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Sample records for coal seam fire

  1. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  2. Assessment of the Influence of Fractures on the Dynamics of Coal Seam Fires by Numerical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Uncontrolled burning coal seam fires still constitute major problems for the coal industry by destroying the resource, a serious hazard for the local people by severe environmental pollution, and a tremendous threat to the global environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols. In particular when the seams are lying shallow the alteration of the immediate surrounding of the coal seam fire feeds back on the dynamics of the fire. Thermal stress induced fracturing produces direct connections of the fire zone with the atmosphere. This influences the supply with oxygen, the venting of the exhaust gases, and the dissipation of heat. The first two processes are expected to enhance the fire propagation whereas the latter effect should slow it down. With our dedicated coal seam fire code ACME ("Amendable Coal-fire Modeling Exercise") we study these coupled effects of fractures in simulations of typical coal seam fire scenarios based on data from Xinjiang, China. Fractures are predefined as 1D/2D objects in a 2D/3D model geometry and are opened depending on the passage of the heat wave produced by the coal seam fire.

  3. Emergency assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges, Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rea, Alan H.; Garcia, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  4. Gel retarder for fire prevention and extinguishing -- Its application for spontaneous combustion of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    With its unique function, gel retarder has been successfully applied to extinguish fire at coal face, roadways and stop line of upper slice extraction, and a comparably perfect set of fire extinguishing techniques has been developed. The technique gathers together characteristics of water-fixation, leak-blocking, cooling, oxidation-retarding and heat-resisting. A new agglomerating agent without amine and corrosion has been developed to replace amine-salt and acid used in the past. Gel-injection technology cooperating with the grouting system on the ground solves previous problems in which gel-injection velocity was slow and materials transport was difficult. The technique has become the main measure to extinguish spontaneous combustion in coal mines in China. The use of gel retarder as an important means of underground fire prevention will be applied more widely to prevent and extinguish spontaneous fire in coal mines.

  5. Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff

  7. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  8. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  9. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  10. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  11. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  12. The geomechanics of gas recovery from coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, D. M.; Karev, V. I.; Kovalenko, Yu. F.

    2015-05-01

    A new approach for the creation of scientific foundations for effective and environmentally safe recovery of methane from coal seams is proposed. A virgin coal seam possesses very low permeability. Free gas is contained in isolated microscopic pores and cracks of the coal seam under a pressure close to the rock pressure. An oriented system of cracks, which forms a coupled system of filtration channels, can be formed by means of directed unloading of the rock pressure from the seam due to expanding gas energy. The parameters of the manufacturing effect on the seam are determined based on physical modeling of actual mechanical and filtration processes using the experimental installation of truly three-axial loading and mathematical modeling.

  13. Shield support selection based on geometric characteristics of coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    K. Goshtasbi; K. Oraee; F. Khakpour-yeganeh

    2006-01-15

    The most initial investment in longwall face equipping is the cost of powered support. Selection of proper shields for powered supports is based on load, geometric characterization of coal seams and economical considerations.

  14. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  15. Origin of coal seam structures, Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.C.; Kullerud, G.

    1983-09-01

    Structures of Pennsylvanian coal seams in Sullivan County, Indiana, reflect deeper structural components, of which regional dip is dominant. Other components of structure result form differential compaction. The effects of these components are characterized by their closure, size, shape, and orientation. (1) The Mississippian unconformity surface is characterized by parallel valley with up to 300 ft (91 m) of local relief. (2) The composite lower Pennsylvanian section below the Seelyville Coal has variable sandstone content. Some paleovalleys are filled with multistory sandstones, and others with claystone. (3) Silurian pinnacle reefs from small, circular features with a diameter of 1 to 2 mi (1.5 to 3 km) and closures of 25 tio 50 ft (8 to 15 m) on Pennsylvanian coal seams, 50 ft (15 m) on the Aux Vases Shale, and 150 ft (45 m) on the New Albany Shale. (4) The distributions and standard deviations of thicknesses, dips, and grain size of the sedimentary rocks between the coal seams demonstrate that seams above the Seelyville Coal were deposited in parallel and have concordant modern structures. Specific facies between seams have limited influence on the overall structure. Coal structures in the Illinois basin can be defined by a drilling program that penetrates only 150 ft (45 m) of Pennsylvanian strata. Below the Seelyville Coal, units examined demonstrate basin-margin convergence.

  16. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  17. Spatial Variation of Selenium in Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, L.; Tyner, J. S.; Perfect, E.; Yoder, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts from coal extraction have led to many investigations of the geochemistry of coal. Previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is an environmental contaminant due to its mutagenic effects on sensitive macro-organisms as a result of bioaccumulation in affected waters. Some regulatory authorities have responded by requiring the sampling of coal seams and adjacent rock for Se prior to authorizing a given coal mining permit. In at least one case, a single continuous rock core was sampled for Se to determine the threshold of Se across a 2.2 square kilometer proposed surface coal mine. To examine the adequacy of such an approach, we investigated the spatial variability and correlation of a West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) dataset of Se concentrations from coal seams collected within Appalachia (1088 samples). We conducted semi-variogram and Kriging cross-validation analyses on six coal seams from the dataset. Our findings suggest no significant spatial correlation of Se within a given coal seam.

  18. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  19. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...-1 Coal seams above the water table. As used in § 75.501, the phrase “coal seams above the water... river into which a local surface water system naturally drains....

  20. Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

    2007-07-15

    Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

  1. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  2. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  3. Petrographic analyses of Knobloch coal seam (Paleocene), Powder River County, southeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    A single core of Knobloch coal from Powder River County, southeast Montana, was drilled to obtain samples for coal quality studies. The coal occurs in the lower Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. The Knobloch coal core (63 ft long) was divided into 1-ft increments and analyzed using chemical and petrographic methods. Definite variations in maceral content were seen. Preliminary studies show relationship between ash, gelinite, inertinite, and humodetrinite contents. A zone of low gelinite, low humodetrinite, and high inertinite, located in the lower quarter of the seam, implies a period of severe oxidation occurred, possibly as swamp fires. Four zones of high inertinite and high humodetrinite (three in the upper half and one in the lower half of the seam) indicate fluctuations in the water table, allowing moderate oxidation and weathering of plant material and subsequent mechanical reworking of humic grains. Near the center of the seam, a zone of high inertinite, high humodetrinite, and high ash content suggests water levels were high enough to allow significant sediment influx as well as reworking of the humic materials. These conclusions suggest the Knobloch coal is autochthonous and hypautochthonous in origin, a result of several water-table fluctuations and/or climatic changes due to drought.

  4. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  5. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  6. Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Olovyanny, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

  7. Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N.

    2006-01-15

    The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

  8. Measuring Contours of Coal-Seam Cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Angle transducers measure angle between track sections as longwall shearer proceeds along coal face. Distance transducer functions in conjunction with angle transducers to obtain relative angles at known positions. When cut is complete, accumulated data are stored on cassette tape, and track profile is computed and displayed. Micro-processor-based instrument integrates small changes in angle and distance.

  9. In-mine geoelectric investigations for detecting tectonic disturbances in coal seam structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulai, Ákos; Dobróka, Mihály; Ormos, Tamás; Turai, Endre; Sasvári, Tibor

    2013-10-01

    The methods of in-mine seam-sounding and transillumination (geoelectric tomography) for the detection of tectonic disturbances of coal seams were developed by the Department of Geophysics of the University of Miskolc in the 1970-80's with the effective support of the former "Borsod" Coal Mines Ltd. The paper gives an overview about the theory of seam-sounding and a special geoelectric tomographic inversion, and introduces the in-mine geoelectric seam-sounding and transillumination measurement systems using vertical electrode dipoles. In the second part the paper, the results of an in-mine geoelectric measurement are presented, which was carried out in order to detect tectonic disturbances of the Miocene aged coal seams situated in Slovakia. As results of the geophysical investigation, the authors forecasted the tectonic features in the coal seam. The company confirmed the results by independent information about seam disturbances and tectonic features arising from the excavation of the investigated area.

  10. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  11. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  12. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground

  13. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam. PMID:26387357

  14. Coal seam methane is one of the hotter current plays

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The author discusses how exploitation and development of coal seams for methane gas recovery has caught the fancy of the petroleum industry. This resource has the potential to add trillions of cubic feet of marketable gas in the future. Shallow coalbed provinces are estimated to constitute around a 400 to 900-Tcf resource with 10 to 100 Tcf of potentially recoverable reserves. Current U.S. gas reserves are 168 Tcf, excluding Alaska (25 Tcf). Coalbed methane resources occur over a large portion of the United States with 37 states containing some amount of coalbed methane. The author shows the major provinces for coalbed methane.

  15. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  16. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  17. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after... entirely in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been classified under any...

  18. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after... entirely in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been classified under any...

  19. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after... entirely in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been classified under any...

  20. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after... entirely in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been classified under any...

  1. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after... entirely in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been classified under any...

  2. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  3. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  4. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  5. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Williams

    2004-03-01

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO

  6. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  7. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  8. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  9. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  10. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production in Multiple Appalachian Basin Coal Seams

    SciTech Connect

    Bromhal, G.S.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.K.

    2007-11-01

    A DOE-funded field injection of carbon dioxide is to be performed in an Appalachian Basin coal seam by CONSOL Energy and CNX Gas later this year. A preliminary analysis of the migration of CO2 within the Upper Freeport coal seam and the resulting ground movements has been performed on the basis of assumed material and geometric parameters. Preliminary results show that ground movements at the field site may be in a range that are measurable by tiltmeter technology.

  11. Numerical investigation of coal seam gas detection using airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Mohamed

    The use of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) techniques has been mostly utilized in the mining industry. The various AEM systems enable fast data acquisition to detect zones of interest in exploration and in some cases are used to delineate targets on a production scale. For coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs, reservoir thickness and the resistivity contrast present a new challenge to the present AEM systems in terms of detectability. Our research question began with the idea of using AEM methods in the detection of thin reservoirs. CSG reservoirs resemble thin reservoirs that have been and are currently being produced. In this thesis we present the results of a feasibility analysis of AEM study on coal seam reservoirs using synthetic models. The aim of the study is to contribute and bridge the gap of the scientific literature on AEM systems in settings such as CSG exploration. In the models we have chosen to simulate both in 1-D and 3-D, the CSG target resistivity was varied from a resistive to a conductive target (4 ohm.m, 150 ohm.m, and 667 ohm.m) to compare the different responses while the target thickness was fixed to resemble a stack of coal seams at that interval. Due to the differences in 1-D and 3-D modelling, we also examine the differences resulting from each modelling set up. The results of the 1-D forward modeling served as a first order understanding of the detection depths by AEM for CSG reservoirs. Three CSG reservoir horizontally layered earth model scenarios were examined, half-space, conductive/resistive and resistive/conductive. The response behavior for each of the three scenarios differs with the differing target resistivities. The 1-D modeling in both the halfspace and conductive/resistive models shows detection at depths beyond 300 m for three cases of target resistivity outlined above. After the 300-m depth, the response falls below the assumed noise floor level of 5% response difference. However, when a resistive layer overlies a conductive host

  12. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-10-01

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to

  13. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2–3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam. PMID:26435557

  14. Production performance analysis of horizontal drainage wells for the degasification of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, T.; Sung, W.; Schwerer, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production performances of horizontal drainage wells for the degasification of coal seams have been investigated with the aid of a multidimensional, two-phase coal seam degasification model. The model is written in rectangular coordinates and can handle a number of horizontal wells and operates in a one-, two-, or three-dimensional mode. The model accommodates multiple horizontal boreholes originating from a common vertical shaft or horizontal boreholes being drilled from the peripheries of the reservoir. In consideration of relatively thin but large lateral extent of coal seams, flow dynamics around a horizontal borehole is described in elliptical flow geometry. The non-linear system of equations generated by the finite difference approximation are solved fully implicitly using Newton's iteration. In the mathematical formulation of the problem, coal seam was treated as a dual-porosity system. Transport of methane in the micropore structure of the coal was described by Fick's Law of diffusion while flow in the more permeable natural fracture network of the coal seam was formulated by Darcy's Law. A quasi-steady state kinetic model was included to represent the desorption of methane from coal grains.

  15. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  16. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  17. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  18. Rock Creek Methane from Multiple-Coal-Seams Completion Project. Semiannual report, July 1987-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, C.D.; Dobscha, F.X.; Green, C.D.; Lambert, S.W.; Boyer, C.M.

    1988-03-01

    Phase I of the Rock Creek Methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a multiyear joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Project activities at the Rock Creek site in 1987 focused on well drilling and completion, with special emphasis on wellbore acess and hydraulic stimulation. Data on drawdown analysis of the Mary Lee coal group, and testing limited-entry applications to multiseam simulation are included.

  19. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  20. Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T.

    2007-09-15

    Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  2. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  3. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W.

    2009-07-01

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  4. Adult Education and Radical Habitus in an Environmental Campaign: Learning in the Coal Seam Gas Protests in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollis, Tracey; Hamel-Green, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the adult learning dimensions of protestors as they participate in a campaign to stop coal seam gas exploration in Gippsland in Central Victoria, Australia. On a global level, the imposition of coal seam gas exploration by governments and mining companies has been the trigger for movements of resistance from environmental…

  5. Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Coal Loading by Cutting Drum in Flat Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling work of a coal shearer work in low longwall coal seams where the wall height does not exceed 1.5 m. In such conditions, an important issue is the process of loading the ore from shearer cutting drum on an armored face conveyor and selection of appropriate kinematic parameters to avoid choking. Discrete element method was used to model coal seam. This method allows for efficient simulation of physical systems composed of many separate components. Methods and algorithms based on existing theoretical models were developed to imitate coal cutting process. Main focus of analysis was put on coal stream movement for different variants of the shearer construction and kinematic parameters.

  7. Aspects and Strategies of Numerical Modelling of Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Han, J.; Liu, G.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Gusat, D.; Fischer, Chr.; Hirner, A.; Meyer, U.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of underground coal fires has become a valuable tool even for practical fire extinction work. The approaches, methods and finally codes that are used depend on the targets that are aimed at by the particular modelling task. The most general one is to fully understand the processes that sustain or suppress the fire. Another purpose is to produce realistic data for regions that are not accessible (e . g. underneath a burning coal seam) or couldn't be investigated (e.g due to limited resources) to estimate the complete energy budget of the fire. Last but not least one would like to forecast the fire dynamics to predict the future damage or to assess the effectivenees of extinction work. These purposes require the consideration of all aspects with respect to thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. At the moment there is no single code that completely covers all these aspects with every degree of complexity. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" we apply existing codes with different foci with respect to THMC processes and try to combine all codes to one comprehensive model. Besides the sophisticated academic modelling approach we also pursue the concept of "Onsite" modelling to enable fire fighting personnel to perform simplified modelling tasks even by means of web-based applications.

