious carbon burnout problem. The experimental works and numerical computations were both carried out to examine the potential impacts of BFG cofiring on flow pattern, flue gas residence time and temperature. In experimental

  11. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  12. Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants: an application to a coal fired electrical generating station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A Rosen; Ibrahim Dincer

    2003-01-01

    Several thermodynamic relations between energy and exergy losses and capital costs for thermal systems and equipment are developed and applied to a modern coal fired electrical generating station. Some possible generalizations of the results are also discussed. The application considers the overall station and the following station devices: turbine generators, steam generators, preheating devices and condensers. The data suggest that

  13. Power plant integrating coal-fired steam boiler with air turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Carey Jr; G. Claypole; P. D. Eichamer; G. V. Yenetchi

    1984-01-01

    A power plant is disclosed in which a steam turbine\\/coal-fired steam boiler is integrated with an air turbine via using the convection section of the boiler to heat compressed air for the turbine, by indirect heat exchange with the flue gas, the hot turbine exhaust being sent to the boiler as preheated combustion air. In this way, only clean air

  14. ANALYSIS TEST DATA FOR NOX CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the analyses of a large quantity of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale, multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing coal fuel. Objectives of the study include: (1) evaluation of the effects of combustion mod...

  15. Oxy-fuel combustion technology for coal-fired power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. P. Buhre; L. K. Elliott; C. D. Sheng; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall

    2005-01-01

    The awareness of the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in the development of new technologies with lower emissions and technologies that can accommodate capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide. For existing coal-fired combustion plants there are two main options for CO2 capture: removal of nitrogen from flue gases or removal of nitrogen from air before combustion to obtain

  16. ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

  17. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  18. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  19. ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

  20. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

  1. Nonlinear modeling of NOx emission in a coal-fired power generation plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Spinelli; Luigi Piroddi; Kang Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the construction of a simulation model for the emission of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from a coal-fired power generation plant. A polynomial NARX model has been identified using a novel identification algorithm which includes a model selection procedure based on simulation error minimization, a model reduction phase and filtering to improve the accuracy in a desired bandwidth. The

  2. Modeling and Optimization of Efficiency and NOx Emission at a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan Zhao; Pei-hong Wang

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve boiler efficiency and to reduce the NOx emission of a coal-fired utility boiler using combustion optimization, a hybrid model, by combining support vector regression (SVR) with simplified boiler efficiency model, was proposed to express the relation between operational parameters of the utility boiler and both NOx emission and boiler efficiency. SVR' parameters were determined by the

  3. Impact of the air staging on the performance of a pulverized coal fired furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ribeirete; M. Costa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of the air staging on the overall performance of a large-scale laboratory furnace fired by an industry-type pulverized coal swirl burner. Data have been obtained for pollutant emissions and particle burnout for a wide range of the furnace operating conditions. The influence of the axial position of the staged air

  4. EVALUATION OF NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS DATA FROM TVA COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study during which nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission rates from 30 boilers at 11 TVA coal-fired plants were calculated and compared with the calculated rate for each boiler type using EPA emission factors (AP-43). urrent AP-42 emission factors for NOx fr...

  5. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  6. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not deactivate the catalyst to the extent that these same poisons do in the deliberately wet-impregnated laboratory-prepared samples (1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-9%WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}). At least in this case, the fouling deposits generated by field exposure present little if any chemical deactivation or barrier to mass transfer. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 1000 hours on flue gas. Periodic NO{sub x} reduction measurements were made, showing some decrease in activity relative to fresh catalyst samples. Plans are being made to take the reactor out of service at the Rockport plant and move it to Plant Gadsden. At Gadsden, inlet and outlet ports were installed on Unit 1 for the slipstream reactor during an outage.

  7. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  8. Economic, Environmental, and Job Impacts of Increased Efficiency in Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of the CO2 mitigation potential of increasing the efficiency of existing U.S. coal-fired power plants have indicated that significant CO2 emissions could be avoided if the efficiency of existing plants could be improved. This paper expands the analysis and estimates the potential economic and employment impacts of engaging in an U.S.-wide efficiency improvement program. Specifically, this study: (1) Discusses the factors affecting the operating efficiency of coal-fired power plants; (2) Identifies feasible efficiency improvements to existing coal-fired power plants; (3) Estimates the costs of coal power plant efficiency improvements; (4) Estimates the costs of a widespread coal power plant efficiency improvement (CPPEI) program; (5) Assesses the potential impacts of the CPPEI program, including the annual jobs created by the CPPEI program, the permanent operations and maintenance (O&M) jobs created by the CPPEI program, and the potential occupational impacts; (6) Evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of two CPPEI program options; and (7) Discusses the broader economic and employment implications of the program.

  9. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  10. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary for further reduction of elemental Hg discharge in the long-term. PMID:22696807

