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1

Geomorphology of coal seam fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

2012-02-01

2

Prevention, control and\\/or extinguishment of coal seam fires using cellular grout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fires are difficult and persistent problems throughout the world wherever coal is at or near the surface. Coal fires can be associated with mining activities including underground and surface mine operations, coal stockpiles and coal waste piles, and they can also occur in unmined areas along coal seam outcrops.Environmental safety and health hazards are posed by coal fires in

Gary J Colaizzi

2004-01-01

3

Exemplary geophysical investigations on coal seam fires in Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" different geophysical methods have been applied. The investigation area was the coal fire district of Wuda, located in the south-central part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Northern China. The Wuda coalfield is bordering in southeast with the Helan Shan (Helan Mountains), in the east with the mountains of the Ordos Massif, while in the west and north with the Gobi desert. It is a gentle north-south striking structural syncline with an aerial extent of 40 km2 and with elevations ranging between 1100 and 1300 m above sea level. The survey area is covered mainly by sandstone. Up to 18 mined coal seams extend to greater depths varying from a few metres down to several hundreds of metres below surface. The objective of subsequent geophysical surveys was to detect areas affected by coal seam fires by means of physical parameters acquired over the burning and burnt coal seams, to find out which methods are useful for fire detection, to accompany the extinguishing process and to control successful extinction. Airborne methods used are helicopter borne electromagnetics (HEM) and magnetics. Ground surveys for measuring transient electromagnetics, magnetics, ground penetrating radar and near surface temperature were carried out in selected parts of the helicopter survey. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an ideal method to detect voids in depth less than 50 m. An important point to extinguish a coal fire is to know the paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. Some crevices which are potential paths for oxygen can be determined by GPR due to the resolution of the chosen frequency. The GPR system applied was built by GSSI and utilized for three different antennae length. The centre frequencies are 40, 80 and 200 MHz. A 200 MHz system was used to get detailed information close to the surface and a 40 MHz antenna was used to get maximum penetration depth. The heat and fluid transport included in the burning process presumably changes the permittivity of the rock which affects the attenuation of the radar signal and reduces the conductivity of the rock. This enables GPR measurements to discriminate burning zones from intact zones. The border line of the fire zone in the southern and the northern part of the investigated fire zone could be found. At the burning areas it was possible to discriminate different layers in the subsurface. Anywhere else the soil was highly conductive and full of clefts. The clefts were visible in the radar data only close to the surface. Magnetic was measured area-wide with a QuickTracker (GSM-19T) console from GEM Systems over different fire zones and shows positive anomalies in the coal fire area. The stratigraphy in the area shows no magnetic rocks above the coal seam, which leads to the interpretation that the positive magnetic anomalies are caused through the thermal induced magnetism of the stones lying above the coal seam. Over 100 rock samples (Sandstone, Coal and clinkers) has been taken for in-situ determination of the magnetic susceptibility. The positive magnetic anomaly is distinguished by the high magnetisation of the clinkers and therefore important for the detection of coal fires. TEM measurements were performed along profile lines across the fire zone or at single localities selected in the actual area. The spacing of the TEM sites was adapted to the terrain. Profiles crossing the area where the hot burning zone can be found, the TEM curves change their shape clearly. The vertical resistivity section shows a highly conductive layer which seems to coincides with the thermally affected coal seam. Temperature variations are most extreme at the surface of the soil. The peak temperature below the surface occurs about 2 hours after the maximum ambient air temperatures are attained. Temperature measurements in the gas emanating vents showed intense fluctuations not directly related to meteorological condit

Lambrecht, A.; Meyer, U.; Rüter, H.; Gundelach, V.; Lindner, H.; Schaumann, G.; Schlömer, S.; Guangliang, L.; Bing, K.; Jianjun, W.

2009-04-01

4

Dustiness of Different Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical comparison of the dust exposures of coal miners with identical occupations in Pittsburgh, Pocahontas, Freeport, and Kittanning seams was conducted. Results indicated that, in some cases, occupations have different dust exposures in different...

F. E. McCall R. J. Seibel

1974-01-01

5

Evaluation of structural properties of coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineability and coal processing costs are influenced largely by the structural and physical properties of the coal seam. The mining process involves coal cutting, pillar support, crushing, and floating. A correlation between the rank, ash content, and coal strength\\/stiffness is discussed. The coefficient of variability of rebound tests on the face of various coal seams are compared with those

Szwilski

1987-01-01

6

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

7

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

8

Evaluation of structural properties of coal seams  

SciTech Connect

A correlation between the rank, ash content and coal seam discontinuities and coal strength/stiffness is discussed. Rebound hammers were used to evaluate the strength properties of two coal seams. The coefficient of variability of the rebound tests are compared with those of laboratory compressive strength tests by other investigators. 8 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

Szwilski, A.B.

1985-01-01

9

Evaluation of Structural Properties of Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A correlation between the rank, ash content and coal seam discontinuities and coal strength/stiffness is discussed. Rebound hammers were used to evaluate the strength properties of two coal seams. The coefficient of variability of the rebound tests are co...

A. B. Szwilski

1985-01-01

10

Evaluation of structural properties of coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between the rank, ash content and coal seam discontinuities and coal strength\\/stiffness is discussed. Rebound hammers were used to evaluate the strength properties of two coal seams. The coefficient of variability of the rebound tests are compared with those of laboratory compressive strength tests by other investigators. 8 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

Szwilski

1985-01-01

11

Evaluation of structural properties of coal seams  

SciTech Connect

The mineability and coal processing costs are influenced largely by the structural and physical properties of the coal seam. The mining process involves coal cutting, pillar support, crushing, and floating. A correlation between the rank, ash content, and coal strength/stiffness is discussed. The coefficient of variability of rebound tests on the face of various coal seams are compared with those of laboratory compressive strength tests by other investigators.

Szwilski, A.B.

1987-02-01

12

Method of increasing the permeability of a coal seam  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of increasing the rate of methane production from a subterranean coal seam penetrated by a wellbore. It comprises: introducing fluid that causes coal to swell into the subterranean coal seam through the wellbore at a pressure above ambient reservoir pressure at the wellbore and below a fracture pressure of the coal seam; maintaining the injected fluid in the coal seam in a pressurized condition so that the fluid will contact the coal seam; and relieving the pressure within the coal seam by permitting the fluid to flow out from the wellbore prior to the pressure within the coal seam decreasing to a stabilized pressure.

Puri, R.; Yee, D.; Buxton, T.S.; Majahan, O.

1991-05-14

13

Method for producing natural gas from a coal seam  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of producing natural gas from a coal seam, comprising: (a) producing natural gas and liquid from a coal seam through at least one well; (b) ceasing the production of natural gas and liquid from the coal seam and injecting natural gas into the coal seam through at least one well at a pressure higher than coal seam pressure but lower than fracture pressures of immediately adjacent formations above or below the coal seam; and (c) subsequently producing natural gas and liquid from the coal seam through at least one well.

Puri, R.; Yee, D.; Seidle, J.P.

1988-07-12

14

Developments in Coal Seam Gas Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful development of coal seam gas (CSG) resources in low-rank coalfields such as the Powder River Basin has raised interest in CSG from low rank coal in New Zealand. Kenham Holdings Limited holds 12 Petroleum Exploration Permits (PEP) covering some of New Zealand's low-rank coal and lignite resources and has engaged CRL Energy Limited to assist in the systematic evaluation

S. J. Pope; D. A. Manhire; J. G. Pope; M. E. Taulis; S. Hayton

15

Measuring in-seam coal cutting forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Bureau of Mines has developed a portable in-seam tester for direct in situ measurement of coal cutting forces. The device and its method of operation are described, and preliminary results obtained with it are presented. It has been shown that rapid in situ data can be obtained on any coal face. This will enable mining machinery performance to

W. W. Roepke; J. C. Church

1983-01-01

16

Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

Dospoy, R.L.

1991-01-01

17

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23

18

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative \\

T. Wündrich; A. A. Korten; U. H. Barth

2009-01-01

19

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

20

Longwall Mining Principles for Safely Working Steep Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the principles of safely working steep coal seams using longwall mining methods. The report presents the state of the art and identifies the problems that result from seam inclination. Details are given on foreign longwall faces ach...

R. F. J. Adam W. J. Douglas B. J. Reese

1981-01-01

21

Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

Clark, G.

2009-04-01

22

30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...face equipment; coal seams above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501...face equipment; coal seams above water table. [Statutory Provision...in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been...

2010-07-01

23

30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...face equipment; coal seams above water table. 75.501 Section 75.501...face equipment; coal seams above water table. [Statutory Provision...in coal seams located above the water table and which has not been...

2009-07-01

24

Low coal operators profit from in-seam mining  

SciTech Connect

High productivity and the ability to mine clean coal have allowed a small West Virginia producer to remain competitive in a tough coal market. Craft Coal Co., near Monterville, uses an auger-type continuous miner and continuous haulage system that extract only the 40-in. coal seam and eliminate the need to remove roof or bottom rock.

Mason, R.H.

1983-12-01

25

CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples

S. W. Hedges; Yee Soong; J. R. McCarthy Jones; D. K. Harrison; G. A. Irdi; E. A. Frommell; R. M. Dilmore; P. J. Pique; T. D Brown

2005-01-01

26

Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the

Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

2007-01-01

27

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to

Jianzhong Zhang; Claudia Kuenzer

2007-01-01

28

Shield support selection based on geometric characteristics of coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most initial investment in longwall face equipping is the cost of powered support. Selection of proper shields for powered\\u000a supports is based on load, geometric characterization of coal seams and economical considerations.

K. Goshtasbi; K. Oraee; F. Khakpour-yeganeh

2006-01-01

29

Description of Wyoming coal fields and seam analyses  

SciTech Connect

Introductory material describe coal-bearing areas, coal-bearing rocks, and the structural geology of coal-bearing areas, discussing coal rank, proximate analyses, sulfur content, heat value, trace elements, carbonizing properties, coking coal, coking operations, in-situ gasification, coal mining, and production. The paper then gives descriptions of the coal seams with proximate analyses, where available, located in the following areas: Powder River coal basin, Green River region, Hanna field, Hams Fork coal region, and Bighorn coal basin. Very brief descriptions are given of the Wind River coal basin, Jackson Hole coal field, Black Hills coal region, Rock Creek coal field, and Goshen Hole coal field. Finally coal resources, production, and reserves are discussed. 76 references.

Glass, G.B.

1983-01-01

30

Research and practice on fluctuation water injection technology at low permeability coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of poor affusion effect on low permeability coal seam, the paper analyzes the micro process of the coal seam water infusion in wetting coal and determines the main factors affecting coal seam water infusion. The permeability of the NO.3 coal seam in east working face of Xingcun coal mine by MTS815.03 servo-controlled rock mechanical

Wei-min Cheng; Wen Nie; Gang Zhou; Yanbin Yu; Youying Ma; Jiao Xue

31

Unconventional staggered distance simultaneous mining theory in extremely close and thin coal seams and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of extremely close thin coal seams is featured of great interaction and it is hard to realize the simultaneous mining of upper and lower coal seams. This paper defines the extremely close coal seam and studies the unconventional staggered distance simultaneous mining in pressure-relief region formed by locating the lower coal mining face in the upper face. The

Yuan Yong; Tu Shi-hao; Lu Lian-ning; Ma Xiao-tao; Gao Jie

2009-01-01

32

Ground Penetrating Radar Response Over Coal Seam Discontinuities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal is one of the most important sources of energy. There are a number of problems associated with the mining of coal; one of them is the detection of unknown structural features encountered in coal measures. The commonly occurring structural features include fault, wedge out, seam splitting, dykes, cavities both water and air filled. The geophysical techniques, which are extensively used by the coal mining industry, are surface reflection seismic, dipole-dipole resistivity and geophysical borehole logging. The resolution of GPR for the shallow subsurface features is higher and the survey is easier to carry out in comparison of other methods. In this paper we map the coal seam discontinuities with the help of GPR data. GPR response over coal seam discontinuities viz., fault, wedge out, seam splitting, dykes, cavities both water and air filled, prevailing in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields has been obtained using GPRMAX (ver 1.5) software. The source pulse is a Ricker wavelet of frequency 50 MHz and sampling interval is 0.23587 nanosec. Here we use the relative permittivity values as 3.0 for dry sandstone, 6.0 for coal, 10.0 for shale and 80.0 for water whereas the relative permeability is assumed to be 1.0 for all the media. The conductivity values are taken as 0.000010 S/m for dry sandstone, 0.001S/m for coal, 0.01 S/m for shale and 0.1 S/m for water. The obtained response is contaminated with diffraction noise. Time migration has been carried out with help of MATLAB tools, to overcome the diffraction noise present in the radargram. The obtained GPR response after time migration helps in identifying these coal seam discontinuities prevalent in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields of India.

Verma, S.; Srivastava, S.; Bhattacharya, B. B.

2007-05-01

33

Rock Creek Methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Annual Report, January 1989-December 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a joint venture developing drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. During the report period, much well testing was con...

F. X. Dodscha A. L. Headley S. W. Lambert J. B. Lanier J. C. Robb

1990-01-01

34

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2013-04-01

35

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

36

Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site

R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

37

Multislice mining for thick Western coal seams. Information Circular/1990  

SciTech Connect

Multislice mining methods were analyzed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to determine their application to Western U.S. thick coal seams; ground control, geology and costs were considered. Multislice mining is used in widely varying seam conditions worldwide, including flat seams too thick to mine in a single pass, pitching thick seams, and seams containing a rock parting. Longwall multislice methods predominate, but room-and-pillar variants also exist. The initial use of the method in western seams is planned at a deep Colorado mine, where a rock parting will be used to separate two slices mined by longwall. Ground control and spontaneous combustion are major hazards associated with multislice mining. A well-consolidated upper slice gob can reduce ground control problems and provide a seal against spontaneous combustion. Geologic analysis indicates that the consolidation of the gob depends on the composition of the upper slice roof, the presence of water, and sufficient overburden pressure. A geologically competent intermediate rock parting can also reduce ground control problems and seal against spontaneous combustion.

Hackett, T.D.; Boreck, D.L.; Clarke, D.R.

1990-01-01

38

Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery  

SciTech Connect

Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

2007-07-15

39

Some geomechanical aspects of gas recovery from coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of stress and pressure fields during gas recovery from coal seams is studied on the basis of a three-dimensional\\u000a geomechanical model of coherent filtration. It is shown that one can change the stressed-strained state of rock mass and control\\u000a purposefully the rate of process by creating an elliptical cavity in the vicinity of borehole face; the axes of

L. A. Nazarov; L. A. Nazarova

1999-01-01

40

Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N. [Rostov State University, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

2006-01-15

41

Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

Olovyanny, A.G. [All Russian Science Research Institute for Mine Surveying, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2005-02-01

42

Planning, Procedure and Evaluation of Flow Pressure Measurements in Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of the pore space characteristics of coal is highly necessary for coal winning or gas production from carboniferons rocks under the aspects of safety, technology, and economy. The applicability of flow pressure measurements in coal seams is inve...

O. Gaminger

1985-01-01

43

30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. 75.501 ...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

2013-07-01

44

30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...

2013-07-01

45

In-mine geoelectric investigations for detecting tectonic disturbances in coal seam structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of in-mine seam-sounding and transillumination (geoelectric tomography) for the detection of tectonic disturbances of coal seams were developed by the Department of Geophysics of the University of Miskolc in the 1970-80's with the effective support of the former "Borsod" Coal Mines Ltd. The paper gives an overview about the theory of seam-sounding and a special geoelectric tomographic inversion, and introduces the in-mine geoelectric seam-sounding and transillumination measurement systems using vertical electrode dipoles. In the second part the paper, the results of an in-mine geoelectric measurement are presented, which was carried out in order to detect tectonic disturbances of the Miocene aged coal seams situated in Slovakia. As results of the geophysical investigation, the authors forecasted the tectonic features in the coal seam. The company confirmed the results by independent information about seam disturbances and tectonic features arising from the excavation of the investigated area.

Gyulai, Ákos; Dobróka, Mihály; Ormos, Tamás; Turai, Endre; Sasvári, Tibor

2013-10-01

46

Research of Dust Control Technology of Coal Seam Infusion with Long Borehole Adding Infiltration Stick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal seam infusion technology is an effective measure for coal dust control on working face. At present in China, long borehole water injection technology is widely used. But due to the limited conditions, it has not-ideal effect with pure water. Under the premise of long borehole coal seam infusion technology, the experiment was carried out in the 15101 working face

Zhi-an Huang; Ying-hua Zhang; Jian-hua Gong; Li-ming Jiang; Meng-yu Huang

2011-01-01

47

Excavation of the Partial Seam CRIP underground coal gasification test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1983, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted the Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company mine near Centralia, Washington. The test, in the subbituminous Big Dirty coal seam, lasted 30 days during which time 1400 cubic meters of coal were consumed from two injection\\/production well combinations. In

R. J. Cena; J. A. Britten; C. B. Thorsness

1987-01-01

48

Characteristics of Temperature Field during the Oxygen-enriched Underground Coal Gasification in Steep Seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the underground coal gasification model test in steep coal seams, the changing characteristics and effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, moving-point gasification, backward gasification methods on the underground gasification process, and gas quality were discussed. Experiments showed that, under the pure oxygen gasification, the rising rate for the roof temperature of the coal seams to be gasified is

L. H. Yang; X. Zhang; S. Liu

2009-01-01

49

Coal-water slurries: a seam-to-steam strategy  

SciTech Connect

Moderately loaded coal-water fuels (CWF) and coal-water transportation slurries are similar in design philosophy, and an integrated coal-water slurry system has been demonstrated with a coal-designed boiler. The primary emphasis in highly loaded coal-water fuels is achieving maximum coal content, a strategy which requires careful grinding and the use of expansive additives. Detailed technical and economic comparisons of the two CWF technologies have not been made, and it is not clear that the intensive emphasis on proprietary, highly loaded coal-water fuels is justified. In any event, the question, How clean is clean., must be answered and efficient mineral removal processes must be developed and/or existing ones modified to remove the ash constraints that prevent the use of coal-water fuels in many retrofit applications. This step will enhance the seam-to-steam strategy by providing a key element in an integrated clean coal-water slurry system. 6 figures, 10 tables.

Marnell, P.; Poundstone, W.N.; Halvorsen, W.

1983-06-01

50

Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world  

SciTech Connect

Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

2008-01-15

51

Coal seam methane is one of the hotter current plays  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how exploitation and development of coal seams for methane gas recovery has caught the fancy of the petroleum industry. This resource has the potential to add trillions of cubic feet of marketable gas in the future. Shallow coalbed provinces are estimated to constitute around a 400 to 900-Tcf resource with 10 to 100 Tcf of potentially recoverable reserves. Current U.S. gas reserves are 168 Tcf, excluding Alaska (25 Tcf). Coalbed methane resources occur over a large portion of the United States with 37 states containing some amount of coalbed methane. The author shows the major provinces for coalbed methane.

Crouse, P.C. (Philip C. Crouse and Assoc., Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

1989-11-01

52

Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site of the earlier (1981 to 1982) large-block experiments. The primary goals of the experiment were to test the CRIP concept and to further evaluate the site as a potential for the future development of UCG.

Cena, R.J.; Hill, R.W.; Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.