  8. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Julia; Scheuermann, Alexander; Bringemeier, Detlef; Hossack, Alex; Li, Ling

    2016-06-01

    The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  9. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  10. In situ determination of sulphur in coal seams and overburden rock by PGNAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsaru, M.; Berry, M.; Biggs, M.; Rojc, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis technique was tested successfully for the determination of sulphur in coal seams and overburden rock. The logging tool employs a 3 μg 252Cf neutron source and a 50 mm dia × 100 mm BGO detector.

  11. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  12. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  13. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  14. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  15. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  16. Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov

    2006-01-15

    An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

  17. Blast-free mining of coal seams by excavators equipped with rotary dynamic buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Labutin, V.N.; Mattis, A.R.; Zaitseva, A.A.

    2005-04-01

    The necessity to equip cable excavators with rotary buckets is substantiated. The results of graphic-analytical analysis of the rotary bucket operation are presented, and its main advantages are determined in comparison with conventional buckets in mining coal seams of complex structure.

  18. The influence of hydrogeological disturbance and mining on coal seam microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, M J; Gagen, E J; Evans, P; Tyson, G W; Golding, S D; Southam, G

    2016-03-01

    The microbial communities present in two underground coal mines in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia, were investigated to deduce the effect of pumping and mining on subsurface methanogens and methanotrophs. The micro-organisms in pumped water from the actively mined areas, as well as, pre- and post-mining formation waters were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The methane stable isotope composition of Bowen Basin coal seam indicates that methanogenesis has occurred in the geological past. More recently at the mine site, changing groundwater flow dynamics and the introduction of oxygen in the subsurface has increased microbial biomass and diversity. Consistent with microbial communities found in other coal seam environments, pumped coal mine waters from the subsurface were dominated by bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and the family Rhodocyclaceae. These environments and bacterial communities supported a methanogen population, including Methanobacteriaceae, Methanococcaceae and Methanosaeta. However, one of the most ubiquitous micro-organisms in anoxic coal mine waters belonged to the family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae'. As the Archaeal family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae' has not been extensively defined, the one studied species in the family is capable of anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction. This introduces the possibility that a methane cycle between archaeal methanogenesis and methanotrophy may exist in the anoxic waters of the coal seam after hydrogeological disturbance. PMID:26541089

  19. Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

    2008-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation

  20. Numerical investigations on mapping permeability heterogeneity in coal seam gas reservoirs using seismo-electric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Shaw, S.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping the horizontal distribution of permeability is a key problem for the coal seam gas industry. Poststack seismic data with anisotropy attributes provide estimates for fracture density and orientation which are then interpreted in terms of permeability. This approach delivers an indirect measure of permeability and can fail if other sources of anisotropy (for instance stress) come into play. Seismo-electric methods, based on recording the electric signal from pore fluid movements stimulated through a seismic wave, measure permeability directly. In this paper we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that the seismo-electric method is potentially suitable to map the horizontal distribution of permeability changes across coal seams. We propose the use of an amplitude to offset (AVO) analysis of the electrical signal in combination with poststack seismic data collected during the exploration phase. Recording of electrical signals from a simple seismic source can be closer to production planning and operations. The numerical model is based on a sonic wave propagation model under the low frequency, saturated media assumption and uses a coupled high order spectral element and low order finite element solver. We investigate the impact of seam thickness, coal seam layering, layering in the overburden and horizontal heterogeneity of permeability.

  1. Rock-magnetic properties of TRM carrying baked and molten rocks straddling burnt coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Cor B.; Dekkers, Mark J.; van Hoof, Ton A. M.

    2001-10-01

    The subsurface spontaneous combustion of coal seams in Xinjiang (NW China) during Pleistocene to recent times produced large areas of thermally altered sedimentary rocks with large magnetic moments. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) intensities and low-field susceptibilities of such combustion-metamorphic rocks range from 0.1 to 10 A/m and 100×10 -4 to 1000×10 -4 SI, respectively, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than values typical of their sedimentary protoliths. The dominant magnetic carriers in the burnt rocks appear to include relatively pure forms of magnetite, maghemite and hematite as well as more complex spinel phases. These magnetic phases mainly occur as fine pseudo-single-domain (PSD) particles. Conspicuous is the presence of pure metallic iron (αFe) in some samples. This highly magnetic phase is inferred to appear as more or less elongated super paramagnetic and single-domain (SD) inclusions in host silicate phases, which prevent them from oxidizing. The SD αFe particles can carry a highly stable remanence, having remanent coercivities ranging 70-140 mT. The ARM and IRM stability of all burnt rock samples to alternating fields is shown to be relatively high; median destructive fields, B(1/2)A and B(1/2)I, respectively, range of 25-46 and ˜20-30 mT for dominant spinel-bearing samples, 34-36 and 47-53 mT for maghemite-hematite-bearing samples, and 48-89 and 64-84 mT for metallic iron-bearing samples. Consequently, burnt rocks are high-quality geomagnetic field recorders. Their very nature makes them useful for paleointensity determinations, although age determination is a limiting factor. Furthermore, remanence intensities and susceptibilities of these magnetically enhanced rocks are sufficient to produce observable magnetic anomalies. This property illustrates the potential to delineate the areal extent and depth of (extinct) coal fires with magnetic exploration. Such information is

  2. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  3. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  4. Detecting moving fires on coal conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To comply with certain elements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of utilities operating coal fired power plants have switched to low-rank bituminous and semi-bituminous coals as an alternative to other fuels like natural gas. Power plants firing and handling this variety of coal may be extremely prone to fires nd explosions as the coal is conveyed from storage on to the boilers due to a phenomenon known as spontaneous combustion. The American Society of Testing for Materials ranks coals by their tendency to oxidize. The lower the coal`s rank, the greater its tendency to absorb oxygen and, consequently, the greater its tendency to spontaneously combust. This unique property creates a new type of fire and explosion hazard not previously experienced by many coal-fired plants. Fires involving coal crushers, storage silos, conveyors, bunkers and pulverizer mills generally occur as a result of two ignition sources: spontaneous combustion (self-heating) of coal and frictional heating of the coal`s conveyance system.

  5. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of

  6. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  7. Coal fire extinguishing and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.S.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

  8. An analysis of the coal-seam gas resource of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed geologic analysis of the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado shows that nearly 84 Tcf (2.4 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) of coal-seam gas is in place in three target coal groups. The Cameo coal group contains the most coalbed methane with 65 Tcf (1.8 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/). The more areally limited Coal Ridge and Black Diamond coal groups contain significantly less gas, 10 and 9 Tcf (280 x 10/sup 9/ and 255 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/), respectively. The areas of highest methane concentration are in the east-central portion of the Piceance basin. These areas coincide with thick deposits of high-rank coal at significant depths and their associated higher gas contents. Also, these areas appear to have been structurally (tectonically) altered, leading to enhanced permeability to gas and water. Thus, the east-central basin area appears favorable for coalbed methane production. This study relied on extensive well data to correlate and map the subsurface extent of the Cretaceous coals of the Piceance basin. Newly derived correlations of coal-rank/depth with gas content were used along with estimates of coal volume to determine gas in place.

  9. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  10. Geochemistry of autochthonous and hypautochthonous siderite-dolomite coal-balls (Foord Seam, Bolsovian, Upper Carboniferous), Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Lyons, P.C.; Millay, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The 11-13 m thick Foord Seam in the fault-bounded Stellarton Basin, Nova Scotia, is the thickest seam from the Euramerican floral province known to contain coal-balls. In addition to the first discovery of autochthonous coal-balls in the Foord Seam, Nova Scotia, its shale parting also contains hypautochthonous coal-balls with histologically preserved plant structures. The coal-ball discovery helps fill a stratigraphic gap in coal-ball occurrences in the upper Carboniferous (Bolsovian) of Euramerica. The autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls have a similar mineralogical composition and are composed of siderite (81-100%), dolomite-ankerite (0-19%), minor quartz and illite, and trace amounts of 'calcite'. Similar is also their permineralizing mineralogy, which consists of dolomite-ankerite and siderite. Their low pyrite content and carbonate mineralogy, and nonmarine origin, differentiates the Foord Seam coal-balls from other Euramerican coal-ball occurrences. A preliminary geochemical model, which is based on oxygen and carbon isotopic data, indicates that siderite in both the autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls is of very early diagenetic (nonmarine) origin from 13C-enriched bicarbonate derived from bacterial methanogenesis of organic matter.

  11. An analysis of injury claims from low-seam coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.; Moore, S.; Dempsey, P.G.

    2009-07-01

    The restricted workspace present in low-seam coal mines forces workers to adopt awkward working postures (kneeling and stooping), which place high physical demands on the knee and lower back. This article provides an analysis of injury claims for eight mining companies operating low-seam coal mines during calendar years 1996-2008. All cost data were normalized using data on the cost of medical care (MPI) as provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Results of the analysis indicate that the knee was the body part that led in terms of claim cost ($4.2 million), followed by injuries to the lower back ($2.7 million). While the average cost per injury for these body parts was $13,100 and $14,400, respectively (close to the average cost of an injury overall), the high frequency of these injuries resulted in their pre-eminence in terms of cost. Analysis of data from individual mining companies suggest that knee and lower back injuries were a consistent problem across companies, as these injuries were each among the top five most costly part of body for seven out of eight companies studied. Results of this investigation suggest that efforts to reduce the frequency of knee and low back injuries in low-seam mines have the potential to create substantial cost savings.

  12. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of data gathered from unmineable coal seams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) programs directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources INTERCOMP Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. (INTERCOMP) is under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide for the reduction of uncertainties in critical parameters related to the methane recovery from unmineable coals in the United States. To accomplish this objective INTERCOMP has assisted in test site selection, planning, and monitoring when requested and evaluated the results of test in terms of methane production potential and economics for selected well sites, geologic settings, and geographical areas. This is a continuation of two earlier contracts in which an optimized test program was specified and in which the results of that program were partially implemented and evaluated. In this report INTERCOMP's effort in assisting the Bureau of Mines to understand the nature of a communication problem between the vertical dewatering hole and the three horizontal degasification legs in the Emerald Mines Horizontal Drilling project is described. Recommendations made by INTERCOMP on how to determine the amount of communication and the answers to several other questions asked are given in the section Assistance in Test Planning. The use of INTERCOMP's numerical simulation model was necessary in this effort. The section entitled Resource Assessment gives the evaluation of each specific well site tested for methane production that furnished to INTERCOMP by METC.

  14. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity

  15. Structure instability forecasting and analysis of giant rock pillars in steeply dipping thick coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Sun, Huan; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Ming; Cao, Jian-tao; Cui, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Structure stability analysis of rock masses is essential for forecasting catastrophic structure failure in coal seam mining. Steeply dipping thick coal seams (SDTCS) are common in the Urumqi coalfield, and some dynamical hazards such as roof collapse and mining- induced seismicity occur frequently in the coal mines. The cause of these events is mainly structure instability in giant rock pillars sandwiched between SDTCS. Developing methods to predict these events is important for safe mining in such a complex environment. This study focuses on understanding the structural mechanics model of a giant rock pillar and presents a viewpoint of the stability of a trend sphenoid fractured beam (TSFB). Some stability index parameters such as failure surface dips were measured, and most dips were observed to be between 46° and 51°. We used a digital panoramic borehole monitoring system to measure the TSFB's height (Δ H), which varied from 56.37 to 60.50 m. Next, FLAC3D was used to model the distribution and evolution of vertical displacement in the giant rock pillars; the results confirmed the existence of a TSFB structure. Finally, we investigated the acoustic emission (AE) energy accumulation rate and observed that the rate commonly ranged from 20 to 40 kJ/min. The AE energy accumulation rate could be used to anticipate impeding seismic events related to structure failure. The results presented provide a useful approach for forecasting catastrophic events related to structure instability and for developing hazard prevention technology for mining in SDTCS.

  16. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents. PMID:20071005

  17. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  18. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  19. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  1. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  2. Development, testing, and application of a multi-well numerical coal seam degasification simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of mathematical formulations and numerical developments equipped with finite-difference approximation to simulate the simultaneous flow of gas and water in a coal seam and a tight gas formation is presented. The simulator employs a multi-dimensional, multi-phase formulation in rectangular coordinates and has options to accommodate a number of vertical wells as well as horizontal wells. For the vertical wells the model is able to handle the simulation of post-fracture performance through either horizontally or vertically fractured wells. Mining activity is also included to investigate methane emission at the mine working faces. Furthermore, options exist to include a number of impermeable geological barriers within the system. The transport of gas in coal seams can be formulated using a dual transport approach. In this approach, flow through macropores can be modeled with Darcy's law through the pressure field whereas flow through micropores can be modeled with Fick's law of diffusion through the concentration field. The combination of these two transport mechanisms extends the application range of these models to tight gas sand reservoirs. This is achieved by the exclusion of the kinetic sorption model. This quasi-steady state kinetic sorption model is included to represent the desorption of methane from coal grains. The developed numerical model has been tested and verified by using hypothetical reservoirs with increasing degrees of complexity and by history matching against the actual field data. Also, performance of the unconventional gas reservoir models has been compared against the performance of conventional gas reservoir models.

  3. Analysis of close seam interaction problems in the Appalachian coal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.

    1987-01-01

    Mining into strata disturbed by previous mining operations either above or below may sometimes result in severe strata control problems. These interaction problems, associated with most multiple-seam mining operations, are very common in the Appalachian coal region and are the subject of this dissertation. On the basis of both theoretical and empirical analyses, using statistical analysis, numerical modeling, and photoelastic modeling methods in conjunction with the analysis of numerous case studies, a comprehensive, integrated model has been constructed and represented by a computer program called MSEAM. Using this comprehensive model, possible interaction problems under certain geological and mining conditions can be first predicted based on rules determined either empirically or statistically. Then, detailed analyses using different interaction mechanisms - pillar load transfer, arching effect, upper seam subsidence, innerburden bending, and innerburden shearing - can further determine the area or degree of possible interaction in both under- and over-mining situations. Special geologic and mining factors controlling interaction are also summarized by indices for an independent interaction prediction. This integrated model has been validated by back-analysis of several case studies. Full descriptions of multivariate statistical analysis, photoelastic modeling technique, quantization of various interaction mechanisms, and development of the comprehensive model are included.

  4. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  5. Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams

    SciTech Connect

    Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A.

    2005-07-01

    Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  6. A Combined Micro-CT Imaging/Microfluidic Approach for Understating Methane Recovery in Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghimi, P.; Armstrong, R. T.; Gerami, A.; Lamei Ramandi, H.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coal seam methane is a form of natural gas stored in coal beds and is one of the most important unconventional resources of energy. The flow and transport in coal beds occur in a well-developed system of natural fractures that are also known as cleats. We use micro-Computed Tomography (CT) imaging at both dry and wet conditions to resolve the cleats below the resolution of the image. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for calibration of micro-CT data. Using soft lithography technique, the cleat system is duplicated on a silicon mould. We fabricate a microfluidic chip using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to study both imbibition and drainage in generated coal structures for understating gas and water transport in coal seam reservoirs. First, we use simple patterns observed on coal images to analyse the effects of wettability, cleat size and distribution on flow behaviour. Then, we study transport in a coal by injecting both distilled water and decane with a rate of 1 microliter/ min into the fabricated cleat structure (Figure 1), initially saturated with air. We repeat the experiment for different contact angles by plasma treating the microfluidic chip, and results show significant effects of wettability on the displacement efficiency. The breakthrough time in the imbibition setup is significantly longer than in the drainage. Using rapid video capturing, and high resolution microscopy, we measure the saturation of displacing fluid with respect to time. By measuring gas and liquid recovery in the outlet at different saturation, we predict relative permeability of coal. This work has important applications for optimising gas recovery and our results can serve as a benchmark in the verification of multiphase numerical models used in coal seam gas industry.