  11. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  12. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  13. Temporal variability in charcoal distribution in Permian coal: Implications for interpreting palaeowildfire history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspith, V. A.; Scott, A. C.; Collinson, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of fossil charcoal [inertinite (Scott and Glasspool, 2007)] in coal provides evidence for palaeowildfire event/s. Charcoal distribution has been shown to vary both spatially and temporally in modern wildfires, therefore this needs to be taken into consideration when studying inertinite from palaeowildfires in order to better understand palaeowildfire history. To determine whether this variation occurs in the geological past, charcoal produced by palaeowildfires from four randomly sampled Late Permian in situ coal (fossil peat) pillars from the Kuznetsk Basin, Russia [seam 78 (a and b) and seam 88 (a and b)] have been studied using petrographic techniques. The use of in situ coal pillars are judged to be essential for this type of work as they retain the orientation of the original inertinite distribution, unlike the crushed coals that are typically used for commercial petrographic analysis. These coal pillars contain charcoal in all lithotype units, but show temporal variation both in the amount and type of inertinite between successive lithotype units. Furthermore, the pillars also contain varying amounts of charcoal both within and between seams [mean inertinite: 78(a) 29.8%, 78(b) 42.6%, 88(a) 48% and 88(b) 35%]. The distribution of this charcoal in these pillars can be used to interpret palaeowildfire type. All pillars show: (1) microscopic, scattered charcoal which is interpreted to represent background fire events and (2) macroscopic charcoal which is either scattered or contained in charcoal horizons, which is interpreted to represent surface fire events. Previous petrographic work on crushed coals by Pakh and Artser (2003) has shown that seam 78 has a higher inertinite content (33%) than seam 88 (22%), in contrast this study has shown that the pillars from seam 88 contain more inertinite (with a combined mean of 41.5%) than those from seam 78 (combined mean = 36.2%). This may suggest that during the formation of pillars 88(a,b) fires were either more frequent or that more charcoal was produced in individual fire events compared to the rest of seam 88. The variation in the amount of inertinite both within and between pillars provides evidence for temporal variation in wildfire history for the duration of both pillar and seam formation in this Late Permian peat-forming environment.

  14. Development of the technology of using mechanically activated microgrinded coals for firing and lighting of coal boilers of acting thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Popov, V. I.; Chernova, G. V.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Chernetskaya, N. S.; Markova, V. M.; Churashev, V. N.; Yusupov, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    A new technology of using the microgrinded coals in power boilers as well as the results of experimental studies and numerical modeling of microgrinding processes, preparing the air-dust mixture, and combustion of mechanically activated coals are presented. Pilot combustion of microgrinded coals on a firing stand with a power of 5 MW using disintegrator mills showed the possibility of reaching the stable autothermal combustion mode for coals with various degrees of metamorphism. Using mathematical modeling, the design solution for a two-step burner, which provides a stable high level of temperatures of the air-dust mixture at the output from the second step as well as makes it possible to minimize the cost for the production of mechanically activated coal, is suggested. These results indicate the possibility to develop burners intended for using mechanically activated coal, involving the replacement of the highly reactive liquid fuel used for firing the combustion chambers.

  15. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  16. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  17. Method for extraction of quantitative information using remote sensing data of underground coal fire areas and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fu-xing; Li, Zhi-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-qing; Fang, Hong-bin; Yang, Ri-hong

    2008-11-01

    Underground coal-bed spontaneous combustion is a dynamic process with complex physical, chemical and environmental interaction. The anomalous information on remote sensing spatial, spectral and thermal indexes is very meaningful for detecting underground coal fires and assessing its effects on environment. This paper, based on a series of advanced technical datum in Wu Da coalfield areas located in Inner-Mongolia, such as ground spectral testing, thermal infrared multispectral indexes, and high-spatial resolution images, analyzes the correlation between the underground coal-bed burning conditions and the remote sensing information. Besides, it provides a further discussion on the application potential for quantitative feature extraction of underground coal fire.

  18. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  19. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-05-10

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 3 (12/15/00-3/14/01): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies - Task 1; (2) Continue to perform re-burn experiments. - Task 2; (3) Design fixed bed combustor. - Task 3; and (4) Modify the PCGC2 code to include moisture evaporation model - Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 3 (12/15/0-3/14/01): (1) Conducted TGA and Fuel Characterization studies (Appendix I). A comparison of -fuel properties, TGA traces etc is given in Appendix I. Litter has 3 and 6 times more N compared to coal on mass and heat basis. The P of litter is almost 2 % (Task 1). Both litter biomass (LB) and feedlot biomass (FB) have been pulverized. The size distributions are similar for both litter and FB in that 75 % pass through 150 {micro}m sieve while for coal 75 % pass through 60 {micro}m sieve. Rosin Rammler curve parameters are given. The TGA characteristics of FB and LB are similar and pyrolysis starts at 100 C below that of coal; (2) Reburn experiments with litter and with FB have been performed (Appendix II) -Task 2. Litter is almost twice effective (almost 70--90 % reduction) compared to coal in reducing the NOx possibly due to presence of N in the form of NH{sub 3}; (3) Designed fixed bed gasifier/combustor (Appendix III) - Task 3; and (4) Modified PCGC2 to include moisture evaporation model in coal and biomass particles. (Appendix IV) - Task 4.

  1. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, thhat constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y + ??REE): total Y + ??REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y + ??REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y+???REE): total Y+???REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y+???REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL-FIRED CONTROLLED UTILITY BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comprehensive multimedia emissions assessment of the cyclone-fired La Cygne No. 1 boiler, equipped with SO2 and particulate emission controls. Levels 1 and 2 procedures were used to characterize pollutant emissions in gaseous, liquid, and solid proce...

  3. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  4. COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

  5. Coal-fired power generation: Proven technologies and pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M. [University of Mah, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the reduction of emissions from coal-fired power generating plants. New technologies include better understanding of the fundamentals of the formation and destruction of criteria pollutants in combustion processes (low nitrogen oxides burners) and improved methods for separating criteria pollutants from stack gases (FGD technology), as well as efficiency improvements in power plants (clean coal technologies). Future demand for more environmentally benign electric power, however, will lead to even more stringent controls of pollutants (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

  6. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3\\/15\\/2001--6\\/14\\/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, COā, POā and PāOāā, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Cvoro, Valentina

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has been proven inadequate...

  12. Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends

    E-print Network

    Uggini, Hari

    2012-07-16

    New regulations like the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) will pose greater challenges for Coal fired power plants with regards to pollution reduction. These new regulations plan to impose stricter limits on NOX reduction. The current regulations...