1984-06-01

53

Thin seam miner\\/trench mining concepts for Illinois Basin surface coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid surface\\/underground mining concept, trench-auger mining is an attempt to increase the depth to which coal seams can be surface mined economically by reducing the amount of overburden which must be removed and reclaimed. In this concept the coal seam is first exposed by digging a series of parallel trenches 400 to 1200 ft apart with conventional surface mining

R. D. Caudle; V. Lall

1985-01-01

54

Rates of adsorption of methane on Pocahontas and Pittsburgh seam coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determines rates for adsorption and desorption of methane as a function of particle size and temperature, using coals from the Pocahontas No. 3 seam (lvb) from the Bishop mine of western Virginia, and the Pittsburgh seam (hvab) from the Pursglove No. 15 mine of northern West Virginia. For a given coal sample and temperature, the rate curves for adsorption and

L. J. E. Hofer; J. Bayer; R. B. Anderson

1966-01-01

55

Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 10, Number 2, October 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in the area of methane from coal seams is directed toward adapting and improving techniques for producing natural gas from coal and associated strata. Verification field experiments are being conducted at various sites to validate concepts for ge...

R. A. McBane S. D. Scgwichow T. E. Lombardi D. A. Thompson

1992-01-01

56

Coal Firing Installations 1987. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary of the papers presented at the VGB conference 'Coal Firing Installations 1987'. The individual topics are: Coal dust combustion in industrial steam generators - theory and operating results. Evaluation of optimization measures involvin...

1987-01-01

57

Numerical study on the underground coal gasification for inclined seams  

SciTech Connect

According to the characteristics for combustion and gasification reactions occurring in the gasification gallery, the mathematical functional relationship between the chemical reaction rate and every influencing factor is studied. The dynamic nonlinear coupling mathematical models on underground coal gasification of inclined seams are established. The determination methods of major model parameters are introduced. Additionally, the control volume method is adopted to find the numerical solution to the mathematical models. The patterns of development and variation for temperature field, concentration field and pressure field in gasification panel are studied. On the basis of the model test, calculation results are analyzed. From the distribution of temperature field, its calculation value is a little higher than the experimental one, with the relative error of every measuring point virtually within 17%. Research shows that the experiment value of gas heat value and calculated value take on a good conformity; due to the influence of temperature, in the high temperature zone, the change gradient of the experiment value for concentration field of gas compositions is greater than that of the calculation value. The simulated results indicate that the relative error of the pressure field calculation is 4.13%-12.69% and 8.25%-17.47%, respectively, 7 h and 45 h after the ignition. The drop rate for the fluid pressure is 6 01 % and 10. 91 %, respectively. Research shows that the simulated values conform with experimental values comparatively well, which demonstrates that the numerical simulation on the 'three fields' in underground coal gasification is correct.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Jiangsu (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

2005-11-01

58

Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15–17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized

Guijian Liu; Pingyue Yang; Zicheng Peng; Chen-Lin Chou

2004-01-01

59

Centralia Partial SEAM CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) Underground Coal Gasification Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington...

R. J. Cena R. W. Hill D. R. Stephens C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

60

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and recovered CBM, the program includes additional monitoring wells to further examine horizontal and vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. This is the fifth Technical Progress report for the project. Progress this period was focused on reclamation of the north access road and north well site, and development of revised drilling methods. This report provides a concise overview of project activities this period and plans for future work.

William A. Williams

2004-03-01

61

Geochemistry of autochthonous and hypautochthonous siderite-dolomite coal-balls (Foord Seam, Bolsovian, Upper Carboniferous), Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 11–13 m thick Foord Seam in the fault-bounded Stellarton Basin, Nova Scotia, is the thickest seam from the Euramerican floral province known to contain coal-balls. In addition to the first discovery of autochthonous coal-balls in the Foord Seam, Nova Scotia, its shale parting also contains hypautochthonous coal-balls with histologically preserved plant structures. The coal-ball discovery helps fill a stratigraphic

Erwin L. Zodrow; Paul C. Lyons; Michael A. Millay

1996-01-01

62

Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Annual report, January 1991December 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Research Project develops drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. Wells P6 and P7 were stimulated in the Mary Lee group with water and cross-linked gel treatments. Production from the Mary Lee peaked at 120 MCFD and 10 MCFD for P6 and P7, respectively. Restimulation of

F. X. Dodscha; A. H. Durden; V. A. Hollub; C. L. McKinnon; J. L. Saulsberry

1992-01-01

63

Thermal and structural properties of the coal in the Big Seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the development of a cavity growth model for underground coal gasification, it was necessary to determine the thermal and structural properties of the coals involved in UCG field tests. A limited number of tests was carried out on coal from the Big Seam near Centralia, Washington. These included measurement of specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion,

1984-01-01

64

Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvania\\/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern

J. C. Hower; J. D. Pollock; J. G. Klapheke

1986-01-01

65

Field trials of aquifer protection in longwall mining of shallow coal seams in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale mining of shallow coal seams has a significant impact on the overlying aquifers and surface ecological environment. To protect the aquifers and maximize the coal resource recovery, field trials were undertaken during the operation of the LW32201 in Bulianta coal mine, Shendong, China. With a severely weathered rock (SWR) layer and two key strata (KS) in the overlying

Dongsheng Zhang; Gangwei Fan; Yude Liu; Liqiang Ma

2010-01-01

66

Hydraulic support stability control of fully mechanized top coal caving face with steep coal seams based on instable critical angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzed the support instable mode of sliding, tripping, and so on, and believed the key point of the support stability control\\u000a of fully mechanized coal caving face with steep coal seams was to maintain that the seam true angle was less than the hydraulic\\u000a support instability critical angle. Through the layout of oblique face, the improvement of support setting load,

Shi-hao Tu; Yong Yuan; Nai-liang Li; Feng-jin Dou; Fang-tian Wang

2008-01-01

67

Investigation of problems and benefits of underground multiple seam coal mining. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that over 156 billion tons of coal in the United States are amenable to multiple-seam mining. However, currently most operations mine only a single seam, and in the past indiscriminate practices have sterilized large amounts of coal in contiguous seams. In the interests of conservation, it is imperative that procedures be followed that enhance resource recovery. The total life-cycle costs of mining are site specific because of the wide variations in land acquisition costs, capital expenditures, resource recovery, labor productivity, and geological conditions. However, under similar circumstances the costs of single- and multiple-seam mining are within 5 percent, using the best available technology. Improvements in present methods could lower costs of multiple-seam mining further, making it more competitive. Ground control (entailing roof support, bumps, and subsidence) is the most important technical problem encountered in multiple-seam mining, mainly caused by remnant pillars. However, the nature and thickness of partings and overburden, as well as the type of floor, roof, and coal play a significant role. Ventilation control to prevent air leakage and gas accumulation, haulage difficulties because of floor undulations and roof falls, and fear of water inundation from an abandoned upper seam are other problems to be considered. Spontaneous heating may be experienced in some western coals. Changes in regulations that streamline permitting procedures and encourage multiple-seam mining need to be introduced. Union attitudes that permit better coordination between seams should be fostered. A research program addressing some of these problems is presented.

Singh, M.M.; Dunn, M.F.

1981-10-01

68

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and CBM produced, the program includes a plan to monitor horizontal migration of CO{sub 2} within the lower seam. This is the second Technical Progress report for the project. Progress to date has been focused on pre-construction activities; in particular, attaining site approvals and securing property rights for the project. This report provides a concise overview of project activity this period and plans for future work. This is the second semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made in completing the environmental assessment report, securing land and coal rights, and evaluating drilling strategies. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

Gary L. Cairns

2002-10-01

69

Numerical analysis of the destruction of water-resisting strata in a coal seam floor in mining above aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in mining depth many mining areas in China have entered a period necessitating mining above aquifers. Production safety in coal mines in northern China is under serious threat from Ordovician karst water on coal seam floors. In order to analyze the destruction of water-resisting strata in floors of coal seams being mined and to achieve safe mining

Jiang Zhihai

2011-01-01

70

Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines  

SciTech Connect

Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geoscience

2007-09-15

71

Soda Flames in Coal Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

IF a coal-fire be looked into with some attention after a fresh supply of coals has nearly ceased to give out its gases, there will be seen here and there in the hottest parts, and coming out of them through crannies and round dark corners, a pale translucent yellow flame, which one soon gets to recognise easily. What does it

J. Herschel

1882-01-01

72

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOEpatents

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01

73

Preliminary analysis of methodologies for mining thin-seam mountaintop coal resources. Information Circular/1990  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines is conducting research aimed at providing technology for a low-cost, high-recovery, environmentally acceptable mining system to recover the vast thin-seam coal reserves existing in the mountainous areas of the Appalachian region in the Eastern United States. As part of the research, the Bureau is evaluating new techniques to address these coal resources. The report summarizes the results of a worldwide technical search on thin-seam coal mining, the formulation of various methodologies for mining mountaintop thin seams, and the implementation and status of a physical model test program to validate and further develop the most promising concept-the roof-fall-tolerant mining system.

Mayercheck, W.D.; Jaspal, J.S.; Farrar, R.B.

1990-01-01

74

Coal fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests

Alfred E Whitehouse; Asep A. S Mulyana

2004-01-01

75

Technique of coal mining and gas extraction without coal pillar in multi-seam with low permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at the low mining efficiency in deep multi-seams because of high crustal stress, high gas content, low permeability,\\u000a the compound “three soft” roof and the troublesome safety situation encountered in deep level coal exploitation, proposed\\u000a a new idea of gob-side retaining without a coal-pillar and Y-style ventilation in the first-mined key pressure-relieved coal\\u000a seam and a new method of

Liang Yuan

2009-01-01

76

How sorption-induced matrix deformation affects gas flow in coal seams: A new FE model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sorption-induced coal matrix deformation on the evolution of porosity and permeability of fractured coal seams is evaluated, together with its influence on gas recovery rates. The porosity-based model considers factors such as the volume occupied by the free-phase gas, the volume occupied by the adsorbed phase gas, the deformation-induced pore volume change, and the sorption-induced coal pore

Hongbin Zhang; Jishan Liu; D. Elsworth

2008-01-01

77

Coal-Water Slurries: A Seam-to-Steam Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Moderately loaded coal-water fuels (CWF) and coal-water transportation slurries are similar in design philosophy, and an integrated coal-water slurry system has been demonstrated with a coal-designed boiler. The primary emphasis in highly loaded coal-wate...

P. Marnell W. N. Poundstone W. Halvorsen

1983-01-01

78

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01

79

Demonstration of Longwall Mining in a Steeply Dipping Coal Seam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the demonstration of longwall mining in a seam dipping 27 deg to 34 deg. Equipment was selected on the basis of capability, compatibility, and cost. The longwall equipment operated very well on the steep pitch with an average equipmen...

M. R. Kennedy L. M. Reschke

1987-01-01

80

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO2 and under certain circumstances to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named “Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires” [Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

2007-12-01

81

Dupont switches to coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DuPont has committed itself to coal-fired boilers. In 1973, only two of its thirteen coal capable plants were solely on coal, nine used a mix of coal, oil and gas, and two used only gas and oil. As of last year, all of its manufacturing sites with coal capable steam generating systems had been reconverted. Coal use increased from 22%

1981-01-01

82

The Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment. [Controlled retracting injection point  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site

D. R. Stephens; R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1985-01-01

83

Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Problems of Complex Development of Bowels

2006-01-15

84

Investigations of groundwater bursting into coal mine seam floors from fault zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of investigations into retarded groundwater bursting along the fault zones in the seam floors in coal mines. In addition to in situ measurements of ground stresses, a number of rock samples from the fault zones at the site of the case study were taken, and laboratory tests were performed for conventional and special rheological

Q Wu; M Wang; X Wu

2004-01-01

85

Field results from a linked vertical well UCG test in deep, thin-seam bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a first in the United States, a 900-ft (275-m) deep, 6-ft (2-m) thick, swelling, eastern bituminous coal has been gasified successfully in situ. Under the direction of Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the relatively small-scale field test, Pricetown I, affected the equivalent of approximately 735 tons (665 t) of a high-sulfur, high-ash section of the Pittsburgh coal seam near Pricetown,

J. W. Martin; J. D. McClung; A. J. Liberatore; L. D. Strickland; R. E. Zielinski; P. W. Seabaugh; A. K. Agarwal

1981-01-01

86

Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal-Seams Technology. Volume 9, Number 1, November 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains: basin activities--(Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, Wind River Basin-Wyoming, Greater Green River coal region-Wyoming and Colorado, Uinta Basin-Utah, Piceance Basin-Colorado, San Juan Basin-Colorado and New Mexico, Raton Basin-Colorado and New Mexico, and Black Warrior Basin-Alabama); features--(relation between basin hydrology and fruitland gas composition, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico); methane from coal seams research--(western Cretaceous

R. A. McBane; S. D. Schwochow; S. H. Stevens

1991-01-01

87

Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 2, February 1991. Rept. for Apr-Jun 90  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology is published by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, and printed at the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Research in the area of methane from coal seams is directed toward adapting and improving techniques for producing natural gas from coal and associated strata. Verification field experiments are being conducted at various sites to validate concepts for geology, geophysical diagnostics, completion techniques, fracturing, operations, and reservoir modeling. (Copyright (c) 1991 by Gas Research Institute.)

McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

1991-01-01

88

Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation strongly depends on permeability variations. For the assumed model, no fire exists for permeabilities k < 10-10m2, whereas the fire propagation velocity ranges between 340ma-1 for k = 10-8m2, and drops to lower than 3ma-1 for k = 5 × 10-10m2. Additionally, strong temperature variations are observed for the permeability range 5 × 10-10m2 < k < 10-8m2.

Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

2008-01-01

89

Carbon Sequestration in Coal Seams: Defining the Nature of the Interactions Between CO2 and Coal  

SciTech Connect

The CO2 storage capacity in coal seams is typically estimated from isotherm measurements obtained from manometric techniques. In the calculation of the isotherm, two major parameters must be estimated. First, the compressibility factor must be calculated from an equation of state to account for the non-ideality of CO2 at elevated pressures. Second, the volume change associated with the volume occupied by the sorbed CO2 must be estimated. These two parameters can dramatically affect the shape of the CO2-coal isotherm. Of the few papers that published CO2–coal isotherms at high pressures, a variety of curve shapes have been reported. This lack of agreement reduces the confidence in the accuracy of CO2 storage capacities estimated from volumetric isotherm measurements. In this study, the direct interaction between CO2 and two Argonne premium coals [Pocahontas #3 (low volatile bituminous) and Beulah Zap (lignite)] was probed using Attenuated Total Reflectance – Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy at 328 K and pressures up to 8.0 MPa. Sorbed CO2 on Argonne coals was detected at 2335 cm-1 for Buelah Zap coal and 2332 cm-1 for Pocahontas #3 coal. The energy of adsorption (18.8 - 20.5 kJ/mol), estimated using the Langmuir equation, was consistent with physisorption. The spectral data indicated that only one type of site was available for sorption. No evidence could be found for specific interactions between CO2 and oxygen functional groups in the coals. The CO2-coal sorption isotherm was derived without estimating the CO2 compressibility and adsorbed layer density, both of which are needed in manometric techniques. The ATR-FTIR isotherms (units of net absorbance) and manometric isotherms (units mmol/g) compare well below the critical temperature providing some confidence in the values selected for the gas phase density and adsorbed layer density that were used to calculate absolute adsorption from the manometric data. In summary, we find that sorption of CO2 is energetically similar for the two coal types, is due only to London forces and quadrupole interactions, and occurs preferentially on a hydrocarbon site.

Goodman, A.L.; Schroeder, K.T.; Campus, L.M.; Hill, M.M.

2005-05-01

90

Cornering water jet drill for creating horizontal holes in coal seams  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a drilling system which uses high velocity water jets to make horizontal holes in coal seams accessed through vertical boreholes. For underground coal gasification (UCG), these horizontal holes can be drilled to create linking paths between vertical or horizontal process wells. Three test series have been conducted to study and improve the drilling system and, ultimately, to prove the viability of the concept. With the exception of a persistent string binding problem, which ultimately determined the hole depth, all drill system components either performed as designed or exhibited weaknesses which could be remedied with minor alterations. The cornering water jet drill (CWJD) concept was proven to be viable for drilling horizontal holes in coal seams. For distances greater than 50 ft (15.2 m), however, making the process a routine operation will require additional study and improvement. 12 references, 16 figures.

Shirey, D.L.; Engler, B.P.

1984-05-01

91

ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

2009-12-01

92

Influence of Seam Height on Lost-Time Injury and Fatality Rates at Small Underground Bituminous Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam height have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreas...

R. H. Peters B. Fotta L. G. Mallett

2005-01-01

93

Thermal and structural properties of the coal in the Big Seam  

SciTech Connect

In connection with the development of a cavity growth model for underground coal gasification, it was necessary to determine the thermal and structural properties of the coals involved in UCG field tests. A limited number of tests was carried out on coal from the Big Seam near Centralia, Washington. These included measurement of specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, uniaxial compression and indirect tension (Brazil test). The results were correlated with properties reported in the literature. The results showed that the thermal properties are dependent on moisture content and that the structural properties are anisotropic and show a high degree of sample-to-sample variability.

Glass, R.E.

1984-01-01

94

Tectonically controlled distribution of thick mineable bodies of the Beckley seam coal in southern West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

There are two principal facies; (1) a fluvial deltaic facies which is composed of greywacke sandstone, siltstone, shale and coal, some of which is very thick, and (2) a shoreline facies which is dominated by orthoquartzite sandstone with some siltstone and shale and thin coal seams. Greywacke sandstone occurs as tabular northeast-southwest oriented linear bodies with mainly southwest directed crossbeds presumably indicating a direction of longshore transport. The major coal seams occur on the crests or flanks of sandstone bodies and suggest that the thickest peats developed on topographic highs which were produced by less compactable substrate and which protected peats from detrital influx in the topographic lows. Where adjacent topographic lows contained marine or brackish water, the sulfur content of the coal is higher than where the lows contained fresh water. The general pattern of deposition appears to have been characterized by episodic detrital influx and intense shoreline reworking similar to that in the modern Burdekin, Irrawaddy and Mekong deltas. The basic control of sediment distribution seems to have been a large northwest-southwest oriented fault or narrow zone of faults that, for the most part, restricted thick fluvial deltaic sediments to the southeastern part of the area and the thinner orthoquartzite facies to the northwestern part. Within blocks subsidence was not uniform and in the southeastern block slower subsidence is reflected by offset positions of greywacke sandstone in contrast to stacked sandstones produced by more rapid subsidence. Persistence of this structural feature both before and after Beckley deposition is indicated by similar patterns of sediment and coal distribution in the Pocahontas No. 3 Seam 300 to 400 feet below and the Sewell Seam 250 to 400 feet above the Beckley.

Staub, J.R.

1985-01-01

95

Quarterly review of methane from coal-seams technology. Volume 7, Number 3, July-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

The report contains: sources of coal well information; Powder River Basin, Wyoming; greater Green River coal region, Wyoming and Colorado; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; the United States coalbed methane resource; western cretaceous coal seams project; multiple coal seams project; spalling and the development of a hydraulic fracturing strategy for coal; geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed methane resources; coalbed methane opportunities in Alberta; the coalbed methane forum; eastern coalbed methane forum.

Not Available

1990-01-01

96

Detecting coal fires in China using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of detecting fires in subsurface coal deposits through InSAR observations of accompa- nying surface displacements. Uncontrolled burning of subsurface coal seams have been reported from many locations around the world. In northern China alone, more than 10 Million tons (Mt) of coal are estimated to burn every year. This has massive implications for the regional economy and ecology. In fighting these fires and controlling burning coal seams the timely and reliable detection and mapping of the affected regions is critical. However, this has proven to be ex- tremely difficult in the often remote regions of northern China, where many of the fires have been caused by uncontrolled, small-scale mining operations. Both volume change of the burning coal and thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass are expected to cause measurable surface displacements and numerous reports of collapses of the earth's surface exist. Unfortunately, reliable data on surface deformation accompanying the fires are not available. Nevertheless, theoretical considerations and individual reports suggest that subsidence mapping using differential InSAR may be a suitable tool to detect burning regions and map the spatial extent of the affected areas. Though topography, temporal decorrelation, and poor data coverage complicate the analysis we have identified several localized areas of subsidence in the region. Here we discuss the potential and limitations of using InSAR for coal-fire detection in northern China.