  7. Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reinink-Smith, L.M.

    1985-04-01

    Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the coal with any one parting cannot be predicted, and the contacts of the partings with the coal range from very sharp to predominantly gradational. These bedding relationships provide clues about the surface on which the ashes fell and on which the coal was accumulating. For example, some ashes fell in standing water, others on irregular subaerial surfaces. The partings are in various stages of alteration to kaolinite and bentonite, and vary in thickness from a few millimeters to about 10 cm. The consistency and texture of the partings depend on the degree of alteration; the less altered partings display visible pumice fragments and euhedral feldspars, commonly within a finer grained matrix. Separate pumice fragments, excluding matrix, can also occur as partings in the coal. The more altered partings may be wet and plastic, or they may be well indurated claystones; the colors range from gray-yellow to dark brown. The indurated prints are more common in older part of the section. The coal seams may be capped by volcanic ash partings and are commonly underlain by a pencil shale of nonvolcanic origin.

  8. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  9. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  11. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P.

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  12. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  13. Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, M.A. . Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

  14. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  15. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-04-01

    This is the first Technical Progress report for the subject agreement. During the first six months of the project, progress was made in arranging participation by other CONSOL departments, identifying a prospective site, developing an environmental assessment report, and securing land and coal rights. In addition, correspondences were drafted in response to NETL inquiries. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  16. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  17. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  18. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  19. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  20. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  1. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  2. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  3. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  4. Inferring Hydraulic and Fracture Properties of a Fracked Coal Seam Aquifer by Using GLUE Uncertainty Analysis using TOUGH2 reservoir simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Askarimarnani, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal seam gas (also called coal bed methane) is a form of natural gas that occurs in some coal seams. In the coal seam gas industry, hydraulic fracturing is performed to enhance the extraction of the gas from the coal seam. This paper presents flow simulation results for a fractured coal seam and its associate production well, and an investigation of the well piezometric head drawdown curves resulting from hydraulic pumping tests. The aim is to infer the hydraulic and fracture properties of the coal and associated well, such as length, width, conductivity of fractures, and the proportion of the water and gas contained in the coal seam. For this purpose the TOUGH2/EOS7C numerical simulator is applied. It is capable of modelling multiphase flow in fractured and porous system. The EOS7C is an "equation of state" module for TOUGH2 that is used to model the methane dissolved and free gas multiphase component. The Wingridder grid generator has been used to generate the 2D, 3D and MINCE (multiple interacting continua) grids for TOUGH2. The simulation results provide some constraints on hydraulic and fracture properties. However, there is still have significant uncertainty. In order to assess the uncertainty and increase our knowledge of the hydraulic properties, uncertainty analysis using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), which is a Monte-Carlo methodology, is applied. We will discuss how the Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses is used to infer the properties of a hydraulically fractured well from pump test data. One major outcome of this work will be the development of a fast and routine method for assessing the post-development performance and safety of a production gas well, and to provide reassurance that the fracking that has actually occurred in the field is within design parameters.

  5. Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of δ13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and

  6. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Topical report, September 1985-September 1986. Final geologic report

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Sedwick, K.B.

    1986-11-01

    To evaluate the natural gas potential of coal seams in the major coal groups of the Piceance Basin (Colorado), an analysis of the subsurface geology of the Black Diamond, Cameo, and Coal Ridge of the Iles and Williams Formations was completed along with new correlations of gas content to coal rank and depth. Natural gas in place is estimated to be 84 TCF (Cameo Group, 65 TCF; Coal Ridge Group, 10 TCF; and Black Diamond Group, 9 TCF). Within the Cameo Group, the A and D seams account for about half or 38 TCF of the gas in place. The most-concentrated areas of methane in place are in the east-central portion of the Piceance Basin around the Divide Creek Anticline and Grand Hogback Monocline, areas which have thick accumulations of high-rank coals and appear to have been tectonically altered.

  7. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  8. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  9. Discovery of in-situ carbonate petrifactions (coal balls) in the Foord Seam (Westphalian C, Upper Carboniferous), Stellarton, Nova Scotia, Canada: Implications for origin of sulfur in the Foord Seam

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Congdon, R.D. ); Cross, A.T. ); Gao, Z.; Zodrow, E.L. ); Gillis, K. ); Calder, J.H. )

    1993-08-01

    Carbonate petrifactions (coal balls) were discovered in situ in the 13-m-thick Foord Seam (Westphalian C) at the Westray open-pit mine at Stellarton, Nova Scotia, Canada. These are the first in-situ coal balls discovered in Nova Scotia. This bed, the thickest and oldest coal mined in the Carboniferous coal basins of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, is the uppermost seam of the Albio Member of the Stellarton Formation and is known for its low sulfur content (mean = 0.5% total sulfur), the lowest of all Maritime Canada coals. The coal balls are up to 60 cm in length and are scattered abundantly from the bottom of the top of the seam, including the shale parting. The principal minerals contained in the coal balls (n = 6), as determined by semiquantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, are siderite (70-100%), dolomite (0-20%), quartz (0.5%), and traces of a clay mineral (illite ). Calcite and pyrite were detected in trace amounts by SEM-EDAX and by single-crystal XRD analysis. The almost complete absence of pyrite in the coal balls suggests a chemical link with the pyrite-poor Foord Seam. The authors hypothesize that sulfate-rich marine water or recycled marine sulfate from evaporites from the Lower Carboniferous Windsor Group were unavailable in the peat-forming mire, and, therefore, siderite was favored over pyrite. A nonmarine origin of the siderite also is suggested by the nearly pure end-member nature of the siderite (Fe[sub 0.94[+-]0.03] Mg[sub 0.02[+-]0.02] Ca[sub 0.04[+-]0.01] Mn[sub <0.01] Sr[sup <0.01] Ba[sub <0.01]; n = 48) a composition consistent with siderite of freshwater origin. Because of the lack of sulfate or H[sub 2]S to form pyrite, sulfur combined almost exclusively with the organic molecules of the lycopod-rich peat, and this lack of sulfate or H[sub 2]S favored the low-sulfur content of the Foord Seam.

  10. Method of detection water-body and water-bearing formations above a coal seam -- a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    Ground water has been a problem in underground mines. (Anon., 1981; Aughenbough, 1973; Stansbury, 1981). Water migrates from water-bearing formations and surface water bodies such as lakes, ponds or creeks into the underground workings through fractures and tracks. As a result, underground workings become plagued with the necessity of having the water pumped out in large quantities. Underground workings become flooded when unexpected amounts of water flow into the openings, especially when mines use pillar extraction of longwall mining methods. It is difficult to detect water bodies above the coal mine roof before water problems take place. The resistivity method was used as a method for detecting water saturated rock layers and bodies of water above the roof of a coal mine in northern West Virginia, where the multiple seam mining method was being used.

  11. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  12. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

  13. The Outburst Risk as a Function of the Methane Capacity and Firmness of a Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mirosław; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    In most coal basins that are currently being exploited, gas and rock outbursts pose a considerable safety threat. The risk of their occurrence is frequently assessed by means of a parameter known as the methane capacity of coal. In a lot of countries, the evaluation of the mechanical properties of coal is conducted by means of another parameter: the firmness of coal. Due to the laboratory investigations and in situ observations carried out by the authors of this paper, it was possible to determine a function space in which the outburst risk can be described as a function of the methane capacity and firmness of a coal seam. This, in turn, made it possible to link the "gas factor" to the "mechanical factor", and thus provide a more comprehensive risk analysis. Wyrzuty gazów i skał stanowią duże zagrożenie w większości obecnie eksploatowanych zagłębi węglowych. Bardzo często wykorzystywanym parametrem oceny stanu zagrożenia wyrzutowego jest zawartość metanu w węglu. W wielu krajach do oceny mechanicznych parametrów węgla wykorzystuje się zwięzłość. Autorzy przeprowadzili badania laboratoryjne polegające na prowokacjach wyrzutów w skali laboratoryjnej. Jako materiał badawczy wykorzystane zostały brykiety węglowe. W trakcie badań wstępnych ustalona została zależność pomiędzy porowatością brykietów, a ich zwięzłością f oraz pomiędzy ciśnieniem nasycania metanem, a wskaźnikiem intensywności desorpcji dP. Pozwoliło to na przygotowywanie eksperymentów o kontrolowanych parametrach gazowych (wskaźnik intensywności desorpcji) oraz wytrzymałościowych (zwięzłość). Opracowana została metoda kontrolowania intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu poprzez określenie tempa spadku ciśnienia gazu przed czołem brykietu. Dzięki temu dla siatki parametrów f-dP możliwe było poszukiwanie minimalnej, skutecznej intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu. Znormalizowana wartość stałej czasowej spadku ciśnienia przed czołem brykietu powoduj

  14. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate, that in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial stage of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine. 9 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Lithology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Fire Clay coal, eastern Kentucky: Implications concerning the peat-forming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yalan, Rimmer, S.M.; Ferm, J.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    In a study of polished block samples of ten columns of the Fire Clay coal seam in the Hyden East, Hazard South, and Vicco geological quadrangles, eastern Kentucky, eight different lithotypes were recognized on the basis of brightness, texture, and percentage of vitrain bands versus matrix. The lithotypes are: A, very bright luster, banded (vitrain bands > 90%); B, very bright luster, non-banded; C, bright luster, highly banded (vitrain bands > 50%); D, medium luster, moderate banded (vitrain bands 30--50%); E, medium luster, slightly banded (vitrain bands < 30%); F, dull luster non-banded; G, silky luster, fibrous; and F, disturbed. Point-count analysis of the different lithotypes revealed that the lithotypes can be differentiated according to maceral composition (telocollinite content, desmocollinite content, and others which includes the liptinite, inertinite, and minerals). The Fire Clay coal contains thick-walled, dumbell-shaped sporinite and framboidal pyrite in the upper parts of the two benches which are divided by the flint clay parting. High ash contents occur near the base, the roof, and the parting. High sulfur contents occur near the top of the two benches, corresponding to the occurrence of framboidal pyrite. A coal facies analysis of the Fire Clay coal suggests that for individual benches the peat-forming environment developed from a low-lying swamp to a raised swamp. In the early stages of swamp development, the existence of a fresh-water, low-lying swamp is suggested by the presence of banded lithotypes in the lower portion of the seam. In the later stages of swamp development, there was a transition to a raised swamp, as suggested by the presence of dull, non-banded lithotype in the upper portion of the seam.

  16. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Investigation into the gas-dynamic state of a coal seam under degassing and moistening

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, A.D.; Zaburdyaev, G.S.; Zaburdyaev, V.S.

    2005-04-01

    Statistics are cited for the violation of gas and dust conditions in mines of Russia and the material damage caused by gas and dust explosions. It is shown that degassing and moistening of a seam is the most efficiently conducted by the hydraulic pulse action.

  18. Modelling of a coal seam of the deposit Đurđevik (BiH) by means of 2D reflection seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenović, Siniša; Urošević, Milovan; Sretenović, Branislav; Cvetkov, Vesna; Životić, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    A low cost 2D reflection seismic survey was used to map the continuity of the main seams as well as the numerous faults at the Đurđevik sub-bituminous coal deposit (BiH). A 24-channel seismic data acquisition system was available for this survey. The natural high reflectivity of the coal seams and a favourable geometry of seismic profiles enabled the identification and correlation of major faults across the area. Rugged terrain presented challenges to both data acquisition and processing. Stacks of acceptable quality were obtained only after the application of surface consistent statics and careful application of multi-channel filtering. A set of recorded 2D lines was interpreted in a 3D environment. Inferred structural elements disrupting the seam continuity were identified and were in agreement with available drilling results and mine workings. The result of this work was used to reduce mining hazards and also to help optimise mine planning.

  19. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells

  20. Fayalite from Fe-rich paralavas of ancient coal fires in the Kuzbass, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Fayalite is a common mineral of Fe-rich paralavas related to spontaneous combustion of coal seams. Fayalite has also been found in parabasalts from burned coal waste piles of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. Among paralavas from different combustion metamorphic (CM) complexes of the world, fayalite is the most widespread in the fused rocks of the Kuznetsk coal basin (Kuzbass) and the Ravat area in Tajikistan. The optimal conditions for fayalite formation as products of coal fires in the Kuzbass and Ravat resulted from a favorable combination of the composition of fused protolith (parental rocks) composed of pelitic and Fe-rich sediments and the redox conditions of the deep subsurface ( f_{O_2 } is lower than the QFM buffer). In the Kuzbass, fayalite is commonly hosted in high-silica aluminous Fe-rich paralavas composed of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite), tridymite, hercynite-magnetite, cristobalite, aluminous clinoferrosilite, and Al-K silicic glass. The composition of all Kuzbass fayalites is close to the Fe2SiO4 end member. Kuzbass fayalites are characterized by a negligibly low CaO content and higher MnO and P2O5 contents like fayalites from burned rocks of other CM complexes. In Kuzbass paralavas, Fe-olivine is the late phase that crystallized after sekaninaite and tridymite, immediately before melt quenching.

  1. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  2. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    control. From the brown coal seam dating, the coal appears to have accumulated during a considerable part of the allocated 30 Ma Cenozoic time period. These brown coal carbon isotope and palynological data appear to record a more gradual atmospheric carbon isotope change compared to the marine record.

  3. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

    2014-05-01

    A series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

  4. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from the operation of dry bottom industrial boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Air emissions were characterized by a literature survey and field sampling. Signi...

  6. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  7. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  8. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin. Topical report, September 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kelafant, J.R.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    Based on a geologic assessment of the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin, natural gas in place is estimated at 61 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), contained in 352,000 billion tons of coal. Over one third of the gas in place is in the deep, areally extensive Kittanning group (24.0 Tcf), although the Freeport (15.5 Tcf), Brookville/Clarion (11.0 Tcf), and Pittsburgh (7.0 Tcf) groups also hold considerable potential for coalbed gas. Five regional cross sections correlating the six major coal groups are included along with areal extent, overburden (depth of burial), coal isopach, and coal-rank maps.

  9. MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

  10. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  11. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  12. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  13. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-11-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity.

  14. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium.