  13. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina

    E-print Network

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

  14. Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power

    E-print Network

    Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

  15. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  16. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  17. Visualization of 3-D temperature distribution in a 300 MW twin-furnace coal-fired boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao YANG; Huai-chun ZHOU; Zhi-feng HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Until now, it has been difficult to obtain on-line three-dimensional (3-D) temperature distribution information which can reflect the overall combustion condition in the furnace of a coal-fired power plant boiler. A combustion monitoring system is introduced which can solve the problem efficiently. Through this system, the 3-D temperature distribution in a coal-fired boiler furnace can be obtained using a novel

  18. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2009-11-01

    A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  19. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. However, many uncertainties still remain in our knowledge of primary anthropogenic releases of mercury to the atmosphere in China. In situations involving large uncertainties, our previous mercury emission inventory that used a deterministic approach could produce results that might not be a true reflection of reality; and in such cases stochastic simulations incorporating uncertainties need to be performed. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed as an uncertainty case study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content of coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

  2. Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Starley, G.P. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City); Slaughter, D.M.; Munro, J.M.; Pershing, D.W.; Martin, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxides in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel suspension phase, the conversion of fuel nitrogen during fixed-bed combustion, and the coupling between the two combustion phases. The results indicate that NO emissions from spreader-stoker-fired coal furnaces are the result of relatively high conversions of fuel nitrogen evolved from particles less than 0.1 inches in the suspension phase and low conversion of fuel nitrogen during the bed combustion. In the suspension phase, nitrogen is evolved at approximately the same rate as carbon is oxidized. Local oxygen availability is the primary control parameter for both phases of the combustion. Minimum overall fuel nitrogen conversions of 6 percent were achieved in the pilot scale facility by controlling the stoichiometry in both combustion zones.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  4. European legislation in the United Kingdom: a threat to coal-fired power station product utilization?

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, K.A. [Quality Ash Association (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The author considers that the European Union has not taken the approach adopted in the USA where environmental regulators are keen to promote the use of coal-fired power station ash by-product and recycled materials. The United Kingdom has seen, with some dismay, the effects EU legislation is having on the ash industry. This article outlines only some of the problems being tackled. The Waste Framework Directive is difficult to interpret and fails to define critical aspects of the problem. This directive is discussed at some length in the article. A total of nine directives effect the operation of coal-fired power plant. Many are imprecise and open to interpretation and cause a deal of frustration, delays and confusion to the ash supplier and contractor. This is causing markets to suffer.

  5. High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 ?g/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200?g/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global model simulations of BC over our study region, that indicate substantial underestimate against observations in the IGP. Results from this detailed observational study provide an insight into carbonaceous aerosol characteristics in complex and mesoscale environments of coal-fired TPPs, which are major emission sources in the IGP.

  6. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

  7. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  8. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  9. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  10. An Optimized Supercritical Oxygen-Fired Pulverized Coal Power Plant for CO2 Capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Seltzer; Timothy Fout

    ABSTRACT The Department ,of Energy ,and Foster Wheeler have jointly ,developed ,a conceptual ,supercritical pulverized coal (PC) boiler plant design that will allow practical carbon dioxide (CO2) capture for future CO2 sequestration efforts. CO2 is a major greenhouse gas, which has been linked to global climatic change. A novel process for CO2sequestration is proposed utilizing a supercritical oxygen-fired PC boiler,

  11. Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants: Proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pace; G. Poe

    1992-01-01

    EPRI hosted the Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants (ICPP) from April 2--4, 1991, in San Francisco, California. The more than 130 conference participants included representatives of utilities, steelmakers, equipment fabricators, architect\\/engineering firms, government agencies, and R D organizations. Among the countries represented were the United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Israel. This international

  12. Mathematical Modelling for Coal Fired Supercritical Power Plants and Model Parameter Identification Using Genetic Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Mohamed; Jihong Wang; Shen Guo; Jianlin Wei; Bushra Al-Duri; Junfu Lv; Qirui Gao

    \\u000a The paper presents the progress of our study of the whole process mathematical model for a supercritical coal-fired power\\u000a plant. The modelling procedure is rooted from thermodynamic and engineering principles with reference to the previously published\\u000a literatures. Model unknown parameters are identified using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) with 600MW supercritical power plant on-site\\u000a measurement data. The identified parameters are verified with

  13. An Optimized Oxygen-Fired Pulverized Coal Power Plant for CO2 Capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Fout

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler have jointly developed a conceptual pulverized coal (PC) boiler plant design that will allow practical carbon dioxide (CO2) capture for future CO2 sequestration efforts. CO2 is a major greenhouse gas, which has been linked to global climatic change. A novel process for CO2 sequestration is proposed utilizing an oxygen-fired PC boiler, which, as

  14. Characterization of individual fly-ash particles emitted from coal- and oil-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Mamane; J. L. Miller; T. G. Dzubay

    1986-01-01

    Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous sampler in the fine (<2.5 micrometer aerodynamic diameter) and the coarse fractions (2.5 to 5-10 micrometers). In both fractions,

  15. A small air turbine power plant fired with coal in an atmospheric fluid bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Foster-Pegg

    1990-01-01

    An efficient, indirectly heated, steam-injected air turbine power or cogeneration plant, fired with coal in an atmospheric fluid bed, is described. The plant will meet all environmental standards and will generate about 35 MW. The plant offers a high power-to-steam ratio without requiring a condensing steam turbine and can operate efficiently without any export steam. Eliminating a condensing steam turbine,

  16. Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

  17. Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward S. Rubin; J. S. Salmento; H. C. Frey; A. Abu-Baker; M. Berkenpas

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the current IECM structure appears in Figure 1-1. Briefly, the IECM was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to “conventional” technologies for the control of particulate, SO2 and NOx. Of

  18. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

  19. Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future

    E-print Network

    McNerney, James; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-01-01

    We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant determinants of costs at present are the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 - 1970, increasing from 1970 - 1990, and leveling off or decreasing a little since then. This leads us to forecast that even without carbon capture and storage, and even under an optimistic scenario in which construction costs resume their previously decreasing trending behavior, the cost of coal-based electricity will drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which varies stochastically but shows no long term decreasing trends. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and compari...