Hoffmann, J.; Roth, A.; Voigt, S.

2004-06-01

97

Gas fired combined cycle beats coal fired steam plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbine options and developments, including experience with alternative fuels, combined cycles, and coal gasification, are discussed. Performance specifications are given for combined cycle power plants. It is concluded that gas fired combined cycle power plants are more economical than coal fired steam plants.

de Biasi

2009-01-01

98

Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia.As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration

I. B. Sosrowidjojo; A. Saghafi

2009-01-01

99

Characterisation of a microbial community associated with a deep, coal seam methane reservoir in the Gippsland Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in optimising biogenic coal seam methane generation; however, relatively little is known about the microbiology of coal. To begin to address this deficiency, the biodiversity of a microbial community within a deep coal gas reservoir was investigated using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analyses (ARDRA) method. Additionally, a cultured subset of organisms from this community was

David J. Midgley; Philip Hendry; Kaydy L. Pinetown; David Fuentes; Se Gong; Danielle L. Mitchell; Mohinudeen Faiz

2010-01-01

100

Development and assessment of new and existing canopy technology to lower coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this investigation was to increase safety in low-seam underground coal mines through development and in-mine evaluation of a temporary roof support system for roof drills and floor-riding operator compartments for a loader and shuttle car. During phase I, state-of-the art canopy technology was investigated, and preliminary design a mock-up evaluations were performed for temporary roof supports, single-

Mantel

1985-01-01

101

Rock-magnetic properties of TRM carrying baked and molten rocks straddling burnt coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface spontaneous combustion of coal seams in Xinjiang (NW China) during Pleistocene to recent times produced large areas of thermally altered sedimentary rocks with large magnetic moments. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) intensities and low-field susceptibilities of such combustion-metamorphic rocks range from 0.1 to 10A\\/m and 100×10?4 to 1000×10?4SI, respectively, which is two to three

Cor B. de Boer; Mark J. Dekkers; Ton A. M. van Hoof

2001-01-01

102

Organic geochemical study of sequences overlying coal seams; example from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian), Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof successions above two coal seams from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) in the Indiana portion of the Illinois Basin have been studied with regard to sedimentary structures, organic petrology and organic geochemistry. The succession above the Blue Creek Member of the Mansfield Formation is typical of the lithologies covering low-sulphur coals ( 2.%). The transgressive-regressive packages above both seams reflect the periodic inundation of coastal mires by tidal flats and creeks as inferred from bioturbation and sedimentary structures such as tidal rhythmites and clay-draped ripple bedforms. Geochemistry and petrology of organic facies above the Blue Creek coal suggest that tidal flats formed inland in fresh-water environments. These overlying fresh water sediments prevented saline waters from invading the peat, contributing to low-sulphur content in the coal. Above the unnamed coal, trace fossils and geochemical and petrological characteristics of organic facies suggest more unrestricted seaward depositional environment. The absence of saline or typically marine biomarkers above this coal is interpreted as evidence of very short periods of marine transgression, as there was not enough time for establishment of the precursor organisms for marine biomarkers. However, sufficient time passed to raise SO42- concentration in pore waters, resulting in the formation of authigenic pyrite and sulphur incorporation into organic matter.

Mastalerz, M.; Stankiewicz, A. B.; Salmon, G.; Kvale, E. P.; Millard, C. L.

1997-01-01

103

Underground coal gasification partial seam CRIP test, Thurston and Lewis Counties, Washington: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

To develop the technology of gasifying coal in situ, the US Department of Energy proposes to conduct an underground coal gasification experiment at an existing coal mine located approximately five miles east of Centralia, Washington. Air or oxygen will be injected into the coal seam to permit reaction of the coal to occur at a controlled rate. Gases produced by this process will be collected and flared at the surface. The impact of the experiment on air quality will be small. Particulate matter, produced water, and liquid organic products will be separated from the product gas stream using a cyclone, then burned in an incinerator. The product gas stream will be flared. Minor sources of air pollution will be vehicular traffic, a small steam boiler, and site construction activities. The experiment will have little impact on groundwater. The coal seam and the adjacent strata are all of low permeability which will severely limit transport of any water. No potable water wells are located within two miles of the project site. Surface runoff will be collected in an existing small holding pond. Sanitary wastes will be removed by licensed field service companies. About one acre of forest land will be cleared, which will have minimal impact on wildlife, since alternate habitats are available in the immediate vicinity. The project site is located on private land. 69 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1983-10-01

104

Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 3, April 1991. Rept. for Jul-Sep 90  

SciTech Connect

Contents include reports on: Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Greater Green River Coal Region, Wyoming and Colorado; Uinta Basin, Utah; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; Experimental Fracturing and Propping of Coal-Implications for Hydraulic Fracture Design; Western Cretaceous Coal Seams Project; Multiple Coal Seams Project; Coalbed Methane Technology Development in the Appalachian Basin; Reservoir Engineering and Analysis and Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources.

McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

1991-01-01

105

Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of the trace elements are correlated with the ash content, and may be associated with the mineral matter in the coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu, G.; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C. -L.

2004-01-01

106

Field results from a linked vertical well UCG test in deep, thin-seam bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

For a first in the United States, a 900-ft (275-m) deep, 6-ft (2-m) thick, swelling, eastern bituminous coal has been gasified successfully in situ. Under the direction of Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the relatively small-scale field test, Pricetown I, affected the equivalent of approximately 735 tons (665 t) of a high-sulfur, high-ash section of the Pittsburgh coal seam near Pricetown, Wetzel County, West Virginia, during the 4-mo burn. Initial test results and plans for continued development of this alternative energy source are discussed. 7 refs.

Martin, J.W.; McClung, J.D.; Liberatore, A.J.; Strickland, L.D.; Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Agarwal, A.K.

1981-12-01

107

The influence of seam height on lost-time injury and fatality rates at small underground bituminous coal mines.  

PubMed

Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam heights have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreases, miners must stoop, duck walk, or crawl, and their vision, posture, and mobility become increasingly restricted. Low seam height also places important restrictions on the design of mobile equipment and other mining machinery. Using the employment and injury data reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) from 1990 to 1996, small underground bituminous coal mines with less than 50 employees were stratified by average coal seam height according to the following categories: low (< or =42"), medium (43"-60"), and high (> or =61"). Injury rates for both nonfatal days lost and fatality cases were examined by seam height and leading type of injury incidents. The leading types of incidents associated with fatalities were roof falls and powered haulage equipment. In comparison to high-seam mines, miners working in low or medium seams are at higher risk of being killed by powered haulage equipment, roof bolting machines, and falls of unsupported roof. The leading types of incidents associated with nonfatal injuries were handling materials and powered haulage. As mining height decreases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from incidents involving roof bolting machines, load-haul-dump equipment, personnel carriers, and powered haulage conveyors. As mining height increases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from slips and falls and incidents involving shuttle cars and roof and rib falls. Knee injuries are a particularly severe problem in low-seam mines. The rate of injuries to miners while crawling or kneeling is 10 times higher in low seams than in high seams. PMID:11757898

Peters, R H; Fotta, B; Mallett, L G

2001-11-01

108

Coal fire extinguishing and prevention  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

Greene, J.S.

1988-02-16

109

Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material described as “mineral matter” in coal encompasses dissolved salts in the pore water and inorganic elements associated with the organic compounds, as well as discrete crystalline and non-crystalline mineral particles. A range of technologies, including but not restricted to low-temperature oxygen-plasma ashing, may be used to evaluate the total proportions of minerals and other inorganic constituents in a

Colin R Ward

2002-01-01

110

Coal fired air turbine cogeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

Foster-Pegg, R. W.

111

The thermal and structural properties of the coal in the Big Seam  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) program, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a cavity growth model based on the thermal and structural behavior of the coal. An essential element of this effort is the determination of the thermal and structural properties of coals involved in UCG field tests. One goal of this study is to define a consistent set of thermal and structural properties for the coal in the Big Seam near Centralia, Washington. This goal was accomplished by performing a limited number of properties tests and by correlating the results with properties reported in the literature. These tests included measurement of specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. To determine ambient temperature elastic properties, uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests (Brazil), were performed. The results show that the thermal properties are dependent on the water content and that the structural properties are anisotropic and show a high degree of sample-to-sample variability.

Glass, R.E.

1984-01-01

112

Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, M.

2001-01-01

113

Excavation of the Partial Seam CRIP underground coal gasification test site  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1983, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted the Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company mine near Centralia, Washington. The test, in the subbituminous Big Dirty coal seam, lasted 30 days during which time 1400 cubic meters of coal were consumed from two injection/production well combinations. In the spring of 1986, normal mining activity in the vicinity of the PSC test allowed the opportunity to carefully excavate the experiment and examine the post-burn cavities. The mining operation dug out the front and back half of the test area and most of the overburden above the UCG cavities, leaving approximately 23,000 cubic meters of earth containing the main portion of the test area undisturbed. Under direction of the Wyoming Research Institute (WRI), this remaining earth was carefully excavated, in slices perpendicular to the original injection/production line, using small earthmoving equipment to uncover and sample the final burn cavities. Preliminary results of the excavation were presented by WRI at the 12th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium. We present additional results and conclusions based on all of the information obtained. Topics covered include: comparison to material balance and thermal instrumentation data, analysis and composition of samples taken from the cavity and general cavity shape and characteristics in comparison with mechanistic models of cavity growth. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Cena, R.J.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.

1987-08-14

114

Quarterly review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 9, Number 2, January 1992. Rept. for Apr-Jun 91  

SciTech Connect

The following reports summarize the results of recent exploration, testing, and production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming; Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Greater Green River Coal Region, Wyoming and Colorado; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama and the Northern and Central Appalachian Basins. Contents also include: Advances in Laboratory Measurement Techniques of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure for Coal Seams; Methane from Coal Seams Research; and Technical Events.

McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

1992-01-01

115

Quarterly review of methane from coal seams technology. Volume 10, Number 2, October 1992. Report for April-June 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of methane from coal seams is directed toward adapting and improving techniques for producing natural gas from coal and associated strata. Verification field experiments are being conducted at various sites to validate concepts for geology, geophysical diagnostics, completion techniques, fracturing, operations, and reservoir modeling. The reports summarize the results of recent exploration, testing, and production in

R. A. McBane; S. D. Scgwichow; T. E. Lombardi; D. A. Thompson

1992-01-01

116

Evaluation of data gathered from unmineable coal seams. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) programs directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources INTERCOMP Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. (INTERCOMP) is under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide for the reduction of uncertainties in critical parameters related to the methane recovery from unmineable coals in the United States. To accomplish this objective INTERCOMP has assisted in test site selection, planning, and monitoring when requested and evaluated the results of test in terms of methane production potential and economics for selected well sites, geologic settings, and geographical areas. This is a continuation of two earlier contracts in which an optimized test program was specified and in which the results of that program were partially implemented and evaluated. In this report INTERCOMP's effort in assisting the Bureau of Mines to understand the nature of a communication problem between the vertical dewatering hole and the three horizontal degasification legs in the Emerald Mines Horizontal Drilling project is described. Recommendations made by INTERCOMP on how to determine the amount of communication and the answers to several other questions asked are given in the section Assistance in Test Planning. The use of INTERCOMP's numerical simulation model was necessary in this effort. The section entitled Resource Assessment gives the evaluation of each specific well site tested for methane production that furnished to INTERCOMP by METC.

Not Available

1982-06-01

117

Coal-fired steam locomotive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A coal-fired steam locomotive powered by reciprocating steam engines. The locomotive is a two-unit drawbar-coupled locomotive. The units, which are designated as a power unit and a support unit, are arranged back-to-back, with each having a cab-in-front. Operation of the locomotive is equally effective in both directions. The power unit basically contains a furnace and combustion system, an ash storage system, a gas cleanup and exhaust system, a boiler and steam generator, steam engines, a jet condenser, and a control cab. The support unit, on two 6-wheel trucks, contains a modular coal storage area, a stoker motor, a water storage area, heat transfer assemblies and fans for air-cooling circulating water, and a second control cab. The coal-gasification furnace, steam boiler, and steam engines are all in a closed system. Further, the steam engines of the locomotive are in the form of a four cylinder, balanced system for driving the running gear of the locomotive. The steam expansion cycle is compounded; two high pressure cylinders exhaust into two low pressure cylinders, with all cylinders sized for equal thrust. Spent steam is condensed, cooled on-board, and the water recycled through the boiler. A condensing cycle is utilized to both obtain more power and minimize water make up. A large water supply is carried on the support unit to minimize way side water points. Condensing of the water is by jet condensing which takes place on the power unit and utilizes feedwater as the jet condensing means. The heated water is pumped through a heat exchanger provided on the support unit before returning to the water supply tank. In order to eliminate nusiance dirt, coal is prepackaged in large modules. Up to three modules are placed over the stoker screw mechanism contained on the support unit.

1984-01-17

118

The Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment. [Controlled retracting injection point  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site of the earlier (1981-1982) large-block experiments. The primary goals of the experiment were to test the CRIP concept and to further evaluate the site as a potential for the future development of UCG.

Stephens, D.R.; Cena, R.J.; Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1985-01-01

119

High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation and Coal Seam Distribution in the Upper Carboniferous Strata of the Central Maritimes Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Upper Carboniferous strata in the Magdalen Basin, southern Gulf of St. Lawrence were deposited in restricted-marine to alluvial environments, with abundant coal seams in the Namurian-Westphalian succession (Cumberland and Pictou groups). Because the coal measures represent significant hydrocarbon source rocks, an evaluation of the distribution and thickness of the coal-bearing strata is essential for assessing petroleum potential in this

Gillian Chi; James Dietrich; Peter Giles

120

Unconventional gas sources. Executive summary. [Coal seams, Devonian shale, geopressured brines, tight gas reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The long lead time required for conversion from oil or gas to coal and for development of a synthetic fuel industry dictates that oil and gas must continue to supply the United States with the majority of its energy requirements over the near term. In the interim period, the nation must seek a resource that can be developed quickly, incrementally, and with as few environmental concerns as possible. One option which could potentially fit these requirements is to explore for, drill, and produce unconventional gas: Devonian Shale gas, coal seam gas, gas dissolved in geopressured brines, and gas from tight reservoirs. This report addresses the significance of these sources and the economic and technical conditions under which they could be developed.

Not Available

1980-12-01

121

Factors involved in evaluating ground water impacts of deep coal mine drainage. [Pumping tests of wells drilled into the coal seam and development of mathematical models; detailed discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of probable ground water impacts of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications. Impact prediction generally involves well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of

P. R. Davis; W. C. Walton

1982-01-01

122

Coal-fired gas turbines revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, the US Department of Energy initiated a program for the application of less expensive fuels for use in gas turbines. The overall objective of the program was to develop an environmentally sound, integrated, direct-fired, coal-fueled gas turbine system which would produce cost-competitive energy. Interest in direct coal-fueled turbines has evolved because of significant advances in coal preparation, coupled

L. K. Carpenter; F. W. Jr. Crouse; J. S. Halow

1985-01-01

123

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOEpatents

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15

124

Suitable layout of gate roads related to slice mining in an ultra-thick unstable coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined a suitable gate road layout in slice mining in an ultra-thick unstable coal seam, using theoretical analysis and numerical calculations. Based on plasticity theory in terms of limiting equilibrium, the width of chain pillar in the upper slice was calculated to be 18m. The stress distribution in the chain pillar after the upper slice was mined out was

Gangwei Fan; Dongsheng Zhang; Lei Zhou

2011-01-01

125

The scattering of SH-channel waves by a fault in a coal seam  

SciTech Connect

The imaging of faults in coal seams by the in-seam seismic method has now become standard practice. In the UK over 300 surveys have been undertaken and the technique is now part of the exploration arsenal of colliery planners. From these users comes the pressure for two major improvements, namely an increase in range and target identification. This paper is directed towards the latter problem. It has long been recognized that the reflected channel waves must contain information on the fault structure that caused the reflection, and model experiments have been undertaken to investigate the reflection process. Only recently, however, have attempts been made to quantify the reflection process. Calculations using both the finite-difference and finite-element techniques have been carried out, and estimates of the reflection coefficient as a function of frequency have been obtained. The object of this paper is to extend these considerations by calculating analytically the scattering matrix of an SH-channel wave after interaction at a fault plane. The scattering matrix is calculated as a function of frequency, hade angle, and fault throw. The method employed is based on the decomposition of the incident SH-channel wave into Fourier components, the calculation of plane wave reflection and transmission coefficients within the constraints of geometrical acoustics, and finally the synthesis of the scattering matrix by application of the Helmholz-Kirchhoff integral. The calculation throughout is restricted to normal modes.

Buchanan, D.J.

1986-05-01

126

Assessment of shrinkage–swelling influences in coal seams using rank-dependent physical coal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of coal reservoirs and determination of in-situ physical coal properties related to transport mechanism are complicated due to having lack of standard procedures in the literature. By considering these difficulties, a new approach has been developed proposing the usage of relationships between coal rank and physical coal properties. In this study, effects of shrinkage and swelling (SS) on total

Huseyin Onur Balan; Fevzi Gumrah

2009-01-01

127

Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection  

SciTech Connect

One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

Friedmann, S J

2004-07-02

128

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made on drilling the north, center, and south well sites. Water production commenced at the center and south well sites. New drilling plans were formulated for the last remaining well, which is in the Upper Freeport Seam at the north site. Core samples were submitted to laboratories for analytical testing. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

William A. Williams

2004-10-01

129

CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport trough the coal core, thus including mass balances accounting for gas flow, gas sorption and swelling, and mechanical constitutive equations for the description of porosity and permeability changes during injection. The combination of the experimental data with the model predictions allow to successfully relate the dynamics of gas flow to parameters such as the effective pressure on the sample, sorption capacity and swelling, and to estimate important parameters, such as the mass transfer coefficient describing gas diffusion into the porous matrix of the coal. In particular, an increase in permeability is observed with decreasing effective pressure on the sample and, when an adsorbing gas is injected, a reduction in permeability caused by swelling, with CO2 having a much stronger effect as compared to N2. This last observation represents the starting point to the investigation of attractive options aimed at optimizing the ECBM operation, such as the use of CO2/N2 mixtures (flue gas) as a way of keeping the permeability in the reservoir sufficiently high. Acknowledgment Luigi Burlini was at the heart of this co-operation, and made it possible a synergy between engineers and geologists that has been extremely fruitful. With this contribution we would like to acknowledge Luigi's humanity and scientific visions and to remember a friend.

Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

2012-04-01

130

Evolution of methane sorption capacity of coal seams as a function of burial history — a case study from the Campine Basin, NE Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on extensive data sets of high-pressure sorption isotherms and canister desorption data from two Central European coal basins (Campine and Ruhr basins) a computational scheme has been developed to calculate the maximum coal bed methane (CBM) sorption capacity of coal seams as a function of pressure, temperature and coal rank. In addition, the effects of in situ moisture content

A. Hildenbrand; B. M. Krooss; A. Busch; R. Gaschnitz

2006-01-01

131

Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams  

SciTech Connect

Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A. [Oviedo University, Independencia (Spain). School of Mines

2005-07-01

132

Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams  

SciTech Connect

For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

2005-09-01

133

Research and Management of Coal fire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is suffering the heaviest coal fire disaster in the world, distributing in the north of north latitude 35°,between Pamirs Altiplano and Great Xing'an Mountains, locating in arid and semiarid area such as desert, gobi and loess. The earliest underground coal fire ocuured before Palaeozoic era. Since the Quaternary period, there are widespread coal fire in north of China. There

Guan Haiyan; Kong Bing; Wu Chacha

134

Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of lithofacies trends along northwest-southeast trends, especially beneath modern valleys where overburden thickness decreases sharply. Differentiating roof falls related to these trends can aid in predicting roof quality in advance of mining.The Pond Creek-Lower Elkhorn seam has been an important exploration target because it typically has very low sulfur contents and ash yields. Geologic research in several large Pond Creek mines suggested variability in roof quality and coal thickness. Due to mine access, geologic problems encountered during mining are documented and described.