    PubMed

    Iverach, Charlotte P; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; France, James L; Nisbet, Euan G; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ(13)C-CH4), groundwater tritium ((3)H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ(13)C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and (3)H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  15. Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1996-03-01

    In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

  16. Appraisal of heavy hydrocarbons in coal seam gas reservoirs. Annual report, September 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Vorkink, W.P.; Lee, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Five wax samples from coal-bed methane sites within the San Juan Basin were analyzed using adsorption chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry. The largest of the chemical classes was the aliphatic with the n-alkanes as the predominant aliphatic series. Branched and cyclic alkanes, alkyl substituted cyclohexane series, and several biomarker compounds were also found in aliphatic fractions of the waxes. Aromatic and polar compounds were present in the waxes, but at much lower concentrations than the aliphatics. The extracts of wax, shale, and coal samples from two of the coal-bed methane sites (Hamilton No. 3 and SUT H-1) were analyzed, and some interesting observations were made. The most striking finding was that the coal extracts of both wax-producing sites were completely devoid of n-alkanes. The wax and shale aliphatic, aromatic, and polar gas chromatograms were quite similar for samples from both sites. Extracts of coal samples obtained from a nearby non-wax-producing coal-bed methane site contained similar n-alkane distributions as observed in the five wax and two shale samples examined. The above data support the hypothesis that the waxes are coal derived.

  17. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ∼73 Bcf (median) to ∼46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ∼2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

  18. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, February-April 1980. [Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-06-01

    The basic objective of this program is to invetigate systematic relationships between the properties of US coals and macerals. Thirty-five samples from the Lower Kittanning seam have been collected to study the vertical and lateral variability of petrographic, chemical, mineralogical and plastic characteristics within a single coal seam. The ratio of aromatic to aliphatic C-H groups as measured by the integrated absorption or peak areas shows a linear relationship with coal rank (reflectance). Uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C on -20 mesh sizes of selected coals (PSOC-1166, 1171, 1197, and 1201) has been measured. From Dubinin-Polanyi plots, micropore surface areas and micropore volumes were obtained. Displacement of mercury was used to estimate particle densities for -20 mesh and -100 mesh sizes of coals and vitrinite concentrates. Some uncertainty in this measurement is introduced because of the difficulty of knowing at what pressure filling of voids between particles with mercury is complete. A new helium density apparatus has been constructed which promises to speed up measurements. Two coals from China were found to have very unusual characteristics. The extremely high liptinite (cutinite) content of one would account for its anamolous chemical composition and liquefaction behavior. Several organic and inorganic components of liquefaction residues can be recognized under the microscope. The proportions of these components in residues from experiments performed by PETC appear to be related to process conditions. Major, minor element and mineralogical analyses are reported for up to 21 coals.

  19. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Novel pre-treatment of zeolite materials for the removal of sodium ions: potential materials for coal seam gas co-produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Oscar; Walsh, Kerry; Kele, Ben; Gardner, Edward; Chapman, James

    2016-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is the extraction of methane gas that is desorbed from the coal seam and brought to the surface using a dewatering and depressurisation process within the saturated coalbed. The extracted water is often referred to as co-produced CSG water. In this study, co-produced water from the coal seam of the Bowen Basin (QLD, Australia) was characterised by high concentration levels of Na(+) (1156 mg/L), low concentrations of Ca(2+) (28.3 mg/L) and Mg(2+) (5.6 mg/L), high levels of salinity, which are expected to cause various environmental problems if released to land or waters. The potential treatment of co-produced water using locally sourced natural ion exchange (zeolite) material was assessed. The zeolite material was characterized for elemental composition and crystal structure. Natural, untreated zeolite demonstrated a capacity to adsorb Na(+) ions of 16.16 mEq/100 g, while a treated zeolite using NH4 (+) using a 1.0 M ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) solution demonstrated an improved 136 % Na(+) capacity value of 38.28 mEq/100 g after 720 min of adsorption time. The theoretical exchange capacity of the natural zeolite was found to be 154 mEq/100 g. Reaction kinetics and diffusion models were used to determine the kinetic and diffusion parameters. Treated zeolite using a NH4 (+) pre-treatment represents an effective treatment to reduce Na(+) concentration in coal seam gas co-produced waters, supported by the measured and modelled kinetic rates and capacity. PMID:27247868

  1. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  2. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control site to ∼467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ∼3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  3. Economic comparison of nuclear and coal-fired generation. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares the current and historic operating performance of 12 large nuclear and coal-fired units now operated by Commonwealth Edison Co., and provides specific comparisons of busbar costs of electricity generated by those units in recent years. It also provides cost comparisons for future nuclear and coal-fired units, and attempts to deal realistically with the effect of future inflation upon these comparisons. The paper deals with the problem of uncertainty, the effect of future developments on present-day comparisons, and how published comparisons have varied over the past four or five years. 9 tables.

  4. Upgrades and enhancements for competitive coal-fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.; Bryk, S.A.; Piepho, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry is resulting in significant opportunities and challenges for US power generators. Existing coal-fired capacity potentially offers the lowest variable cost power production option if these units are upgraded to optimize capacity, operating cost (including fuel), efficiency, and availability while also meeting today`s stringent emissions control requirements. This paper highlights a variety of boiler system upgrades and enhancements which are being utilized to make aging coal-fired boilers low cost competitors in the 1990s.

  5. Stochastic reservoir simulation for the modeling of uncertainty in coal seam degasification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The study helped to determine the realization bundle that consisted of the spatial maps of coal properties, which resulted in minimum error. In addition, it was shown that both E-type and the average of realizations that gave the best match for invidual approximated the same properties resonably. Moreover, the determined realization bundle showed that the study field initially had 151.5 million m3 (cubic meter) of gas and 1.04 million m3 water in the coal, corresponding to Q90 of the entire range of probability for gas and close to Q75 for water. In 2013, in-place fluid amounts decreased to 138.9 million m3 and 0.997 million m3 for gas and water, respectively.

  6. Origin and distribution of tonsteins in late permian coal seams of Southwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Yinzhu; Ren, Y.-L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed the areal and stratigraphic distribution of tonsteins in Late Permian coalfields of southwestern China over an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. We studied the relationship between tonstein distribution and sedimentary environment. Based on mineralogical and petrographic data, we have concluded that these tonsteins originated as air-fall volcanic ashes. Following accumulation in the peat swamps, in situ alteration of the vitric and lithic components took place under acidic conditions, leading to the formation of kaolinite. Based on petrologic, mineralogic, and chemical analytical data, we have determined that the application of mineralogic and geochemical criteria for tonsteins may be useful in correlating coal beds, predicting coal qualities and reconstructing related sedimentary paleoenvironmental conditions. ?? 1982.

  7. Relationship of microstructure in stressed coal seams to observed seismoacoustic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Marcak, H.

    1984-01-01

    Seismoacoustical activity is a time-dependent phenomenon. It is markedly influenced by the microstructure that is developed within the coal strata in response to stress changes imposed by the advancing longwall face. An in situ test is described whereby time-dependent changes in this structure were measured by means of electrical resistivity. On the basis of micromorphic continuum theory and mining experience, two plausible models are suggested for the development of seismoacoustical activity in potential failure zones.

  8. Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.; Lloyd, G.M.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and a portion of the carbonaceous char; flue gas desulfurization means for contacting the SO{sub 2}-containing flue gas with lime and limestone; gypsum desulfurization means for heating the gypsum and the remaining portion of carbonaceous char under reducing conditions utilizing burning of the remaining portion of the combustible gas stream; means for recycling the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream to the coal gasification means.

  9. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires. Report of investigations/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number of smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate that, in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial state of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine.

  10. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  11. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  12. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono możliwości wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metodą określania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym do określania skłonności węgla do samozapłonu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek węgla z trzynastu kopalni w obrębie Indyjskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w różnych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewnić standaryzację metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla każdej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metodą badania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z własnościami danego węgla przez

  13. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  14. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Controlling the Furnace Process in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatil', A. A.; Klepikov, N. S.; Smyshlyaev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    We give an outline of methods using which the furnace process in coal-fired boilers can be controlled to expand the range of loads, reduce the extent to which the furnace is contaminated with slag and the amount of harmful substances is emitted, and when a change is made to another kind of fuel.

  16. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. PMID:15242154

  17. A Field Study on Simulation of CO 2 Injection and ECBM Production and Prediction of CO 2 Storage Capacity in Unmineable Coal Seam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Qin; Mohaghegh, Shahab D.; Gholami, Vida

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 sequestration into a coal seam project was studied and a numerical model was developed in this paper to simulate the primary and secondary coal bed methane production (CBM/ECBM) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) injection. The key geological and reservoir parameters, which are germane to driving enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) and CO 2 sequestration processes, including cleat permeability, cleat porosity, CH 4 adsorption time, CO 2 adsorption time, CH 4 Langmuir isotherm, CO 2 Langmuir isotherm, and Palmer and Mansoori parameters, have been analyzed within a reasonable range. The model simulation results showed good matches formore » both CBM/ECBM production and CO 2 injection compared with the field data. The history-matched model was used to estimate the total CO 2 sequestration capacity in the field. The model forecast showed that the total CO 2 injection capacity in the coal seam could be 22,817 tons, which is in agreement with the initial estimations based on the Langmuir isotherm experiment. Total CO 2 injected in the first three years was 2,600 tons, which according to the model has increased methane recovery (due to ECBM) by 6,700 scf/d.« less

  18. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  19. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  20. Modeling and interpretation of two-phase flow and tracer studies from a subbituminous coal seam in the San Juan basin of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Travis, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were performed to characterize two-phase flow within the natural cleat structure of an upper Cretaceous subbituminous coal seam. A two borehole pattern with open completion was used in a study of dewatering and tracer residence time distribution. Air was pumped into a five meter thick seam located about 170 meters below the surface. Krypton 85 was used as the airborne tracer. Air inflow and air and water production rates and tracer arrival times were monitored. The field tests were simulated with a two-phase, three component, porous flow code. Results showed that the air inflow and air and water outflow rates and breakthrough times could not be modeled assuming a uniform darcy-type permeability. The use of a pressure dependent permeability did provide, however, a much better match with the field data.

  1. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations. PMID:26867097

  2. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2014-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  3. INJECTION INTO COAL SEAMS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CO2 MITIGATION AND ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COALBED METHANE

    SciTech Connect

    Francis M. Carlson; Charles G. Mones; Lyle A. Johnson; Floyd A. Barbour; L. John Fahy

    1997-04-01

    Because of confidentiality requirements of this task, this topical report is necessarily brief and is based on quarterly reports that have been previously approved for release by Amoco Production Company (Amoco). More detailed topical reports have been written and will continue to be written as the project proceeds. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved that these detailed reports can be held in confidence for a period not to exceed three years from their dates of publication. When this three-year period has transpired, or earlier with Amoco's approval, the more detailed topical reports will be provided to DOE for its discretionary use. Three detailed technical reports have been written that cover the two-well pilot test, the laboratory work, and modeling using a coal reservoir description and Amoco's coalbed methane simulator. The document covering the two-well pilot test elicited many comments from Amoco personnel and a major revision of the document is in progress. The other two documents are essentially complete. History matching of the Allison Unit CO{sub 2} injection project has been completed and long-term performance predictions have been made using the resulting reservoir description. Idealized predictions for a quarter of a five-spot pattern of the process have been made and economics of the process evaluated.

  4. Direct firing of coal for power production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papay, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of new technology and advanced emission control hardware to reduce emissions from the direct combustion of coal to produce electricity in California is considered. The technical feasibilty of a demonstration project on an existing 81-MW boiler is demonstrated.

  5. MHD generator performance comparisons between coal + ash firing. [Coal versus fuel oil with ashes added

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Enos, G.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.

    1983-08-01

    A two-stage slagging coal combustor developed by TRW Corporation, was successfully integrated with an MHD generator developed by the Avco Corporation, when the two companies cooperated in an operational demonstration of a coal fired MHD power train under the sponsorship of DOE. The experimental components, rated at a nominal 20 MW thermal input, are the engineering prototypes of 50 MW /SUB th/ hardware to be supplied by the contractors to the recently commissioned Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), a federal MHD test site in Butte, Montana. A second series of tests was conducted in which the same channel and operating parameters were employed with an oil-fired ash-injected combustor (AIC) to provide performance comparisons. The only significant performance variation uncovered in the comparison tests was attributable to a non-optimum method and location for seed injection in the coal-fired combustor. The corrective measures are deemed to be relatively straightforward.

  6. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  7. Hydrochemical evolution within a large alluvial groundwater resource overlying a shallow coal seam gas reservoir.

    PubMed

    Owen, Daniel D R; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-08-01

    A combination of multivariate statistical techniques, simple hydrochemical mixing models and inverse geochemical modelling was used to investigate the major hydrochemical evolutionary pathways of a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine River alluvium, south-east Queensland, Australia. Hydrochemical similarities between alluvium and sedimentary bedrock groundwater imply some mixing between alluvial and sedimentary bedrock aquifers, but spatial assessment showed that this was localised around outcrops of sedimentary bedrock in upstream areas. Within the alluvium, a distinct shift towards a low salinity Na-HCO3 water type and a brackish Na-HCO3-Cl water type was obvious in two separate locations. Both of these water types are unique to the alluvium, and inverse modelling shows that they can evolve via a combination of in situ alluvial processes, including diffuse recharge of rainfall or river water or the evolution of basalt-derived groundwater via gypsum dissolution plagioclase weathering, cation exchange and some carbonate precipitation/dissolution. The evolution of these water types is potentially influenced by overlying sodic alkaline soils, and often is associated with a source of sulfate. Evapotranspiration is the dominant salinization process in the alluvium and increases in calcium cations during salinization indicate that brackish Na-HCO3-Cl groundwater in the underlying Walloon Coal Measures are unlikely to have a major influence on salinization in the alluvium. The most saline water types observed were endemic to shallow zones of the alluvium where evapotranspiration is likely. Results demonstrate that a combination of multivariate statistics and inverse geochemical modelling can be successfully used to delineate hydrochemical pathways in complex hydrogeological settings where a range of environmental and anthropogenic factors may be influencing the evolution of water types with similar hydrochemical compositions. PMID:25863513

  8. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  9. Compacting biomass waste materials for co-firing with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.; Kiesler, J.; Morgan, A.; Liu, H.; Marrero, T.R.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a process that allows for the optimum compaction of various biomass waste materials to form fuels that can be co-fired with coal in conventional coal-fired power plants. Previous studies have shown that the use of biomass fuels in conjunction with coal in power plants is beneficial for several reasons. The use of biomass fuels reduces the amount of harmful gases that are emitted into the atmosphere by the firing of coal alone. In addition, the biomass used is primarily waste products that would be placed in a municipal landfill. By using this waste material as a fuel, the volume of waste being disposed of in landfills can be decreased significantly. However, in an uncompacted state these biomass wastes are bulky and costly to handle and transport. Compacting the biomass will increase its density and decrease the difficulty in handling and shipping costs. Four biomass products, wood chips, sawdust, low quality waste paper, and tree trimmings were compacted at various pressures into 1.91-inch diameter logs. After compaction, the logs were subjected to ASTM standard tests for unconfined compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. Tumbling tests and drop tests were also performed according to ASTM standards. The logs were also subjected to a water absorption test. Finally, each log will be tested to determine its thermal characteristics, such as the heating value and the gases each log produces when burned.