  20. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  1. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2009-10-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emissions of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. For steadily increasing emissions without substantial pollution controls, we find that the net global mean climate forcing ranges from near zero to a substantial negative value, depending on the magnitude of aerosol indirect effects, due to aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. The long-term forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls, with larger values in the case of pollutant controls. The results imply that historical emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period. Those emissions likely led to weak cooling at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and warming in the Southern Hemisphere, however. Subsequent imposition of pollution controls and the switch to low-sulfur coal in some areas kept global SO2 emissions roughly level from 1970 to 2000. Hence during that period, RF due to emissions during those decades and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and likely contributed to rapid global and regional warming. Most recently, construction of coal-fired power plants in China and India has been increasing rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of high-growth rates for another 30 years would lead to near zero to negative global mean climate forcing in the absence of expanded pollution controls, but severely degraded air quality. However, following the Western pattern of high coal usage followed by imposition of pollution controls could lead to accelerated global warming in the future.

  2. IMPACT OF PRIMARY SULFATE AND NITRATE EMISSIONS FROM SELECTED MAJOR SOURCES. PHASE 1. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers Phase one of a two phase study of the near source impacts of primary sulfate and nitrate emission sources. The phase one portion of the study was an investigation of the impact of a coal fired power plant burning high sulfur coal. The study was designed to measu...

  3. High pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Quarterly report, February 1--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This is a quarterly report on High Pressure Coal-Fired Ceramic Air Heater for Gas Turbine Applications. The tasks covered in this report are Program Management; Component Development -- including erosion/corrosion problems, coal handling system, natural gas fuel system and tube-string development; Component System Integration and Testing; and Testing and Analysis.

  4. New feasibility study of carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power plants for enhanced oil recovery: A Canadian perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Ward

    1996-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes is currently drawing much interest from oil, utility and coal companies in Western Canada. Implementation of such a scheme would provide two important benefits: (i) the captured CO2 could be marketed as a flooding agent which would

  5. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on an 80,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash injection, excess air, boiler load, and coal prope...

  6. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE E

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 180,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurement...

  7. Effect of Co-Firing Torrefied Woody Biomass with Coal in a 30 kWt Downfired Burner

    E-print Network

    Thanapal, Siva S

    2014-04-25

    ) were pyrolyzed using TGA under N_(2). The TB fuels were also fired with coal in a 30 kWt downfired burner to study the NOx emission. In addition, tests were also done using raw biomass (RB) (mesquite and juniper) blended with coal and compared...

  8. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  9. CONTROL OF WASTE AND WATER POLLUTION FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: SECOND R AND D REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas cleaning waste treatment, utilization, and disposal, as well as water reuse technology for coal-fired utility power plants are discussed. Significant areas treated include: coal-pile drainage; ash characterization and disposal; chemical and physical properties and leachi...

  10. FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 5. APPENDIX F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS PHASE II AND III

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 "Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III." The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: ą thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; ą NOx, SOx, and particulates <10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); ą coal providing >65% of heat input; ą all solid wastes benign; ą cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: ą Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; ą Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  12. Airpollutant emissions during co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, G.; Burton, R.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation (RG and E) has been co-firing refuse derived fuel (RDF) with coal at the company's Russell station since September, 1981. In a joint program with the county of Monroe, NY, RG and E is using RDF as a supplemental fuel to reduce landfill requirements and to utilize this indigenous resource. The RDF is prepared at the county's resource recovery facility located in the City of Rochester, NY. RG and E is burning RDF at Russell station as a service to the citizens of Monroe county, most of whom are RG and E ratepayers. RG and E pays the thermal equivalent cost of coal for the RDF, but subtracts all costs associated with handling and burning the fuel. In this way, RG and E neither benefits from nor is penalized for accommodating RDF. In order to document the impacts of RDF on power plant operations, RG and E conducted a detailed testing program to evaluate corrosion potential, boiler efficiency, and environmental impacts. Air pollutant emission tests were performed to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations and to determine the levels of hazardous emissions associated with a refuse burning facility. Stack emission testing was conducted in 1981 prior to co-firing operations and again in 1982 after coal/RDF co-firing had been successfully implemented.

  13. Distribution of volatile organic compounds during the combustion process in coal-fired power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernįndez-Martķnez, G.; López-Mahķa, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Prada-Rodrķguez, D.; Fernįndez-Fernįndez, E.

    This study concerns the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted during combustion processes in coal-fired power stations. Thermal desorption technique was employed to analyse VOC concentrations in gaseous emissions (trapped onto Carbotrap B sorbent) and solid samples (coal, fly ash and slag). An empirical parameter ( Y) was employed to evaluate the relationships between the compounds emitted during a real combustion process and those obtained in coal analysis by thermal desorption. The Y calculation does not provide any information about VOC emissions through solid effluents as fly ash or slag. A comparison method was created for this purpose. The results obtained using this method confirm that combustion is almost complete for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Chlorinated compounds are mainly formed during the combustion.