Greb, S. F.; Popp, J. T.

1999-01-01

135

Geologic Assessment of Natural Gas from Coal Seams in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on a geologic assessment of the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin, natural gas in place is estimated at 61 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), contained in 352,000 billion tons of coal. Over one third of the gas in place is in the deep, areally extensive Kitta...

J. R. Kelafant D. E. Wicks V. A. Kuuskraa

1988-01-01

136

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams  

SciTech Connect

This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

Rao, P.D.

1986-09-01

137

Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential to use this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g

Jessica J. Buchanan; Frances R. Slater; Xue Bai; Steven Pratt

2012-01-01

138

Personal equipment for low seam coal miners: Improved knee pads, a modified design  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and field test to improve knee protection for underground coal miners working in low seam mines. In a previous phase of this contract (Sanders, 1982), experimental knee pads were developed and field tested. The field test revealed several design deficiencies with the knee pads, and suggestions for improving the design were made. The work summarized in this report, therefore, consists of modifying the design and method of fabrication of the knee pads originally described by Sanders (1982), and of field testing the improved design. The new prototype was shorter and wider than the original design, and used a neoprene pass-through strap design rather than a cloth strap molded into the pad itself. The new prototype was constructed by slush molding a hollow bladder that was then filled with foam. Initial reactions to the pads in the field test were very positive. However, after 2 months, the opinions about the new prototype became less positive. They were judged, generally, to be no better or worse than the pads usually worn by the field-test participants. Problems were encountered in the field with respect to durability. Water seeped into the inner cavity of many of the pads and caused the foam to deteriorate. It was concluded that it would not be cost-effective or feasible to significantly improve upon current commercially available knee pad designs.

Sanders, M.S.; Shaw, B.E.

1986-01-01

139

Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov., a methylotrophic methanogen isolated from a deep subsurface coal seam.  

PubMed

A methanogenic organism from the domain Archaea (SD1(T)) was isolated from saline water released from a coal seam located 926 m below the surface via a methane-producing well near Monroe, Louisiana, USA. Growth and methanogenesis were supported with methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine, but not with dimethylsulfide, formate, acetate or H(2)/CO(2). Cells grew in high-salt minimal medium but growth was stimulated with yeast extract or tryptone. Cells were single, non-motile, irregular coccoids 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter and the cell wall contained protein. Conditions for the maximum rate of growth were 40-50 degrees C, 0.2-0.6 M NaCl, 100->or=200 mM MgCl(2), and pH 7.0-8.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42+/-1mol %. A comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SD1(T) was most closely related to Methanolobus oregonensis DSM 5435(T) with 96 % gene sequence similarity. It is proposed that strain SD1(T) represents a novel species, Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov. The type strain is SD1(T) (=ATCC BAA-1601(T)=DSM 21339(T)). PMID:19406794

Doerfert, Sebastian N; Reichlen, Matthew; Iyer, Prabha; Wang, Mingyu; Ferry, James G

2009-05-01

140

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

1990-12-01

141

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04

142

EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIAL COAL STOKER FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements of 18 coal stoker-fired boilers including spreader stokers, mass-fired overfeed stokers, and mass-fired underfeed stokers. The test variables included stoker design, heat release rate, excess air, coal analysis and sizing, overfire a...

143

Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

144

Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with

Yuanjing Zheng; Peter Arendt Jensen; Anker Degn Jensen; Bo Sander; Helle Junker

2007-01-01

145

Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation  

SciTech Connect

Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15

146

A review of coal properties pertinent to carbon dioxide sequestration in coal seams: with special reference to Victorian brown coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents reviews of studies on properties of coal pertinent to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in coal with specific reference to Victorian brown coals. The coal basins in Victoria, Australia have been\\u000a identified as one of the largest brown coal resources in the world and so far few studies have been conducted on CO2 sequestration in this particular type

M. S. A. Perera; P. G. Ranjith; S. K. Choi; A. Bouazza; J. Kodikara; D. Airey

147

Measurement of coal-cutting forces underground with the in-seam tester. Report of investigations/1986  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines designed, fabricated, and is using an in-seam tester for in-situ determination of coal-cutting forces. The report describes the results of field tests conducted in the Pocahontas No. 3 and Upper Freeport seams to obtain peak and mean cutting forces during coal cutting with several bit geometries, including radial and point attack bits currently used on drum-type machines. Comparisons were also made between new and worn bits, and by using data obtained from a Bureau-modified chisel bit. The test results show that longwall plough cutting (horizontal cuts) in bony coal bands (shale) requires greater than three times the cutting force for the same cuts in a vertical direction. When no bony coal is present, the cutting forces required to make horizontal and vertical cuts are equal. Worn bits require four to five times more cutting and normal force than new or undamaged bits. Normal force increased drastically for the worn chisel bit. Peak force encountered in making independent cuts was found to be approximately three times higher than that required to make interactive cuts using a spacing-to-depth-of-cut ratio of 2. Both rake and clearance angles were found to have a significant effect on normal and cutting force.

Sundae, L.S.

1986-01-01

148

TEST FIRING REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN AN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Program entitled, 'Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler' evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler effic...

149

Test firing refuse-derived fuel in an industrial coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Research Program entitled, Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler efficiencies and stack emissions were also studied when co-firing RDF and coal. The economics of preparing and utilizing RDF in the boiler are evaluated. The operational characteristics of the RDF feed system and the reliability and practicability of receiving, storing, and firing RDF at an industrial operation are reported.

Vetter, R.J.; Smith, M.L.; Ragland, K.W.; Ham, R.K.; Madding, R.P.

1985-09-01

150

The adjusting mining technology of combining fully mechanized with individual prop, rotating, hilt, irregular form, and double unit face on thin coal seam of Tianchen Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzed the situations and characteristics of thin coal seam mining and its mining technologies, and introduced the mining\\u000a innovation technology used by Tianchen Coal Mine of Zhaozhuang Coal Company of China. This innovation technology combined\\u000a the fully mechanized mining with individual props, and the working face of mining is over length, irregular form and double\\u000a units. The rotational adjusting mining

Hua-ling Song; Guo-feng Wen; Jin-ke Li

2008-01-01

151

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

1984-01-01

152

Discovery of in-situ carbonate petrifactions (coal balls) in the Foord Seam (Westphalian C, Upper Carboniferous), Stellarton, Nova Scotia, Canada: Implications for origin of sulfur in the Foord Seam  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate petrifactions (coal balls) were discovered in situ in the 13-m-thick Foord Seam (Westphalian C) at the Westray open-pit mine at Stellarton, Nova Scotia, Canada. These are the first in-situ coal balls discovered in Nova Scotia. This bed, the thickest and oldest coal mined in the Carboniferous coal basins of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, is the uppermost seam of the Albio Member of the Stellarton Formation and is known for its low sulfur content (mean = 0.5% total sulfur), the lowest of all Maritime Canada coals. The coal balls are up to 60 cm in length and are scattered abundantly from the bottom of the top of the seam, including the shale parting. The principal minerals contained in the coal balls (n = 6), as determined by semiquantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, are siderite (70-100%), dolomite (0-20%), quartz (0.5%), and traces of a clay mineral (illite ). Calcite and pyrite were detected in trace amounts by SEM-EDAX and by single-crystal XRD analysis. The almost complete absence of pyrite in the coal balls suggests a chemical link with the pyrite-poor Foord Seam. The authors hypothesize that sulfate-rich marine water or recycled marine sulfate from evaporites from the Lower Carboniferous Windsor Group were unavailable in the peat-forming mire, and, therefore, siderite was favored over pyrite. A nonmarine origin of the siderite also is suggested by the nearly pure end-member nature of the siderite (Fe[sub 0.94[+-]0.03] Mg[sub 0.02[+-]0.02] Ca[sub 0.04[+-]0.01] Mn[sub <0.01] Sr[sup <0.01] Ba[sub <0.01]; n = 48) a composition consistent with siderite of freshwater origin. Because of the lack of sulfate or H[sub 2]S to form pyrite, sulfur combined almost exclusively with the organic molecules of the lycopod-rich peat, and this lack of sulfate or H[sub 2]S favored the low-sulfur content of the Foord Seam.

Lyons, P.C.; Congdon, R.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Cross, A.T. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Gao, Z.; Zodrow, E.L. (Univ. College of Cape Breton, Sydney (Canada)); Gillis, K. (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Stellarton (Canada)); Calder, J.H. (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Halifax (Canada))

1993-08-01

153

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM UTILITY BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from dry-bottom utility boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Consuming about 320 million metric tons of the coal per year, this is the primary method of firing co...

154

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified. Experimental results for

M. Sami; K. Annamalai; M. Wooldridge

2001-01-01

155

Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications such as the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

1980-10-01

156

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

157

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production  

SciTech Connect

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

1999-09-01

158

Trends in the development of comprehensive mechanization equipment for working thick gently sloping and steep kuzbass coal seams with filling of the worked-out space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems have been developed in support for sloping and medium-thickness steep seam worked to the rise. Studies indicate ways of securing the coal bench on which the support system with the sutter-loader of the anticipated excavation is installed, and figures are presented which illustrate technological zones of mechanized direct development workings, a and KVZM equipment complex in groundledge face in

V. A. Mikhalitsyn; V. D. Kleiman; V. P. Zhevago

1986-01-01

159

Sampling and analysis during partial-seam CRIP tests in the WIDCO\\/Tono Basin Underground Coal Gasification Project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents analytical results of samples taken during underground coal gasification (UCG) tests at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company's (WIDCO) Tono Basin Project. Partial seam gasification was conducted over a 20 day period (in October-November 1982), applying a controlled retraction injection point (CRIP) maneuver as the burn cavity progresses. Radian collected particulate and condensate samples for chemical and

M. P. Kilpatrick; K. L. Kelly; W. A. Williams; D. S. Lewis

1985-01-01

160

Development and application of reservoir models and artificial neural networks for optimizing ventilation air requirements in development mining of coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In longwall development mining of coal seams, planning, optimizing and providing adequate ventilation are very important steps to eliminate the accumulation of explosive methane–air mixtures in the working environment. Mine operators usually try to supply maximum ventilation air based on the capacity of the system and the predicted need underground. This approach is neither economical nor safer as ventilation capacity

C. Özgen Karacan

2007-01-01

161

Rock creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project: Rock Creek coalbed methane completion project data summary update. Topical report, December 1990February 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testing were conducted to optimize stimulation methods for multiple thin coal seams. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed

J. Ellard; S. W. Lambert; L. A. Litzinger; J. L. Saulsberry; P. F. Steidl

1995-01-01

162

Fayalite from Fe-rich paralavas of ancient coal fires in the Kuzbass, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fayalite is a common mineral of Fe-rich paralavas related to spontaneous combustion of coal seams. Fayalite has also been found in parabasalts from burned coal waste piles of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. Among paralavas from different combustion metamorphic (CM) complexes of the world, fayalite is the most widespread in the fused rocks of the Kuznetsk coal basin (Kuzbass) and the Ravat area in Tajikistan. The optimal conditions for fayalite formation as products of coal fires in the Kuzbass and Ravat resulted from a favorable combination of the composition of fused protolith (parental rocks) composed of pelitic and Fe-rich sediments and the redox conditions of the deep subsurface ( f_{O_2 } is lower than the QFM buffer). In the Kuzbass, fayalite is commonly hosted in high-silica aluminous Fe-rich paralavas composed of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite), tridymite, hercynite-magnetite, cristobalite, aluminous clinoferrosilite, and Al-K silicic glass. The composition of all Kuzbass fayalites is close to the Fe2SiO4 end member. Kuzbass fayalites are characterized by a negligibly low CaO content and higher MnO and P2O5 contents like fayalites from burned rocks of other CM complexes. In Kuzbass paralavas, Fe-olivine is the late phase that crystallized after sekaninaite and tridymite, immediately before melt quenching.

Novikova, S. A.

2009-12-01

163

Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and

J. H. Marten; G. M. Lloyd

1990-01-01

164

77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine...Budget, New Executive Office Building, 725 17th Street NW...protection standards for underground coal mines are based on...records of fire protection in underground coal mines. MSHA is...

2012-09-19

165

Trends in the development of comprehensive mechanization equipment for working thick gently sloping and steep kuzbass coal seams with filling of the worked-out space  

SciTech Connect

Systems have been developed in support for sloping and medium-thickness steep seam worked to the rise. Studies indicate ways of securing the coal bench on which the support system with the sutter-loader of the anticipated excavation is installed, and figures are presented which illustrate technological zones of mechanized direct development workings, a and KVZM equipment complex in groundledge face in a thick steep seam. It was concluded that a standardized set of equipment should be created to advance the face using aggregate support systems with a base that would be able to maintain internal outward pressure, on which the cutter-loader, conveyor, and filling equipment are installed.

Mikhalitsyn, V.A.; Kleiman, V.D.; Zhevago, V.P.

1986-09-01

166

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from the operation of dry bottom industrial boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Air emissions were characterized by a literature survey and field sampling. Signi...

167

CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

168

Investigation of Direct Pulverized Coal Firing of Marine Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the stu...

I. R. Kacir

1983-01-01

169

Principle and engineering application of pressure relief gas drainage in low permeability outburst coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in mining depth, the danger of coal and gas outbursts increases. In order to drain coal gas effectively and to eliminate the risk of coal and gas outbursts, we used a specific number of penetration boreholes for draining of pressure relief gas. Based on the principle of overlying strata movement, deformation and pressure relief, a good effect

lin LIU; Yuan-ping CHENG; Hai-feng WANG; Liang WANG; Xian-qin MA

2009-01-01

170

The thermal and structural properties of the coal in the Big Seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) program, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a cavity growth model based on the thermal and structural behavior of the coal. An essential element of this effort is the determination of the thermal and structural properties of coals involved in UCG field tests. One goal of this study is to define a consistent

1984-01-01

171

Steep seam coal mining in Western Canada by open pit mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada produces close to 42 million tonnes of coal per annum of which some 38 million tonnes is produced by surface mining methods. The two Western Canadian provinces, Alberta and British Columbia, produce 31 million tonnes of coal by surface mining. These two provinces provide the bulk of the metallurgical coal for export. The geological conditions in the Western provinces

R. K. Singhal; D. G. Osborne

1984-01-01

172

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-01-01

173

Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the raton and vermejo formations, raton basin. Topical report, January 1991-June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The coalbed methane resources of the Raton basin were assessed through an analysis of public and proprietary data sources covering stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, coal rank, and gas content data. The total volume of methane contained in Raton and Vermejo Formation coal seams is estimated to range from 8.4 to 12.1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with a mean estimate of 10.2 Tcf. The highest coalbed methane resource concentration occurs in the deep trough around the town of La Veta. The second highest resource concentration occurs southeast of Vermejo Park. Successful development will need to consider favorable coal seam geometry, depth, and reservoir properties in addition to the in-place resource. The study recommends future research of complex parameters affecting coalbed methane producibility in the area.

Stevens, S.H.; Lombardi, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Coates, J.M.

1992-06-01

174

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates\\u000a the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency\\u000a and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC\\u000a is carried out. The effects of

Yue Xu; Yining Wu; Shimin Deng; Shirang Wei

2004-01-01

175

Erosion and corrosion in advanced coal fired FBC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, advanced coal-fired power generation systems are being introduced that offer significant economic and environmental advantages over pulverised fuel (pf) firing. Many of these systems are combined cycles based on fluidised bed combustion and\\/or gasifica- tion. In such combined cycles, materials selection and performance are key factors in determin- ing plant availability. Consequently material evaluation studies for the various components

A. J. Minchener; J. E. Oakey

1993-01-01

176

Fire detection in coal mines based on semiconductor gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Due to the environmental conditions, the detection and identification of hazardous situations in coal mines is a challenge. The purpose of this research is to focus on the underground fire detection, especially of smoldering fires, which are characterized by the outgassing of CO and C2H4. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study developed a system based on a single semiconductor gas

Peter Reimann; Andreas Schütze

2012-01-01

177

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process: SRC-II processing of Pittsburgh Seam (Ireland and Powhatan No. 6 Mines) coal in PDU P-99. Runs P99-77 to P99-83. Interim report, November 1980April 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of seven SRC-II runs (Runs P99-77 through P99-83) made on Process Development Unit P-99 feeding two Pittsburgh Seam coals. The first five runs were made on Ireland Mine coal, while the latter two runs used Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal. Four of these runs (Runs P99-77, -78, -80, and -81) form a 2² factorial experiment

H. G. McIlvried; W. Gall; S. T. Mathias

1981-01-01

178

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used

M. K. Drost; S. Somasundaram; D. R. Brown; Z. I. Antoniak

1990-01-01

179

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical\\/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO is described. The impact of NO control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the

1996-01-01

180

Open-Cycle Coal-Fired Liquid-Metal MHD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open-cycle, coal-fired, liquid-metal MHD combines the simplicity of using the coal combustion products directly as the thermodynamic working fluid in the energy-conversion process with the moderate temperatures and inherent high thermodynamic efficiency o...

E. S. Pierson M. Petrick F. Schreiner D. Cohen

1979-01-01

181

Coal Fired Combined Cycle for Electric Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal-fired combined cycle (CFCC) is a unique power plant concept which when developed will provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle suitable for base load application. The combined cycle operation offers the potential...

R. D. Brooks J. R. Peterson G. Weth

1977-01-01

182

Coal-fired gas turbine power cycles with steam injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two proposed coal-fired gas turbine power cycles using steam injection have been studied via a parametric cycle analysis. The steam-injected cycles are configured to achieve the following: direct and environmentally acceptable use of coal as a fuel; no contact between hostile combustion products and the turbine expander; high efficiency without need for a bottoming cycle; and modest operating temperatures compatible

W. Fraize; C. Kinney

1978-01-01

183

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion

Pillsbury; Paul W

1990-01-01

184

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a direct coal-fired gas turbine system of the type having a primary combustion zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to product hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag, and a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The secondary combustion zone is coupled

Pillsbury

1990-01-01

185

Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1994-05-01

186

Summary results of the Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) concept of underground coal gasification is described. The test utilized the high wall geometry of the Centralia open pit mine to gasify fourteen hundred cubic meters of coal over a thirty day period, using primarily steam and oxygen as the injected reactants. Three distinct periods of gasification are discussed: the

R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

187

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

SciTech Connect

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01

188

Technique to Improve Fuel Extraction for Coal Seams Intersected by Oil and Gas Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal, gas, and oil in many geological formations of the eastern United States are intimately associated but have traditionally been recovered independently of each other. Oil and gas wells, however, are often spaced sufficiently close to cause the subsequ...

R. D. Haynes

1974-01-01

189

Numerical simulation and experimental research of surrounding rock deformation of floor roadway under short-distance coal seam group combined mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the influence of the combination of short-distance coal seam group on mining roadway, using numerical simulation\\u000a software FLAC2D to draw the abutment pressure distribution ahead the working face and the area of influence in fully-mechanized mining conditions,\\u000a the variation rules of surrounding rock supporting pressure of floor roadway and the deformation rules were summarized. GYS-300\\u000a anchor dynamometer was

Zhen-shan Lian; Ji-ren Wang; Chao-yu Hao

2010-01-01

190

Coal petrology of some selected Pocahontas No. 3 and No. 6 coal seams of the Pocahontas Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) of Mercer, McDowell, and Wyoming counties, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pocahontas No. 3 and No. 6 coal seams of the Pocahontas Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) in southern West Virginia were studied in detail in their mineral matter, maceral petrography, sulfur content and forms, vitrinite reflectance (rank), paleobotanical\\/palynological characteristics, and interrelationships between geochemical, sedimentological, and botanical controls.

Galya

1983-01-01

191

Coal petrology of some selected Pocahontas No. 3 and No. 6 coal seams of the Pocahontas Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) of Mercer, McDowell, and Wyoming counties, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Pocahontas No. 3 and No. 6 coal seams of the Pocahontas Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) in southern West Virginia were studied in detail in their mineral matter, maceral petrography, sulfur content and forms, vitrinite reflectance (rank), paleobotanical/palynological characteristics, and interrelationships between geochemical, sedimentological, and botanical controls.

Galya, T.A.

1983-01-01

192

Two-dimensional thermodynamic model (second stage) of in situ underground coal gasification of eastern thin-seam coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology and results of determining cavity growth via a side wall burn model in underground coal gasification (UCG) in Eastern, swelling coals is presented. Modeling techniques are still in preliminary stages but when perfected will aid in determining the feasibility of a particular site, dictate the design of the multi-well field pattern, and help control the product gas composition

S. H. Schwartz; T. L. Eddy

1980-01-01

193

Tests on the control of coal-mine fires in the experimental coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of tests conducted in Experimental coal mine at Bruceton, Pa., to study some of the factors that should be considered in fighting mine fires and to obtain data on effectiveness of different types of extinguishing agents.

J. Nagy; I. Hartmann; H. C. Howarth

1950-01-01

194

Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 9, Number 1, November 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Basin Activities--(Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, Wind River Basin-Wyoming, Greater Green River Coal Region-Wyoming and Colorado, Uinta Basin-Utah, Piceance Basin-Colorado, San Juan Basin-Colorado and New Mexico, Raton Basin-Colorado a...

R. A. McBane S. D. Schwochow S. H. Stevens

1991-01-01

195

Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.  

PubMed

Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

2013-03-18

196

Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute''; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

Casey, J.L.; Holt, J.K.

1992-01-01

197

Repowering a small coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

Miell, R.

2007-11-15

198

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

199

Land-cover change of the wuda coal fire area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fire generates a number of environmental problems and results in disorderly changes of landcover. Detecting the change of Land-cover is an important scientific issue of the land evaluation and the eco-environmental change forecasting. The temporal land cover maps with high accuracy make it possible to explore the eco-environmental changes of coal fire area. In thispaper, the multi-layer segmentation-based classification approach, Markov Transition Matrix methodology and Dynamic indexesby using Landsat TM data was carried out. The results reveal that coal mine and resident change are mostly in recent decades among all land cover types. Private coal mining exploitation and government administrative measures are the deriving factors.

Zhang, Chunyan; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Li, Jiahong; Wu, Jianjun; Jia, Yuerong; Cai, Danlu; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Tiejun; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

2010-09-01

200

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

1993-01-01

201

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

1993-01-01

202

Investigation of direct coal-fired MHD power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various experiments were carried out in a direct coal-fired MHD power generation facility. It was found that the generator's overall performance is not affected by the presence of coal slag in the generator channel. However, the erosion\\/corrosion is greatly reduced by the slag. Seed\\/slag interaction investigation showed that at 1300 K, up to 90% of potassium can be easily recovered

J. B. Dicks; K. E. Tempelmeyer; Y. C. L. Wu; L. W. Crawford

1976-01-01

203

Summary results of the Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification field test  

SciTech Connect

A field test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) concept of underground coal gasification is described. The test utilized the high wall geometry of the Centralia open pit mine to gasify fourteen hundred cubic meters of coal over a thirty day period, using primarily steam and oxygen as the injected reactants. Three distinct periods of gasification are discussed: the initial period, using a vertical production well, which produced a gas heating value of 219 kJ/mole; a second slant production well period, yielding 261 kJ/mole gas following a successful CRIP maneuver; and third, a post roof collapse period during which the gas heating value dropped to 194 kJ/mole. 7 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

Cena, R.J.; Hill, R.W.; Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.

1984-11-01

204

Double lift longwalling in thick Japanese seam  

SciTech Connect

A description of the capacity, seams, and mining methods of the Mitsui Miike coal mine, Japan's largest mine, is presented. The mine yields 5.2 million metric tons of coal, about 25% of Japan's domestic production. The mine utilizes a simultaneous double lift type slicing method on its main seam, which has an average thickness of 16.5 ft.

Not Available

1983-08-01

205

Modeling and interpretation of two-phase flow and tracer studies from a subbituminous coal seam in the San Juan basin of New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Field and modeling studies were performed to characterize two-phase flow within the natural cleat structure of an upper Cretaceous subbituminous coal seam. A two borehole pattern with open completion was used in a study of dewatering and tracer residence time distribution. Air was pumped into a five meter thick seam located about 170 meters below the surface. Krypton 85 was used as the airborne tracer. Air inflow and air and water production rates and tracer arrival times were monitored. The field tests were simulated with a two-phase, three component, porous flow code. Results showed that the air inflow and air and water outflow rates and breakthrough times could not be modeled assuming a uniform darcy-type permeability. The use of a pressure dependent permeability did provide, however, a much better match with the field data.

Nuttall, H.E.; Travis, B.J.

1980-01-01

206

Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application

K. L. Uherka; R. E. Holtz; G. A. McLennan; E. R. Koehl

1985-01-01

207

PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A final report is presented on the design, environmental characteristics, performance and maintainability, and economic analysis of a commercial 663 MWe coal-fired combined cycle power plant using pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and advanced technology in the hot gas cleanup system and gas turbines. Experimental data on the performance of each of the major components are included. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-03-01

208

Availability model for a coal-fired cycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to support decision making concerning the choice of the type of plant which will provide cycling capacity for the lowest cost of electricity. A coal-fired cycling plant designed with minimal redundancies for low initial capital cost can be compared to a combined cycle plant, for example, as an option to meet future generation

J. J. Lofe; A. D. Ouinn; R. R. Richwine

1990-01-01

209

Fortschrittliche Kohlekraftwerke. (Advanced coal-fired power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whereas for conventional coal-fired power plants the end of development possibilities of improving the efficiency is farly reached for material reasons, the so-called advanced types of power plants have a considerable development potential on the basis of...

1990-01-01

210

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15

211

Fugitive emissions from coal-fired power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential sources of airborne and waterborne fugitive emissions at coal-fired power plants are identified and discussed. Fugitive emissions are defined as pollutant discharges that do not pass through a chimney, vent, discharge pipe, or other functionally equivalent opening. A search of the literature was conducted to locate, evaluate, and report the available data pertaining to such emissions. Data from various

E. L. Currier; B. D. Neal

1984-01-01

212

Fabric Filter Technology for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes information and results presented at a conference on a fabric filter technology for electric utility coal-fired power plants held 15-17 July 1981. The conference highlighted utility experience to date with the technology, identified critical questions about bag and baghouse design and operating parameters, and arrived at a number of important conclusions. Fabric filters have been proved to

Robert C. Carr

1982-01-01

213

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified

Pillsbury; Paul W

1990-01-01

214

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for

Pillsbury

1990-01-01

215

Detection of coal mine fires in the Jharia coal field using NOAA/AVHRR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires represent a major problem in most coal producing countries. The Jharia coal field (JCF) has been affected by surface and sub-surface coal fires since the beginning of mining in the region in the mid 1800s. Currently research is focused on using freely available satellite data such as NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) etc for various applications. The potential of National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images for detecting coal fires and monitoring their progress and associated environmental hazards and risks to the local communities in the JCF has been reviewed. Three models, namely the thresholding model, the contextual model and the fuel mask model have been used to determine the potential fire pixels. Due to the coarse resolution of the NOAA/AVHRR data it was essential to determine sub-pixel fires as well. Results of this study have been verified using the MODIS active fires product, MOD14 (Terra). We have used ten images of NOAA/AVHRR for the year 2004 in this study, and the results are in broad agreement with the ground truth data.

Agarwal, Rashi; Singh, D.; Chauhan, D. S.; Singh, K. P.

2006-09-01

216

Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

217

Thin seam mines in Appalachia yield high production  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-unit coal mines operating in certain flat, dry, and non-gassey seams often have continuous haulage from the face to the surface. Though some seams are so thin that miners must crawl on hands and knees, production is excellent. In thin coal seams that many an experienced miner might feel are unminable, operators in Harlan County, Kentucky, United States, are cutting

Schneiderman

1981-01-01

218

Changes in rock pressure manifestations when working pre-wetted coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The distance from the working face to the abutment pressure maximum (the plastic zone in the vicinity of the face) greatly\\u000a increases with increasing moisture content of the solid coal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The stress concentration coefficient in the abutment pressure zone depends on the extent of the plastic zone, and decreases\\u000a with increase in the latter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Pre-wetting of

V. I. Murashov; Ya. G. Shliomovichus

1965-01-01

219

Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country`s fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

LaGuardia, T.S.

1998-12-31

220

Waste Generation Comparison: Coal-Fired Versus Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of our country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of our generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical 1150-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

Thomas S. LaGuardia

1998-12-31

221

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

1990-11-01

222

Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.  

PubMed

Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae. PMID:23837320

Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

223

INJECTION INTO COAL SEAMS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CO2 MITIGATION AND ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COALBED METHANE  

SciTech Connect

Because of confidentiality requirements of this task, this topical report is necessarily brief and is based on quarterly reports that have been previously approved for release by Amoco Production Company (Amoco). More detailed topical reports have been written and will continue to be written as the project proceeds. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved that these detailed reports can be held in confidence for a period not to exceed three years from their dates of publication. When this three-year period has transpired, or earlier with Amoco's approval, the more detailed topical reports will be provided to DOE for its discretionary use. Three detailed technical reports have been written that cover the two-well pilot test, the laboratory work, and modeling using a coal reservoir description and Amoco's coalbed methane simulator. The document covering the two-well pilot test elicited many comments from Amoco personnel and a major revision of the document is in progress. The other two documents are essentially complete. History matching of the Allison Unit CO{sub 2} injection project has been completed and long-term performance predictions have been made using the resulting reservoir description. Idealized predictions for a quarter of a five-spot pattern of the process have been made and economics of the process evaluated.

Francis M. Carlson; Charles G. Mones; Lyle A. Johnson; Floyd A. Barbour; L. John Fahy

1997-04-01

224

Repower oil, gas-fired plants with coal-fired combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined-cycle repowering of existing oil- and gas-fired power plants to use coal can add capacity and increase the output of a given site. The economics are better if a modern reheat plant is repowered than for projects in the past. A supplemental boiler between the combustion turbine exhaust and the main boiler is the most versatile and efficient configuration. Four

1981-01-01

225

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

2004-02-01

226

Repower oil, gas-fired plants with coal-fired combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

Combined-cycle repowering of existing oil- and gas-fired power plants to use coal can add capacity and increase the output of a given site. The economics are better if a modern reheat plant is repowered than for projects in the past. A supplemental boiler between the combustion turbine exhaust and the main boiler is the most versatile and efficient configuration. Four types of coal techniques are reported: coal-derived liquids, coal-derived gases, direct coal burning in pressurized fluid beds. Three figures illustrate configuration options. The performance parameters of several repowering options are summarized and compared in terms of their fuel revenue requirements in two tables. 3 figures. (DCK)

Garland, R.V.

1981-11-01

227

Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power, Inc. (ALSTOM) is developing an Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants to address present and anticipated NOX emissions control legislation for US coal-fired boilers. The proposed system will build on ALSTOM's field-proven TFS 2000TM low NOX firing system to achieve furnace outlet NOX emissions at or below 0.15 lb\\/MMBtu for existing tangentially fired boilers firing

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; John L. Marion; Robert Lewis; Chris Smith

228

Two-dimensional thermodynamic model (second stage) of in situ underground coal gasification of eastern thin-seam coals  

SciTech Connect

The methodology and results of determining cavity growth via a side wall burn model in underground coal gasification (UCG) in Eastern, swelling coals is presented. Modeling techniques are still in preliminary stages but when perfected will aid in determining the feasibility of a particular site, dictate the design of the multi-well field pattern, and help control the product gas composition and cavity geometry during production. The computerized models generate a three-dimensional cavity based on the flow geometry and a two-dimensional boundary layer approach. The controlling mechanism for combustion is the diffusion of oxygen to the wall reaction zone. Specific results are presented for a simple, chemical energy balance Model IIA with specified wall and gas temperatures. Product gas composition and heating values are given, as well as reasonably good cavity comparisons with field tests at Hanna II, phase 2 in western, shrinking coals and predictions for the Pricetown I burn. Factors affecting the allowable flow rate schedule are found to be the cavity geometry, the oxygen diffusion rate to the reaction zone, and the remaining link zone flow resistance. Quantitative results are presented for Pricetown I. The complex wall-gas energy balance Models IIB and IIC are discussed in detail. The models include heat convection between wall and gas, radiation between walls (optically-thin gas case), and conduction into the wall, as well as the chemical energy transfers. Applications of the model include the Hanna II, phase 2 field test and predictions for the Pricetown I field test. Results from the models with various boundary conditions are compared in an attempt to identify viable mechanisms. The lack of sufficient field test data and the minor effect of the various boundary conditions precludes any definitive conclusion at this time. 45 references.

Schwartz, S.H.; Eddy, T.L.

1980-05-01

229

Sampling and analysis during partial-seam CRIP tests in the WIDCO/Tono Basin Underground Coal Gasification Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analytical results of samples taken during underground coal gasification (UCG) tests at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company's (WIDCO) Tono Basin Project. Partial seam gasification was conducted over a 20 day period (in October-November 1982), applying a controlled retraction injection point (CRIP) maneuver as the burn cavity progresses. Radian collected particulate and condensate samples for chemical and physical characterization to provide data for the preliminary design of raw gas cleanup processes and to aid in identifying optimum end uses for the product gas. 4 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

Kilpatrick, M.P.; Kelly, K.L.; Williams, W.A.; Lewis, D.S.

1985-06-01

230

Sustainability assessment of algae cofiring in a coal-fired power plant: A hybrid LCA model  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE environmental performance of various algae cofiring scenarios in a 300 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated using an ecologically based hybrid LCA model. Scenarios included cofiring options utilizing 100% Coal, 75% Coal & 25% Algae, 50% Coal & 50% Algae, 25% Coal & 75% Algae, and 100% Algae. These percentage values represent the share of energy production (MJ) by

M. Kucukvar; O. Tatari

2011-01-01

231

COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

232

Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the

2003-01-01

233

Comparisons of micronized coal, pulverized coal and No. 6 oil for gas\\/oil utility and industrial boiler firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

What minimum coal particle size is necessary for micronized coal to work What happens in the closed spaced convection passes of a gas\\/oil fired boiler when burning coal This paper details combustion research undertaken by Old Ben Coal Company and performed by Riley Stoker Research Center to answer these questions. Furnace heat flux \\/ temperature profiles are investigated and compared

E. T. Robinson; O. G. Jr. Briggs; R. D. Bessette

1988-01-01

234

Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants  

SciTech Connect

The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-10-15

235

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emissions of filterable particulate matter (FPM), condensible PM (CPM), PM10, and PM2.5 at FGD inlet and stack in a coal-fired power plant were measured by EPA method 201A and method 202. The results indicated that emissions of total particulate matter (TPM) are 40.99mg\\/m3 and 120.58mg\\/m3, and the filterable PMs are the highest emissions at both sampling locations which

Ping Lu; Jiang Wu; Wei-Ping Pan

2010-01-01

236

Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been

Dennis L. Laudal; Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lynn A. Brickett; Paul Chu

2004-01-01

237

Aerosol nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New-particle nucleation within coal-fired power-plant plumes can have large effects on particle number concentrations, particularly near source regions, with implications for human health and climate. In order to resolve the formation and growth of particles in these plumes, we have integrated TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a large-eddy simulation/cloud-resolving model (LES/CRM). We have evaluated this model against aircraft observations for three case studies, and the model reproduces well the major features of each case. Using this model, we have shown that meteorology and background aerosol concentrations can have strong effects on new-particle formation and growth in coal-fired power-plant plumes, even if emissions are held constant. We subsequently used the model to evaluate the effects of SO2 and NOx pollution controls on newparticle formation in coal-fired power-plant plumes. We found that strong reductions in NOx emissions without concurrent reductions in SO2 emissions may increase new-particle formation, due to increases in OH formation within the plume. We predicted the change in new-particle formation due to changes in emissions between 1997 and 2010 for 330 coal-fired power plants in the US, and we found a median decrease of 19% in new-particle formation. However, the magnitude and sign of the aerosol changes depend greatly on the relative reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions in each plant. More extensive plume measurements for a range of emissions of SO2 and NOx and in varying background aerosol conditions are needed, however, to better quantify these effects.

Stevens, Robin; Lonsdale, Chantelle; Brock, Charles; Makar, Paul; Knipping, Eladio; Reed, Molly; Crawford, James; Holloway, John; Ryerson, Tim; Huey, L. Greg; Nowak, John; Pierce, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

238

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE\\/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal fired MHD retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The utility plant considered in this study is the

J. R. Lance; F. E. Bernard; F. F. Klein

1991-01-01

239

Fabric Filter Technology for Utility Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third in a series of papers discussing the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series presents new data obtained in research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on reverse-gas and shake\\/deflate cleaned baghouses, and specifically addresses a number of unresolved

Robert C. Carr; Wallace B. Smith

1984-01-01

240

Fabric Filter Technology for Utility Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth in a series of papers discussing the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of participate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series presents new data obtained in research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on reverse-gas and shake\\/deflate cleaned baghouses, and specifically addresses a number of unresolved

Robert C. Carr; Wallace B. Smith

1984-01-01

241

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1)

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-01-01

242

Coal-fired gas turbine pilot project gets under way. [Use of high-sulfur coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERDA has awarded a contract to Curtiss-Wright Power Systems to design, construct, and operate a pilot plant comprising a gas turbine with a fluidized-bed combustor capable of burning high-sulfur coals. The 5-year program covers five phases and the project site is adjacent to Curtiss-Wright's gas turbine plant at Wood Ridge, N.J. The existing coal-fired steam generators were converted to gas

Jeffs

1976-01-01

243

Permitting coal-fired industrial boilers: Case histories  

SciTech Connect

A critical step before constructing an industrial size coal-fired boiler and associated equipment is obtaining the necessary air quality permits. Since the passage of the 1970 and 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been a significant increase in the scope of the air permitting process. As a result, the nature of permitting is such that a permit is negotiated on a case-by-case basis under a complex set of rules and regulations. The permit applicant has the burden of proof that the project will not have any adverse impacts on air quality and that appropriate and adequate control technology will be used. The degree of proof or documentation required to convince the regulatory agencies, and sometimes the public, that these requirements will be met depends upon the judgment and experience of all parties concerned with the project. The permitting process can cause concern to the companies and individuals involved because of the open-ended process and the unpredictability of the final results. This paper presents six recent case histories of permitting coal-fired industrial boilers and discusses the background information used in preparing the permit applications. The boilers ranged from a small package boiler to a large pulverized coal-fired boiler. All the projects involved additions or modifications to an existing facility. A detailed summary is provided for each project including a description of the boiler, the predicted air quality impacts, and the negotiated emission rates.

Neil, P.E.; Mayfield, D.R.

1983-06-01

244

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

2001-01-31

245

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

NONE

1995-08-31

246

Coal pulverizer inerting and fire extinguishing system  

SciTech Connect

A bowl mill is described having a substantially closed separator body, a rotatable grinding surface mounted for rotation in a first direction within the separator body and upon which pulverization of material is effected, material supply means supported within the separator body for supplying material to be pulverized to the grinding surface and having a first portion projecting outwardly of the separator body, outlet means supported on the separator body for discharging from the bowl mill material that has been pulverized therewithin, and air inlet means for supplying air to the interior of the separator body for transporting material that has been pulverized on the grinding surface therefrom to the outlet means for discharging from the bowl mill. The improvement consists of a combination inerting and fire extinguishing system.

Kmiotek, S.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Rogers, J.D.

1988-07-05

247

At best, Colorado seams unusual  

SciTech Connect

Shaped not unlike a saucer at the Mad Hatter's tea party, the coal deposit now being mined by Walden Coal Co. on the Western Slope of Colorado has provided this small producer with a geologic setting that is allowing the company to register a 42-ton-per-manshift productivity figure in the record book. Contributing to this somewhat Alice-In-Wonderland production figure are the following features: Overburden, interburden and coal need not be blasted, only ripped with dozers. Overburden is removed with two scraper-loaders. A third unit is used during bad weather conditions. The upper seam is 16.5 ft thick, with overburden ranging in thickness from 2 ft to 35 ft. The lower seam is 25.5 ft thick and covered by 80 ft of interburden. Overburden-to-coal ratio averages 41/2:1. Pit haulage for overburden and coal averages 500 ft.

Jackson, D.

1983-11-01

248

Research on Resource Value Flow Accounting Based on Circular Economy for Coal-fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology of resource value flow accounting developed for a study which combined material flow analysis (MFA) for the coal-fired power generation plant, in order to shed light on concepts such as resource productivity and dematerialization of the coal-fired power plant. Different from the previous macro-level MFA, this paper analyses the material cycle of coal-fired power plant

Xie Zhiming; Yi Xuan

2010-01-01

249

Arch mineral pursues multiple dipping seams  

SciTech Connect

Arch Mineral's three Hanna Basin mines in Carbon County, WY, recover about eight million tpy from more than a dozen coal seams. Arch's experience has proven stripping techniques for dipping seams, and has revealed better methods for recontouring and revegetating mined land.

Sprouls, M.W.

1981-07-01

250

Arch mineral pursues multiple dipping seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arch Mineral's three Hanna Basin mines in Carbon County, WY, recover about eight million tpy from more than a dozen coal seams. Arch's experience has proven stripping techniques for dipping seams, and has revealed better methods for recontouring and revegetating mined land.

Sprouls

1981-01-01

251

Impact of coal properties on coal combustion by-product quality: examples from a Kentucky power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal properties impact the quality of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Tracking impacts can often be difficult, particularly in the eastern United States, because utilities use blended coal feeds to meet their quality specifications. To circumvent this problem, we made arrangements for a single seam\\/single mine coal to be burned at a 220-MW wall-fired boiler.The feed coal is a medium sulfur,

Sarah M. Mardon; James C. Hower

2004-01-01

252

Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

253

The Coal Cutter as a Seismic Source in Channel Wave Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of faults in coal seams using underground seismic techniques is now well established. In this paper we propose the use of the coal cutter as a seismic source. Coal production, far from being disrupted by hole drilling and shot firing, is an integral part of the technique.

D. J. Buchanan; I. M. Mason; R. Davis

1980-01-01

254

The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Sanders, M.E.

1996-02-01

255

Comparison of Seam Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study compares alternatives seams with the double-lapped seam made in typical Canadian Forces fabrics in order to determine if a seam, other than the double-lapped seam, would be equally serviceable. An acceptable level of seam efficiency had been ar...

M. M. Dewar R. M. Crow

1983-01-01

256

Analysis of particulate emissions of stoker coal fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this paper includes the study of over 100 particulate emission rate compliance test reports collected by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association under a program entitled ''A Testing Program to Update Equipment Specifications and Design Criteria for Stoker-Fired Boilers'', and analysis of the results of selected tests. All of the 98 tests reported in this study were conducted in accordance with EPA Method 5, ''Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources'', and were observed by state and/or federal enforcement officials. A total of 45 small institutional and industrial multiple pass boilers in the size range of 10,000 to 77,000 lb/hr maximum steam output are represented in the test data. Stoker types include multiple and single retort underfeed, and traveling grate (chain and bar-key) and vibrating grate overfeed. Coals fired include Pennsylvania anthracite and bituminous, and Indiana bituminous. Sample locations for the particulate emission rate tests include boiler outlet, breeching, short stub stack downstream of mechanical collector, and tall masonry stack. The tests were conducted with boilers operating at normal conditions, and fired with coal from the normal source.

Owens, H.K.; Axtman, W.H.; Davis, J.W.

1983-06-01

257

THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

2003-08-01

258

Perspectives on the potential of clean coal technologies to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses how emerging clean coal technologies can play an important role in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. A major issue is whether they will be commercially available for widespread deployment within the time frame needed to meet requirements of acid rain control legislation. On the basis of current reviews and past reports, it appears that clean coal

Fultz

1989-01-01

259

Effect of Ash in Coal on the Performance of Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants. Part I: Primary Energy Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the effect of ash content in raw coal on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants of capacity range 30–500 MW. The focus is on primary energy effects—combustion, heat transfer, and flow hydrodynamics. The effects of variation of ash in coal from 6% (taken as standard) up to 75% on component performance are studied and

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2006-01-01

260

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30

261

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research that has been performed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) during the last three months on demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last six months have been on: (1) Field Tests for RRI at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) in cyclone fired boilers; (3) Applying the NOx model to evaluate RRI systems integrated into a boiler with Over Fired Air (OFA) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR); (4) Field Tests of the REI Corrosion Probe at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1; (5) Commence engineering study of ammonia adsorption mechanisms for Fly Ash; (6) Presentation of current program accomplishments and plans for future work to DoE staff members at NETL-FE (Pittsburgh); and (7) Presentation of preliminary field test results for RRI to EPRI CNCIG.

Michael J. Bockelie

2000-10-31

262

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

2005-09-21

263

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

None

2000-12-31

264

Selecting sites for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Methods that have been used to select sites for coal-fired power plants are reviewed. A specific site selection procedure is presented that has been successfully applied in a number of cases. Screening criteria and expert judgement are utilized to determine candidate sites within a large study area. These candidate sites are evaluated using multiobjective decision analysis methods to select preferred and alternate sites for the power plant. An illustrative application is presented to show how the site selection procedure is carried out. 11 refs.

Bennedsen, M.B.; Kirkwood, C.W.

1982-06-01

265

Coal-fired boilers and reduction of NO sub x  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of slag-tap furnaces are their high efficiency, employment of low-grade coal, limited pulverization work (in comparison with dry-bottom furnaces), and production of an ecologically safe and depositable product from the coal ash (granulated material). However, with the introducton of primary Denox measures problems could arise with firing control and flame stability in slag-tap furnaces. The availability of slag-tap boilers is primarily dependent on its refractory lining. The authors present an investigation to see if the introduction of primary NO{sub x} reduction measures causes problems for refractories. The tests were carried out on a natural circulation boiler in a West German power station.

Schoop, U. (Operations Manager SStadtwerke Dusseldorf (DE)); Frohlich, G., Harris, C.L. (VGT-DYKO Refractories Co., Cincinnati, OH (US))

1988-01-01

266

Mercury control for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

On 15 March 2005 the US Environmental Protection Agency issued its Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMP) to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPRI is working with the US Department of Energy and the power industry to develop mercury control technologies needed to meet the final 2018 emission limits. Some improvements can be made by modifying existing SO{sub 2} or NOx control devices. Precombustion cleaning reduces mercury content of eastern coals by about one third. Adding a little halogen is another technology being researched - this promotes oxidation improving short-term mercury capture. EPRI is developing the TOXECON{trademark} technology to address a major problem of using sorbents to control mercury emissions: contamination of fly ash. 5 figs.

Haase, P.

2005-06-30

267

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOEpatents

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01

268

Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). The highest values in coal ash are displayed by elements such as Rb,

Stanislav V Vassilev; Christina G Vassileva

1997-01-01

269

ECONOMIC IMPACTS RESULTING FROM CO-FIRING BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES COAL-FIRED PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic impacts of using biomass in Southeast United States coal-fired plants are estimated using a county-level biomass database; ORCED, a dynamic electricity distribution model that estimates feedstock value; ORIBAS, a GIS model that estimates feedstock transportation costs; and IMPLAN, an input-output model that determines the impacts of co-firing on economic activity.

Burton C. English; Kimberly L. Jensen; R. Jamey Menard; Marie E. Walsh; Daniel de la Torre Ugarte; Craig Brandt; Jim Van Dyke; Stanton Hadley

2004-01-01

270

Personal equipment for low seam-coal miners. 10. Improved knee pads, a modified design. Open file report (Final) 1982-1986  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work was to develop and field test improved knee protection for underground coal miners working in low-seam mines. In a previous phase of this contract (Sanders, 1982), experimental knee pads were developed and field tested. The work summarized in this report, therefore, consists of modifying the design and method of fabrication of the knee pads originally described by Sanders (1982), and of field testing the improved design. The new prototype was shorter and wider than the original design, and used a neoprene pass-through strap design rather than a cloth strap molded into the pad itself. The new prototype was constructed by slush molding a hollow bladder that was then filled with foam.

Sanders, M.S.; Shaw, B.E.

1986-03-01

271

Trends in the development of comprehensive mechanization equipment for working thick gently sloping and steep Kuzbass coal seams with filling of the worked-out space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a For working thick steep coal seams with a system of level technologies and the back-filling of worked-out space, a standardized\\u000a set of equipment should be created to advance the face using aggregate support systems with a base that would be able to maintain\\u000a internal outward pressure, on which the cutter-loader, conveyor, and filling equipment are installed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a As

V. A. Mikhalitsyn; V. D. Kleiman; V. P. Zhevago

1985-01-01

272

Particulate sampling methods used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute's coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), operates a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) research facility with downstream components capable of simulating a steam bottoming plant with particulate control devices. The major downstream components of the coal fired flow facility (CFFF) include a superheater test module (SHTM); an air heater; and three parallel particulate control devices, a baghouse, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and

1988-01-01

273

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective is to advance the technology of direct coal-fired MHD components and systems required for MHD power systems operating under engineering simulation of central power station power conditions. The specific objectives of the UTSI R and D MHD Facility and the MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility are to resolve experimentally and analytically the key technical problems which have been

J. B. Dicks; H. P. Markant; L. W. Crawford

1979-01-01

274

Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because mercury enters the food chain primarily through atmospheric deposition, exposure models require accurate information about mercury emission rates and mercury speciation from point sources. Since coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction of the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, the speciation of mercury in coal-fired power plant flue gas is currently an active topic of research. We

Constance L Senior; Adel F Sarofim; Taofang Zeng; Joseph J Helble; Ruben Mamani-Paco

2000-01-01

275

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

276

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment (MCEA) methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

277

Characterization and growth modeling of ash deposits in coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash deposit growing model based on surface growing theory is developed in order to represent the coal fired ash deposits. The predicted characteristics are compared to physical and chemical measurements of a typical ash deposit collected from an existing coal fired power plant located in the south of Brazil. Several structures were generated and compared to scanning electron images

Edson Bazzo

278

Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

1993-01-01

279

The influence of petrological properties and burial history on coal seam methane reservoir characterisation, Sydney Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas content of coals continuously change throughout their burial histories as a result of the changing state of equilibrium of the coal–gas system caused by variations in P–T conditions and coal rank. To fully evaluate the prospectivity of a coalbed methane resource, numerous coal properties, burial history, P–T conditions, hydrology and the likelihood of secondary biogenic gas generation need to

M. Faiz; A. Saghafi; N. Sherwood; I. Wang

2007-01-01

280

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

281

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

282

Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application as thermal transport systems for integrating fluidized bed combustors (FBC) with prime movers ranging from Stirling engines in total energy systems (approx.10 MWe) to closed-cycle gas turbines in central power plants (approx.1000 MWe). The results of initial investigations at ANL demonstrated that high-temperature sodium heat pipes provided the best heat exchanger technology for integrating Stirling engines with coal-fired FBC systems. A major accomplishment included the development and validation of a computer code (ANL/HTP) which calculates heat pipe operating limits and other significant characteristics necessary for power plant design. A number of developmental and prototype heat pipes were designed and fabricated through a subcontract effort with Thermacore, Inc., and delivered to ANL for performance testing. Preliminary test results from ANL's Heat Pipe Test Facility, using induction heating and a gas-water calorimeter to establish energy balances, are given in the report. Test data obtained to date are consistent with ANL/HTP code predictions. 47 refs., 53 figs., 22 tabs.

Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

1985-04-01

283

Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

1995-08-01

284

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01

285

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

SciTech Connect

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15

286

Coal-Water Fuel from Fine Coal for Use in a Fire-Tube Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to burn coal-water fuel (CWF). Atomization tests were performed on an EER nozzle using JWRI CWF prior to the boiler

BRUCE HAMILTON; PANDU YELAMAMCHILI; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1997-01-01

287

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10

288

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

2001-07-27

289

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As

Elcock

2011-01-01

290

CFD analysis of the effects of co-firing biomass with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the effects of co-firing biomass with coal is presented in this study. Coal\\/biomass co-firing is a complex problem that involves gas and particle phases, along with the effect of the turbulence on the chemical reactions. The CFD analysis includes the prediction of volatile evolution and char burnout from the co-pulverized coal\\/biomass particles along with

Chaouki Ghenai; Isam Janajreh

2010-01-01

291

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-01-31

292

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study  

SciTech Connect

The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

1984-07-01

293

Ash deposition in the Coal Fired Flow Facility while burning Illinois [number sign]6 coal  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of coal fly ash and potassium sulfate on tubes representative of superheaters and intermediate temperature air heaters at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility during a 2000 hour POC test period is herein described. The deposition is unique to this test facility because of the high combustion temperatures and the use of potassium carbonate as the conducting seed.'' This seed material is required for coal fired MHD applications as a means to control sulfur dioxide emissions as it combines with the sulfur in coal to form potassium sulfate. Most of the potassium sulfate solids removed are in the form of a fine ash from which potassium can be recovered and recycled. Testing clearly indicated that the majority of ash/seed deposits can be removed by conventional sootblowing. A significant difference in ash removal is the increased volume of deposits, as potassium compounds make up 75% of the total deposits which must be removed for efficient heat transfer. Tube deposits on the heat exchange surfaces in the area of highest gas temperature have been difficult to remove due to the presence of molten potassium sulfate.

Dace, J.F.; Shaver, T.C.

1993-01-01

294

A study of techniques for reducing ash deposition in coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion and deposition on engine components are potential barriers to the utilization of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines. The US Department of Energy has established a program to study mechanisms of ash deposition, with the goal of developing methods to alleviate deposition problems in coal-fired gas turbines. Ash deposits are formed in the turbines by the adherence of

R. G. Logan; G. A. Richards; C. T. Meyer; R. J. Anderson

1989-01-01

295

Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

296

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

2004-03-30

297

Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-04-30

298

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOEpatents

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01

299

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01

300

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test, up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was co-milled Pratt seam coal. In the second test, also with Pratt seam coal, up to 10% by weight dry hardwood sawdust was injected through the center of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preliminary results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2001-04-30

301

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter and shakedown testing was begun at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. Talks continued with two utilities that have expressed interest in hosting a demonstration.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-04-30

302

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

303

Coal/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and densified refuse-derived fuel was fired. The report describes the equipment used to densify refuse derived fuel, procedures used to prepare and handle the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture and the test results. The results include the effect of the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture on plant operations, boiler efficiency, stack emissions and EP toxicity.

Hecklinger, R.S.; Rehm, F.R.

1985-11-01

304

Decision Making on Most Economical Coal for Coal-Fired Power Plants Under Fluctuating Coal Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term (8 years) experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of coal quality on the economy of power plants and to develop a predictive method for the determination of the most economical coal in a fluctuating coal market. The research results show that the facility maintenance costs, the combustion-supporting oil consumption, and the frequency of tube

Houzhang Tan; Xuebin Wang; Yang Miao; Haiyu Liu; Mohamed Pourkashanian; Lin Ma; Tongmo Xu

2011-01-01

305

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2005-03-31

306

Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

1982-04-01

307

Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project, Phase 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (phase 3D) is reported. The scope encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, fabrication and assembly of first and second stage hardware, plans for second stage design verification testing and power testing, and designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section. Progress includes the following: (1) operational verification testing of the first stage at the CDIF was completed; (2) assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM is 75 to 90% completed; (3) conceptual designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section are completed and low preheat preliminary design work is 75% completed; and (4) revision of the users' manual to include the second stage is 75% completed and a draft Test Plan for power train testing is reviewed.

1985-02-01

308

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-21

309

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

Conkle, H.N.

1992-03-17

310

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2011-05-31

311

Effect of coal d-RDF co-firing on stack emissions at milwaukee county institutions' power plant  

SciTech Connect

A research and development project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a 'base line' condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and d-RDF was fired. This paper reports the test results for stack emissions.

Rehm, F.R.; Black, M.I.; Hecklinger, R.S.

1982-01-01

312

Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes were collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESPs) and\\/or the baghouse of seven coal-fired power plants. The fly ashes were sampled from power plants that use pulverized subbituminous and bituminous feed coals. Fly ash from bituminous coals and limestone feed coals from fluidized-bed power plant were also sampled. The fly ashes were examined for their mineralogies and elemental compositions.

Fariborz Goodarzi

2006-01-01

313

Design and implementation of a dedicated prototype GIS for coal fire investigations in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design architecture and functioning of CoalMan, a tailor made Geographic Information System (GIS) for managing surface and underground fires in coal mining areas. CoalMan is specially designed for and installed in the Rujigou coal field in north-west China. It uses ILWIS as the supporting GIS package. It functions through its database and management tools, processing and

Anupma Prakash; Zoltán Vekerdy

2004-01-01

314

Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

1985-05-01

315

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-07-28

316

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

SciTech Connect

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. [Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States); Kimberley, J. [AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States); Itse, D. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)

1993-01-01

317

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

SciTech Connect

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. (Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)); Kimberley, J. (AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States)); Itse, D. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

318

Trace elements in two pulverized coal-fired power stations.  

PubMed

Beside major pollutants (particulates, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides), coal combustion generates emissions of potentially toxic trace elements. The current work focuses on predicting the fate of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in power stations that fire pulverized coal and are equipped with flue gas scrubbers. The core of the study is global equilibrium analysis carried out with the aid of three extensive databases. The first set of equilibrium constants describes conditions prevailing in the furnace and the flue gas duct, while the second set describes reactions in the flue gas scrubber. Melting behavior of ash and solubility of trace elements within the slag are described as a third set of data. To test the modeling approach taken in this paper, the predicted overall partitioning of trace elements is compared with measured data from two full-scale facilities. The results of the study indicate that As, Cd, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn are captured in the fly ash, and that the fate of these element correlates with the overall particle capture of the power plants. Calculations for the flue gas scrubber facilities show that nonvolatile trace elements are likely to dissolve in the scrubber solution, and that capture of these elements likewise is correlated with the overall particulate behavior. Theoretical predictions of the melting behavior indicate that As, Ni, Zn, and to some extent Pb are likely to dissolve in the molten ash. PMID:11351523

Sandelin, K; Backman, R

2001-03-01

319

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS program. The CETF design effort continued through this quarter with the completion of the following systems: 1. Char Storage and Transport System 2. Reheat Burner The char storage system is required for the HIPPS program because the ball mill needs to be de-coupled from the burner. This de-coupling of the mill and the burner allows greater flexibility in changing char particle size distribution ? one of the main test variables under the HIPPS program. The reheat burner is employed to prevent condensation of the flue gas in the baghouse.

NONE

1998-10-01

320

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

NONE

1998-10-01

321

Control of NO/sub x/ from coal-fired boilers: combustion-modification techniques. [Effect of boiler type, coal type and firing method  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of commercially available combustion-modification (CM) techniques and prospects for seven advanced CM methods now under development are evaluated in terms of controlling NO/sub x/ emissions in coal-fired boilers. Boiler types considered include single-wall-fired and horizontally opposed wall-fired, tangentially fired, and down-fired boilers; underfed, overfed, and spreader stokers; and cyclone units. Significant variations in NO/sub x/ emissions occur with boiler type, coal type, and firing method. Emission-control performance, cost, and operating characteristics are compared for the applicable CM techniques. This study finds off-stoichiometric, or staged, combustion (OSC) and low-excess-air operation to be the most cost-effective methods for existing units, while OSC and low-NO/sub x/ burners are best for new units. Further research is needed to resolve potential corrosion problems associated with low-NO/sub x/ operations. Advanced burner/boiler designs now under active development could lower NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers to about 0.2 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu heat input. Present efforts to understand NO formation/destruction mechanisms and their interaction with operating characteristics of these new designs should be accelerated.

Huang, H.S.

1981-10-01

322

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

323

Thin seams can bring clean profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines reports that some 451.4 billions tons or 66.5% of the country's total bituminous resources lie in 14 to 42-in.-thick seams less than 1,000 ft below the surface. Coal from these thin seams typically has a high Btu value, is low in sulfur and low in ash content. It is pointed out that operators who can mine

Brezovee

1983-01-01

324

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

NONE

1996-03-01

325

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of adv...

A. Abu-Baker E. S. Rubin H. C. Frey J. S. Salmento M. Berkenpas

1991-01-01

326

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

327

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

328

Demonstration of Sorbent Injection Technology on a Tangentially Coal-Fired Utility Boiler (Yorktown Limb Demonstration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in a program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. This suc...

A. F. Kwasnik J. P. Clark M. R. Gogineni R. W. Koucky

1994-01-01

329

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program: Commercial Plant Economic Analysis (Task 1.6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbin...

1980-01-01

330

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program: Turbine Materials Evaluation, March 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of cladding technology development under the Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DOE Project. Clad Alloy Development, involved the selection, fabrication and burner rig evaluation of advanced clad alloy composition diffusion-bonded ...

1980-01-01

331

Fire Hazard Criteria for Noise Control Products in Underground Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of fire hazard criteria for noise control products in underground coal mines are presented. Qualifying requisites of the criteria include maintaining miners' safety, allowing for maximum use of noise control products, and economic feasibil...

M. R. Pettitt R. E. Giuntini W. R. Wessels

1983-01-01

332

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES ON COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of fine particulate from coal-fired utility boilers, using electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. It provides guidelines to utility personnel, responsible for selecting fine particulate control equipment, on signifi...

333

Cost of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Application for NOx Control on Coal-Fired Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NO-x) control technology capable of pr...

D. Foerter W. Jozewicz

2001-01-01

334

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

1981-03-01

335

MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

336

Unified process assessment for resources use and waste emissions by coal-fired power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified process assessment is carried out to integrate various resources and emissions associated with the life cycle of typical coal-fired power generation systems, based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy as a common objective measure. For a comprehensive assessment of industrial production systems, three indicators termed as ecological efficiency, resources use efficiency and environmental emission intensity are devised to evaluate the overall efficacy. Concretely assessed in the present work are three typical modes of coal-fired power generation systems, i.e., the Average mode that represents the average emissions and efficiency of coal-fired power plants operating in the US in 1999, the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) mode that meets the New Source Performance Standards, and the low emission boiler system (LEBS) mode as a kind of highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler, as benchmark cases in related NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) report.

Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, G. Q.

2010-09-01

337

Longwall gate road stability in a steeply pitching thick coal seam with a weak roof. Report of investigations/1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a ground pressure analysis of a wide abutment-type chain pillar in a two-entry gate road of a Western U.S. coal mine with an extremely weak immediate roof. This report discusses gate road layout and performance and secondary support effectiveness. The results of the pillar pressure study are compared to pillar loading predicted by a widely used pillar design method and to similar studies in other mines. A stability evaluation of the most recent longwall headgate, using the USBM Analysis of Longwall Pillar Stability (ALPS) indicates marginal stability in first-panel mining and instability in second-panel mining. ALPS and the USBM Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) system are used to evaluate tailgate-mining stability of the previous gate roads and to determine pillar and entry width and top coal thickness criteria for tailgate stability in future panels.

Barron, L.R.; DeMarco, M.J.

1995-12-31

338

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

339

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

340

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not

T. M. Sullivan; F. D. Lipfert; S. M. Morris; S. Renninger

341

Particulate air pollution control for Army coal-fired boiler plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army has several coal-fired boiler plants, and, in accordance with its Solid Fuel Conversion Program, will have many more in the future. Particulate emissions from such plants are strictly regulated by state agencies. The current coal-fired plants use various particulate-control technologies, with mixed success. This study examined these technologies and determined several design deficiencies which could contribute to the

Mikucki

1983-01-01

342

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year

Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

2009-01-01

343

Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating\\/cooling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2\\/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating\\/cooling demand of their locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired

Hasan Huseyin Erdem; Ahmet Dagdas; Suleyman Hakan Sevilgen; Burhanettin Cetin; Ali Volkan Akkaya; Bahri Sahin; Ismail Teke; Cengiz Gungor; Selcuk Atas

2010-01-01

344

Analysis of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrofitting of existing coal-fired power plants with a carbon dioxide capture offers a promising opportunity to achieve the global target reduction in CO2 emissions. This paper deals with the integration of an amine-based flue gas scrubber with a coal-fired power plant including compression of CO2 and the resulting effects of the integration on the power plant’s operation.

Özgür Korkmaz; Gerd Oeljeklaus; Klaus Görner

2009-01-01

345

Performance\\/cost estimates for retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives results of estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting pollution-control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid-rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and conduct detailed evaluations of 12 coal-fired plants--5 in Ohio and 7 in Kentucky and the Tennessee Valley Authority system. A variety of

J. W. Jones; T. E. Emmel; B. A. Laseke

1988-01-01

346

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local

Margarete Vasterling; Stefan Schloemer; Christian Fischer; Christoph Ehrler

2010-01-01

347

Impact of coal seam as interlayer on CO 2 storage in saline aquifers: A reservoir simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological storage of CO2 is a viable option for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Two main reservoir types exist; porous formations such as saline aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs and, of lesser importance in terms of storage capacity, coal or shale reservoirs. These reservoirs have distinct storage mechanisms; in the porous formations the CO2 is stored within

Zhejun Pan; Luke D. Connell

2011-01-01

348

Prevention, detection, and control of coal pulverizer fires and explosions: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The utility industry continues to be plagued by fires and explosions in the pulverizer systems of coal fired power plants. With the increased use of low rank reactive coals these events are cause for growing concern. The objectives of the project included an assessment of current fire, explosion, extinguishing, inerting, and detecting experiences in US power plants. A survey of 361 US power plants determined the historical trends and event occurrences in the industry. The survey analysis isolated plant characteristics that define high and low risk. Bench and full scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study the origin and dynamics of fires and explosions in pulverized coal systems. Fires within mills and classifiers, but not those located in coal pipes, were found to be the triggers for pressure events that could exceed 1000 psig. The influence of system geometry, coal characteristics and coal dust concentration in explosion origin and growth were determined. Additional goals included experimental investigation of effective fire detection and extinguishing, and explosion inerting. The benefits and hazards of detection, extinguishing, and inerting systems are discussed and evaluated. In addition, the direction and methods for future research to meet the ultimate goal of explosion free pulverizer systems is presented. 124 figs., 44 tabs.

Carini, R.C.; Hules, K.R.

1987-02-01

349

Respiratory symptoms and annoyance in the vicinity of coal-fired plants.  

PubMed Central

This study constitutes one part of a program for assessing the impact of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding communities. A questionnaire was mailed to a total of 12,000 subjects living in six areas with coal-fired plants and in matched reference areas. The participation rate was 77.3%. In one coal-fired plant/reference area pair, a more detailed medical examination was carried out among subjects who reported symptoms of the respiratory tract. The match between coal-fired plant and reference areas was successful primarily in three pairs. Neither respiratory symptoms nor disease rates were increased among adults or children near any of these plants, but one plant seemed to give rise to annoyance. For the remaining coal-fired plants, consistently higher prevalences of respiratory tract symptoms and annoyance were observed in the surrounding population. The effects cannot, however, conclusively be related to the coal-fired plants. It should be pointed out that the air pollution levels were relatively low, also in the vicinity of most of the plants in this study.

Pershagen, G; Hammar, N; Vartiainen, E

1986-01-01

350

A coal fired gas turbine using an air cooled fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine cogeneration system using a coal fired atmospheric fluid bed (AFB) combustor represents an environmentally clean and less costly alternative to the oil or gas fired electric power generators, process steam boilers and process heaters that are necessary for the operations of both small and large industrial energy users. This paper describes a cogeneration system which uses an

S. Moskowitz; J. Mullen; S. Vanderlinden

1983-01-01

351

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). It is a pulverized fuel- fired boiler\\/ air heater where steam and gas turbine air are indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further

J. Shenker

1997-01-01

352

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

2003-12-31

353

Emissions control for a boiler firing high-sulfur coal and coal/RDF mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operates a stoker-fired boiler rated at 170,000 lb/h of steam as part of the site heating/cooling system. The flue-gas cleanup (FGC) equipment consists of a spray-dryer/fabric-filter combination, which was the first FGC system of its type to be installed and continuously operated on high-sulfur coal in the United States. Under a combined NO/sub x//SO/sub 2/ research program, changes in operating conditions and the addition of a chemical additive (NaOH) were studied. The results show that,under certain operating conditions, it is possible to achieve significant levels of combined control. Key variables include the spray-dryer exit temperature, the additive concentration, the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the flue gas, and the baghouse filter-cake thickness. A third set of tests involved firing several mixtures of coal and binder-enhanced refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 30% RDF (based on Btu content) was used with several different levels of lime binder. No significant operating problems were encountered, all ash samples passed the EP toxicity test, no detectable levels of dioxins or furans were found in the ash or flue gas, and both SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions at the boiler exit were decreased. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Ohlsson, O.O.

1989-01-01

354

Recent Developments and Practices to Control Fire in Undergound Coal Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mine fires cause serious threat to the property and human lives. Outbreak of fire may be dealt with advanced fire suppression\\u000a techniques like Infusion of inert gases or liquid nitrogen, Dynamic Balancing of pressure, Reversal of underground mine ventilation,\\u000a Application of nitrogen foam, Inertisation of Goaf, Water mist etc. The paper addresses all those control techniques in detail.\\u000a Success

S. K. Ray; R. P. Singh

2007-01-01

355

MHD generating system. [open-cycle coal-fired two-phase liquid metal MHD generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coal-fired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and

M. Petrick; E. S. Pierson; F. Schreiner

1978-01-01

356

Description of the DOE Coal-Fired MHD Flow Facility \\/CFFF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components, instrumentation, and operating parameters of the DOE MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility are described, noting its extension and expansion from a previous prototype plant. The CFFF features three bays for coal delivery, offering hot gas flows of 8 and 30 lb\\/sec, and a third rate for outside contractor studies. A Low Mass Flow test train is intended for engineering tests

J. B. Dicks; J. F. Martin; J. W. Muehlhauser; S. S. Strom

1980-01-01

357

Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ?-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein

James C Hower; Leslie F Ruppert; Cortland F Eble

1999-01-01

358

Status review of mercury control options for coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of research related to mercury control technology for coal-fired power plants and identifies areas requiring additional research and development. It critically reviews measured mercury emissions; the chemistry of mercury transformation and control; progress in the development of promising control technologies: sorbent injection, control in wet scrubbers, and coal cleaning; and projects costs for mercury control.

John H Pavlish; Everett A Sondreal; Michael D Mann; Edwin S Olson; Kevin C Galbreath; Dennis L Laudal; Steven A Benson

2003-01-01

359

Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnances. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1980March 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor

1980-01-01

360

Cross-Media Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations for a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types and rates of pollutant emissions from a coal-fired power plant depend upon plant design, coal characteristics, and environmental control policy. In the past, air pollution regulations were often promulgated without rigorous analysis of the resulting energy penalties and secondary environmental impacts that occur in other environmental media (air, land, or water), which are counterproductive to overall environmental quality.

Edward S. Rubin; Francis Clay McMichael

1978-01-01

361

Reducing Water Freshwater Consumption at Coal-Fired Power Plants: Approaches Used Outside the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with incre...

B. Carney

2011-01-01

362

The Analysis of Influencing Factors for Combustion Stability on 300MW Tangentially Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the research of the pulverized coal ignition and steadily combustion mechanism and the numerical Simulation of the 300MW tangentially pulverized coal fired boiler by coalfire software, combining the operating data of the boiler, we establish the corresponding relation between the result of numerical simulation and combustion stability. The result indicates that the higher volatile, lower content of ash and

Jun Li; Fei Jin

2011-01-01

363

Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional

L. E. Stoddard; M. R. Bary; K. M. Gray; P. G. LaHaye

1995-01-01

364

Assessment of toxic air pollutants from TVA's coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the potential effects of toxic air pollutants emitted from TVA's coal-fired power plants. Ambient air quality standards exist for some of the substances, the criteria pollutants, emitted when coal is burned in power plants. One of these criteria pollutants, particulate matter, consists of many different elements that may

D. Lokey; J. A. Manning

1988-01-01

365

Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury

S. N. Khawaja; L. Odom; W. Landing

2010-01-01

366

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WATERTUBE BOILER FIRING A COAL-WATER SLURRY. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from field testing a watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry (CWS) containing about 60% coal. Emission measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas,...

367

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.

1988-01-01

368

PARTICULATE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS ON AN ESP INSTALLED ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of fractional and overall collection efficiency measurements of an electrostatic precipitator collecting fly ash from a coal-fired boiler burning high-sulfur coal. The mass median diameter of the particulate entering the collector was approximately 40 mic...

369

Application of the diesel discriminating fire sensor to the measurement of respirable coal dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel detector which can distinguish fire smoke from diesel particulates was tested to determine its response to respirable dusts in the concentration range of 0 to 7 mg\\/m3. The test results indicated that the detector response was linear over this dust concentration range for respirable coal dusts and nonlinear for respirable rock dust. The response to respirable coal dust

C. D. Litton; R. P. Vinson

1994-01-01

370

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.

Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1991-09-20

371

Laser-particulate control for open-cycle, coal fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbines need efficient high temperature particulate control in order to be an attractive option for the efficient conversion of coal to electrical energy. Particulates in the range of three to ten microns are very difficult to remove and it is, therefore, proposed that they be fragmented into particulates below the threshold size for turbine blade erosion using

T. E. Botts; J. R. Powell

1979-01-01

372

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. Annual Report, July 1978-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) is the unique powerplant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle powerplant. On the basis of previous studies...

1980-01-01

373

The development in direct coal-fired gas turbines for locomotive application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturation of the basic technical knowledge base relating to coal processing, handling, and combustion; materials of construction; and systems design of gas turbines has provided an opportunity to revisit the concept of direct coal firing in a gas turbine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a scoping program beginning in 1983, and based on promising results has recently entered

T. F. Bechtel; A. A. Pitrolo

1986-01-01

374

Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper,

C. L. Spiro; C. C. Chen; S. G. Kimura; R. G. Lavigne; P. W. Schields

1989-01-01

375

Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on

Chittatosh Bhattacharya

2008-01-01

376

First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of

1983-01-01

377

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2003-06-30

378

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2005-06-30

379

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-09-30

380

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

2001-02-05

381

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-12-31

382

The performance of a compact oil-designed utility boiler when firing coal-water fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian coal-water fuel technology development program has been in progress since 1980. This phase of the work is the final stage in the demonstration of practicability of burning coal-water fuel in a boiler designed to burn oil. Early tests in small coal-capable front-wall and tangentially fired utility boilers have shown that two of the major problems to be addressed

D. M. Rankin; H. Whaley; P. J. Read; D. J. Burnett

1990-01-01

383

CO2 EMISSION AND CARBON CAPTURE FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS IN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal consumption in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the rate of 9.7 and 4.7% per year since 2002, respectively. The increase in coal utilization usually tallies fairly well with the increase in CO2 emission. The present study attempts at predicting the emissions of CO2 from coal fired power plants from 2005 until 2020. The paper also analyzes the potential

M. R. OTHMAN; R. ZAKARIA; W. J. N. FERNANDO

384

A trace metal study surrounding a coal-fired electrical generating facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 1300 coal-fired facilities that generate more than 55% of the nation's electricity. State-of-the-art technology removes 99% of the particulates in coal and 97% of the SOâ. That kind of efficiency appears to be more than adequate until one realizes that the coal consumption of some power generating facilities may exceed 15,000 tons\\/day. Hence, it becomes very obvious

D. L. Mitchell; B. L. Wilson

1987-01-01

385

Effect of Ash in Coal on the Performance of Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants. Part II: Capacity and Secondary Energy Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the secondary energy effects (wear\\/erosion\\/abrasion, slagging, and fouling) of ash in coal on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants of capacity range 30–500 MW. It also gives the extent of capacity reduction in equipment due to firing of coals with higher ash contents.At an ash content of 75% in coal, the effects on the

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2006-01-01

386

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME II. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparative multimedia assessment of coal firing and oil firing in an industrial boiler was conducted. The assessment consists of several parts. First, comprehensive emissions assessments of each fuel were conducted. These comprehensive emissions assessments were used to develo...

387

Roof fall study, Pocahontas No. 3 seam. Research and development contract to conduct an engineers study of coal and coal measure rocks. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed geology in portions of five underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, were mapped, tabulated, and analyzed with respect to roof conditions. Cross-sections and maps were constructed to illustrate roof rock types and their distribution and structure. Numerous data were compiled on coal cleat orientation.

J. C. Ferm; R. A. Melton

1975-01-01

388

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA  

EPA Science Inventory

China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

389

N 2O and NO emissions from co-firing MSW with coals in pilot scale CFBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW) with bituminous coal and anthracite was conducted using pilot scale circulating fluidized-bed combustion. Both N2O and NO emissions from co-firing MSW with bituminous coal are higher than those obtained from co-firing with anthracite. N2O decreases significantly, whereas NO rises with the increase of Ca\\/(S+0.5Cl) molar ratios. Increasing the co-firing rates leads to the reduction of

Zhiwei Li; Qinggang Lu; Yongjie Na

2004-01-01

390

The research of underground coal fires based on thermal infrared images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal mine fires has become a very severe geologic disaster that affects the sustainable development of China's national economy. They result in a reduction of the coal reserve, attribute to atmospheric pollution through the emission of greenhouse related gases, cause land subsidence and negatively impact human health in nearby areas. Fire source localization is an important direction in the research area of fire detection at present. For application researches of fire source localization in fire nonage, a method of fire source localization and its algorithm are presented in the paper. The method is applied to estimate the characterization of infrared image for fire source localization in condition of radiation of fire source having a character of approximate spherical wave, and its convenience of fine orientation distinguishing ability is also presented. The coherence of detection precision for fire source localization applied with the method is similarity while detected in the closed or semi-closed space. Fine feasible and compatible of this detection method is represented in the paper, and especially suited for fire source localization in the rectangle restricted space.

Chen, Wei

2009-07-01

391

Thin seam mines in Appalachia yield high production  

SciTech Connect

One-unit coal mines operating in certain flat, dry, and non-gassey seams often have continuous haulage from the face to the surface. Though some seams are so thin that miners must crawl on hands and knees, production is excellent. In thin coal seams that many an experienced miner might feel are unminable, operators in Harlan County, Kentucky, United States, are cutting coal with marked success. One-unit operations in seams no thicker than 625 millimeters (25 inches) are producing up to 7,000 tons of coal per month while operating only one shift per day, five days per week. Good mining conditions and continuous haulage of coal from the face to the surface are two reasons why.

Schneiderman, S.J.

1981-03-01

392

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-12-14

393

State of the Art of Oxy-Coal Combustion Technology for CO2 Control from Coal-Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development of oxy-coal combustion for CO2 capture from coal-fired boilers has been the subject of numerous studies. Recently, The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) and Air Liquide (AL), with sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), have finished a pilot-scale evaluation of the technology at 1.5 MWth (5 MBtu\\/hr) using scale model commercial boiler equipment. The

394

Transformations and Affinities for Sulfur of Chinese Shenmu Coal Ash in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca\\/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t\\/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less

J. Cheng; J. H. Zhou; J. Z. Liu; X. Y. Cao; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

395

Methods and costs of thin-seam mining. Final report, 25 September 1977-24 January 1979. [Thin seam in association with a thick seam  

SciTech Connect

This report defines the state of the art (circa 1978) in removing thin coal seams associated with vastly thicker seams found in the surface coal mines of the western United States. New techniques are evaluated and an innovative method and machine is proposed. Western states resource recovery regulations are addressed and representative mining operations are examined. Thin seam recovery is investigated through its effect on (1) overburden removal, (2) conventional seam extraction methods, and (3) innovative techniques. Equations and graphs are used to accommodate the variable stratigraphic positions in the mining sequence on which thin seams occur. Industrial concern and agency regulations provided the impetus for this study of total resource recovery. The results are a compendium of thin seam removal methods and costs. The work explains how the mining industry recovers thin coal seams in western surface mines where extremely thick seams naturally hold the most attention. It explains what new developments imply and where to look for new improvements and their probable adaptability.

Finch, T.E.; Fidler, E.L.

1981-02-01

396

Simulation and Optimization of the Power Station Coal-Fired Logistics System Based on Witness Simulation Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing characteristics and relations of the power station coal-fired logistics system, including the choice of coal suppliers, the railroad transport system, the power station stockpile system, the power station coal transfer system and human resources, by Witness software the thesis sets up a simulation and optimization model of fuel coal logistics system and analyzes one example in detail.

Yabin Li; Rong Li

2008-01-01

397

Geologic history of natural coal-bed fires, Powder River basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-bed fires ignited by natural processes have baked and fused overlying sediments to form clinker, a hard red or varicolored rock, through much of the northern Great Plains of the United States (USA). The gently dipping coal beds in the region burn when regional downwasting brings them above the local water table. The resulting clinker forms a rim along the exposed edge of the coal bed in an ongoing process through geologic time. The resistant clinker is left capping buttes and ridges after the softer unbaked strata erode away. Clinker outcrops cover more than 4100 km2 in the Powder River basin (PRB), which lies in Wyoming (WY) and Montana (MT). The clinker in place records tens of billions of tons of coal that have burned, releasing gases into the atmosphere. The amount of clinker that has eroded away was at least an order of magnitude greater than the clinker that remains in place. Fission-track and uranium-thorium/ helium ages of detrital zircon crystals in clinker, and paleomagnetic ages of clinker, show that coal beds have burned naturally during at least the past 4 million years (Ma). The oldest in-place clinker that has been dated, collected from a high, isolated, clinker-capped ridge, has a fission track age of 2.8??0.6 Ma. Evidence of erosion and downcutting is also preserved by clinker clasts in gravel terraces. One clinker boulder in a terrace 360 m above the Yellowstone River has a fission track age of 4.0??0.7 Ma. Coal-bed fires are caused by lightning, wildfires, spontaneous combustion, or human activity on coal outcrops and in mines. Miners, government agencies, and ranchers have extinguished thousands of coal bed fires, but natural ignition continues where fresh coal has access to air. At any given time, hundreds of fires, mostly small, are burning. In the Powder River basin, the total amount of coal burned by natural fires in the last 2 Ma is one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total amount of coal removed by mining in the past century. However, current annual rates of coal mining are three to four orders of magnitude greater than estimated prehistoric annual rates of coal consumption by natural fires. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Heffern, E. L.; Coates, D. A.

2004-01-01

398

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ({approx}1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO{sub x} burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ({approx}70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ({approx}90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-04-30

399

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2003-01-30

400

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Various subsystems of BYU's Catalyst Characterization System (CCS) were upgraded this quarter. Work on the CCS hardware and software will continue in the coming quarter. A preliminary test matrix of poisoning experiments in the CCS has been drafted that will explore the effects of at least three poisons: sodium, potassium and calcium. During this quarter, we attempted to resolve discrepancies in previous in situ measurements of catalyst sulfation. Modifications were made to the XPS analysis procedure that allowed analyses of uncrushed samples. Although the XPS and FTIR results are now more consistent in that both indicate that the surface is sulfating (unlike the results reported last quarter), they disagree with respect to which species sulfates. The CEM system for the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor arrived this quarter. Minor modifications to the reactor and control system were completed. The reactor will be shipped to AEP Rockport plant next quarter for shakedown and installation. In a parallel effort, we have proposed to make mercury oxidation measurements across the catalysts at the start of the field test. Pending approval from DOE, we will begin the mercury measurements next quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-10-24

401

Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

402

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2003-09-30

403

Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

Zauderer, B.

1993-02-15

404

High-angle drilling for the Centralia Partial-Seam Crip Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Centralia Partial-Seam CRIP Test, an underground coal gasification experiment at a coal strip mine in Washington State, required the drilling of two long slanted holes. Each was to be about 900 ft long and angled down some 13° from the horizontal, the approximate dip angle of the coal seam. These holes were to begin at the surface, where the

Thompson

1984-01-01

405

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an importa...

P. L. Spath M. K. Mann D. R. Kerr

1999-01-01

406

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was

Pamela L. Spath; Margaret K. Mann; Dawn R. Kerr

1999-01-01

407

Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion\\/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean

J. Rothrock; R. Wenglarz; P. Hart; H. Mongia

1993-01-01

408

System for detecting interfaces between mineral seams and the surrounding earth formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention contemplates a system for detecting an interface between a mineral seam and the surrounding earth formation utilizing a radiation source and a radiation receiver mounted on a miner having a positionable cutter assembly. As the miner is moved into the coal seam, a first distance is continuously sensed between one surface formed in the mineral seam by

J. E. Ingle; J. L. Moon

1981-01-01

409

Model coal tunnel fires in ventilation flow. Report of investigations, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines is using model ducts lined with coal to study the nature of coal mine fires, their rate of propagation, their influence on ventilation airflows, and their response to sealing and other fire suppression measures. For scale-modeling purposes these studies are being carried out in various size ducts; eventually they will include a full-size mine entry in the Bruceton multiple-entry Experimental Mine. To date, work has been carried out in an insulated 9.1-m-long duct with a 5-cm thickness of coal leaving a 23- by 23-cm square opening for air ventilation. Fire propagation processes in this duct were mainly transient in nature, owing to the relatively small length-to-diameter ratio. This report describes the experimental equipment employed and the results obtained to date.

Chaiken, R.F.; Singer, J.M.; Lee, C.K.

1979-01-01

410

Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, S.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-09-15

411

Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Research Center of Power Engineering Problems

2009-02-15

412

Utilization of fly ash coming from a CFBC boiler co-firing coal and petroleum coke in Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash coming from a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler co-firing coal and petroleum coke (CFBC fly ash) is very different from coal ash from traditional pulverized fuel firing due to many differences in their combustion processes, and thus they have different effects on the properties of Portland cement. The influences of CFBC fly ash on the strength, setting

Guanghong Sheng; Jianping Zhai; Qin Li; Feihu Li

2007-01-01

413

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

414

Fire-Tube Boiler Test Burn on Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to burn coal-water fuel (CWF) A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1998-01-01

415

Retrofit of a Fire-Tube Boiler to Burn Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to bum coal-water fuel (CWF). A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1997-01-01

416

Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Concerns about global climate change have prompted interest in capturing and sequestering CO2 generated at coal-fired power plants. This document provides a technical introduction to methods of capturing CO2, which involves separating the CO2 from the other constituents in the flue gas. The methods discussed in this paper are post-combustion capture, oxygen-fired combustion, and pre-combustion capture: • Post-combustion capture

Lance C. Elwell; Willard S. Grant

417

First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible  

SciTech Connect

Snowmass Coal Co. of Colorado introduced longwall working of pitching seams in North America, with operation commencing in 1981. Experience is recounted and has shown that longwall working at an inclination up to 45 degrees should be comparable with that in flat seams. It should also be cost-competitive. The troika concept of roof support showed it to have excellent maneuveability, good support and low maintenance requirements. Coal winning was by chainless haulage shearer with motor-driven roll rack drive units.

Reynolds, J.F.

1983-12-01

418

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.  

PubMed

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

2008-04-01

419

Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01

420

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

2000-10-24

421

CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

Dennis L. Laudal

2001-08-01

422

Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.  

PubMed

Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world. PMID:23000720

Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

2012-08-07

423

Coal mine subsidence and fires in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence and fire studies in the Sheridan, Wyo., area are discussed. Construction of a strip mine firebreak or isolation trench is proposed as the best method to control large underground fires such as those burning in the New Monarch and Acme mines in the Sheridan area. 10 refs.

Dunrud

1980-01-01

424

Adding coal-fired fluidized bed combustion to gas and oil boilers  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion is an economically attractive, technically feasible approach for burning all grades of coal without creating pollution problems. Robinson discusses the combustion and emission control operations of a fluidized bed combustor, explains the component changes necessary to the water/steam and air/flue gas subsystems, and describes the new ash removal and coal and limestone feed subsystems needed to retrofit the equipment to the plant's existing gas or oil-fired boiler.

Robinson, T.F.

1986-07-01

425

Trace elements in the terrestrial environment of a coal-fired powerhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired powerhouse at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina operated for more than 20 years without electrostatic precipitators and consumed about 360,000,000 kilograms of coal per year. Twenty-nine trace elements were measured in fly ash, and in samples of soil, vegetation, and ground water collected along a 29-km traverse centered on the powerhouse. There were statistically significant effects

J. H. Horton; R. S. Dorsett; R. E. Cooper

2012-01-01

426

One-stage cyclone combustor for coal fired test stand of 4MW thermal power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented on the 4 MW coal-fired MHD test rig at Swierk. Stable operation of a single-stage coal combustor was achieved during several runs of 4-6 hours duration. The protection of the inner walls by a slag layer is highly effective. Heat losses due to cooling of the combustor walls have not exceeded the predicted values and may

T. Kozlowski; Z. Rybacki; W. S. Brzozowski

1979-01-01

427

Significant radioactive contamination of soil around a coal-fired thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples were collected around a coal-fired power plant from 81 different locations. Brown coal, unusually rich in uranium, is burnt in this plant that lies inside the confines of a small industrial town and has been operational since 1943. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K were determined in the samples. Considerably elevated concentrations of

Z Papp; Z Dezs?; S Daróczy

2002-01-01

428

Experimental investigation on aggregation of coal-fired PM 10 by magnetic seeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle aggregation by magnetic seeding was proposed for removing the coal-fired PM10. To better understand the particle aggregation properties by magnetic seeding, experiments on the fly ash particles in the size range of 0.023–9.314?m were conducted in a uniform magnetic field by seeding magnetic particles of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3. The fly ash particles were produced from combustion of bituminous coal

Changsui Zhao; Yongwang Li; Xin Wu; Duanfeng Lu; Song Han

2007-01-01

429

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP)\\u000a with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen\\u000a is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the\\u000a pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-01-01

430

Erosion-corrosion modelling of gas turbine materials for coal-fired combined cycle power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of coal-fired combined cycle power generation systems is receiving considerable worldwide interest. The successful development and commercialisation of these new systems require that all the component parts are manufactured from appropriate materials and that these materials give predictable in-service performance. Corrosion and erosion-corrosion, resulting from coal derived particulates, deposition and gaseous species, have been identified as potential life

N. J. Simms; J. E. Oakey; D. J. Stephenson; P. J. Smith; J. R. Nicholls

1995-01-01

431

SCE go-ahead for 100MW coal fired combined cycle plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary plans for the 90 to 100-MW coal-fired combined cycle plant due to be built by a team headed by Southern California Edison and Texaco in the mid-1980s are reviewed. The basic operating goals call for having a gasifier with a 1,000 ton coal capacity per day feeding a 70-MW turbine which then provides waste heat to run a 30-MW

Stambler

1980-01-01

432

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

433

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

Nakoryakov, V. E.; Nozdrenko, G. V.; Kuzmin, A. G.

2009-12-01

434

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-01-01

435

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-07-15

436

Morphology and chemistry of fine particles emitted from a Canadian coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles emitted from coal-fired power plants burning subbituminous coal from Alberta, Canada were examined for total particulates (PM) and size fractions PM>10, PM10, and PM2.5. The sampling was carried out following EPA Method 201A. Three tests were performed at each station. The emitted particles were examined using SEM\\/EDX and gravimetric method for the determination of their sizes. The elemental composition

F. Goodarzi

2006-01-01

437

De-stressed mining of multi-seams: Surrounding rock control during the mining of a roadway in the overlying protected seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surrounding rock control in the overlying protective coal seam is a challenging topic for de-stressed mining of multi-seamed coal. Current research findings on roadway control were used in the design of a physical model of a complex textured roof having a varying thickness. The model was used to study roadway instability and collapse caused by dynamic pressure. The results show

Wang Cheng; Zhang Nong; Li Guichen; Zhang Nianchao

2011-01-01

438

Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities.

Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

2013-01-01

439

Effect of coal d-RDF co-firing on stack emissions at milwaukee county institutions' power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research and development project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a 'base line' condition. For the second series, a mixture

F. R. Rehm; M. I. Black; R. S. Hecklinger

1982-01-01

440

Co-firing RDF and coal - an update on resource recovery in Monroe County  

SciTech Connect

Monroe County, N.Y. completed another significant goal in their program of resource recovery by initiating the co-firing program at Rochester Gas and Electric's Russell Station. Construction of the RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) handling facility is complete and modification to the coal-fired boilers are underway. This paper discusses the financial, economic, and technical element of this co-firing program. The topics discussed are the framework formed to contain the project as technical, financial, and economic issues direct the progress of the cofiring program.

Graham, D.H.; Mackey, J.E. Jr

1982-01-01

441

Conversion of gas\\/oil fired packaged boilers to micronized coal firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past five years, a diverse group of engineers, coal companies, fuel institutes, utilities, and manufacturers of boilers and mills have proven the functional capabilities of micronized coal in installations ranging from asphalt plants to utility boilers. Based upon these studies and the authors' own testing, they confirm the following facts: Micronized coal is short and intense like and

1986-01-01

442

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01

443

Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes, the corrosion during these experiments was monitored. Various ferritic and austenitic materials were investigated at steam temperatures ranging from 520 to 580{degree}C and flue gas temperatures ranging from 925 to 1100{degree}C. The results obtained in the demonstration program led to the rebuilding of the 350 MW pulverized coal fired boiler, Studstrup unit 4, into a co-firing boiler with straw in 2002. During the rebuilding, test tube sections of X20CrMoV12 1 and TP347H FG were built into the superheater and the reheater loops. The temperature ranges during these exposures was for the steam from 470 to 575{degree}C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300{degree}C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the corrosion products.

Frandsen, R.B.; Montgomery, M.; Larsen, O.H. [Elsam Engineering, Kolding (Denmark)

2007-07-01

444

Life cycle analysis of UK coal fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the life cycle GHG emissions from existing UK pulverized coal power plants. The life cycle of the electricity generation plant includes construction, operation and decommissioning. The operation phase is extended to upstream and downstream processes. Upstream processes include the mining and transport of coal including methane leakage and the production and transport of limestone and ammonia, which

Naser A. Odeh; Timothy T. Cockerill

2008-01-01

445

Longwall mining of thin seams  

SciTech Connect

Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

Curth, E A

1981-01-01

446

Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been surrounded by wide areas of planar mires, where the coal was thinner (< 70 cm), higher in ash yield, and dominated by arborescent lycopods. Rectangular thickness trends suggest that syndepositional faulting influenced peat accumulation, and possibly the position of the domed mire phase. Faulting also influenced post-depositional clastic environments of deposition, resulting in sandstone channels with angular changes in orientation. Channels and lateral facies were locally draped by high-ash-yield rider coal benches, which sometimes merged with the upper coal bench. These arborescent-lycopod dominant rider coal benches were profoundly controlled by palcotopography, much like the leader coal benches. Each of the benches of coal documented here represent distinctly different mires that came together to form the Fire Clay coal bed, rather than a single mire periodically split by clastic influx. This is significant as each bench of the coal has its own characteristics, which contribute to the total coal characteristics. The large data set allows interpretation of both vertical and lateral limits to postulated domed phases in the upper coal bench, and to the delineation of subtle tectonic structures that allow for meaningful thickness projections beyond the limits of present mining.A study was conducted to analyze the depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed in the eastern Kentucky coal field. The study involved over 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability.

Greb, S. F.; Eble, C. F.; Hower, J. C.

1999-01-01

447

Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

2009-03-15

448

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2005-09-01

449

EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

450

Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. Tehy came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations, although they use differ...

1999-01-01

451

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, January-March 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective is to advance the technology of direct coal-fired MHD components and systems required for MHD power systems operating under engineering simulation of central power station power conditions. The specific objectives of the UTSI R and D...

J. B. Dicks H. P. Markant L. W. Crawford

1979-01-01

452

Gas stream composition and temperature determination in a coal-fired MHD simulation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minicomputer controlled and monitored test stand for simulation of the gas stream conditions which will exist in various components of a coal-fired baseline MHD power plant and for evaluation of the substructures is described. Emphasis is devoted to the thermal aspects of the design and operation of this facility. A comprehensive thermal model of the system is described, and

R. E. Powe

1978-01-01

453

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

454

Probabilistic methodology for estimating air-pollution health effects from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published estimates of the local health impact from sulfur air pollutants released by large coal-fired power plants vary widely, and, as a consequence, provide rather limited guidance for policymakers. Uncertainties are introduced into such estimates through the meteorological and epidemiological models used and through incomplete knowledge of the critical model parameters. Subjective probability distributions reflecting present knowledge of the value

M. G. Morgan; S. C. Morris; A. K. Meier; D. L. Shenk

1978-01-01

455

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC

Trevor Ley

2003-01-01

456

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Novel sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant (P4) Unit 1 (no SCR in place)

Trevor Ley; T. Ebner; K. Fisher; R. Slye; R. Patton; R. Chang

2004-01-01

457

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, ongoing tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste

Trevor Ley

2003-01-01

458

OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

459

Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants: an application to a coal fired electrical generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermodynamic relations between energy and exergy losses and capital costs for thermal systems and equipment are developed and applied to a modern coal fired electrical generating station. Some possible generalizations of the results are also discussed. The application considers the overall station and the following station devices: turbine generators, steam generators, preheating devices and condensers. The data suggest that

Marc A Rosen; Ibrahim Dincer

2003-01-01

460

NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

461

Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

Chu, P.; Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gould, L. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Botros, P. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-31

462

ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

463

Experiments on heat exchanger solidity for coal-fired fluidized bed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient extraction of a high-temperature working fluid from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor depends, to a great extent, on the design of the immersed heat exchanger. Of special importance is the solidity of the cooling tubes immersed in the bed. The interaction between increasing solidity and the consequent degradation of proper fluidization and circulation is being studied at the

G. Miller; V. Zakkay

1980-01-01

464

The optimization of heat exchanger solidity for coal-fired fluidized bed combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient extraction of a high-temperature working fluid from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor depends, to a great extent, on the design of the immersed heat exchanger. Of special importance is the solidity of the cooling tubes immersed in the bed. The interaction between increasing solidity and the consequent degradation of proper fluidization and circulation is being studied at the

G. Miller; V. Zakkay; S. Rose