  10. Tracking new coal-fired power plants: coal's resurgence in electric power generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-01

    This information package is intended to provide an overview of 'Coal's resurgence in electric power generation' by examining proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration in the USA. The results contained in this package are derived from information that is available from various tracking organizations and news groups. Although comprehensive, this information is not intended to represent every possible plant under consideration but is intended to illustrate the large potential that exists for new coal-fired power plants. It should be noted that many of the proposed plants are likely not to be built. For example, out of a total portfolio (gas, coal, etc.) of 500 GW of newly planned power plant capacity announced in 2001, 91 GW have been already been scrapped or delayed. 25 refs.

  11. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  12. Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.

    PubMed Central

    Alfheim, I; Bergström, J G; Jenssen, D; Møller, M

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples. PMID:6825617

  13. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  14. Energy from waste via coal/waste co-firing

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, J.; Ekmann, J.; Smouse, S.; Ramezan, M.; Harding, S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper reviews the feasibility of waste-to-energy plants using the cocombustion of coal with refuse-derived fuels. The paper discusses the types of wastes available: municipal solid wastes, plastics, tires, biomass, and specialized industrial wastes, such as waste oils, post-consumer carpet, auto shredder residues, and petroleum coke. The five most common combustion systems used in co-firing are briefly described. They are the stoker boiler, suspension-fired boilers, cyclone furnaces, fluidized bed boilers, and cement kilns. The paper also discusses the economic incentives for generating electricity from waste.

  15. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  16. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  17. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  18. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  19. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    During 1999-2001 ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories and others evaluated the feasibility of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric power plant. The power plant analysed was the Conesville No. 5 unit, operated by AEP of Columbus, Ohio. This unit is a nominal 450 MW, pulverized coal-fired, subcritical pressure steam plant. One of the CO{sub 2} capture concepts investigated was a post-combustion system, which used the Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global, Inc.'s commercial MEA process. More than 96% of CO{sub 2} was removed, compressed, and liquefied for usage or sequestration from the flue gas. Based on results from this study a follow-up study is investigating the post-combustion capture systems with amine scrubbing as applied to the Conesville No. 5 unit. The study evaluated the technical and economic impacts of removing CO{sub 2} from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using advanced amine-based post combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems. The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO{sub 2} capture systems. An advanced amine CO{sub 2} scrubbing system is used for CO{sub 2} removal from the flue gas stream. Four (90%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) CO{sub 2} capture levels were investigated in this study. These results indicate that the advanced amine provided significant improvement to the plant performance and economics. Comparing results with recent literature results for advanced amine based capture systems (Econamine FG{sup +} and KS-1) as applied to utility scale coal fired power plants shows very similar impacts.

  1. COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

  2. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  4. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  5. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  6. Organic geochemistry in relation to the depositional environments of Middle Jurassic coal seams, Danish Central Graben, and implications for hydrocarbon generative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, H.I.; Rosenberg, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Jurassic strata from the Harald gas field in the Danish Central Graben include five coal seams. The precursor mires were situated in coastal plain environments, and peat formation occurred during water table rise related to relative sea level rise. The coals that represent peat accumulation during rapid relative sea level rise are characterized by a higher average hydrogen index, extractability, hydrocarbon yield, and thermally extracted and generated bitumen content (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) compared to the coals that represent peat formation during the initial stages of relative sea level rise (slow rate of water table rise). In the latter coals, Pr/Ph ratios are higher, and the content of C{sub 29} steranes is higher and the content of C{sub 27} is lower. With regard to thermal maturity, the coals are in the oil window and may possess the potential to generate and release liquid hydrocarbons. This is supported by the composition of oil samples derived from sandstones in the Harald field. Multivariate data analysis shows a positive correlation between S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}, which is taken to indicate the generative potential of the coals, and in particular the macerals telinite, telocollinite, and cutinite, the microlithotypes vitrite and clarite, and total organic carbon. Such a petrographic composition is favored in precursor mires characterized by continuously waterlogged, anoxic conditions. These conditions are best met in mires situated on the lower coastal plain during rapid relative sea level rise. The knowledge obtained from multivariate modeling of the data, and sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic interpretations of the coal-bearing strata, may thus make it possible to locate the coals with the highest generative potential.

  7. Co-firing coal in municipal waste combustors may reduce dioxin/furan formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    While dioxin/furan emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) are a serious concern, coal-fired utility boilers generally do not emit significant amounts of these toxic substances. This difference in emission profiles has led researchers to the hypothesis that co-firing coal and municipal waste could reduce dioxin/furan emissions from MWCs. The hypothesis has proven correct in several studies. Investigators recently studied coal co-firing during pilot-scale tests. The study evaluated the effect of sulfur and investigated specific mechanisms for inhibiting dioxin/furan formation. The experiments substantiated the possibility of reducing MWC dioxin/furan emissions with coal co-firing. However, as noted in the experimental results, coal co-firing under certain conditions may actually increase dioxin/furan formation. Coal type, the ratio of municipal waste to coal, and other operating parameters must be selected carefully to ensure dioxin/furan inhibition. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    During the previous report period, shredder system verification and testing was initiated at DONLEE's pilot facility located in York, Pennsylvania. General waste from the Lebanon VA Medical Center was transported to the pilot facility in York. The waste was fed into the unit starting December 18, 1991. The waste feed rate was adjusted to approximately 150 lb./hr. The stack monitoring portion of the shredder testing was conducted on January 28 and 29. The heat input was approximately 6 [times] l0[sup 6] BTU/hr. both days. On the first day, only coal and limestone were fed into the unit. On the second day, hospital waste, coal, and limestone were fed into the unit. On both days of testing, data included: coal, limestone, and ash samples and flow rates; all air flows; stack flue gas flow; combustor, cyclone, boiler, and baghouse; temperatures and pressures; stack concentration of dioxins and furans; stack concentration of heavy metals; stack concentration of HCI; stack concentration of PAH. The hospital waste feed during the second test was approximately 150 lb./hr. The PA DER requested that the final design of the Lebanon facility fire anthracite coal only. On February 4, the unit was lit off on anthracite coal. Operation on anthracite stabilized at a 1650 degree F combustor temperature. Hospital waste was fed into the unit while on anthracite without incident.

  9. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  10. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  12. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  13. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  14. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  15. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  17. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  18. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  19. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

  20. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  1. Mathematical modelling of coal fired fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, N.; Siddall, R.G.; Sivrioglu, U.

    1980-12-01

    A system model of continuous fluidized bed combustors burning coal of wide size distribution has been derived, and applied to the investigation of the effect of excess air and recycle on bed concentration and temperature profiles and combustion efficiency of a pilot scale coal fired fluidized combustor. To demonstrate the effect of recycling, the behaviour of the fluidized combustor has been predicted for two extreme cases of recycle: complete and no recycle of elutriated char particles, the former was chosen to determine the behaviour of the model in the absence of elutriation, and the latter corresponds to the actual operating conditions of the fluidized combustor. Expected trends for concentration and temperature profiles and combustion efficiency are predicted correctly for both cases. The predictive ability and the flexibility of the model for incorporation of refinements such as a correlation for bubble growth and a detailed combustion mechanism, makes the model a promising one for the evaluation of performance of the fluid bed industrial boilers.

  2. Improved low NOx firing systems for pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.; Rosin, T.; Hausman, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    More stringent emission limits or the addition of post combustion NOx control create the need for improvements of NOx emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Many boilers retrofitted with Low NOx technology during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the CAAA fail or marginally meet their requirements. Technical solutions range from addition of overfire air and state-of-the-art low NOx burners to low cost additions of combustion enhancements. Regardless of the combustion NOx control method used, stoichiometries local to the burners must be maintained at the designed values at all times to provide high NOx performance at low efficiency loss due to unburned fuel. This paper describes Foster Wheeler's approach to NOx emission improvements for existing low NOx firing systems. The technology to measure air and coal flow individually for each burner and to control the parameters for optimum combustion are presented and discussed. Field experience shows the installation and advantages of the technology.

  3. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  4. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  5. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  6. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

  7. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: II. Dexterity, protection and performance with padded gloves. Phase II report, number 2. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    Krohn, G.; Sanders, M.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report investigates the effects of adding a layer of extra padding to the palm area of leather gloves typically worn by low seam coal miners.

  8. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  9. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  10. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  11. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  13. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  14. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  15. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jeffrey; Yager, Janice

    2006-08-01

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m3 to 96 mg/m3 (mean of 1.8 mg/m3). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m3 (mean value of 0.048 mg/m3). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 microm and 8 microm. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected. As compared with air samples, bulk samples from the same work areas consistently yielded lower relative amounts of quartz. Controls to limit coal fly ash exposures are indicated during some normal plant operations and during episodes of short term, but high concentrations of dust that may be encountered during maintenance activities, especially in areas where ash accumulations are present

  16. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  17. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  18. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  20. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins.

    PubMed

    Owen, D Des R; Shouakar-Stash, O; Morgenstern, U; Aravena, R

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ(13)C-CH4, δ(2)H-CH4, δ(13)C-DIC, δ(37)Cl, δ(2)H-H2O, δ(18)O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ(13)C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (-58‰ to -49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (-80‰ to -65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ(2)H-CH4 (<310‰) indicate acetoclastic methanogenesis where SO4 concentrations inhibit CO2 reduction. Evidence of CH4 migration from the deep gas reservoir (200-500 m) to the shallow coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins. PMID:27578542

  1. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    PubMed Central

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-DIC, δ37Cl, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (−58‰ to −49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (−80‰ to −65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ2H-CH4 (<310‰) indicate acetoclastic methanogenesis where SO4 concentrations inhibit CO2 reduction. Evidence of CH4 migration from the deep gas reservoir (200–500 m) to the shallow coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins. PMID:27578542

  2. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  4. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  5. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  6. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  7. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Yager, J.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m{sup 3} to 96 mg/m{sup 3} (mean of 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} (mean value of 0.048 mg/m{sup 3}). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected.

  8. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  9. New technology tackles coal-fired power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Prachi Patel-Predd

    2006-05-01

    Tests conducted at three coal-fired power plants show that a new technology can reduce mercury emissions at higher rates and lower costs than current methods, according to its developers, Chem-Mod LLC. The Chem-Mod system is able to capture Hg{sup 0} by using a liquid sorbent to oxidize it to Hg{sup 2+} or trap it on its surface. A second, powder sorbent captures SO{sub 2} and heavy metals. The two sorbents combine to trap the emissions in a ceramic-like matrix that is locked into the fly ash. The technology removed up to 98%, 90%, and 86% of the mercury in week-long tests with different bituminous and subbituminous grades of coals. In addition, the system cut SO{sub 2} emissions by 40-75% and those of arsenic, chloride, and heavy metals by 75-90%. A full-scale commercial facility using the technology is expected to start soon.

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  11. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  12. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  13. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  14. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse

  15. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  16. Longwall gate road stability in a steeply pitching thick coal seam with a weak roof. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, L.R.; DeMarco, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a ground pressure analysis of a wide abutment-type chain pillar in a two-entry gate road of a Western U.S. coal mine with an extremely weak immediate roof. This report discusses gate road layout and performance and secondary support effectiveness. The results of the pillar pressure study are compared to pillar loading predicted by a widely used pillar design method and to similar studies in other mines. A stability evaluation of the most recent longwall headgate, using the USBM Analysis of Longwall Pillar Stability (ALPS) indicates marginal stability in first-panel mining and instability in second-panel mining. ALPS and the USBM Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) system are used to evaluate tailgate-mining stability of the previous gate roads and to determine pillar and entry width and top coal thickness criteria for tailgate stability in future panels.

  17. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  18. MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

  19. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  20. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  1. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  2. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  3. The knowledge of underground coal gasification (UCG) applied to coalbed methane extraction (CBM) and natural coal fires (NCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Hettema, M.H.H.; Bruining, J.; Schreurs, H.C.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will give a general view on the application of underground coal gasification (UCG) for the improvement of coalbed methane (CBM) production enhancement and the utilization of natural coal fires (NCF). In general UCG techniques will improve the opportunities for the enhancement and utilization of potential energy sources. When all options, UCG, CBM and NCF are placed in a Clean Coal Exploitation Program, it can be divided into a ``cold program`` and a ``hot program.`` In a cold program the authors propose the development and exploitation of second generation cold coal-energy, i.e., coal gas extraction (CBM). The hot program considers the activities in which in-situ burning coals make the core issue for exploitation (UCG, NCF). In both programs UCG-technologies could be important tools for energy acquisition and production improvement.

  4. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  6. Use of multiple opportunity fuels in coal-fired cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.A.; Hus, P.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), with support from USDOE-EERE, the USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, and EPRI, is installing a materials handling system to fire a combination of wood waste and petroleum coke with the base coal in the No.7 boiler of Bailly Generating Station. The No.7 boiler is a 160 MW{sub e} (net) unit fired with four cyclones. It is typically fired with a blend of Illinois coal and Western coal. The gaseous combustion products from this boiler are ducted to a precipitator and then to a Pure Air scrubber for sulfur oxides removal. The Pure Air scrubber converts the SO{sub 2} into artificial gypsum. Typically the unit burns about 70 tons/hr of coal at full load. The Bailly Generating Station program, being implemented by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, involves blending petroleum coke and wood waste with coal for combination opportunity fuel firing. Multiple fuel firing is intended to capture the advantages of each fuel: high volatility of biofuels and high Btu content of petroleum coke are among these characteristics. The objective of the program, then, is to reduce fuel costs at the station while improving combustion. The program involves constructing a fuel handling and blending system, and then testing the impacts of individual opportunity fuels with coal plus blends of opportunity fuels with coal. This paper reviews the program concept, the combustion modeling, the blending system design, and the results of baseline and laboratory testing to date.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  9. Detection, Analysis and Risk Assessment of Coal Fires in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian; Li, Jing; Wu, Jianjun; Erhler, Christoph; Jiang, Weiguo; Guo, Shan; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion of coal is a serious problem on a global scale. Since coal can easily be oxidized and often has a prominent “self-heating” capacity, many coal types have a tendency to combust spontaneously once sufficient oxygen is available and natural cooling is prevented. The rapid expansion of uncontrolled small-scale coal mining activities during the last 30-40 years and the increasing amount of not adequate closed down and now abandoned coal mine sites are supposed to have led to an increase of human-induced coal fires. Thus, coalfield fires need to be not only inventoried at regional scales through rapid and cost effective methods, but also assessed, monitored and secured, wherever appropriate. This leads to major research and technological development objectives: Easy-to-use, routine remote and in-situ monitoring techniques, based on airborne and space borne imagery, to become part in an integrated long-term monitoring framework.

  10. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-09-20

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  12. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  13. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  15. Suppressing pollutant emissions from boilers firing stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kolat, P.