  14. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

  15. Local deposition of mercury in topsoils around coal-fired power plants: is it always true?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Martin, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Grigoratos, Theodoros; Carbonell, Gregoria; Samara, Constantini

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere through human activities, mainly fossil fuel combustion. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with atmospheric deposition, while coal-burning power plants remain the most important source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. In this study, we analyzed the Hg concentration in the topsoil of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin where four coal-fired power plants (4,065 MW) run to provide 50 % of electricity in Greece. The study aimed to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg using geostatistical techniques to evaluate the presumed Hg enrichment around the four power plants. Hg variability in agricultural soils was evaluated using 276 soil samples from 92 locations covering an area of 1,000 km(2). We were surprised to find a low Hg content in soil (range 1-59 ?g kg(-1)) and 50 % of samples with a concentration lower than 6 ?g kg(-1). The influence of mercury emissions from the four coal-fired power plants on soil was poor or virtually nil. We associate this effect with low Hg contents in the coal (1.5-24.5 ?g kg(-1)) used in the combustion of these power plants (one of the most Hg-poor in the world). Despite anthropic activity in the area, we conclude that Hg content in the agricultural soils of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin is present in low concentrations. PMID:24756681

  16. Investigation of radiometric combustion monitoring techniques for coal-fired stoker boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, F.V.; Parsons, T.H.; Savoie, M.J.; Scholten, W.B.

    1993-09-01

    Fuel-ash bed disturbances are costly problems often encountered in operating coal-fired, mechanical-stoker boilers in military heat plants. In traveling grate, mechanical-stoker boilers, all or most of the coal burns on the traveling grate, so proper control of combustion grate fuel-ash bed thickness is critical for cost-effective, high-availability operation. In these plants, operators must adjust combustion equipment as the coal enters the combustion chamber. Because fuel bed problems take several minutes to develop, operators may not discover problems before they go past the point of easy correction. This study investigated the use of a remote sensing system to monitor conditions in the fuel bed. It is concluded that the technology to measure mechanical stoker boiler fuel-ash bed temperatures by radiation techniques is sufficiently developed to produce a fuel-ash bed temperatures-monitoring system. Such a system may significantly reduce fuel-ash bed disturbances by detecting bed temperature changes that indicate the onset of bed entrainment and clinker formation. Continuous, reliable measurement of fuel-ash bed temperatures could also detect smoking and conditions leading to smoking, and could be used to improve boiler efficiency through improved control of excess air. Central heating plants, Radiometry, Coal-fired mechanical stoker boiler, Combustion monitoring techniques.

  17. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  18. RDF (refuse derived fuel) utilization in a Navy stoker coal-fired boiler. Final report, September 1982-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, G.; Chatterjee, A.

    1984-10-01

    This report addresses the economics of co-firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a stoker coal-fired boiler. The report specifies the type of RDF required, the cost and type of modifications to the coal boiler, and the price which can be paid for RDF based on boiler size and RDF feedrate. Life-cycle economic procedures are used to develop breakdown graphs of RDF price-versus boiler size. A list of Navy coal boilers examined for potential conversion is given. Also, details on various types of equipment to produce RDF are given as an appendix.

  19. Prototype scale testing of limb technology for a pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Final report, May 1986-June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    England, G.C.; Moyeda, D.K.; Nguyen, Q.; Folsom, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. FSI of lime or moderate SO2 removal was evaluated on the 61-MWe tangentially fired boiler at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley station in Richmond, Indiana. A bituminous coal of about 2.5% sulfur was fired. This project, cosponsored by EPRI and the EPA, is one of three projects in the the U.S. that will evaluate calcium-based FSI for SO2 control at utility scale.

  20. Injection into coal seams for simultaneous CO{sub 2} mitigation and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane. Topical report, March 1995--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, F.M.; Mones, C.G.; Johnson, L.A.; Barbour, F.A.; Fahy, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    The overall objective of this task is to test the technical viability of injecting CO{sub 2} into the Fruitland Coal to displace methane from the coal and to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions that are a consequence of primary coalbed methane production from surrounding wells in the area. To evaluate this technical viability, a field test was conducted and the test is being interpreted using data measured in WRI`s laboratory, as well as using Amoco`s state-of-the-art coalbed methane simulator. Also, a second pilot of the process is being evaluated using the simulator. Ultimately, the technology developed will be applied to a Wyoming coal.

  1. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  2. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

  3. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  4. Coal: DRDF (densified refuse derived fuel) demonstration test in an industrial spreader stoker boiler. Use of coal: DRDF blends in stoker-fired boilers. volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinhenz, N.J.

    1981-09-01

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein represent the second phase of a two-phase evaluation program. Phase 1 was conducted in an institutional spreader stoker heating boiler. During Phase 1 285 tons of dRDF were combusted. The results of that test are reported in EPA Report No. 600/2-80-095. Phase 2 demonstration testing was conducted in a larger industrial spreader stoker boiler. In a period of 402 hours, 1702 tons of dRDF were co-fired with coal. An additional 231 hours of coal baseline testing was completed to provide a basis of comparison for the test results.

  5. Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlberg, M; Berghem, L; Nordberg, G; Persson, S A; Rudling, L; Steen, B

    1983-01-01

    Emission samples were obtained from two medium-sized power plants, one fired with oil and the other with pulverized coal. Particles obtained by a miniscale plume stack gas sampler (MIPSGAS), simulating the dilution process in the plume, were subjected to detailed physical, chemical and biological characterization. Studies by scanning electron microscopy and by Coulter counter demonstrated that the particles from the oil-fired boiler were considerably larger than the particles from the coal-fired boiler. Chemical analyses revealed more organic substances and more S, Ni, V, in the oil than in the coal particles. The latter contained a larger proportion of Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba and Pb. Biological testing revealed a greater acute and subacute toxicity by the intratracheal route in the hamster, a greater toxicity to alveolar macrophages and a greater lung retention of BaP coated on the particles from oil combustion than on those from coal combustion. In another sampling line, employed simultaneously with the MIPSGAS-particulate sampler, the total emissions were collected, i.e., both particle and gas phase. These samples were used for chemical analyses and Ames mutagenicity test. Analyses of specific PAHs in emissions from both plants demonstrated that concentrations were below the detection limit (less than 4 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene), which is in accord with an efficient combustion of the fuel. The mutagenicity of the samples were below the detection limit of the mutagenicity assay. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:6825622