    1994-12-31

    Industrial plants are often unaware that simple adjustment of the combustion process can significantly reduce the NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and fly ash emissions. A systematic approach to the problem indicates that the character and adjustment of the combustion process not only can create favorable conditions for binding solid combustion residues and minimizing their amounts at the point of combustion, but can also modify their physical, chemical, and/or electrical properties to make them easier to trap in electrostatic precipitators. Similarly, gaseous pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, F, Cl{sub 2}, HCl, and HF, as well as heavy metals and simple hydrocarbons, can be bound more easily by aerodynamic interventions, which also allow further reductions of pollutant emissions by suitably dosed additions of limestone and dolomite. This work covered the measurement methods employed in the furnaces, mathematical three-dimensional modeling of the furnaces, and isothermal two-component modeling of the burners. In order to cover as many types of pollution-generating combustion equipment as possible and to define the fundamental measures needed to limit their contaminating effect to a bare minimum, the work was divided into four areas: stroke-fired boilers, fluid bed boilers, pulverized coal boilers, and flue gas cleaning.

  16. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  17. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  18. Optimization of high efficiency and low pollution of coal fired boilers for new and retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Morii, A.

    1994-12-31

    The Japanese government regulation of NOx emissions from thermal power stations has been amended four times since it was first introduced in 1973 and has become more strict each time as shown. Especially in the last decade, the regulation on pulverized coal firing has been strengthened, and a low NOx level close to that of oil firing is now being required. Reduction of NOx emissions generally meant a decrease of combustion efficiency, as has been the case for cars. In coal fired units, reducing NOx emissions caused an increase of unburnt carbon and resulted in a decrease of efficiency of the unit.

  19. Real-time tracking of CO₂ injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO₂ was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO₂ with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO₂ was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO₂ was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO₂ provided clear evidence that injected CO₂ had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO₂ injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

  20. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  1. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  2. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  3. Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; Turnes-Carou, I; Muinategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2003-06-01

    Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the gaseous emission the main target between the residues. The influence of combustion parameters is not clearly established. Several analytical techniques (ion selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography) are employed to determinate the halide concentration in the different samples taken in the power plants studied (coal, slag, fly ash and flue gases). PMID:12868523

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

  5. Analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Information circular/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pomroy, W.H.; Carigiet, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Fires were analyzed by year, state, coal bed thickness, mine size, mining method, ignition source, burning substance, location, equipment involved, detection, time of day, time of year, number of injuries and fatalities, method of extinguishment, and evacuation measures taken. In all, 164 fires are included, an average of 10.8 fires per year.

  6. Geologic history of natural coal-bed fires, Powder River basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heffern, E.L.; Coates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed fires ignited by natural processes have baked and fused overlying sediments to form clinker, a hard red or varicolored rock, through much of the northern Great Plains of the United States (USA). The gently dipping coal beds in the region burn when regional downwasting brings them above the local water table. The resulting clinker forms a rim along the exposed edge of the coal bed in an ongoing process through geologic time. The resistant clinker is left capping buttes and ridges after the softer unbaked strata erode away. Clinker outcrops cover more than 4100 km2 in the Powder River basin (PRB), which lies in Wyoming (WY) and Montana (MT). The clinker in place records tens of billions of tons of coal that have burned, releasing gases into the atmosphere. The amount of clinker that has eroded away was at least an order of magnitude greater than the clinker that remains in place. Fission-track and uranium-thorium/ helium ages of detrital zircon crystals in clinker, and paleomagnetic ages of clinker, show that coal beds have burned naturally during at least the past 4 million years (Ma). The oldest in-place clinker that has been dated, collected from a high, isolated, clinker-capped ridge, has a fission track age of 2.8??0.6 Ma. Evidence of erosion and downcutting is also preserved by clinker clasts in gravel terraces. One clinker boulder in a terrace 360 m above the Yellowstone River has a fission track age of 4.0??0.7 Ma. Coal-bed fires are caused by lightning, wildfires, spontaneous combustion, or human activity on coal outcrops and in mines. Miners, government agencies, and ranchers have extinguished thousands of coal bed fires, but natural ignition continues where fresh coal has access to air. At any given time, hundreds of fires, mostly small, are burning. In the Powder River basin, the total amount of coal burned by natural fires in the last 2 Ma is one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total amount of coal removed by mining in the past

  7. The research of underground coal fires based on thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2009-07-01

    Coal mine fires has become a very severe geologic disaster that affects the sustainable development of China's national economy. They result in a reduction of the coal reserve, attribute to atmospheric pollution through the emission of greenhouse related gases, cause land subsidence and negatively impact human health in nearby areas. Fire source localization is an important direction in the research area of fire detection at present. For application researches of fire source localization in fire nonage, a method of fire source localization and its algorithm are presented in the paper. The method is applied to estimate the characterization of infrared image for fire source localization in condition of radiation of fire source having a character of approximate spherical wave, and its convenience of fine orientation distinguishing ability is also presented. The coherence of detection precision for fire source localization applied with the method is similarity while detected in the closed or semi-closed space. Fine feasible and compatible of this detection method is represented in the paper, and especially suited for fire source localization in the rectangle restricted space.

  8. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  9. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  11. Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    1980-06-01

    Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

  12. Coal Seam Methane Pressure as a Parameter Determining the Level of the Outburst Risk - Laboratory and in Situ Research / Ciśnienie Złożowe Jako Parametr Określający Stan Zagrożenia Wyrzutami Metanu I Skał - Badania Laboratoryjne I Kopalniane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Scarcity of research focusing on the evaluation of the coal seam methane pressure as a parameter determining the outburst risk makes it difficult to assess the value for which the level of this risk increases considerably. It is obvious that, apart from the gas factor, the evaluation of the threat should also take into account the strength factor. The research presented in this paper attempted at estimating the level of the outburst risk on the basis of the coal seam methane pressure value and firmness of coal. In this work, the author seeks to present both the relevant laboratory research and the measurements carried out in mines.

  13. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  14. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  15. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Rogers, Jessica D.; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km2 region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20–190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  16. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Owen A; Rogers, Jessica D; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L; Osborn, Stephen G; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-07-26

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km(2) region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20-190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  17. Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Krajick, K.

    2005-05-01

    China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

  18. Comparison of NO{sub x} control parameters using pulverized coal reburning in wall and tangential firing configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Mereb, J.B.; Abbott, M.F.

    1998-07-01

    The combined application of low-NO{sub x} burners and pulverized coal reburning for NO{sub x} control was assessed in the CONSOL pilot-scale combustor in both wall and tangential firing configurations. Several high-volatile bituminous coals were tested using the same coal as primary and reburn fuels. The effects of firing rate, pulverized coal fineness, and the primary, reburn and final stoichiometries on NO{sub x} emissions and fly ash loss on ignition (LOI) were assessed. NO{sub x} emissions were lower in tangential firing than in wall firing and showed minor differences among the test coals. LOI levels were coal dependent and showed minor differences between the two burner configurations. Relative to conventional configurations, pulverized coal reburning and low-NO{sub x} burners reduced NO{sub x} emissions to 0.25 lb/MM Btu (68% reduction) in wall firing and to 0.15 lb/MM Btu (75% reduction) in tangential firing, and increased LOI 2--10 times depending on the coal. The reburn stoichiometry was the dominant operating variable. The firing rate and the final stoichiometry were relatively minor operating variables. A finer grind coal increased NO{sub x} when used as the primary fuel and decreased NO{sub x} when used as the reburn fuel. A finer grind coal decreased LOI when used as either the primary fuel or the reburn fuel. Increasing the primary stoichiometry increased NO{sub x} and reduced LOI.

  19. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  20. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    PubMed

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-06-24

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner. PMID:24963094

  1. Summary of the completion optimization and assessment laboratory (coal) site. Western cretaceous coal seam project. Topical report, November 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.; Pratt, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    San Juan Basin, Fruitland Formation coalbed natural gas wells completed with open hole cavities using a controlled injection-blowout technique are often producing significantly greater gas and water rates than cased, hydraulically fractured wells in similar geologic environments. The cavity completion effectively connects the coal natural fracture system and the well. At the COAL Site, the pre-cavitation fluid productivity appeared to be controlled by the lower permeability butt cleat system. Post-cavitation productivity appears to be controlled by the greater permeability face cleat system. The 13 fold increase in gas productivity at the Site caused by the cavitation process is due to increased well-reservoir connectivity. The presence of the cavity is responsible only for a 60% increase in productivity. Formation damage was minimized by the lack of contact between the coal reservoir rock and drilling fluids. The near-cavity permeability appears to be temporarily increased during the cavitation operations. The near-cavity permeability increase is non-existent after extended production.

  2. Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability

    SciTech Connect

    O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  4. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Keener, T.C.

    2009-09-15

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  6. Coal-fired-heater makers stress energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Branscome, J.

    1982-10-04

    Several systems have been developed recently for igniting pulverised fuel boilers without the need for supplementary fuel. Combustion Engineering have introduced a system called Direct Igntion of Pulverized Coal (DIPC) which uses high-intensity arc ignition of very finely ground coal. This is being tested at the TVA power station. Babcock and Wilcox are developing a Plasma Arc Igniter, and Foster Wheeler are installing their Low-load Coal Burner/Igniter (LLCB/J) at a station in Indiana.

  7. Dipping longwalls in semi-steep seams

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, J.; Delcruzel, J.

    1982-07-01

    Use of high productivity equipment designed for level seams gives encouraging results in the semi-steep seams of the Lorraine Basin. In the Lorraine coal basin, this type of coal seam has been mined by ascending horizontal slices with back filling, using two basic methods: (1) multiple front faces in a stepped pattern using drilling, blasting, and timber support. (2) longwall mining to the rise, which is usable in favorable conditions of seam width and ground stability. This method gives face productivities up to 15 metric tons per manshift. The technical progress that has been made in recent years in the area of support, coal cutting, and coal clearance has allowed the mechanization of steep and semi-steep seams. A new method was started in 1981 at the Simon colliery. A caving longwall mining method is used. The dip of the seam averages 33/sup 0/. A two-entry retreat system was selected. The first longwalls were worked at heights of 3 to 3.5 meters (10 to 11 feet). Most of the equipment is similar to that used for mining flat seams. High performance four-leg, self-advancing chock supports are used. In order to meet certain requirements imposed by the dip, the supports have the following particular features: (1) The shields are positioned close to each other to increase support. Also, to reduce caving dangers, side flaps are mounted on the canopy, the rear shield, and the base. (2) The shields are advanced in a staggered fashion to maintain proper roof support after shearing. (3)Telescopic front shields can be brought down onto the spill plates of the conveyor to isolate the face line from the travel way. This provides extra protection against falling materials while giving access to the face.

  8. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

  9. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  11. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using eleven readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study was completed for all major input parameters, which yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute who has included it in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  12. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an

  14. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, J.

    2008-07-15

    Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  16. Methods and costs of thin-seam mining. Final report, 25 September 1977-24 January 1979. [Thin seam in association with a thick seam

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, T.E.; Fidler, E.L.

    1981-02-01

    This report defines the state of the art (circa 1978) in removing thin coal seams associated with vastly thicker seams found in the surface coal mines of the western United States. New techniques are evaluated and an innovative method and machine is proposed. Western states resource recovery regulations are addressed and representative mining operations are examined. Thin seam recovery is investigated through its effect on (1) overburden removal, (2) conventional seam extraction methods, and (3) innovative techniques. Equations and graphs are used to accommodate the variable stratigraphic positions in the mining sequence on which thin seams occur. Industrial concern and agency regulations provided the impetus for this study of total resource recovery. The results are a compendium of thin seam removal methods and costs. The work explains how the mining industry recovers thin coal seams in western surface mines where extremely thick seams naturally hold the most attention. It explains what new developments imply and where to look for new improvements and their probable adaptability.

  17. Coal mine subsidence and fires in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Subsidence and fire studies in the Sheridan, Wyo., area are discussed. Construction of a strip mine firebreak or isolation trench is proposed as the best method to control large underground fires such as those burning in the New Monarch and Acme mines in the Sheridan area. 10 refs.

  18. Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L.

    2009-03-15

    Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

  19. ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

  20. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coulthard, E.J.; Roy, R.R.

    1992-05-29

    The unit to be installed at Lebanon Veteran's Affairs Medical Center will prove that circulating fluidized bed combustion can provide economically viable and efficient hospital waste destruction and steam generation. The State permitting process is proceeding. The air quality division of the Department of Environmental Resources has requested the use of anthracite coal only. Anthracite has a much lower sulfur content than bituminous coal. The use of the anthracite coal has been approved by the Department of Veteran's Affairs. The DER permit will specify the use of antrhacite coal. The State permitting approval is expected in the near future. Testing with the shredding system at the Donlee Pilot facility has been completed. The results predict the Lebanon VA facility will meet both NSPS regulations and the BAT guidelines proposed by the State of Pennsylvania. There have been no significant problems encountered to date.

  1. Integrated coal-fired gas turbine power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.; Lipstein, N.J.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes an apparatus for the utilization of coal. This apparatus consists of: 1.) a coal combustion system including a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 2.) a gas cleanup segment in flow communication with the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 3.) an expansion turbine in flow communication with the gas cleanup segment; 4.) a mechanism for substantially isothermally producing a pressurized fluid at a temperature below about 650/sup 0/F. This mechanism is in flow communication with the coal combustion system, including a hydraulic compressor and a regenerator connected intermediately with the hydraulic compressor and the coal combustion system. The regenerator has a heat exchange relationship with the exhaust of the expansion turbine. 5.) a supply of cooling fluid flows from the pressurized fluid producing a flow to the gas cleanup segment; 6.) a gas cleanup segment consisting of an alkali scrubber system for circulating the flow of cooling fluid.

  2. 76 FR 23768 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial... Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for...

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not

  4. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  5. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

  7. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

  8. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  10. Coal-fired plant meets strict standards from air to aesthetics. [New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The 625 MW coal-fired Somerset power station in New York State is the first plant to be constructed and operated under new, strict siting laws. More than one-third of the capital cost was required for environmental controls, and these are outlined.

  11. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

  13. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  14. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

  15. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  16. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

  17. ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

  18. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  20. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  1. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  2. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

  3. A FIELD TEST USING COAL:DRDF BLENDS IN SPREADER STOKER-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-...

  4. LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

  5. A mathematical model of slagging of the furnace of the pulverized-coal-firing boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Alekhnovich, A. N.; Dekterev, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The mathematical model of furnace slagging integrated into the Sigma-Flow program system of computational hydrodynamics has been developed; this system makes it possible to calculate aerodynamics, processes of heat-and-mass exchange, and combustion processes in complex technological facilities, including pulverized-coal-firing furnaces.

  6. OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

  7. Study of coal-fired power plants in Japan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, A.L.; Falkenberg, R.C.