  6. Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers 1: Size distribution and combustion reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gibbins, J.R. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-08-01

    The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction-proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on char combustion kinetics based on data in the early and intermediate stages of carbon conversion. A critical fundamental question is whether the small fraction of the fuel carbon that passes unreacted through a boiler is representative of the char during the main portion of the combustion process. This article addresses that question through a detailed characterization of eight carbon-containing fly ash samples acquired from commercial-scale combustion systems. The fly ash characterization included measurement-of joint carbon/size distribution and determination.of the combustion reactivity of the residual carbon. To minimize mineral matter interactions in the reactivity tests, the technique of incipient fluidization was developed for separation of carbon-rich extracts from the inorganic portion of the fly ash. Reactivity measurements were made at 1400--1800 K to represent conditions in pulverized coal fired boilers. Measurements were also made at 700--1100 K to. minimize transport effects and isolate the influence of char chemistry and microstructure. In both temperature regimes, the residual carbon extracts. were significantly less reactive than chars extracted from a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor in the early-to-intermediate stages of combustion. It is concluded that the boiler environment deactivates chars, making high carbon burnout more difficult to achieve than is predicted by existing char combustion kinetic models that were developed from data on the laboratory chars. Finally, the results are used to discuss potential char deactivation mechanisms, both thermal and oxidative, in coal-fired boilers.

  7. LOW NOX FIRING SYSTEM FOR TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED BOILERS: APPLICATIONS GUIDELINE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual is a concise user's guide of Combustion Engineering's Low NOx Concentric Firing System. It is based on extensive pilot scale and small and large utility-scale demonstrations, in particular a program completed in May 1984, at Utah Power and Light Company's 400-MWe Hunte...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Fairview, an Isolate Recovered from a Microbial Methanogenic Enrichment of Coal Seam Gas Formation Water from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vockler, Cassandra J; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite its global abundance, Bacillus pumilus is poorly studied. The Fairview strain was obtained from a methanogenic anaerobic coal digester. The draft genome sequence was 3.8 Mbp long and contained 3,890 protein-coding genes. Like the SAFR-032 strain, it includes B. pumilus-specific proteins that likely confer enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:24744330

  9. Sulfate aerosol production in coal-fired power plant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Edward J.; De Pena, Rosa G.

    As part of the Winter Study of Power Plant Effects (WISPE), air chemistry measurements were made in the plumes of the coal-burning Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwest Georgia. Ten flights were made using the instrumented Pennsylvania State University research aircraft. Measurements included condensation nuclei concentration, aerosol size distribution and sulfur dioxide concentration. Quantitative chemical analysis of impactor-collected sulfate particles, together with these measurements, allowed for calculation of SO 2-sulfate conversion rates. In addition, nuclei concentrations were analyzed as a function of plume age and position in the plume. SO 2 conversion rates and nuclei production were examined for dependence on various meteorological parameters in order to better understand the mechanisms of sulfate aerosol production. A comparison was made with the findings of a similar study conducted at the Keystone Power Plant in southwestern Pennsylvania. The conversion rates of SO 2 to SO 42- were under 0.2 % h -1 with the exception of one flight for which a rate of 2.3% h -1 was calculated. Nuclei production was found to be dependent on both solar flux and plume dilution. Evidence of enhanced nuclei production at plume borders was also found. This implies that entrainment of photochemically produced species from the surrounding air mass is responsible for gas-phase oxidation which results in nuclei production.

  10. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  13. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R D plan to develop the concept further. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  14. Development of mercury control technology for coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, D.C.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    The emission of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) from various industrial processes has emerged as a major environmental issue that was singled out for particular attention in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In particular, mercury emissions are the subject of several current EPA studies because of concerns over possible serious effects on human health. Some of those emissions originate in the combustion of coal, which contains trace amounts of mercury, and are likely to be the subject of control requirements in the relatively near future. Data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at operating electric-power plants have shown that conventional flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies are not very effective in controlling emissions of mercury in general, and are particularly poor at controlling emissions of elemental mercury. This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on improving the capture of mercury in flue gas through the use of dry sorbents and/or wet scrubbers. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing elemental mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon; chemically treated mineral substrates have the potential to be developed into effective and economical mercury sorbents; sorbents treated with different chemicals respond in significantly different ways to changes in flue-gas temperature.

  15. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  16. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  17. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    West, C E

    1980-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 pound capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time.

  18. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  19. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  20. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, August-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1981-02-01

    A total of 69 samples have been obtained from the Lower Kittanning seam in western Pennyslvania and eastern Ohio. The samples were taken from 39 sample sites and consist of 39 channel samples and 30 hand-picked vitrinites. A complex statistical analysis of petrographic, physical and chemical properties of these samples was performed in order to study their relationship with thermoplastic and liquefaction behavior. The parameters of the thermoplastic properties were obtained using a Gieseler plastometer. The liquefaction conversion with tetralin was determined in tubing bomb reactors at 400/sup 0/C for 1 hour. Factor analysis on the whole sample population indicated that both liquefaction conversion and some of the measured thermoplastic properties are significantly related with rank. Temperature of softening and degree of fluidity, however, did not load on the rank component. /sup 13/C nmr spectra were obtained for six of our vitrinite concentrates by the University of Utah. The aromaticities determined for fairly wide rank range of these samples varied only from 0.66 to 0.72. However the series showed progression from highly functional aromatic structure at low rank to one with little functionality at high rank. The spectra show no indication of a consistent loss in aliphatic oxygen. The surface areas and micropore volumes of two fractions, -20 and -100 mesh, of five vitrinite concentrates have been measured from CO/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. An increase in these values is observed with decreasing particle size. Total open pore volumes were calculated from particle and helium densities.