    1985-06-01

    This is a study of the Japanese utility industry by a team of senior US utility representatives. The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare Japanese coal-fired power plant design, construction, procurement, operation, and maintenance practices with those of the United States; to assess related Japanese technological innovations; and to verify the reported costs, performance, and reliability of Japan's coal-fired power plants. In addition, Japanese plans for developing and adding new coal-fired generating capacity were to be confirmed. The principal source of information was a detailed set of responses from the Japanese utilities to six comprehensive questionnaires developed by the US study team. This information was supplemented with data gathered by the study team during a two-week visit to representative Japanese power plants and manufacturing facilities, and with material developed in meetings with both private and government groups in Japan. The study presents efficiency and availability data indicating excellent performance of the modern Japanese coal-fired power plants. Differences in institutional and cultural factors, along with government and utility priorities, are among the items identified as contributing to these results. A detailed comparison is made of the utility industries of Japan and the United States.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  11. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  12. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  13. CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

  14. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  15. PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

  16. ANALYSIS TEST DATA FOR NOX CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the analyses of a large quantity of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale, multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing coal fuel. Objectives of the study include: (1) evaluation of the effects of combustion mod...

  17. ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

  18. EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

  19. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  20. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  1. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

  2. AIR POLLUTION STUDIES NEAR A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of dry deposition of sulfur dioxide were investigated near a new 540-MW coal-fired generating station located in a rural area 25 miles north of Madison, Wisconsin. Monitoring data for 2 yr before the start-up in July 1975 and for the year 1976 were used to assess t...

  3. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  4. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  5. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions. PMID:20825011

  6. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  7. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  8. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  9. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  10. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    Snowmass Coal Co. of Colorado introduced longwall working of pitching seams in North America, with operation commencing in 1981. Experience is recounted and has shown that longwall working at an inclination up to 45 degrees should be comparable with that in flat seams. It should also be cost-competitive. The troika concept of roof support showed it to have excellent maneuveability, good support and low maintenance requirements. Coal winning was by chainless haulage shearer with motor-driven roll rack drive units.

  11. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  12. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  13. Status of Proof-Of-Concept testing at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Chapman, J.N.; Johanson, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Proof-of-concept (POC) testing, and collection and evaluation of data continued at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility during the past year. Following four preliminary tests firing Rosebud coal in 1991 to establish base conditions for the Rosebud coal POC tests, three POC tests were run in 1992, and a fourth test early in 1993. Major equipment additions or modifications included installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which replaced a badly deteriorated venturi. This component also provides improved capability to meet Tennessee pollution regulations while operating the dry ESP and/or baghouse off design, or if one of these two control devices does not function properly. Improvements were also made to the dry ESP prior to the 1993 test, which appear to have improved the performance of this equipment. This paper will present an overview of the major results obtained during the Rosebud coal POC tests, including the performance of the dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Differences between the Rosebud and Illinois coals will be described, but it is emphasized that these observations are based on incomplete results for the Rosebud coal.

  14. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

  15. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  16. A Coal-Fired Power Plant with Zero Atmospheric Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Smith, J R; Brandt, H

    2003-05-27

    This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive multiple turbines to produce electricity. The turbine discharge gases pass to a condenser where water is captured. A stream of carbon dioxide then results that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, or for sequestration. This analysis is based on a 400 MW electric power generating plant that uses turbines that are currently under development by a U.S. turbine manufacturer. The power plant has a net thermal efficiency of 42.6%. This efficiency is based on the lower heating value of the coal, and includes the energy necessary for coal gasification, air separation and for carbon dioxide separation and sequestration. The paper also presents an analysis of the cost of electricity (COE) and the cost of conditioning carbon dioxide for sequestration for the 400 MW power plant. Electricity cost is compared for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coals (Illinois No.6 and Wyodak). Cost of electricity ranges from 5.16 {cents}/kWhr to 5.42 {cents}/kWhr, indicating that the cost of electricity varies by 5% for the three gasification processes considered and the two coal types used.

  17. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  18. Theory and application of magnetic and self-potential methods in the detection of the Heshituoluogai coal fire, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing

    2014-05-01

    Coal fires are a major problem throughout the world. They threaten the environment and the health of people living nearby and result in significant economic losses. Efficient and economical control of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fire be delineated. In this paper, we first present laboratory experiments, revealing that new preferential alignment of magnetic moments, newly formed magnetite and thermoremanent magnetization are the root causes of magnetic anomalies in coal fire area. The redox potential and Thomson potential, which are the basis of the self-potential anomalies, are proposed additionally for application. Then, the geological setting and an overview of the Fifth Fire Area (FFA) of the Heshituoluogai coal fire in Xinjiang are introduced in detail. Finally, the magnetic and self-potential methods are combined to delineate the extent of the fire. Several data processing methods such as diurnal fluctuation rectification, reduction to pole and upward continuation are used to process the data to make the interpretation of results more straight forward. The locations of subsurface fire regions delineated by the magnetic and self-potential methods are consistent with the results of ground surveys, indicating that these two methods can be used effectively as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  19. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-05-10

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 3 (12/15/00-3/14/01): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies - Task 1; (2) Continue to perform re-burn experiments. - Task 2; (3) Design fixed bed combustor. - Task 3; and (4) Modify the PCGC2 code to include moisture evaporation model - Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 3 (12/15/0-3/14/01): (1) Conducted TGA and Fuel Characterization studies (Appendix I). A comparison of -fuel properties, TGA traces etc is given in Appendix I. Litter has 3 and 6 times more N compared to coal on mass and heat basis. The P of litter is almost 2 % (Task 1). Both litter biomass (LB) and feedlot biomass (FB) have been pulverized. The size distributions are similar for both litter and FB in that 75 % pass through 150 {micro}m sieve while for coal 75 % pass through 60 {micro}m sieve. Rosin Rammler curve parameters are given. The TGA characteristics of FB and LB are similar and pyrolysis starts at 100 C below that of coal; (2) Reburn experiments with litter and with FB have been performed (Appendix II) -Task 2. Litter is almost twice effective (almost 70--90 % reduction) compared to coal in reducing the NOx possibly due to presence of N in the form of NH{sub 3}; (3) Designed fixed bed gasifier/combustor (Appendix III) - Task 3; and (4) Modified PCGC2 to include moisture evaporation model in coal and biomass particles. (Appendix IV) - Task 4.

  1. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  2. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL-FIRED CONTROLLED UTILITY BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comprehensive multimedia emissions assessment of the cyclone-fired La Cygne No. 1 boiler, equipped with SO2 and particulate emission controls. Levels 1 and 2 procedures were used to characterize pollutant emissions in gaseous, liquid, and solid proce...

  4. Development of the technology of using mechanically activated microgrinded coals for firing and lighting of coal boilers of acting thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Popov, V. I.; Chernova, G. V.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Chernetskaya, N. S.; Markova, V. M.; Churashev, V. N.; Yusupov, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    A new technology of using the microgrinded coals in power boilers as well as the results of experimental studies and numerical modeling of microgrinding processes, preparing the air-dust mixture, and combustion of mechanically activated coals are presented. Pilot combustion of microgrinded coals on a firing stand with a power of 5 MW using disintegrator mills showed the possibility of reaching the stable autothermal combustion mode for coals with various degrees of metamorphism. Using mathematical modeling, the design solution for a two-step burner, which provides a stable high level of temperatures of the air-dust mixture at the output from the second step as well as makes it possible to minimize the cost for the production of mechanically activated coal, is suggested. These results indicate the possibility to develop burners intended for using mechanically activated coal, involving the replacement of the highly reactive liquid fuel used for firing the combustion chambers.

  5. Method for extraction of quantitative information using remote sensing data of underground coal fire areas and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fu-xing; Li, Zhi-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-qing; Fang, Hong-bin; Yang, Ri-hong

    2008-11-01

    Underground coal-bed spontaneous combustion is a dynamic process with complex physical, chemical and environmental interaction. The anomalous information on remote sensing spatial, spectral and thermal indexes is very meaningful for detecting underground coal fires and assessing its effects on environment. This paper, based on a series of advanced technical datum in Wu Da coalfield areas located in Inner-Mongolia, such as ground spectral testing, thermal infrared multispectral indexes, and high-spatial resolution images, analyzes the correlation between the underground coal-bed burning conditions and the remote sensing information. Besides, it provides a further discussion on the application potential for quantitative feature extraction of underground coal fire.

  6. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  7. Review of fire test methods and incident data for portable electric cables in underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E.

    1981-06-01

    Electrically powered underground coal mining machinery is connected to a load center or distribution box by electric cables. The connecting cables used on mobile machines are required to meet fire performance requirements defined in the Code of Federal Regulations. This report reviews Mine Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA) current test method and compares it to British practices. Incident data for fires caused by trailing cable failures and splice failures were also reviewed. It was found that the MSHA test method is more severe than the British but that neither evaluated grouped cable fire performance. The incident data indicated that the grouped configuration of cables on a reel accounted for a majority of the fires since 1970.

  8. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, thhat constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y + ??REE): total Y + ??REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y + ??REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic

  9. COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

  10. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  11. Steam generator retrofits for low sulfur coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelka, G.; Kawecki, D.

    1995-03-01

    The use of Low Sulfur, Powder River Basic Coals is a key component in the utility industry`s strategy to meet the goals and regulations of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The reliable, efficient use of this fuel in an existing steam generator is dependent upon the implementation of cost effective modifications aimed at optimizing the design such that the deleterious effects of slagging and fouling are minimized. In order to properly determine the modifications required for both the physical design and operating practices, it is important to consider the mechanisms and conditions by which slagging and fouling occur with Powder River Basin Fuel. This paper aims to provide its fundamental understanding, as well as the impact of design and operating changes so that a prudent course of action can be charted in determining the feasibility of Powder River Basin Coal conversion.

  12. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  13. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Hower, James C; Senior, Constance L; Suuberg, Eric M; Hurt, Robert H; Wilcox, Jennifer L; Olson, Edwin S

    2010-08-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  14. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  15. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  16. Radiological characterization around the Afsin-Elbistan coal-fired power plant in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur Cevik; Nevzat Damla; Bahadir Koz; Selim Kaya

    2008-01-15

    A radiological characterization of soil samples around the Afsin-Elbistan coal-fired thermal power plant in the Mediterranean region of Turkey was carried out. Moreover, activity concentrations and chemical analyses of coal samples used in this power plant and fly ash and slag samples originating from coal combustion were measured. For this purpose, coal, fly ash, slag, and soil samples were collected from this region. The analysis shows that the samples include relevant natural radionuclides such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K were 167, 44, and 404 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. Obtained values shows that the average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index for all samples are 258 Bq.kg{sup -1}, 121 nGy.h{sup -1}, 148 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and 0.7, respectively. The environmental effect of natural radionuclides caused by coal-fired power plants was considered to be negligible because the Ra{sub eq} values of the measured samples are generally lower than the limit value of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.y{sup -1}. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work with other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the samples is not significantly different. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion. PMID:12048812

  18. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  19. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  20. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  1. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

  4. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  5. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

  6. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  7. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  8. Advanced coal-fired slagging combustor for the low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, R.C.; Eppich, H.M.; Stankevics, J.O.A.; Reich, J.E.; Beittel, R.; Ake, T.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has recently initiated a major engineering development program called {open_quotes}Combustion 2000{close_quotes} which is geared toward advanced coal-fired electric utility plants. The Riley Stoker Corp. is leading one of three teams developing a Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler System (LEBS), which will be commercial by the end of this decade. The Riley team includes Textron Defense Systems, Reaction Engineering, International, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Research Cottrell, and Tecogen. In LEBS advanced pollution control goals will lower SOx and NOx emissions to 1/3 current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and particulate emissions to 1/2 current NSPS. Riley`s LEBS has selected the 4500 psi 1100{degrees}F double reheat cycle, which will include a high efficiency, once through supercritical Benson boiler.

  9. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  10. 2200 MW SCR installation on new coal-fired utility project

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, D.P.; Uysal, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    NO{sub x} regulations in Germany and Japan in the mid-1980s resulted in the mandatory retrofit of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology on many utility installations. The early 1990s brought SCR technology to small, single unit new coal fired installations around the world. This paper describes the application of high NO{sub x} reduction SCR technology to the first large scale, coal fired, multiple unit new installation. By integrating the SCR design into the initial boiler equipment arrangement and design, significant simplification of equipment arrangement resulted in project cost savings. The four 550 MW units at Taiwan Power`s Taichung 5--8 Power Plant were installed, commissioned (Unit 8 went on line in early 1997), and tested demonstrating the low NO{sub x} emission capabilities of SCR technology.

  11. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  13. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  14. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  15. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  16. Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva

    2006-03-15

    Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

  17. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  18. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2009-10-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emissions of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. For steadily increasing emissions without substantial pollution controls, we find that the net global mean climate forcing ranges from near zero to a substantial negative value, depending on the magnitude of aerosol indirect effects, due to aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. The long-term forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls, with larger values in the case of pollutant controls. The results imply that historical emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period. Those emissions likely led to weak cooling at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and warming in the Southern Hemisphere, however. Subsequent imposition of pollution controls and the switch to low-sulfur coal in some areas kept global SO2 emissions roughly level from 1970 to 2000. Hence during that period, RF due to emissions during those decades and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and likely contributed to rapid global and regional warming. Most recently, construction of coal-fired power plants in China and India has been increasing rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of high-growth rates for another 30 years would lead to near zero to negative global mean climate forcing in the absence of expanded pollution controls, but severely degraded air quality. However, following the Western pattern of high coal usage followed by imposition of pollution controls could lead to accelerated global warming in the future.

  19. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  20. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  1. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

  2. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  3. CONTROL OF WASTE AND WATER POLLUTION FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: SECOND R AND D REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas cleaning waste treatment, utilization, and disposal, as well as water reuse technology for coal-fired utility power plants are discussed. Significant areas treated include: coal-pile drainage; ash characterization and disposal; chemical and physical properties and leachi...

  4. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  5. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions. PMID:26545153

  6. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  7. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China. PMID:19432307

  8. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  10. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

  11. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

  12. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  13. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  14. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2001-07-17

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Three additional biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test (Test 3), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through the center of the burner. In the second test (Test 4), 100% Pratt seam coal was burned in a repeat of the initial test condition of Test 1, to reconcile irregularities in the data from the first test. In the third test (Test 5), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through an external pipe directed toward the exit of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments. Finally, a presentation was made at a Biomass Cofiring Project Review Meeting held at the NETL in Pittsburgh, PA on June 20-21.

  16. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  17. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  18. Radionuclide emissions from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Amin, Y M; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Shyen, A K S; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M; Bradley, D A

    2013-10-01

    Current study concerns measurement of radioactivity levels in areas surrounding a 2420 MW thermal power plant fueled predominantly by bituminous coal. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in onsite bottom-ash were found to be 139 Bq/kg, 108 Bq/kg and 291 Bq/kg, respectively, the levels for these radiolnuclides in soil decreasing with distance from the power plant. At the plant perimeter the respective radionuclide concentrations were 87 Bq/kg, 74 Bq/kg and 297 Bq/kg. In a nearby town, the corresponding concentrations were 104 Bq/kg, 52 Bq/kg and 358 Bq/kg, suggestive of use of TENORM affected soils. The mean radium equivalent activities (Raeq) in soil and ash sample in the town were 205 Bq/kg and 316 Bq/kg, respectively. The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste. For the prevailing levels of exposure and a worst case senario, the predicted committed effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation for intake durations of 1- and 30 years would be 4.2 μSv and 220 μSv, respectively. PMID:23891979

  19. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index <7 %, whereas the RE index for fly ash (9-54%) was comparatively higher and variable. Extremely high Hg was concentrated in gypsum (≤4500 ng/g), which is produced in the WFGD system. Mass balance calculation shows that the shares of Hg in bottom ash, fly ash, WFGD products (gypsum, effluents, sludge), and stack emissions were <2, 17-32, 7-22, and 54-82%, respectively. The Hg-removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010. PMID:26883032

  20. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study

  1. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  2. A steam-water distribution matrix equation of the whole thermal system for coal-fired power plant and its general construction regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chunfa; Yan Shunlin; Fan Hansong; Cao Xianchang; Wu Chunsheng

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the authors provide a steam-water distribution equation of the whole thermal system for coal-fired power plant and its general construction regulations. The use of the equation may simplify traditional thermal calculation of coal-fired power plant. And the equation's analytic character provides a strict base of theory and a new method for energy conservation of coal-fired power plant and especially for the research of local ration analysis for thermal system's energy conservation potential.

  3. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  4. Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers 1: Size distribution and combustion reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.H.; Gibbins, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction-proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on char combustion kinetics based on data in the early and intermediate stages of carbon conversion. A critical fundamental question is whether the small fraction of the fuel carbon that passes unreacted through a boiler is representative of the char during the main portion of the combustion process. This article addresses that question through a detailed characterization of eight carbon-containing fly ash samples acquired from commercial-scale combustion systems. The fly ash characterization included measurement-of joint carbon/size distribution and determination.of the combustion reactivity of the residual carbon. To minimize mineral matter interactions in the reactivity tests, the technique of incipient fluidization was developed for separation of carbon-rich extracts from the inorganic portion of the fly ash. Reactivity measurements were made at 1400--1800 K to represent conditions in pulverized coal fired boilers. Measurements were also made at 700--1100 K to. minimize transport effects and isolate the influence of char chemistry and microstructure. In both temperature regimes, the residual carbon extracts. were significantly less reactive than chars extracted from a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor in the early-to-intermediate stages of combustion. It is concluded that the boiler environment deactivates chars, making high carbon burnout more difficult to achieve than is predicted by existing char combustion kinetic models that were developed from data on the laboratory chars. Finally, the results are used to discuss potential char deactivation mechanisms, both thermal and oxidative, in coal-fired boilers.

  5. Trace element partitioning behavior of coal gangue-fired CFB plant: experimental and equilibrium calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-10-01

    Energy recovery is a promising method for coal gangue utilization, during which the prevention of secondary pollution, especially toxic metal emission, is a significant issue in the development of coal gangue utilization. In the present study, investigation into trace element partitioning behavior from a coal gangue-fired power plant in Shanxi province, China, has been conducted. Besides the experimental analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was also conducted to help the further understanding on the effect of different parameters. Results showed that Hg, As, Be, and Cd were highly volatile elements in the combustion of coal gangue, which were notably enriched in fly ash and may be emitted into the environment via the gas phase. Cr and Mn were mostly non-volatile and were enriched in the bottom ash. Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, and Ni were semi-volatile elements and were enriched in the fly ash to varying degrees. Equilibrium calculations show that the air/fuel ratio and the presence of Cl highly affect the element volatility. The presence of mineral phases, such as aluminosilicates, depresses the volatility of elements by chemical immobilization and competition in Cl. The coal gangue, fly ash, and bottom ash all passed the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and their alkalinity buffers the acidity of the solution and contributes to the low solubility of the trace elements. PMID:26006077

  6. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  7. Emission spectroscopy for coal-fired cyclone furnace diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A; Boll, David E; Smith, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Using a spectrograph and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, ultraviolet and visible light emission spectra were obtained from a coal-burning electric utility's cyclone furnaces operating at either fuel-rich or fuel-lean conditions. The aim of this effort is to identify light emission signals that can be related to a cyclone furnace's operating condition in order to adjust its air/fuel ratio to minimize pollutant production. Emission spectra at the burner and outlet ends of cyclone furnaces were obtained. Spectra from all cyclone burners show emission lines for the trace elements Li, Na, K, and Rb, as well as the molecular species OH and CaOH. The Ca emission line is detected at the burner end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces but is not detected at the outlet ends of either furnace type. Along with the disappearance of Ca is a concomitant increase in the CaOH signal at the outlet end of both types of furnaces. The OH signal strength is in general stronger when viewing at the burner end rather than the exhaust end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces, probably due to high, non-equilibrium amounts of OH present inside the furnace. Only one molecular species was detected that could be used as a measure of air/fuel ratio: MgOH. It was detected at the burner end of fuel-rich cyclone furnaces but not detected in fuel-lean cyclone furnaces. More direct markers of air/fuel ratio, such as CO and O2 emission, were not detected, probably due to the generally weak nature of molecular emission relative to ambient blackbody emission present in the cyclone furnaces, even at ultraviolet wavelengths. PMID:14661846

  8. Development of mercury control technology for coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, D.C.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    The emission of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) from various industrial processes has emerged as a major environmental issue that was singled out for particular attention in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In particular, mercury emissions are the subject of several current EPA studies because of concerns over possible serious effects on human health. Some of those emissions originate in the combustion of coal, which contains trace amounts of mercury, and are likely to be the subject of control requirements in the relatively near future. Data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at operating electric-power plants have shown that conventional flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies are not very effective in controlling emissions of mercury in general, and are particularly poor at controlling emissions of elemental mercury. This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on improving the capture of mercury in flue gas through the use of dry sorbents and/or wet scrubbers. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing elemental mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon; chemically treated mineral substrates have the potential to be developed into effective and economical mercury sorbents; sorbents treated with different chemicals respond in significantly different ways to changes in flue-gas temperature.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  11. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  12. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference

  13. Design practices for multiple-seam room-and-pillar mines. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chekan, G.J.; Listak, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective mine planning and design is essential for avoiding ground problems related to multiple-seam interactions. The U.S. Bureau of Mines, as part of its mission to improve coal conservation and utilization, has been investigating multiple-seam room-and-pillar designs to increase coal recovery and reduce interactions between operations. This report presents design practices when using room-and-pillar methods in the multiple-seam environment and is a review of relevant literature on multiple-seam ground control, mine planning, and mine design. Its objective is to provide mine planners and operators with practical guidelines and information to design sale and productive mines.

  14. Neural network predictions of slagging and fouling in pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Smouse, S.; Chi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks were trained to relate the occurrence and characteristics of troublesome slagging and fouling deposits in utility boilers to coal properties, boiler design features, and boiler operating conditions. The data used in this effort were from a survey of utility boilers conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories in an Electric Power Research Institute project. Two networks were developed in this study, one for slagging and one for fouling, to predict ash deposition in various types of boilers (wall-, opposed wall-, tangentially, and cyclone-fired) that fire bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Both networks predicted the frequency of deposition problems, physical nature (or state) of the deposit, and the thickness of the deposit. Since deposit characteristics vary with boiler location and operating conditions, the worst documented cases of ash deposition were used to train the neural networks. Comparison of actual and predicted deposition showed very good agreement in general. The relative importance of some of the input variables on the predicted deposit characteristics were assessed in a sensitivity analysis. Also, the slagging and fouling characteristics of a blend of two coals with significant different deposition characteristics were predicted to demonstrate a practical application of developed neural networks.

  15. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  16. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  17. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  18. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  19. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

    2002-08-01

    For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: <1% in the bottom ash, 49% in the pulverized fuel ash (ash collected in the ESP), 16.6% in the FGD gypsum, 9% in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%. PMID:12184689

  20. Potentials of Biomass Co-Combustion in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werther, J.

    The present work provides a survey on the potentials of co-combustion of biomass and biogenic wastes in large-scale coal-fired power plants. This allows an energetic utilization at a high level of efficiency which is not obtainable in small-scale dedicated biomass combustors. Co-firing at low percentages of the thermal power (typically below 5-10 %) avoids the characteristic operating problems of biomass combustion, i.e. ash sintering and fouling of heat transfer surfaces. Co-firing of biogenic wastes is already widely practiced in Germany, non-waste biomass like forest residues are for subsidy reasons combusted in small dedicated mono-combustion plants. A future increase of co-combustion may be associated with the upgrading of biogenic wastes with high water content to biofuels by drying. Such biofuels could substitute more expensive coal and save on CO2 emission certificates. In the more distant future biomass co-combustion may help in the CO2 scrubbing process by lowering the target level of CO2 absorption efficiency.

  1. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  3. Application of water mist for the control of fuel-rich fires in model coal mine entries

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, I.M.; McPherson, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A fuel-rich fire exists when the quantity of fuel exceeds the oxygen available to support complete combustion. The transition of a mine fire from Oxygen-rich to Fuel-rich combustion, at this time, represents a point-of-no-return in the fire fighting efforts. Once the transition has been made to fuel-rich the fire can spread at a rate 6 to 10 times as fast as in the oxygen-rich state. Utilizing available technology the fire fighters are left to seal the fuel-rich fire as the only technique to extinguish it. In order to minimize the devastating effects of a fuel-rich fire it is important to understand the means by which the fire becomes fuel-rich and by what means the fire may be returned to an oxygen-rich state. This paper covers: the development mechanism of a fuel-rich fire in a coal mine entry and the physical and chemical effects of applying water to a fire. Experiments concerning these matters have been conducted in a 30 cm square wind tunnel constructed at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University as a model coal mine entry. This paper also addresses the results obtained in testing application of a water mist to fuel-rich fires in this model. These tests have centered on the development profile of a fuel-rich fire in a duct and demonstrate a means of regaining control of a fuel-rich fire by returning it to an oxygen-rich state.

  4. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes. PMID:19875156

  5. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  6. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  7. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  8. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  9. Oxidation of mercury across selective catalytic reduction catalysts in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Senior, Constance L

    2006-01-01

    A kinetic model for predicting the amount of mercury (Hg) oxidation across selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems in coal-fired power plants was developed and tested. The model incorporated the effects of diffusion within the porous SCR catalyst and the competition between ammonia and Hg for active sites on the catalyst. Laboratory data on Hg oxidation in simulated flue gas and slipstream data on Hg oxidation in flue gas from power plants were modeled. The model provided good fits to the data for eight different catalysts, both plate and monolith, across a temperature range of 280-420 degrees C, with space velocities varying from 1900 to 5000 hr(-1). Space velocity, temperature, hydrochloric acid content of the flue gas, ratio of ammonia to nitric oxide, and catalyst design all affected Hg oxidation across the SCR catalyst. The model can be used to predict the impact of coal properties, catalyst design, and operating conditions on Hg oxidation across SCRs. PMID:16499143

  10. Oil-fired cycling station converted to base-loaded, coal-burning operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.; Steinbach, P.

    1982-04-01

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has been able to modify its oil-fired Brandon Shores plant while under construction to a base-loaded plant able to burn either oil or coal. Utility planners had the foresight prior to the 1973 embargo to see advantages in a dual-fuel capability. Brandon Shores has experienced the same financing and fluctuating load problems as other projects, but it has evolved into a facility suited for the 1980s and 90s. The original plan included space to handle coal and wastes as well as specifying dual-fuel equipment throughout to minimize future modifications. During one construction delay, the utility initiated a preventative-maintenance program comparable to that of a nuclear plant that has been continued. Extensive environmental planning and interaction with the public have avoided other costly delays. (DCK)

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  12. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E; Radziwon, A S

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  13. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Vitrinite reflectance of sinkhole coals, east central Missouri fire clay district

    SciTech Connect

    Laudon, R.C. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    East central Missouri contains numerous sinkholes many of which are filled with commercial quantities of fire clay and some contain small amounts of coal. Vitrinite reflectance averages from 513 samples taken from eleven of these coals ranged from 0.71 to 0.78. Data were remarkably consistent and no local trends were observed. Using Barker and Goldstein (1990) and Barker and Pawlewicz (1986) temperature correlations, these measurements suggest that the coals have been heated to temperatures on the order of 108 C to 128 C (average = 116). These temperatures are considered anomalously high when compared against known geothermal gradients and burial depths for these rocks. The temperatures suggest that the sinkhole coals have been heated by some thermal event, possibly associated with Mississippi Valley type mineralization. These temperatures are consistent with regional trends in the state. This data, when combined with other vitrinite reflectance and fluid inclusion data (right), suggest that southwest Missouri (Tristate) and southeast Missouri (Viburnum Trend) were hot spots, and that temperatures decrease regionally away from these two areas.

  15. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, H.L.

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. PMID:19350920

  17. Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter.

    PubMed

    Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

    2003-01-01

    A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The "gross" thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concrete and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. PMID:12781221

  18. Control of fan erosion in coal-fired power plants, Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, E.F.; Albertin, L.; Chamberlin, R.M.; D'Amico, N.J.; El Masri, M.A.; Glasser, A.D.; Menguturk, M.; Rane, A.; Racki, R.; Petlevich, W.J.

    1988-11-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute contracted with Westinghouse to address the problems electric utilities experience caused by fan erosion. The objective of this phase of the research program was to understand how to control erosion damage to coal-fired power plant fans by: Developing fan design modifications that raise the tolerance of fans to fly-ash erosion and that simultaneously improve fan performance. Understanding why fly ashes vary in their erosivities and developing the ability to predict the erosivity of the fly ash from core borings of the fuel to be fired; Evaluating the performance of erosion protection systems we have installed on a number of fans suffering severe fly-ash erosion damage; Developing a method to armor centrifugal fans against fly-ash erosion while providing for easy field replacement of the blade liners; and Developing a computer model that calculates particle trajectories through the inlet box of a fan. 18 refs., 74 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  20. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  1. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  2. Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

  3. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley R.; Fry, Andrew R.; Senior, Constance L.; Shim, Hong Shig; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost; Shaddix, Christopher; Tree, Dale

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  4. Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-05-01

    Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

  5. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Fourth quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: Steam =20,000 lb/hr; Temperature = 353 F (saturated); Pressure= 125 psig; Steam quality = 98.5%

  6. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  7. Co-firing of paper mill sludge and coal in an industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Keng-Tung; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2002-01-01

    Co-firing of coal and paper mill sludge was conducted in a 103 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler to investigate the effect of the sludge feeding rate on emissions of SOx, NOx, and CO. The preliminary results show that emissions of SOx and Nx decrease with increasing sludge feeding rate, but CO shows the reverse tendency due to the decrease in combustion temperature caused by a large amount of moisture in the sludge. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The combustion ashes could be recycled as feed materials in the cement manufacturing process. PMID:12099502

  8. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  9. Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species

    SciTech Connect

    Will-Wolf, S.

    1980-01-01

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

  10. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  12. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  13. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  14. The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y.

    2006-01-15

    The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

  15. Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

  16. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  17. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  19. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  20. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M