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference publications dealing with utilization of animal waste as fuel have been published. In addition a presentation was made to a utility company interested in the new reburn technology for NO{sub x} reduction.

  2. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes. PMID:19875156

  3. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

  4. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

  5. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  6. The development in direct coal-fired gas turbines for locomotive application

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.; Pitrolo, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Maturation of the basic technical knowledge base relating to coal processing, handling, and combustion; materials of construction; and systems design of gas turbines has provided an opportunity to revisit the concept of direct coal firing in a gas turbine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a scoping program beginning in 1983, and based on promising results has recently entered into a second significant phase of research and development that will lead to proof of concept within 5 years. Four major turbine manufacturers are participating with the DOE along with numerous universities, independent RandD labs, and the national laboratories. Expenditures in the tens of millions of dollars range are expected. Results to date are very encouraging with respect to gas turbine combustion designs, including slagging, nonslagging, and staged (rich/lean) configurations; deposition phenomena and control; particulate removal; alkali release and control; SO/sub x/ control; and NO/sub x/ control.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Radziwon, A S [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  9. Conceptual design of a coal-fired fluidized-bed steam locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Csamer, R.P.

    1981-04-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of a coal-fired, fluidized-bed, combustor-based steam locomotive that was developed as an approach to displacing premium fuel (diesel). This approach draws on relatively mature technology and appears feasible for the near term. Guidelines for the conceptualization are based on two previous designs that are relatively contemporary, and were built and tested during the steam locomotive era. Conclusions of this conceptual design study are summarized as follows: (1) a total conversion from diesel locomotives to coal-fired steam locomotives would displace up to 280,000 barrels of oil per day; (2) a fluidized-bed, steam turbine locomotive has the potential to offer very significantly lower operating costs and environmental burdens than the diesel; (3) fuel operating costs per horsepower hour for three comparably sized systems are as follows: diesel - $.19, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) condensing steam cycle - $.085, and the FBC noncondensing steam cycle - $.021; (4) a cost estimate to build one commercially proven (post-prototype) coal-fired, fluidized-bed locomotive unit is estimated at $3,400,000; (5) an environmental analysis indicates that effective SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ control is readily attainable with the FBC approach. If industrial New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) are imposed, particulate emission is likely to be the most severe constraint to FBC rail applications; (6) in general, there are no insurmountable roadblocks to early commercialization of mobile FBC steam generators, based on this analysis; and (7) in addition, the development of an attractive, mobile FBC power system appears to have significant potential for marine applications and industrial steam generators, either for direct heating or cogeneration applications.

  10. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, H.L. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. PMID:19350920

  12. Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

  13. The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource & Earth Science

    2006-01-15

    The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

  14. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  15. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-04-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate regional temperature responses may provide additional insight.

  16. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate regional temperature responses may provide additional insight.

  17. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Fourth quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: Steam =20,000 lb/hr; Temperature = 353 F (saturated); Pressure= 125 psig; Steam quality = 98.5%

  18. Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species

    SciTech Connect

    Will-Wolf, S.

    1980-01-01

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

  19. Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-05-01

    Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

  20. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  2. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  3. Analysis and discussion on formation and control of primary particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyi; Ren, Xudan

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been becoming the principal urban pollutant in many major cities in China, and even all over the world. It is reported that the coal combustion process is one of the main sources of PM in the atmosphere. Therefore, an investigation of formation and emission of fine primary PM in coal combustion was conducted. First, the sources and classification of coal-fired primary PM were discussed; then their formation pathways during the coal combustion process were analyzed in detail. Accordingly, the emission control methods for fine particles generated from coal-fired power plants were put forward, and were classified as precombustion control, in-combustion control, and postcombustion control. Precombustion control refers to the processes for improving the coal quality before combustion, such as coal type selection and coal preparation. In-combustion control means to take measures for adjusting the combustion conditions and injection of additives during the combustion process to abate the formation of PM. Postcombustion control is the way that the fine PM are aggregated into larger ones by some agglomeration approaches and subsequently are removed by dust removal devices, or some high-performance modifications of conventional particle emission control devices (PECDs) can be taken for capturing fine particles. Finally, some general management suggestions are given for reducing fine PM emission in coal-fired power plants. Implications: The analysis and discussions of coal properties and its combustion process are critical to recognizing the formation and emission of the fine primary PM in combustion. The measures of precombustion, in-combustion, and postcombustion control based on the analysis and discussions are favorable for abating the PM emission. Practically, some measures of implementation do need the support of national policies, even needing to sacrifice economy to gain environmental profit, but this is the very time to execute these, and high-performances PECDs, especially novel devices, should be used for removing fine PM in flue gas. PMID:25562930

  4. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following: (1) There was some correlation between the prevailing wind direction and measured soil and oak leaf concentrations. This correlation was not statistically significant, but higher soil concentrations were generally found in the east and southeast from the plants and lower soil concentrations were found west/southwest from the plants. The prevailing winds are to the east. The Conemaugh plant which was the most southeast of the three plants did have the highest average oak leaf and soil mercury concentrations. Based on emissions, the Keystone plant would be expected to see the highest concentrations as it emitted about 25% more mercury than the other two plants. (2) The results of this study did not turn up strong evidence for large areas (several square miles) of elevated mercury concentrations around the three coal-fired power plants that were tested. This does not mean that there is no effect, there was some evidence of increasing mercury content to the east and south of these plants, however, the trends were not statistically significant suggesting that if the effects exist, they are small.

  5. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants: a preliminary cost assessment and the next steps for accurately assessing control costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Brown; Dennis N. Smith; William J. O'Dowd; Richard A. Hargis

    2000-01-01

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants have been extensively evaluated for nearly 10 years to determine possible regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under a court order, a determination will be made on whether it is appropriate and necessary to regulate toxic air pollutant emissions (focusing on mercury) from coal-fired utility boilers by December 15, 2000. If it is

  6. Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, S. N.; Odom, L.; Landing, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury in a number of samples of coal deposits. Since the combustion of coal is expected to release virtually all of its mercury, we anticipated comparable isotopc patterns in coal and total emmited mercury. The emitted mercury exists in various physical and chemical forms, each possessing distinct properties that affect atmospheric transport, and sampling methods. Flue gas has been sampled in the stack of a coal fired electric power plant. The Ontario Hydro method was used to trap mercury in flue gases. The method uses oxidant solutions (KCl, H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4) in its sampling train. This method is the modification of EPA method 29 with the use of KCl in the sampling train. Hg (II) is captured in the KCl impingers, while Hg (0) is captured in H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4 impingers that oxidize elemental to Hg (ll) (EPA Draft, 1999). In addition gaseous reactive mercury was sampled downwind in large volume rain samples. Mercury (Hg+2) in sample solutions was reduced with SnCl2, and the generated Hg(0) vapor carried by Ar gas into the source of a NEPTUNE ICPMS-MC. Isotope ratios were measured by standard-sample bracketing and reported as permil deviations from the SRM NIST-3133 values. The measurement shows a small range of values of odd isotopes for mass independent fractionation which is negligible, However it displays the wide range of mass dependent fractionation (?198 Hg -1.239 to 2.294). We found that samples in KCl impingers are light isotope enriched and depleted in heavy isotopes, while in KMnO4 impingers these are reverse.

  7. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  8. Numerical investigation of full scale coal combustion model of tangentially fired boiler with the effect of mill ducting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Achim; J. Naser; Y. S. Morsi; S. Pascoe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a full scale combustion model incorporating upstream mill ducting of a large tangentially fired boiler with\\u000a flue gas recirculation was examined numerically. Lagrangian particle tracking was used to determine the coal particle paths\\u000a and the Eddy Dissipation Model for the analysis of the gas phase combustion. Moreover volatiles and gaseous char products,\\u000a given off by the coal

  9. Lessons learned in upgrading and refurbishing older coal-fired power plants - a best practices guide for developing APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Lusica, N.; Xie, T.; Lu, Y.

    2008-10-15

    The report reviews upgrading and refurbishment projects recently implemented by coal-fired power plants in developing APEC economies, and includes a Best Practice Guide for 15 classes of upgrade and refurbishment items to aid in decision making. There is an urgent need to optimize the performance of older coal-fired power plants in the Asia Pacific region. Refurbished power plants are more efficient and emit less CO{sub 2}. Plants can also be upgraded with new pollution control equipment to emit less CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} NOx, particulates and other emissions, including mercury. 20 figs., 6 tabs., 4 apps.

  10. Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

    2008-11-15

    The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  11. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gray, K.M. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States); LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  12. A MODEL FOR THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF PLANTATION BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR CO-FIRING WITH COAL IN ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Nienow; Kevin T. McNamara; Andrew R. Gillespie; Paul V. Preckel

    1999-01-01

    Public and private electric utilities are considering co-firing biomass with coal as a strategy to reduce the levels of CO2, SO2 and NO, in stack emissions, as well as a response to state legislative mandates requiring the use of renewable fuels. This analysis examines the conditions under which biomass co-firing is economically feasible for utilities and woody biomass producers and

  13. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase IIIB. First quarterly technical progress report, 13 January-30 April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1982-05-20

    The first quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase IIIB) presents the accomplishments during the period 13 January to 30 April, 1982. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report relates to those tasks associated with preparing the TRW 20 MW/sub t/ MHD coal combustor for delivery to AERL for integrated power tests and the work associated with the preliminary design of a 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired combustor. Progress during this reporting period is described. All new 20 MW/sub t/ hardware was designed and fabricated. Interface coordination meetings were conducted with AERL and DOE. Interface control drawings were completed and a 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustion User's manual was delivered to AERL. The User's manual contained a shipping plan, a crew training plan, an assembly manual, interface documentation and recommended operating procedures. Facility/combustor set-up was completed and the pre-delivery 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustor qualification test series was completed. The 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired MHD combustor preliminary designs were finalized and the DOE preliminary design review (PDR) was successfully completed.

  14. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  16. External costs of electric power from coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to evaluate the externalities associated with coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The methodology applied is that of the new welfare economics, which is concerned with evaluating the efficiency costs of the externalities, rather than with the distributional or equity aspects as these are defined by economists. Two types of information are brought together in this dissertation. First, the estimates that have been published of the amount of each type of externality associated with each power source are reviewed and evaluated. The types of externalities involved include human health damages, damages to man-made materials, damages to natural ecosystems, and others. The second type of information is estimates of the economic value of the damages associated with these externalities. Because no markets exist for most of these externalities, a variety of techniques for evaluating non-market goods are employed. These methods are evaluated in terms of how well they measure the willingness to pay of individuals in society to avoid these externalities. The conclusions of the two reviews suggest that large uncertainties surround these estimates at the present time. Two major uncertain values in this comparison are the expected value of the risks of a reactor accident, and the expected number of health effects of coal-fired power plant air pollution.

  17. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  18. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-08-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le}10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 2.4 Duct Heater and Gas Turbine Integration.

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

  20. A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.

    E-print Network

    Kusiak, Andrew

    A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves