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1

Exemplary geophysical investigations on coal seam fires in Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" different geophysical methods have been applied. The investigation area was the coal fire district of Wuda, located in the south-central part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Northern China. The Wuda coalfield is bordering in southeast with the Helan Shan (Helan Mountains), in the east with the mountains of the Ordos Massif, while in the west and north with the Gobi desert. It is a gentle north-south striking structural syncline with an aerial extent of 40 km2 and with elevations ranging between 1100 and 1300 m above sea level. The survey area is covered mainly by sandstone. Up to 18 mined coal seams extend to greater depths varying from a few metres down to several hundreds of metres below surface. The objective of subsequent geophysical surveys was to detect areas affected by coal seam fires by means of physical parameters acquired over the burning and burnt coal seams, to find out which methods are useful for fire detection, to accompany the extinguishing process and to control successful extinction. Airborne methods used are helicopter borne electromagnetics (HEM) and magnetics. Ground surveys for measuring transient electromagnetics, magnetics, ground penetrating radar and near surface temperature were carried out in selected parts of the helicopter survey. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an ideal method to detect voids in depth less than 50 m. An important point to extinguish a coal fire is to know the paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. Some crevices which are potential paths for oxygen can be determined by GPR due to the resolution of the chosen frequency. The GPR system applied was built by GSSI and utilized for three different antennae length. The centre frequencies are 40, 80 and 200 MHz. A 200 MHz system was used to get detailed information close to the surface and a 40 MHz antenna was used to get maximum penetration depth. The heat and fluid transport included in the burning process presumably changes the permittivity of the rock which affects the attenuation of the radar signal and reduces the conductivity of the rock. This enables GPR measurements to discriminate burning zones from intact zones. The border line of the fire zone in the southern and the northern part of the investigated fire zone could be found. At the burning areas it was possible to discriminate different layers in the subsurface. Anywhere else the soil was highly conductive and full of clefts. The clefts were visible in the radar data only close to the surface. Magnetic was measured area-wide with a QuickTracker (GSM-19T) console from GEM Systems over different fire zones and shows positive anomalies in the coal fire area. The stratigraphy in the area shows no magnetic rocks above the coal seam, which leads to the interpretation that the positive magnetic anomalies are caused through the thermal induced magnetism of the stones lying above the coal seam. Over 100 rock samples (Sandstone, Coal and clinkers) has been taken for in-situ determination of the magnetic susceptibility. The positive magnetic anomaly is distinguished by the high magnetisation of the clinkers and therefore important for the detection of coal fires. TEM measurements were performed along profile lines across the fire zone or at single localities selected in the actual area. The spacing of the TEM sites was adapted to the terrain. Profiles crossing the area where the hot burning zone can be found, the TEM curves change their shape clearly. The vertical resistivity section shows a highly conductive layer which seems to coincides with the thermally affected coal seam. Temperature variations are most extreme at the surface of the soil. The peak temperature below the surface occurs about 2 hours after the maximum ambient air temperatures are attained. Temperature measurements in the gas emanating vents showed intense fluctuations not directly related to meteorological condit

Lambrecht, A.; Meyer, U.; Rüter, H.; Gundelach, V.; Lindner, H.; Schaumann, G.; Schlömer, S.; Guangliang, L.; Bing, K.; Jianjun, W.

2009-04-01

2

A major fire event recorded in the mesofossils and petrology of the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic and mesofossil analyses of plies from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal, New South Wales, Australia have revealed a significant fire event in both the swamp setting and the hinterland. The fire event is characterised by a change in the maceral composition, the seam during this interval being dominated by inertinite, especially semifusinite. Following the fire event, the mineral

Ian Glasspool

2000-01-01

3

Integrating satellite remote sensing techniques for detection and analysis of uncontrolled coal seam fires in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the biggest producer of coal in the world and mines about 1000 Mt of raw coal per year. Approximately 70% of China's energy consumption is covered by coal. At the same time, it is estimated that about 20 Mt of coal are being burnt in uncontrolled coal fires in China each year. Because these coal fires are spread

Stefan Voigt; Anke Tetzlaff; Jianzhong Zhang; Claudia Künzer; Boris Zhukov; Günter Strunz; Dieter Oertel; Achim Roth; Paul van Dijk; Harald Mehl

2004-01-01

4

Dustiness of Different Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical comparison of the dust exposures of coal miners with identical occupations in Pittsburgh, Pocahontas, Freeport, and Kittanning seams was conducted. Results indicated that, in some cases, occupations have different dust exposures in different...

F. E. McCall R. J. Seibel

1974-01-01

5

Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

2003-01-01

6

Cuttability assessment of hard coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of field and laboratory tests have been carried out on more than 15 coal seams of compressive strengths ranging from 19 MPa to 44 MPa to evolve methods which would help in the selection of suitable coaling machines for hard coal seams. The effect of physico-mechanical properties on cuttability were studied in the laboratory for all these coal

R. Singh; J. K. Singh; T. N. Singh; B. B. Dhar

1995-01-01

7

Evaluation of structural properties of coal seams  

SciTech Connect

A correlation between the rank, ash content and coal seam discontinuities and coal strength/stiffness is discussed. Rebound hammers were used to evaluate the strength properties of two coal seams. The coefficient of variability of the rebound tests are compared with those of laboratory compressive strength tests by other investigators. 8 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

Szwilski, A.B.

1985-01-01

8

Coal seam fracing method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages, the injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution being at a rate of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

Perlman, W.

1986-01-28

9

Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

Dospoy, R.L.

1991-01-01

10

Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So

D. Gusat; C. Drebenstedt

2009-01-01

11

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam

S. H. Chung; D. S. Preece

1998-01-01

12

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

13

Longwall Mining Principles for Safely Working Steep Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the principles of safely working steep coal seams using longwall mining methods. The report presents the state of the art and identifies the problems that result from seam inclination. Details are given on foreign longwall faces ach...

R. F. J. Adam W. J. Douglas B. J. Reese

1981-01-01

14

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams  

SciTech Connect

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern united states and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, D.W.

1982-06-15

15

Measuring in-seam coal cutting forces  

SciTech Connect

The history of mining machine development has been and is one of ''bigger is better.'' While this may not always be true, it is currently the only approach open to machine designers without specific in situ cutting force information. The US Bureau of Mines has tried to modify this approach by supporting research, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that demonstrates that bigger is better only if the equipment is used correctly. In-house research has shown conclusively that deeper cutting reduces both dust and energy requirements (Roepke, Lindroth, and Myren, 1976). This approach has been applied to a large Lee-Norse (LN456) continuous mining machine, which confirmed that slow, deep cutting is beneficial and does not have a negative effect on production (Black and Rounds, 1977; Black et al., 1978). Specific in situ engineering data needed on coal cutting forces have not, however, been obtained by field tests with the LN456. Although the machine was instrumented to obtain data on one seam, it would be impractical to move the machine from mine to mine. It became apparent that a portable, easy to use, device was needed for obtaining coal cutting forces in situ. Such a device could provide the engineering data needed by manufacturers, the site-specific cutting information needed by operators, and a field research tool to establish correlation with laboratory cutting tests.

Roepke, W.W.; Church, J.C.

1983-09-01

16

Method for Gasification of Deep, Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area f...

D. W. Gregg

1980-01-01

17

The Influence of AN Asymmetry in the Sequence Rock\\/coal\\/rock on the Propagation of Rayleigh Seam WAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small offsets in hard coal seams can be detected with the aid of seam (channel) waves. Transmission and reflection of seam waves depend, among other parameters, upon the symmetry properties of the sequence rock\\/coal\\/rock. Two typical unsymmetrical sequences are found in European coal deposits: coal seams with roof and floor of differing acoustic impedance and coal seams interlayered with rock

L. Dresen; C. Kerner; B. Kuhbach

1985-01-01

18

Selective agglomeration of a Pittsburgh Seam coal with isooctane  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center initiated a research program in 1989 to investigate the fundamentals of selective agglomeration as applied to the cleaning of coals. The results of the initial study with Bruceton mine, Pittsburgh seam coal, using isooctane as an agglomerant, have been published. Subsequent to the successful reduction of the ash content of Bruceton coal to less than 0.9% after two cleaning stages, the study was extended to compare a coal from the same seam, but from Ohio. In the previous parameter optimization tests with Bruceton coal, particle size and slurry pH were found to be important parameters governing coal cleanability. Other researchers have obtained similar conclusions of the effects of particle size and coal slurry pH on the cleanability of various coals. In this study, the effects of these parameters on the cleanability of Powhatan coal were examined. Particle size reduction kinetics was examined first. Effects of size reduction (degree of mineral matter liberation), oil (isooctane)-to-coal ratio, and slurry pH on mineral matter rejection and combustible recovery were also examined. A petrographic comparison was conducted on the Powhatan and Bruceton coals to examine the degree of pyrite liberation as a function of particle size to elucidate why one coal from the same seam can be cleaned significantly better than another. (VC)

Lai, R.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States). Coal Preparation Div.; Richardson, A.; Sinha, K. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1992-01-01

19

Forecasting Fractures in Coal Seams by Using Azimuthal Anisotropy from P-Wave Seismic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the thickness of coal seams and the lithology of both roofs and floors of coal seams have not changed at all or only a little, then it is thought that the elastic anisotropy of coal seams depends mainly on fractures and obeys the horizontally symmetric model of an azimuth anisotropy. For a fixed offset, the amplitude A of the

Shou-hua DONG; Jian-hua YUE; Fen-xuan ZHANG

2007-01-01

20

Megaspores from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia.  

PubMed

More than 300 megaspore specimens have been recovered from samples from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam of the Wittingham Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. Only two species are recognised: Singhisporites surangei (Singh) Potonié, emend. and a new species of Singhisporites. Species distribution within the seam is controlled by a major fire event, as recognised by coal petrology and mesofossil content: Singhisporites surangei is dominant before the event, but following it, it is subordinate to the new species.The abundance of megaspores recovered has allowed recognition of the full range of morphologic variation of Singhisporites surangei, which encompasses specimens assigned previously to Singraulispora Pant & Mishra, 1986 and Mammilaespora Pant & Srivastava, 1961; both are regarded as junior synonyms of Singhisporites Potonié, emend. Ultrastructurally, the new species shows affinities with Mesozoic isoetalean megaspores. PMID:10930606

Glasspool

2000-07-01

21

Soutirage mining used effectively for thick and irregular coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seams of the Blanzy coalfield range in thickness from 5 to 20 m. The roof is friable, dirt partings can be up to 1 m thick, and the coal is liable to spontaneous combustion. Soutirage mining, a combination of longwall and caving systems, has been found to be a satisfactory method of working, giving high production under difficult conditions.

M. Benech; H. Collod

1982-01-01

22

Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery  

SciTech Connect

Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

2007-07-15

23

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

24

The role of spatial variability in coal seam parameters on gas outburst behaviour during coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas outburst is recognized as a potentially fatal hazard to be managed during the mining of gassy coal seams. Gas outbursts in Australian coal mines have been associated with the presence of geological structures in the coal and surrounding rocks, having a range of spatial scales from millimetres to metres. The contributing mechanisms are influenced by coal gas reservoir variables

M. B. Wold; L. D. Connell; S. K. Choi

2008-01-01

25

CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts  

SciTech Connect

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

2005-09-01

26

Coal firing of process heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal firing as a standard practice was reviewed. With the recent resurgence of coal utilization, coal firing of modern process furnaces was studied in light of significant developments in boiler design. A process heater for coal firing was designed and results were compared with oil fired units. Typical furnaces with oil firing of recent manufacture were used. Results show that furnaces can be built with coal firing under various design philosophies, but all of them are more expensive than for oil firing. All these analyses do not even include coal storage, grinding and feed as well as dust collection and flue gas treatment. Hence, coal firing of process furnaces is far too expensive.

Balthasar, W.; Schoedel, J.; Ruggieri, R.; Vanrijnsoever, J.

1982-04-01

27

Improvement of methane drainage in high gassy coal seam using waterjet technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methane drainage methods, including conventional ventilation and boreholes drilled in the coal seam, are widely used in modern coal mining operation in China. However, it is often noted that the gas drainage presents low efficiency in most coal mines due to low permeability of the coal seam, which not only affects the safety, but also the productivity of the

Tingkan Lu; Hong Yu; Tingyang Zhou; Jushen Mao; Baohua Guo

2009-01-01

28

Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N. [Rostov State University, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

2006-01-15

29

Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

Olovyanny, A.G. [All Russian Science Research Institute for Mine Surveying, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2005-02-01

30

Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Australian Commonwealth and State Governments. Finally, parallels (and differences) between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States and Europe will be drawn.

Post, David

2014-05-01

31

Cuttability of coal seams with igneous intrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of physical inspection of exposed area in a gallery, the coal mass near an igneous intrusion band is divided into four zones; called as (1) normal, (2) pulverized, (3) Jhama and (4) mixed zone excluding the dyke\\/sill. Some simple field and laboratory studies were carried out to visualise the nature and extent of variation of strength and

Rajendra Singh; A. K Singh; P. K Mandal

2002-01-01

32

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is

Volker Gundelach

2010-01-01

33

Quality of selected coal seams from Indiana: Implications for carbonization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical properties of two high-volatile bituminous coals, the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation and the Lower Block Coal Member of the Brazil Formation from southern Indiana, were compared to understand the differences in their coking behavior. It was determined that of the two, the Lower Block has better characteristics for coking. Observed factors that contribute to the differences in the coking behavior of the coals include carbon content, organic sulfur content, and oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratios. The Lower Block coal has greater carbon content than the Danville coal, leading to a lower O/C ratio, which is more favorable for coking. Organic sulfur content is higher in the Lower Block coal, and a strong correlation was found between organic sulfur and plasticity. The majority of the data for both seams plot in the Type III zone on a van Krevelen diagram, and several samples from the Lower Block coal plot into the Type II zone, suggesting a perhydrous character for those samples. This divergence in properties between the Lower Block and Danville coals may account for the superior coking behavior of the Lower Block coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Walker, R.; Mastalerz, M.; Padgett, P.

2001-01-01

34

Multiple-stage coal seam fracing method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well, comprising: providing the well with casing of at least 7 inches in nominal diameter having perforations adjacent the coal formation; injecting a fracing fluid through the perforations into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has suspended therein fine proppants with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages. The injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution are at a rage of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

Perlman, W.

1987-05-19

35

Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

2007-01-15

36

Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

2009-04-01

37

Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world  

SciTech Connect

Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

2008-01-15

38

Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data.

Daniel J. Yancey; M. G. Irnhof; John E. Feddock; Tod Gresham

2007-01-01

39

In-situ electromagnetic probing of coal seams  

SciTech Connect

The persistent requirement for methods and equipment capable of detecting hazardous anomalies in advance of underground mining has led to the development by the U.S. Bureau of Mines of a directional radar probe. The probe operates from boreholes drilled from the surface into the underground region to be mined. The engineering model radar was completed in early 1982 and field demonstration tests were performed in May of that year at a selected coal mine. Preliminary in-situ electromagnetic tests were performed at several candidate coal mines to evaluate the radio-frequency characteristics of the coal. The borehole radar was operated in two vertical boreholes which intersected the coal seam at approximately 25 and 40 feet from the fault interface. Radar reflections from the coal/ rock interface were detected in both tests. Underground tests in a horizontal borehole in the coal were less successful because of interfering reflections. Additional borehole-to-borehole tests were performed with a separate ground penetrating electromagnetic system to obtain radar range calibration data.

Suhler, S.A.; Sondgrass, J.J.

1983-10-01

40

Physical environment, productivity, and injuries in underground coal mines. [1965; effects of seam thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors examine the relationship between physical environment (seam thickness), productivity, and injuries in coal mining in 1965. The results of this study show that productivity increases as seam thickness increases, then falls off at the 9-foot level. Christenson and Andrews attribute part of this to the theory of discriminating selection (larger mines are associated with integrated coal companies that can

C. L. Christenson; W. H. Andrews

2009-01-01

41

Hydraulic borehole mining for pitching coal seams. Final report. [Double drill method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to extend the vertical borehole mining concept to the new tool configurations needed to economically mine pitching coal seams. The objective was to determine the optimum borehole mining plan and system for mining coal seams less than 10 feet thick that pitch more than 25 degrees. Of the methods considered, the double-drill method was selected for

G. S. Knoke; L. E. Scott; W. R. Archibald

1982-01-01

42

Coal Firing Installations 1987. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary of the papers presented at the VGB conference 'Coal Firing Installations 1987'. The individual topics are: Coal dust combustion in industrial steam generators - theory and operating results. Evaluation of optimization measures involvin...

1987-01-01

43

Numerical study on the underground coal gasification for inclined seams  

SciTech Connect

According to the characteristics for combustion and gasification reactions occurring in the gasification gallery, the mathematical functional relationship between the chemical reaction rate and every influencing factor is studied. The dynamic nonlinear coupling mathematical models on underground coal gasification of inclined seams are established. The determination methods of major model parameters are introduced. Additionally, the control volume method is adopted to find the numerical solution to the mathematical models. The patterns of development and variation for temperature field, concentration field and pressure field in gasification panel are studied. On the basis of the model test, calculation results are analyzed. From the distribution of temperature field, its calculation value is a little higher than the experimental one, with the relative error of every measuring point virtually within 17%. Research shows that the experiment value of gas heat value and calculated value take on a good conformity; due to the influence of temperature, in the high temperature zone, the change gradient of the experiment value for concentration field of gas compositions is greater than that of the calculation value. The simulated results indicate that the relative error of the pressure field calculation is 4.13%-12.69% and 8.25%-17.47%, respectively, 7 h and 45 h after the ignition. The drop rate for the fluid pressure is 6 01 % and 10. 91 %, respectively. Research shows that the simulated values conform with experimental values comparatively well, which demonstrates that the numerical simulation on the 'three fields' in underground coal gasification is correct.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Jiangsu (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

2005-11-01

44

Fracturing Experience at the Rock Creek Multiple Coal Seams Project. Topical Report, January 1986-December 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize knowledge gained from stimulating multiple thin coal seams during research at the Rock Creek Project. This report provides background information, the rationale for simulation design, and results of diagnostics i...

S. W. Lambert J. L. Saulsberry P. F. Steidl M. W. Conway S. D. Spafford

1995-01-01

45

Unconventional gas sources. Volume I. Executive summary. [Coal seams, black shale, geopressured brines, tight reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was made of potential natural gas recovery from coal seams, Devonian shale, geopressured brines, and tight gas reservoirs. It was concluded that natural gas from coal seams, Devonian shale, and tight gas reservoirs could make a significant contribution to future US gas supply. At the $5.00/MMBtu gas price level and a 10% real ROR after tax, the total unconventional reserve additions between 1981 and 2000 would average 14 TCF per year. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-01-01

46

Upgrading Upper Kittanning Seam coal quality to improve power plant performance: Coal cleaning test facility campaign report No. 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive Coal Cleanability Characterization to assess the effects of improved coal quality on boiler performance is presented. In 1984, Boston Edison donated Upper Kittanning Seam coal (mined in Nicholas County, West Virginia) for cleaning in commercial-scale equipment at EPRI's Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCIF). This high volatile A bituminous coal is quite amenable to both water-based and heavy-medium coal

R. G Moorhead; E. R. Torak; R. J. Jenko; J. R. Cavalet

1987-01-01

47

Coal-fired asphalt plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired burner system is described for use with an asphalt plant having a rotary drum, the burner system comprising: means for pulverizing coal to particles of a predetermined size; exhaust means for creating an exhaust airflow through and out of the pulverizing means so that the particles of pulverized coal are entrained in the exhaust airflow and carried out

J. D. Brok; J. G. May

1987-01-01

48

Emissions by Uncontrolled Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thousands of self-ignited coal fires, naturally occurring coal fires, and coal fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and un-mined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world and pose multiple threats to the global environment due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CO, CH4, and other toxic substances such as mercury (Hg). Estimates of the amount of coal that is involved globally range between 20 and 600 Mt sing simple calculations, the only published peer-reviewed estimate of CO2 and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the United States (U.S.) are between 14 to 290 Mt/yr and 0.1 to 11.5 t/yr, respectively. In comparison, the U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet -the largest known anthropogenic source of CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere in the U.S.- emits ~2.4 Gt, and ~45 t annually, respectively. This paper builds on these results and will present result of a first-of-a-kind U.S.-based field campaign combining airborne remote sensing using thermal infrared technique and ground based measurements as a first step to constraining and scaling-up the emission factors, nature and extent of coal-fire emissions of CO2 and Hg to a global scale, which will allow for these emission sources to be better accounted for in global atmospheric models.

Terschure, A. F.; Engle, M.; Heffern, E.; Hower, J.; Kolker, A.; Prakash, A.; Radke, L.

2010-12-01

49

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and CBM produced, the program includes a plan to monitor horizontal migration of CO{sub 2} within the lower seam. This is the second Technical Progress report for the project. Progress to date has been focused on pre-construction activities; in particular, attaining site approvals and securing property rights for the project. This report provides a concise overview of project activity this period and plans for future work. This is the second semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made in completing the environmental assessment report, securing land and coal rights, and evaluating drilling strategies. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

Gary L. Cairns

2002-10-01

50

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

2013-04-01

51

Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China  

PubMed Central

The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress.

2013-01-01

52

Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines  

SciTech Connect

Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geoscience

2007-09-15

53

Dispersion calculations for SH and P-SV waves in multilayered coal seams  

SciTech Connect

Recent work by others has provided a means of calculating dispersion and amplitude distribution curves for SH channel waves in multilayered media. An alternative calculation procedure is presented and the P-SV wave type is also included. Numerical results are given for a coal seam containing a band of dirt of either higher or lower seismic velocities than the coal itself.

Buchanan, D.J.

1987-01-01

54

Three-dimensional strata movement around coal face of steeply dipping seam group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steeply dipping seam group, which has complex occurrence conditions, belongs to the steeply dipping seam. The research on\\u000a the strata movement around the coal face not only improves safe production technology in practice, but also develops the mining\\u000a theory. By using physical simulation experiments, numerical simulation and site test, the deformation, failure and movement\\u000a of surrounding rock in longwall working

Yong-ping Wu; Pan-shi Xie; Shi-guang Ren; Rui-bin Li

2008-01-01

55

The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest a useful control procedure. Drill casings in voids in the D coal seam on the western slope trail are useful for collecting gas samples, monitoring the temperature of subsurface burning, and measuring the concentration of gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the field. Coal fire gas and mineral condensates may contribute to the destruction of floral and faunal habitats and be responsible for a variety of human diseases; hence, the study of coal gas and its condensation products may prove useful in understanding environmental pollution created by coal mine fires. The 2002 Coal Seam Fire, which burned over 12,000 acres and destroyed numerous buildings in and around Glenwood Springs, exemplifies the potential danger an underground coal fire poses for igniting a surface fire.

Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA (United States). Division of Science and Mathematics

2004-07-01

56

Reconversion to coal firing at Crystal River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Units 1 and 2 at the Crystal River Plant of Florida Power Corporation were originally designed for coal firing in the 1960's, were converted to heavy fuel oil firing in the early 1970's when oil was readily available and economically priced, and subsequently were reconverted to coal firing by 1980 when coal firing again became more favorable. This paper describes

R. P. McBean; R. J. Ott

1982-01-01

57

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOEpatents

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01

58

Coal mine hazard detection using in-seam ground-penetrating-radar transillumination  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines recently completed preliminary studies to demonstrate the feasibility of using GPR for in-seam hazard detection. Investigations included air and coal tests for the purpose of checking equipment accuracy, coal penetration, and other factors such as the effects of receiver orientation. Further investigations involved using both a short pulse and a new prototype synthetic-pulse system to locate a clay vein in a coal seam using transillumination. Analysis of the tomographic images show the presence of the clay vein, although its boundaries are unclear due to the tomography method used. Results of these preliminary studies show that GPR is feasible for use in in-seam hazard detection and point the direction that future research should take.

Foss, M.M.; Leckenby, R.J.

1987-01-01

59

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01

60

Basic geological and analytical properties of selected coal seams for coal interface detection. Information circular/1993  

SciTech Connect

One important element of the U.S. Bureau of Mines computer-assisted mining research program is the development of a reliable coal interface detection (CID) system. Several candidate CID concepts currently being investigated by the Bureau include use of natural gamma radiation (NGR), vibration, passive infrared, video, and radar. To help establish which CID sensor technologies need to be developed for a given seam, the Bureau has collected geological and mining practices data from over 460 underground and surface mines in the United States. Also, over 500 coal and rock samples have been obtained for laboratory analyses of ash content, sulfur content, heating value, and NGR. The Bureau's findings indicate that the immediate roof strata in 81 percent of the underground mines and 93 percent of the surface mines are made up of shale, draw slate, or claystone. The immediate floor strata in 88 percent of both the underground and surface mines consist of fireclay, shale, draw slate, or claystone.

Maksimovic, S.; Mowrey, G.L.

1993-01-01

61

Demonstration of Longwall Mining in a Steeply Dipping Coal Seam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the demonstration of longwall mining in a seam dipping 27 deg to 34 deg. Equipment was selected on the basis of capability, compatibility, and cost. The longwall equipment operated very well on the steep pitch with an average equipmen...

M. R. Kennedy L. M. Reschke

1987-01-01

62

Aspects and Strategies of Numerical Modelling of Underground Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modelling of underground coal fires has become a valuable tool even for practical fire extinction work. The approaches, methods and finally codes that are used depend on the targets that are aimed at by the particular modelling task. The most general one is to fully understand the processes that sustain or suppress the fire. Another purpose is to produce realistic data for regions that are not accessible (e . g. underneath a burning coal seam) or couldn't be investigated (e.g due to limited resources) to estimate the complete energy budget of the fire. Last but not least one would like to forecast the fire dynamics to predict the future damage or to assess the effectivenees of extinction work. These purposes require the consideration of all aspects with respect to thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. At the moment there is no single code that completely covers all these aspects with every degree of complexity. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" we apply existing codes with different foci with respect to THMC processes and try to combine all codes to one comprehensive model. Besides the sophisticated academic modelling approach we also pursue the concept of "Onsite" modelling to enable fire fighting personnel to perform simplified modelling tasks even by means of web-based applications.

Wuttke, M. W.; Han, J.; Liu, G.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Gusat, D.; Fischer, Chr.; Hirner, A.; Meyer, U.

2009-04-01

63

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

2007-12-01

64

Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration of CO2 and H2S into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of CO2 and H2S and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of CO2 and H2S into coals induces strong swelling of the coal matrix (volumetric strain) and thus reduces significantly coal permeability by narrowing and even closing fracture apertures. Our experimental data on three western Canadian coals show that the adsorption-induced volumetric strain is approximately linearly proportional to the volume of adsorbed gas, and for the same gas, different coals have very similar volumetric strain coefficient. Impacts of adsorption-induced swelling on stress and permeability around wellbores were analytically investigated using our developed stress and permeability models. Our model results indicate that adsorption-induced volumetric strain has significant controls on stress and permeability of producing and sequestrating coal seams and consequently the potential of acid gas sequestration. Coal seams may undergo >10 times enhancement of permeability around CH4-producing wellbores due to a reduction in effective stress as a result of coal shrinking caused by methane desorption accompanying a reduction in reservoir pressure. Injection of H2S and CO2 on the other hand results in strong sorption-induced swelling and a marked increase in effective stress which in turn leads to a reduction of coal seam permeability of up to several orders of magnitude. Injection of mixtures of N2 and CO2 such as found in flue gas results in weaker swelling, the amount of which varies with gas composition, and provides the greatest opportunity of sequestering CO2 and secondary recovery of CH4 for most coals. Because of the marked swelling of coal in the presence of H2S, even minor amounts of H2S result in a marked reduction in permeability, and hence sequestration of H2S in deep coals will be likely impractical. Furthermore, high stresses resulting from sorption of acid gases will potentially cause the coal to yield, fracture or slip, and produce fine particles, which further affect permeability and thus methane production and acid gas sequestration.

Cui, Xiaojun; Bustin, R. Marc; Chikatamarla, Laxmi

2007-10-01

65

Hydraulic borehole mining for pitching coal seams. Final report. [Double drill method  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to extend the vertical borehole mining concept to the new tool configurations needed to economically mine pitching coal seams. The objective was to determine the optimum borehole mining plan and system for mining coal seams less than 10 feet thick that pitch more than 25 degrees. Of the methods considered, the double-drill method was selected for further study. This method uses a larger vertical hole for the pumping tool and a smaller slant hole for the cutting tool. The slanted cutting hole is drilled down-the-dip on the footwall of the seam to intersect the vertical hole at maximum depth. The cuttings thus drain down the cutting hole to its intersection with the pumping hole, from which they are pumped to the surface. Detailed engineering efforts demonstrated double-drill method technical feasibility and performance capabilities. However, these efforts also revealed two items that require further development: (1) the borehole slurry pump and (2) the means to ensure vertical and slant borehole intersection. Recommendations as to the type of equipments needed and the effort required to develop them for this application are given. Detailed economic studies of the double-drill method were conducted. These studies indicated that this method has a very favorable economic potential, i.e., potential internal rates of return of about 50 percent per year.This implies that pitching coal seams could be mined more profitably using this method than can level coal seams using conventional underground mining method. Based on the success of this project, it is expected that double-drill hydraulic borehole mining will prove to be a valuable tool for recovering pitching coal resources if its development is continued.

Knoke, G.S.; Scott, L.E.; Archibald, W.R.

1982-07-01

66

Water resistant features of high-risk outburst coal seams and standard discriminant model of mining under water-pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to emphasize the value of research in safe mining technology of high-risk water outburst coal seams. We describe briefly current conditions abroad and in China. Based on an Ordovician limestone aquifer with high-risk water outburst seams in the Feicheng coal field, we analyzed the water-resistant characteristics of a coal floor aquifuge and the behavior of water head

Xiugen GU; Jiachen WANG; Yude LIU

2010-01-01

67

Variation of elements in self-burning coal seam from Coalspur, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The elemental and mineralogical variation in a self-burning coal seam from Coalspur, Alberta, is determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The elemental variation in the coal seam is related to temperatures in the various alteration zones, i.e., oxidation, combustion, or carbonization and nature of elements. Mobilization of elements is greatest for As, Br, Cl, Mo, N, S, and Sb. Some of these elements are released to the atmosphere, as evident by the presence of orthorombic sulfur crystals on the surface or in vents at the top of the burning seam or saturation of oxidation char by volatile matter (tar). Whewellite (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O) is the only Ca-bearing mineral found in the cooler area of the coal seam. Decomposition of this mineral, coupled with the presence of SO{sub 2} formed by reaction of organic sulfur with O{sub 2} in combustion, resulted in formation of a relatively high gypsum content in the combustion zone.

Goodarzi, F. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1990-01-01

68

Mine Entry System: Longwall Top Slicing of Thick Coal Seams. Design and Evaluation. Final Report. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual designs of entry systems for mining thick coal seams by the longwall top-slicing method were investigated. Based on a 100-foot thick seam, covering four square miles and dipping at 10 degrees, an entry concept was designed using ten slices and ...

R. D. Ellison R. F. Dunham D. E. Shaw

1977-01-01

69

Borehole-radar exploration in a coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of VHF video radar pulses over a 60 ft distance through coal between boreholes has been demonstrated, and a possible radar reflection from a coal-air interface has been recorded from a pair of boreholes at an average distance of 90 ft. Further work of this type will be necessary to develop a practical capability to explore the volume

John C. Cook

1977-01-01

70

ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

2009-12-01

71

Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia.As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration

I. B. Sosrowidjojo; A. Saghafi

2009-01-01

72

Analysis of the Harmfulness of Water-Inrush from Coal Seam Floor Based on Seepage Instability Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of seepage instability was used to estimate the harmfulness of water-inrush from a coal seam floor in a particular coal mine of the Mining Group, Xuzhou. Based on the stratum column chart in this coal mine, the distribution of stress in mining floors when the long-wall mining was respectively pushed along to 100 m and to 150 m

Hai-ling KONG; Xie-xing MIAO; Lu-zhen WANG; Yu ZHANG; Zhan-qing CHEN

2007-01-01

73

Rock-magnetic properties of TRM carrying baked and molten rocks straddling burnt coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface spontaneous combustion of coal seams in Xinjiang (NW China) during Pleistocene to recent times produced large areas of thermally altered sedimentary rocks with large magnetic moments. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) intensities and low-field susceptibilities of such combustion-metamorphic rocks range from 0.1 to 10A\\/m and 100×10-4 to 1000×10-4SI, respectively, which is two to three

C. B. de Boer; M. J. Dekkers; T. A. M. van Hoof

2001-01-01

74

Effects of a No-Proppant Foam Stimulation Treatment on a Coal-Seam Degasification Borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical borehole drilled into a friable coal seam was stimulated by using 53,000 gal (200.6 m³) of foam. Proppant materials were omitted from the treatment fluids and colored, fluorescent pigments were included. The borehole produced 6.6 MMcf (0.187*10⁶ m³) of methane at an average rate of 49 Mcf\\/D (1390 m³\\/d) during its 4.5-month lifetime. After the wellbore was mined

James Mahoney; P. B. Stubbs; F. X. Dobscha

1981-01-01

75

Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

1981-01-01

76

Coal-fired diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

NONE

1997-05-01

77

Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 3 1 and 3 2 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of the trace elements are correlated with the ash content, and may be associated with the mineral matter in the coal.

Liu, Guijian; Yang, Pingyue; Peng, Zicheng; Chou, Chen-Lin

2004-08-01

78

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

Gundelach, Volker

2010-05-01

79

Ash handling systems for coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the types of ash handling systems that can and are being used to handle the ash waste products from burning coal. The paper discusses systems for the two broad industry subdivisions of bottom ash and fly ash and discusses pulverized coal fired boilers as well as coal versus coal\\/oil direct combinations.

G. D. Mooney; J. Murphy

1982-01-01

80

Design and Evaluation of a Coal Mine Entry System for Longwall Top Slicing of Thick Coal Seams. Final Report. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual designs of entry systems for mining thick coal seams by the longwall top-slicing method were investigated. Based on a 100-foot thick seam, covering four square miles and dipping at 10 degrees, an entry concept was designed using ten slices and ...

1977-01-01

81

Interpretation of Coal-Seam Sequestration Data Using a New Swelling and Shrinkage Model  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the influence of swelling and shrinkage of coal on the production of methane from, and sequestration of carbon dioxide in, a coalbed reservoir. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model was developed. It is based on constitutive equations that account for coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium that undergoes swelling and shrinkage. The swelling and shrinkage strains are computed on the basis of the amounts of different gases (e.g., CO2, CH4) sorbed or desorbed. The amounts of sorption and desorption are computed from measured isotherms with the aid of the Ideal Adsorbed Solution model for mixed gases. The permeability of the reservoir is modified according to the swelling-shrinkage model. The paper presents numerical results for the influence of swelling and shrinkage on reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide. The paper includes results from a number of examples, and analysis of a field injection into a coal seam at a site in the San Juan basin. Results show that with the incorporation of swelling and shrinkage into the analysis, it is possible to get a better history-match of production data. Results also show that coal swelling can reduce the injection volumes of carbon dioxide significantly. The interpretation of field data with the new swelling-shrinkage model shows that the coal swelling during carbon dioxide sequestration in coal-seams is an important factor that can influence field performance.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Smith, D.H.

2006-10-01

82

Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material described as “mineral matter” in coal encompasses dissolved salts in the pore water and inorganic elements associated with the organic compounds, as well as discrete crystalline and non-crystalline mineral particles. A range of technologies, including but not restricted to low-temperature oxygen-plasma ashing, may be used to evaluate the total proportions of minerals and other inorganic constituents in a

Colin R Ward

2002-01-01

83

Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at So?nica-Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kokowska-Paw?owska, M. and Nowak, J. 2013. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at So?nica- Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 271-281. Warszawa. The paper presents results of research on tonstein, which constitutes an interburden in coal seam 405 at the So?nica- Makoszowy coal mine, Makoszowy field (mining level 600 m), Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The mineral and chemical compositions of the tonstein differ from the typical compositions described earlier for tonsteins from Upper Silesia Coal Basin area. Additionally, minerals present in the tonsteins include kaolinite, quartz, kaolinitised biotite and feldspars. The presence of the phosphatic minerals apatite and goyazite has been recognized. The presence of gorceixite and crandallite is also possible. The contents of CaO (5.66 wt%) and P2O5 (6.2 wt%) are remarkably high. Analysis of selected trace elements demonstrated high contents of Sr (4937 ppm) and Ba (4300 ppm), related to the phosphatic minerals. On the basis of mineral composition the tonstein has been identified as a crystalline tonstein, transitional to a multiplied one.

Kokowska-Paw?owska, Magdalena; Nowak, Jacek

2013-06-01

84

Quarterly review of methane from coal seams technology. Volume 10, Number 2, October 1992. Report for April-June 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of methane from coal seams is directed toward adapting and improving techniques for producing natural gas from coal and associated strata. Verification field experiments are being conducted at various sites to validate concepts for geology, geophysical diagnostics, completion techniques, fracturing, operations, and reservoir modeling. The reports summarize the results of recent exploration, testing, and production in

R. A. McBane; S. D. Scgwichow; T. E. Lombardi; D. A. Thompson

1992-01-01

85

Applications of reflection seismics to mapping coal-seam structure and discontinuities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three US field projects were reviewed. Each project employed its own particular seismic technique, recording system, and seismic energy source although all are considered state-of-the-art, high resolution, digital seismic surveys. Project 1 (thin, Pennsylvania coal) sought detection of sand channels using dynamite and standard in-line (2-D) seismic technique. Project 2 (thick, Wyoming underground coal gasification) involved a gas-explosion (Dinoseis) source with areal (3-D) acquisition methods. Project 3 (thick Washington underground coal gasification) employed a shotgun-type source and standard in-line methods. Each project was successful in accomplishing its own particular objective; however, data quality and interpretation seem to be more a function of thickness of the target seam, complexity of the overburden, and processing contractor than a seismic source, acquisition scheme (2-D versus 3-D), or recording instrumentation.

Dobecki, T. L.; Bartel, L. C.

86

Improving the gate road development rate and reducing outburst occurrences using the waterjet technique in high gas content outburst-prone soft coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the coal seams currently mined in the Southwest part of China have high gas content, are soft and prone to outbursts, which significantly influences the rate of gate road development and mining safety. It is believed that an outburst is mainly due to the internal energy stored in the coal seam, so it is necessary to release the

Tingkan Lu; Zhijian Zhao; Hefeng Hu

87

Unconventional gas sources. Executive summary. [Coal seams, Devonian shale, geopressured brines, tight gas reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The long lead time required for conversion from oil or gas to coal and for development of a synthetic fuel industry dictates that oil and gas must continue to supply the United States with the majority of its energy requirements over the near term. In the interim period, the nation must seek a resource that can be developed quickly, incrementally, and with as few environmental concerns as possible. One option which could potentially fit these requirements is to explore for, drill, and produce unconventional gas: Devonian Shale gas, coal seam gas, gas dissolved in geopressured brines, and gas from tight reservoirs. This report addresses the significance of these sources and the economic and technical conditions under which they could be developed.

Not Available

1980-12-01

88

Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981  

SciTech Connect

The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

1981-04-01

89

Locating fires in abandoned underground coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mine Fire Diagnostic (MFD) Methodology was developed to determine the location and extent of combustion zones in abandoned underground coal mines. In this method, a characteristic fire signature is based on the ratio of higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases (C2 to C5) to total hydrocarbon gas. Initially, gas samples are obtained at the bottom of boreholes under baseline or

Ann G Kim

2004-01-01

90

THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley COâ Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a COâ injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and

Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T. S. Ramakrishnan

2003-01-01

91

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOEpatents

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15

92

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay

Rao

1986-01-01

93

Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams  

SciTech Connect

For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

2005-09-01

94

Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the coal with any one parting cannot be predicted, and the contacts of the partings with the coal range from very sharp to predominantly gradational. These bedding relationships provide clues about the surface on which the ashes fell and on which the coal was accumulating. For example, some ashes fell in standing water, others on irregular subaerial surfaces. The partings are in various stages of alteration to kaolinite and bentonite, and vary in thickness from a few millimeters to about 10 cm. The consistency and texture of the partings depend on the degree of alteration; the less altered partings display visible pumice fragments and euhedral feldspars, commonly within a finer grained matrix. Separate pumice fragments, excluding matrix, can also occur as partings in the coal. The more altered partings may be wet and plastic, or they may be well indurated claystones; the colors range from gray-yellow to dark brown. The indurated prints are more common in older part of the section. The coal seams may be capped by volcanic ash partings and are commonly underlain by a pencil shale of nonvolcanic origin.

Reinink-Smith, L.M.

1985-04-01

95

Geologic Assessment of Natural Gas from Coal Seams in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on a geologic assessment of the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin, natural gas in place is estimated at 61 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), contained in 352,000 billion tons of coal. Over one third of the gas in place is in the deep, areally extensive Kitta...

J. R. Kelafant D. E. Wicks V. A. Kuuskraa

1988-01-01

96

Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of extinguishing underground fires (fig. 2) (see 'Controlling Coal Fires'). In this fact sheet we review how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health. In addition, we describe recent efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and collaborators to measure fluxes of CO2, CO, CH4, and Hg, using groundbased portable detectors, and combining these approaches with airborne thermal imaging and CO2 measurements. The goal of this research is to develop approaches that can be extrapolated to large fires and to extrapolate results for individual fires in order to estimate the contribution of coal fires as a category of global emissions.

Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

2009-01-01

97

Research and Management of Coal fire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is suffering the heaviest coal fire disaster in the world, distributing in the north of north latitude 35°,between Pamirs Altiplano and Great Xing'an Mountains, locating in arid and semiarid area such as desert, gobi and loess. The earliest underground coal fire ocuured before Palaeozoic era. Since the Quaternary period, there are widespread coal fire in north of China. There

Guan Haiyan; Kong Bing; Wu Chacha

98

Prediction of groundwater inrush into coal mines from aquifers underlying the coal seams in China: vulnerability index method and its construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater inrushes often occur in the coal mines of China. One of the water sources is the aquifers underlying the coal\\u000a seams. Because such a water hazard is affected by many factors, data collected from various sources need to be evaluated to\\u000a predict its occurrence. This paper introduces an innovative approach in which the water inrush risk is represented by

Qiang Wu; Wanfang Zhou

2008-01-01

99

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams  

SciTech Connect

This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

Rao, P.D.

1986-09-01

100

An evaluation of deep thin coal seams and water-bearing\\/resisting layers in the quaternary system using seismic inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-liner wave equation inversion, wavelet analysis and artificial neural networks were used to obtain stratum parameters and the distribution of thin coal seams. The lithology of the water-bearing\\/resisting layer in the Quaternary system was also predicted. The implementation process included calculating the well log parameters, stratum contrasting the seismic data and the well logs, and extracting, studying and predicting seismic

Yong-zhong XU; Wei-chuan HUANG; Tong-jun CHEN; Ruo-fei CUI; Shi-zhong CHEN

2009-01-01

101

Coal-fired power materials - Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2008-09-15

102

Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect

The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

Jamal, M.A. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

103

Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.  

PubMed

A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

2013-03-01

104

Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams - article no. B10202  

SciTech Connect

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S into coals induces strong swelling of the coal matrix (volumetric strain) and thus reduces significantly coal permeability by narrowing and even closing fracture apertures. Our experimental data on three western Canadian coals show that the adsorption-induced volumetric strain is approximately linearly proportional to the volume of adsorbed gas, and for the same gas, different coals have very similar volumetric strain coefficient. Impacts of adsorption-induced swelling on stress and permeability around wellbores were analytically investigated using our developed stress and permeability models. Coal seams may undergo > 10 times enhancement of permeability around CH4-producing wellbores due to a reduction in effective stress as a result of coal shrinking caused by methane desorption accompanying a reduction in reservoir pressure. Injection of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} on the other hand results in strong sorption-induced swelling and a marked increase in effective stress which in turn leads to a reduction of coal seam permeability of up to several orders of magnitude. Because of the marked swelling of coal in the presence of H{sub 2}S, even minor amounts of H{sub 2}S result in a marked reduction in permeability, and hence sequestration of H{sub 2}S in deep coals will be likely impractical. Furthermore, high stresses resulting from sorption of acid gases will potentially cause the coal to yield, fracture or slip, and produce fine particles, which further affect permeability and thus methane production and acid gas sequestration.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.; Chikatamarla, L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

2007-10-15

105

Model Study of Combined Forced and Free Convection in Underground Coal Conversion of Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental test model, which is dynamically similar to an actual UCC (Under ground Coal Conversion) system, has been used to determine fluid flow patterns and local heat transfer that occur in the UCC burn cavity. This study should provide in-sight i...

J. B. Riggs

1983-01-01

106

Model Study of Combined Forced and Free Convection in Underground Coal Conversion of Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental test model, which is dynamically similar to an actual UCC (Underground Coal Conversion) system, has been used to determine fluid flow patterns and local heat transfer that occur in the UCC burn cavity. This study was designed to provide in...

J. B. Riggs

1984-01-01

107

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Technical Progress report for the subject agreement. During the first six months of the project, progress was made in arranging participation by other CONSOL departments, identifying a prospective site, developing an environmental assessment report, and securing land and coal rights. In addition, correspondences were drafted in response to NETL inquiries. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

Gary L. Cairns

2002-04-01

108

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

1990-12-01

109

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04

110

EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIAL COAL STOKER FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements of 18 coal stoker-fired boilers including spreader stokers, mass-fired overfeed stokers, and mass-fired underfeed stokers. The test variables included stoker design, heat release rate, excess air, coal analysis and sizing, overfire a...

111

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

1995-01-01

112

Remote detection of underground coal mine fires using geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned coal mine fires can be found in coal basins across the United States and around the world. These fires can burn for decades, resulting in the emission of toxic gasses and smoke, and prompting subsidence damage to both homes and property. In order to facilitate containment and extinguishment of abandoned underground mine fires, the location of the active burn

K. L. Hauser; D. R. Tweeton; W. H. Pomroy

1995-01-01

113

Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

114

Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation  

SciTech Connect

Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15

115

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on work on a comprehensive development contract to develop the technology needed for the steam bottoming cycle of an MHD/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data analysis is included from the latter increments of the 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) eastern coal testing, which was completed in the prior quarter. Plans for analysis of superheater test module (SHTM) tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of coal fired operation are summarized. Facility modification that are needed to prepare the facility for the 2000 hours of western coal POC tests are discussions. The primary changes being made include the modification of the coal processing system to permit processing of a highly reactive and high moisture coal (Montana Rosebud) and a separate seed injection system to permit experiments that expediently vary the potassium to sulfur ratio. Flow train modifications and repairs being made are also described. Dynamic measurements from the dense phase coal processing system during previously conducted tests are included. Finally, the environmental emission measurements from the CFFF stack and at the remote air quality monitoring trailers are summarized. 3 refs. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01

116

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

117

Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of ?13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and baseline signals were evaluated and statistically compared to test for the presence of fugitive methane emissions. In addition, a time series model of the methane baseline was developed in order to generate alternative realizations of the baseline signal. These were used to provide measures of both the likelihood of detecting fugitive emissions at various emission levels and of the false alarm rate. Results of the statistical analysis and an indicative minimum fugitive methane emission rate that can be detected using a single monitoring station are presented.

Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

2013-12-01

118

Analysis of coal-firing modes shows pulverized least costly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant owner opting to build a new coal-fired facility has several processes from which to choose. Among the most common are the spreader-stoker- and the pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Since pollution control is now an integral part of any coal-fired operation, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is becoming increasingly popular. Reason: This process does not require auxiliary equipment to control SOâ. Comparing the

R. C. Lutwen; T. J. Fitzpatrick

1986-01-01

119

Optimized post combustion carbon capturing on coal fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide coal contributes to over 40% of the electricity generation today and its share is expected to increase steadily over the coming decades. The continued dominance of coal in global energy structure and the growing concern of climate change necessitate accelerated development and deployment of new technologies for clean and efficient coal utilization. Coal fired power plants with CO2 capture

Brian Stöver; Christian Bergins; Jürgen Klebes

2011-01-01

120

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980  

SciTech Connect

The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

1980-10-01

121

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

1984-01-01

122

Conversion from Oil to Coal Firing: Will It Pay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, high oil prices encouraged the conversion of some oil-fired stations to coal firing. This report reviews the experiences, lists the kinds of conversion tests necessary and reviews the economic attractiveness of different oil and coal pric...

L. Verbeek

1986-01-01

123

Investigation into the gas-dynamic state of a coal seam under degassing and moistening  

SciTech Connect

Statistics are cited for the violation of gas and dust conditions in mines of Russia and the material damage caused by gas and dust explosions. It is shown that degassing and moistening of a seam is the most efficiently conducted by the hydraulic pulse action.

Ruban, A.D.; Zaburdyaev, G.S.; Zaburdyaev, V.S. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2005-04-01

124

Coal Combustion in a Ventilated Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines experimentally burned Pittsburgh Seam coal and other combustible materials found in mines in order to obtain a better knowledge of their emission products. These experiments were coducted in the Bureau's intermediate-scale fire tunnel,...

M. R. Egan

1987-01-01

125

Suppression of fire on underground coal mine conveyer belts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program involves the evaluation of means for suppressing fires on underground coal mine conveyor belts. Full-scale conveyor belt fire tests were conducted to determine the requirements of automatically actuated water sprinkler, high expansion foam, and multipurpose dry powder extinguishing systems, and of various fire detection devices, necessary to adequately protect underground belt heads. The program included the development of

1974-01-01

126

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the final planned test on eastern coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1992-02-01

127

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the special tests on western coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers.

Not Available

1992-04-01

128

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of

C. A. Weiss; D. R. Erdmann

1984-01-01

129

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

130

JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

Jarda Solc

2008-01-01

131

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01

132

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC\\/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2009-01-01

133

Fire prevention and control in underground coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Fire prevention and control in underground coal mines is a very important safety matter at any operation. To have the safest possible mining system, one needs to keep up with the new technology in early warning systems, continue to analyze the fire potential, provide the proper fire fighting equipment in the mine, and have the employees properly trained on all equipment. This paper discusses the use of rock dust and fire resistant enclosures to help prevent fires, along with the proper cleaning of areas to keep combustible materials from accumulating. It also discusses the use and location of fire extinguishing equipment, early warning systems, foam generators and the proper training plan for operation.

Strid, J.

1985-01-01

134

Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

2014-05-01

135

Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

2009-04-01

136

Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks  

SciTech Connect

Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks, and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety, and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal-producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers, and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. This US Bureau of Mines report includes information from a variety of sources, i.e., agencies of the Federal Government, State agencies, research reports, conference proceedings, product information, and technical literature. This information has been collated into a comprehensive discussion of AML fire problems. Data on past fire control projects and on the estimated extent of the current problem have been compiled. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation, and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated. Information on the hazards of AML fires and safety considerations is included. The status of current technology, recent improvements in fire control methods, and areas of current research are discussed.

Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

1993-01-01

137

Investigation of Direct Pulverized Coal Firing of Marine Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the stu...

I. R. Kacir

1983-01-01

138

Externalities and Coal-Fired Power Generation. Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the concept of externalities and environmental cost assessment as applied to coal-fired power generation. The rationale for considering externalities, activities likely to cause externalities, and methodologies for valuing environment...

L. B. Clarke

1996-01-01

139

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from the operation of dry bottom industrial boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Air emissions were characterized by a literature survey and field sampling. Signi...

140

Initial assessment of coal-fired ship operations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean-going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators and shipyard as well as data published in the literature. The owners and operators of seven of these new ships give a positive endorsement to the feasibility of coal-fired steam propulsion. They

Baham

1984-01-01

141

Initial assessment of coal-fired ship operations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean-going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators, and shipyard as well as data published in the literature. The owners and operators of seven of these new ships give a positive endorsement to the feasibility of coal-fired steam propulsion. They

Baham

1984-01-01

142

Analysis of coal-firing modes shows pulverized least costly  

SciTech Connect

A plant owner opting to build a new coal-fired facility has several processes from which to choose. Among the most common are the spreader-stoker- and the pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Since pollution control is now an integral part of any coal-fired operation, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is becoming increasingly popular. Reason: This process does not require auxiliary equipment to control SO/sub 2/. Comparing the operation and economics of four coal-burning processes can help make this selection a somewhat easier one. This analysis examines four types of combustion: spreader stoker, pulverized coal, bubbling fluidized bed, and circulating fluidized bed. The descriptions are for a 200,000-lb/hr unit operating under like conditions.

Lutwen, R.C.; Fitzpatrick, T.J.

1986-04-01

143

Research on Soft Rock or Coal Seam Roadway Monorail Hanging Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of monorail hanging technology was invented to solve the auxiliary transportation problem in soft rock or coal bed roadway, and clearly introduced the hanging scheme and making a feasibility analysis. This new type of monorail hanging technology makes the monorail application in soft rock or coal bed roadway to be possible, solves a major problem in mine

Xiao Linjing; Li Anbang; Wang Xijing

2010-01-01

144

Coal rank and petrography of Upper Carboniferous seams in the Amasra coalfield, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amasra coalfield is a part of the Upper Carboniferous Zonguldak coal basin of Turkey within the Istanbul zone, a Hercynian deformed unit forming the eastern continuation of the Moesian platform in SE Europe which was later deformed by Alpine tectogenesis. The mainly Westphalian aged coals were sampled from an underground mine and from cores from nine exploration wells and

A. I Karayigit; R. A Gayer; I. H Demirel

1998-01-01

145

MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

146

Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of 18 coal stoker boilers including spreader stokers, mass fired overfeed stokers, and mass fired underfeed stokers are reported. Particulate loading is largely dependent on stoker type and degree of flyash reinjection. It increases with heat release rate, but can be controlled with proper use of overfire air in many cases. Nitric oxide increases with excess air and grate

P. L. Langsjoen; J. O. Burlingame; J. E. Gabrielson

1981-01-01

147

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations.  

PubMed

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region was investigated. The determination methods for mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. The mass of mercury emitted into the air from coal combustion in the power station is in constant relation to the mercury content in the consumed coal during the assumed period. A relationship between mercury emission into the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in electric power stations is derived. PMID:24201800

Mniszek, W

1994-11-01

148

Development of Coal Fired Fluidized Bed Boilers. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents results of research and large-scale testing performed to develop a new type of boiler using fluidized combustion of coal. Objective of the program is the reduction in cost of coal-fired steam generation, while meeting air pollution con...

A. H. Bagnulo J. W. Bishop S. Ehrlich E. B. Robinson

1971-01-01

149

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical\\/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO is described. The impact of NO control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the

1996-01-01

150

Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ?73 Bcf (median) to ?46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ?2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

2013-01-01

151

Coal Fire Fighting: Removal of Thermal Energy by Heat Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are mainly controlled by the availability of three parameters: fuel, oxygen and thermal energy (heat). Hence, all extinction methods are related to the reduction of one or more of these parameters. The extensive removal of one of these parameters will stop a fire. The ability of so called heat pipes to remove thermal energy from the underground coal fire was tested by laboratory and field experiments. A heat pipe is a device of very high thermal conductance. By using a heat pipe, considerable quantities of heat can be transported from the underground to the surface. The heat pipe is filled with a working fluid selected for the present temperature range. Heat is applied and conducted from the coal fire to the evaporator part of the heat pipe and causes the liquid to vaporize. The vapor moves to the condenser section above the surface. The vaporized fluid is condensed and the condensate flows back to the evaporator section by gravity force. The energy removed from the fire is rapidly transferred to the condenser section when the fluid condenses there. From there the energy will finally flow to the surrounding air and extended cooling areas (paddles) may facilitate this transfer. Once installed, the process will run continuously. Within the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in North China" prototypes of heat pipes were tested in laboratory scale as well as in the coal fire area in Wuda, China. As the result of the investigations it will become possible to determine the amount of removed heat to define the needed number of installations. The effect of installed heat pipes on the coal fire propagation will be estimated by means of numerical simulations.

Schmidt, M.; Suhendra; Rueter, H.

2009-04-01

152

Pneumatic stowing with lateral discharge in coal faces with thick seams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of introducing early bearing and compact pneumatic stowing in thick coal beds was developed. In an early phase, the pneumatic stowing method with lateral discharge was tested in conjunction with special chock supports. Due to difficult geological conditions in the coal bed and to insufficient stability of the special chock support the trial failed after 7 months. The whole system was modified for pneumatic stowing with front discharge and shuttering. This method turned out to be unsuccessful as well. A shield support designed for pneumatic stowing with front discharge was used in another panel of the same coal bed. This method proved successful.

Sielaff, H. D.

1982-06-01

153

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas, temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), the environmental baseline, and analysis of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, progress and plans for future testing are discussed. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1989-11-01

154

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

SciTech Connect

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01

155

National Coal Research Programme. Status Report of the Programme 'Air Pollution Due to the Emission of Coal Fired Installations'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the National Coal Research Programme is the elimination of barriers to the reintroduction of coal in the Netherlands. The programme 'Air pollution due to the emission of coal fired installations' (Dutch abbreviation 'LUK') was initiated. The a...

1984-01-01

156

Fire-fighting resources and fire preparedness for underground coal mines. Information circular/1994  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Bureau of Mines report describes various fire fighting resources available to the mining industry and examines the fire preparedness of four western coal mines. The fire fighting resources covered include fire extinguishers, water hoses and nozzles, and fire fighting foam. Information regarding fire fighting equipment indicates that an inadequate maintenance program may cause component failure of fire extinguishers; damage to water hoses is usually a result of improper care; and foam may be a convenient means of conveying water to the fire. One area of particular interest was fire hose water nozzles. Several brands of fire hose nozzles randomly selected, both expensive and inexpensive, were tested at various water pressures. Little difference was found in the maximum throw distance in the fog stream mode. However, dramatic differences were seen among these nozzles when tested for throw distance in the straight stream mode. Performance data relative to water nozzles and specific practices to improve the state of preparedness in many of these areas are discussed. An examination of the mine emergency preparedness of four western coal mines showed state-of-the-art monitoring systems were common at the mine sites. All four mines used carbon monoxide (CO) sensors, and one mine incorporated smoke sensors. Fire safety at all the mine sites was stressed, including early detection and rapid response of the miners to evacuate the mine. However, the mines placed little emphasis on performance of water nozzles, or personal protective clothing for the underground firefighters.

Conti, R.S.

1994-01-01

157

Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Hansen, T.

2006-11-15

158

Forward modeling to improve seismic reflection energy of a protective coal seam based on Zoeppritz equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seismic exploration for coal, seismic waves are very difficult to transmit downward because of high velocity protective layers, making the reflection information very hard to receive above ground. Based on the Snell law and the Zoeppritz equation, we studied the relationship between the incidence angle and reflection seismic wave energy using a forward model of level media. The result

Wen-peng TAO; Shou-hua DONG; Yang LI

2008-01-01

159

Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ?390 ppm at the control site to ?467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ?3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields.

2013-01-01

160

Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.  

PubMed

Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

2013-04-01

161

Pillar strength approaches based on a new failure criterion for coal seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Based on triaxial compression studies on eight coals, the well known empirical relation\\u000a$$\\\\sigma _1 = \\\\sigma _{\\\\text{c}} + a\\\\sigma _3^b$$\\u000a has been suggested as the best fit. The parametersa, b and internal friction µ are shown to be interrelated. Values for µ given in Bieniawski's classification tables are used to obtaina andb for a given Rock Mass Rating

P. R. Sheorey; M. N. Das; S. K. Bordia; B. Singh

1986-01-01

162

Repowering a small coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

Miell, R.

2007-11-15

163

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

164

Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 1. Groundwater flow systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of high contents of methane gas in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada, has led to increased exploration activity for coal-seam gas (CSG). CSG production requires groundwater abstraction to depressurize the coal beds and to facilitate methane flow to the production wells. Groundwater abstraction will have hydrodynamic effects on the flow system, and an understanding of the groundwater flow system is needed to evaluate these effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the groundwater flow system in the area by means of a groundwater flow model and interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water. Groundwater flow for the Weary Creek exploration area is modeled in two vertical sections. The model domains, based on classic upland-lowland conceptual flow models, are approximately 10,000 m long and 4,000 m deep. Each consists of a fixed water-table boundary and no-flow boundaries along the traces of major faults. Steady-state groundwater flow is calibrated to hydraulic-head, streamflow, and groundwater-recharge data. Simulated steady-state velocity fields define regional and local flow components consistent with the conceptual model. The results are consistent with regional trends in ?2H, ?18O, tritium, and TDS, which define two distinct groundwater groups (A and B) and a third of intermediate composition. An active, shallow, local flow component (group A) is recharged in beds cropping out along subdued ridges; this component discharges as seeps along lower and mid-slope positions in the southern part of the study area. The waters are tritiated, relatively enriched in ?2H and ?18O, and have low TDS. A deeper regional flow component (group B), which originates at a higher altitude and which discharges to the Elk River valley bottom, is characterized by non-tritiated groundwater with relatively depleted ?2H and ?18O, and higher TDS. Groundwater contributes less than 10% of the total direct flow to the Elk River, as indicated by flow measurements and by the absence of group A and group B characteristics in the river water. Thus it is hypothesized that groundwater extraction during CSG production will have little impact on the river. The groundwater flow model developed in this work is used in a companion paper to further test this hypothesis.

Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.; Rudolph, D.; Aravena, R.

2000-12-01

165

Co-firing of pulverized coal with combustible industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

In Japan, incineration of combustible industrial wastes is chiefly used to reduce their volume in waste disposal and has not been treated as an effective material compared with combustible non-industrial wastes, because cheap and stabilized electric power supply has not been expected from their incineration. In other words, it means that collecting and transporting of combustible industrial wastes are not easy for power generation, and it is too costly to install and to operate a facility and to assure the extraction of harmful materials contained in the wastes. Then, the generated power cost becomes inevitably too high. Consequently, CCUJ has tried to develop a technology to remove those harmful materials from the wastes, so as to produce cheap and stabilized power efficiently by co-firing. As a result, CCUJ has successfully made clear the following items: (1) Manufacturing conditions of RDF by coal and combustible industrial wastes; (2) Relation between combustibility and their mixing rates; (3) Adsorption of harmful materials (heavy metals) by coal ash and coal-char; (4) Removal method of dioxins by using activated carbon which is cheaply produced from coal; (5) Leaching of coal ash and utilization of coal ashes by melting; (6) Material and heat balance of co-firing; and (7) Generated power cost by co-firing.

Hara, M.; Asahiro, N.; Kamijyo, T.

1999-07-01

166

Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.  

PubMed

Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae. PMID:23837320

Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

2013-01-01

167

Initial Assessment of Coal-Fired Ship Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators and shipyard as well as data published in the li...

G. J. Baham

1984-01-01

168

Fugitive emissions from coal-fired power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential sources of airborne and waterborne fugitive emissions at coal-fired power plants are identified and discussed. Fugitive emissions are defined as pollutant discharges that do not pass through a chimney, vent, discharge pipe, or other functionally equivalent opening. A search of the literature was conducted to locate, evaluate, and report the available data pertaining to such emissions. Data from various

E. L. Currier; B. D. Neal

1984-01-01

169

Desulphurization Wastes from Coal-Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the desulphurization process of coal-fired power plants, solid products are formed, which must be handled as waste due to their quality or small use potential. These are sulphite-rich products of the wet-dry process and ashes produced by fluid-bed and ...

J. Ranta M. Wahlstroem J. Ruohomaeki T. Haekkinen P. Lindroos

1987-01-01

170

Study for decommissioning coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dismantling cost estimates for large coal-fired stations are needed to develop a decomminssioning plan which now is a prerequisite in some states to receiving a certificate of convenience and necessity for proposed plants. APandL has developed a useful study for estimating net salvage figures

1984-01-01

171

Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

2013-04-01

172

Overview of the influence of syn-sedimentary tectonics and palaeo-fluvial systems on coal seam and sand body characteristics in the Westphalian C strata, Campine Basin, Belgium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Westphalian C strata found in the northeastern part of the former Belgian coal district (Campine Basin), which is part of an extensive northwest European paralic coal basin, are considered. The thickness and lateral continuity of the Westphalian C coal seams vary considerably stratigraphically and areally. Sedimentological facies analysis of borehole cores indicates that the deposition of Westphalian C coal-bearing strata was controlled by fluvial depositional systems whose architectures were ruled by local subsidence rates. The local subsidence rates may be related to major faults, which were intermittently reactivated during deposition. Lateral changes in coal seam groups are also reflected by marked variations of their seismic signatures. Westphalian C fluvial depositional systems include moderate to low sinuosity braided and anastomosed river systems. Stable tectonic conditions on upthrown, fault-bounded platforms favoured deposition by braided rivers and the associated development of relatively thick, laterally continuous coal seams in raised mires. In contrast, rapidly subsiding downthrown fault blocks favoured aggradation, probably by anastomosed rivers and the development of relatively thin, highly discontinuous coal seams in topogenous mires.

Dreesen, Roland; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dusar, Michiel; Flores, R. M.; Verkaeren, Paul

1995-01-01

173

Modeling coal-fired cyclone combustors  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model based on the finite-difference solution of momentum, enthalpy, and species conservation equations has been constructed to describe the process of coal combustion in cyclone furnaces. Coal particles are tracked through the flow and the evolution and combustion of volatiles calculated. Most of the char then burns on the walls of the chamber, while held in a molten ash layer, at a rate principally determined by the rate of diffusion of oxygen. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data obtained in the late 1950s at the British Coal Utilization Research Association on a small experimental combustor. Flow and heat transfer data are closely predicted; comparison with the combustion efficiency data cannot be rigorous but no major inconsistencies emerge.

Boysan, F.; Weber, R.; Swithenbank; Lawn, C.J.

1986-02-01

174

Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power, Inc. (ALSTOM) is developing an Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants to address present and anticipated NOX emissions control legislation for US coal-fired boilers. The proposed system will build on ALSTOM's field-proven TFS 2000TM low NOX firing system to achieve furnace outlet NOX emissions at or below 0.15 lb\\/MMBtu for existing tangentially fired boilers firing

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; John L. Marion; Robert Lewis; Chris Smith

175

Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 18 coal stoker boilers including spreader stokers, mass fired overfeed stokers, and mass fired underfeed stokers are reported. Particulate loading is largely dependent on stoker type and degree of flyash reinjection. It increases with heat release rate, but can be controlled with proper use of overfire air in many cases. Nitric oxide increases with excess air and grate heat release rate. Overfire air, as it exists in current boiler designs, does not affect NOx. Relationships between operating variables and measured emissions and efficiency are also reported.

Langsjoen, P. L.; Burlingame, J. O.; Gabrielson, J. E.

1981-07-01

176

Control of NO\\/sub x\\/ from coal-fired boilers: combustion-modification techniques. [Effect of boiler type, coal type and firing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of commercially available combustion-modification (CM) techniques and prospects for seven advanced CM methods now under development are evaluated in terms of controlling NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions in coal-fired boilers. Boiler types considered include single-wall-fired and horizontally opposed wall-fired, tangentially fired, and down-fired boilers; underfed, overfed, and spreader stokers; and cyclone units. Significant variations in NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions occur with

1981-01-01

177

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of control are sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur dioxide control for small and medium-sized boilers is usually accomplished by limiting sulfur content in the fuel and using low-sulfur coal. Other sulfur dioxide control methods include flue gas desulfurization and fluidized bed combustion. However, these systems require substantial first costs, increased operating and maintenance costs, and special material handling systems, which are generally not cost effective for small or medium-sized boilers. The primary emphasis in this article is on controlling particulate emissions from small and mediumsized coal-fired, spreader-stoker boilers equipped with mechanical dust-collection systems. However, many of the principles discussed apply to other collection systems as well.

Weiss, C.A.; Erdmann, D.R.

1984-11-08

178

Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

179

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

Not Available

2004-06-01

180

Tracking new coal-fired power plants: coal's resurgence in electric power generation  

SciTech Connect

This information package is intended to provide an overview of 'Coal's resurgence in electric power generation' by examining proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration in the USA. The results contained in this package are derived from information that is available from various tracking organizations and news groups. Although comprehensive, this information is not intended to represent every possible plant under consideration but is intended to illustrate the large potential that exists for new coal-fired power plants. It should be noted that many of the proposed plants are likely not to be built. For example, out of a total portfolio (gas, coal, etc.) of 500 GW of newly planned power plant capacity announced in 2001, 91 GW have been already been scrapped or delayed. 25 refs.

NONE

2007-05-01

181

COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

182

Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash. PMID:21090555

Konidaris, Dimitrios N

2010-10-01

183

Investigation of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the study of converting oil-fired boilers to pulverized coal as well as the use of pulverized coal for fueling the unique boiler of a new construction

Kacir

1983-01-01

184

FORMATION AND CONTROL OF NO EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED SPREADER-STOKER BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attenti...

185

Fly ash grout snuffs stubborn coal refuse fire. [Ohio Edison power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slurry made of fly ash and water can be used to extinguish a particularly difficult kind of fire--a burning pile of coal refuse. Not an uncommon problem in coal mining areas, such a fire had smoldered for several decades at a coal slag pile behind an Ohio Edison generating plant. The basic procedure involved driving pipes into and through

Ryan

1976-01-01

186

Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

During 1999-2001 ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories and others evaluated the feasibility of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric power plant. The power plant analysed was the Conesville No. 5 unit, operated by AEP of Columbus, Ohio. This unit is a nominal 450 MW, pulverized coal-fired, subcritical pressure steam plant. One of the CO{sub 2} capture concepts investigated was a post-combustion system, which used the Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global, Inc.'s commercial MEA process. More than 96% of CO{sub 2} was removed, compressed, and liquefied for usage or sequestration from the flue gas. Based on results from this study a follow-up study is investigating the post-combustion capture systems with amine scrubbing as applied to the Conesville No. 5 unit. The study evaluated the technical and economic impacts of removing CO{sub 2} from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using advanced amine-based post combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems. The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO{sub 2} capture systems. An advanced amine CO{sub 2} scrubbing system is used for CO{sub 2} removal from the flue gas stream. Four (90%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) CO{sub 2} capture levels were investigated in this study. These results indicate that the advanced amine provided significant improvement to the plant performance and economics. Comparing results with recent literature results for advanced amine based capture systems (Econamine FG{sup +} and KS-1) as applied to utility scale coal fired power plants shows very similar impacts.

NONE

2006-12-15

187

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1)

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-01-01

188

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

NONE

1995-08-31

189

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

190

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01

191

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

2001-01-31

192

Corrosion in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluated the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

Vausher, A.L.

1982-01-01

193

Corrosion in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluate the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

Vausher, A.L.

1982-01-01

194

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the results of a multi-task contract to develop the technology need for a steam bottoming plant for a combined cycle MHD steam power plant. The primary emphasis is on proof-of-concept (POC) testing of the steam bottoming plant components. During this quarter, a 252 hour test was completed with Eastern coal which completes 1760 hours of the planned 2000 hours of testing with this coal. The performance of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during the test is summarized. The baghouse met new source performance standards (NSPS) for particulate emission. The ESP performance was improved over recent past tests and its performance was mapped as a function of specific collection area (SCA) and plate rapping frequency. The results of analysis of tube materials after the first 500 hours of exposure is noted as being separately published as a topical report. Representative results of deposition on heat transfer tubes during the test are presented along with heat transfer coefficients of the dirty tubes. The results of advanced instrumentation experiments by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) are summarized. Measurements of pollutants dispersed from the CFFF stack to remote air quality monitoring trailers are presented. Test results on a ceramic tube that is a candidate for high temperature air heater service are included. The test of a prototype of the first stage of the TRW 20 MW{sub t} combustor was successfully carried out in the combustor during the POC test this quarter. It was installed with adapter flanges to the 20 MW{sub t} single stage combustor used in the CFFF. A report of the performance of this test article is appended to the report. 2 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

195

Coal\\/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and

R. S. Hecklinger; F. R. Rehm

1985-01-01

196

Analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fires incidents occurring in the United States during the 15 years from 1978 through 1992. The fire data used in this analysis were obtained from U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration mine fire investigation reports. Fires were analyzed by year, State, coalbed thickness, mine size, mining method,

W. H. Pomroy; A. M. Carigiet

1995-01-01

197

The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest

Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor

2004-01-01

198

Coals of the Brazil Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana: observations of correlation inconsistencies and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coals of the upper part of the Mansfield, Brazil, and the lower part of the Staunton Formations (Atokan and Desmoinesian, Pennsylvanian) in Indiana (Illinois Basin) are characteristically thin and discontinuous. As a result, problems with correlation and identification of the seams have persisted for both researchers and industry. These discrepancies affect coal exploration, mine planning, and subsequently coal-fired utilities.

Maria Mastalerz; Philip R. Ames; Penny L. Padgett

2003-01-01

199

Open Cycle Coal Fired MHD Power Generation. Final Report, 21 May 1971--31 May 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research during the past 3 years on coal-fired MHD has included: critical engineering experiments and studies: (a) modeling of the total MHD system; (b) materials development; (c) coal studies (devolatilization and ash behavior); (d) MHD plasma effects; (...

1975-01-01

200

Tungsten and tungsten-copper for coal-fired MHD power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHO) can improve the thermal efficiency and reduce levels of SOx and NO emissions of existing coal-fired power generation plants. Although the thermal and electrochemical environments for a coal-fired MHO channel challenge the materials used, platinum, tungsten, and tungsten-copper have been found to be suitable choices. Evaluations indicate these materials perform adequately as electrodes and other gas-side surfaces in the coal-fired MHO channel. Analysis of test elements has resulted in the identification of wear mechanisms. Testing of a prototypical coal-fired MHO channel incorporating these materials is under way and will be completed in 1993.

Farrar, L. C.; Shields, J. A.

1992-08-01

201

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

Not Available

1993-02-01

202

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes  

SciTech Connect

During the previous report period, shredder system verification and testing was initiated at DONLEE's pilot facility located in York, Pennsylvania. General waste from the Lebanon VA Medical Center was transported to the pilot facility in York. The waste was fed into the unit starting December 18, 1991. The waste feed rate was adjusted to approximately 150 lb./hr. The stack monitoring portion of the shredder testing was conducted on January 28 and 29. The heat input was approximately 6 [times] l0[sup 6] BTU/hr. both days. On the first day, only coal and limestone were fed into the unit. On the second day, hospital waste, coal, and limestone were fed into the unit. On both days of testing, data included: coal, limestone, and ash samples and flow rates; all air flows; stack flue gas flow; combustor, cyclone, boiler, and baghouse; temperatures and pressures; stack concentration of dioxins and furans; stack concentration of heavy metals; stack concentration of HCI; stack concentration of PAH. The hospital waste feed during the second test was approximately 150 lb./hr. The PA DER requested that the final design of the Lebanon facility fire anthracite coal only. On February 4, the unit was lit off on anthracite coal. Operation on anthracite stabilized at a 1650 degree F combustor temperature. Hospital waste was fed into the unit while on anthracite without incident.

Not Available

1992-01-01

203

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired gas turbine engine or a Diesel-type reciprocating engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulveriz...

W. C. Smith L. E. Paulson

1993-01-01

204

Corrosion and degradation of ceramic particulate filters in direct coal-fired turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic filters show considerable promise for efficient particulate removal from coal combustion systems. Advanced coal utilization processes such as direct coal-fired turbines require particulate-free gas for successful operation. This paper describes the various ceramic particulate filters under development and reviews the degradation mechanisms expected when operated in coal combustion systems.

Sawyer, J. (Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA (US)); Vass, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Brown, J.J. (Center for Advanced Ceramic Materials, CIT TDC, Virginai Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US))

1991-10-01

205

Control Strategies of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Hg emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of

Hezhong Tian; Yan Wang; Ke Cheng; Yiping Qu; Jiming Hao; Zhigang Xue; Fahe Chai

2012-01-01

206

Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). The highest values in coal ash are displayed by elements such as Rb,

Stanislav V Vassilev; Christina G Vassileva

1997-01-01

207

Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01

208

Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

Engle, M. A.; Radke, L. F.; Heffern, E. L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C. D.; Hower, J. C.; Hower, J. M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R. J.; ter, Schure, A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K. L.; Stracher, G. B.; Henke, K. R.; Olea, R. A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

2011-01-01

209

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30

210

Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.  

PubMed

Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. PMID:22326311

Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

2012-03-15

211

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

2005-09-21

212

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

None

2000-12-31

213

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOEpatents

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01

214

Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

1994-01-01

215

Sequential simulation approach to modeling of multi-seam coal deposits with an application to the assessment of a Louisiana lignite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are multiple ways to characterize uncertainty in the assessment of coal resources, but not all of them are equally satisfactory. Increasingly, the tendency is toward borrowing from the statistical tools developed in the last 50 years for the quantitative assessment of other mineral commodities. Here, we briefly review the most recent of such methods and formulate a procedure for the systematic assessment of multi-seam coal deposits taking into account several geological factors, such as fluctuations in thickness, erosion, oxidation, and bed boundaries. A lignite deposit explored in three stages is used for validating models based on comparing a first set of drill holes against data from infill and development drilling. Results were fully consistent with reality, providing a variety of maps, histograms, and scatterplots characterizing the deposit and associated uncertainty in the assessments. The geostatistical approach was particularly informative in providing a probability distribution modeling deposit wide uncertainty about total resources and a cumulative distribution of coal tonnage as a function of local uncertainty.

Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.

2012-01-01

216

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

SciTech Connect

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15

217

Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: II. Dexterity, protection and performance with padded gloves. Phase II report, number 2. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report investigates the effects of adding a layer of extra padding to the palm area of leather gloves typically worn by low seam coal miners.

Krohn, G.; Sanders, M.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

1980-01-31

218

Analysis of Underground Coal Mine Fire Incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Fires were analyzed by year, state, coal bed thickness, mine size, mining method, ignition source, burning substance,...

W. H. Pomroy A. M. Carigiet

1995-01-01

219

Applicability of the Thermal DeNOx Process to Coal-Fired Utility Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a projection of the performance and cost of the Exxon Thermal DeNOx Process applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Eight units were selected, representing different boiler manufacturers, sizes, firing methods, and coal types. Thermal DeNO...

G. M. Varga M. E. Tomsho B. H. Ruterbories G. J. Smith W. Bartok

1979-01-01

220

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury hot spots. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evid...

C. Bu C. Campbell J. Adams M. Bender N. Piccolo T. M. Sullivan

2008-01-01

221

A GUIDE TO CLEAN AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF COAL-STOKER-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a guide for those in charge of operating coal-stoker-fired boilers. It explains and illustrates the types of coal-fired stokers in operation today. It explains the combustion process in simple terms. It explains the various heat losses in stoker boilers. And, it dis...

222

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

223

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study  

SciTech Connect

The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

1984-07-01

224

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01

225

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

226

Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers. Final report Aug 77-Nov 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of field measurements of 18 coal stoker-fired boilers including spreader stokers, mass-fired overfeed stokers, and mass-fired underfeed stokers. The test variables included stoker design, heat release rate, excess air, coal analysis and sizing, overfire air, and flyash reinjection. Measurements included Oâ, COâ, CO, NO, NOâ, SOâ, SOâ, gaseous hydrocarbons, uncontrolled and controlled particulate mass loading, particle

P. L. Langsjoen; J. O. Burlingame; J. E. Gabrielson

1981-01-01

227

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10

228

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

2001-07-27

229

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-01-31

230

Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attention.) Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel-suspension phase, the

G. P. Starley; D. M. Slaughter; J. M. Munro; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1985-01-01

231

Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

232

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01

233

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOEpatents

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01

234

Application of hybrid coal reburning\\/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning\\/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg\\/Nm³ from about 540 mg\\/Nm³, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm

W. J. Yang; Z. J. Zhou; J. H. Zhou; L. V. Hongkun; J. Z. Liu; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

235

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test, up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was co-milled Pratt seam coal. In the second test, also with Pratt seam coal, up to 10% by weight dry hardwood sawdust was injected through the center of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preliminary results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2001-04-30

236

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

237

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter and shakedown testing was begun at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. Talks continued with two utilities that have expressed interest in hosting a demonstration.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-04-30

238

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2012-04-01

239

Coal/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and densified refuse-derived fuel was fired. The report describes the equipment used to densify refuse derived fuel, procedures used to prepare and handle the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture and the test results. The results include the effect of the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture on plant operations, boiler efficiency, stack emissions and EP toxicity.

Hecklinger, R.S.; Rehm, F.R.

1985-11-01

240

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

Conkle, H.N.

1992-03-17

241

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-21

242

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2005-03-31

243

Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-06-15

244

Possible Methods of Estimating the Temperature at the Site of a Fire from Changes in the Composition of the Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognition of the actual danger of underground fires is very important for the economic working of coal seams. One of the quantitative criteria of this danger would be the temperature of the possible site of a smouldering fire, the direct detection of wh...

J. Muzyczuk

1977-01-01

245

Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

2005-01-01

246

Time series analysis of CO concentrations from an Eastern Kentucky coal fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fires in natural outcrops, in abandoned and active coal mines, and in coal and coal-refuse piles are responsible for the uncontrolled emissions of gases, including CO, CO2, H2S, hydrocarbons, and volatile aromatics. Typically, measurements of gases at a mine vent are made over a short time interval, perhaps no more than 10min, including the time for replicate measurements. Such

James C. Hower; Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe; Kevin R. Henke; Amirhossein Bagherieh

247

Effect of coal d-RDF co-firing on stack emissions at milwaukee county institutions' power plant  

SciTech Connect

A research and development project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a 'base line' condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and d-RDF was fired. This paper reports the test results for stack emissions.

Rehm, F.R.; Black, M.I.; Hecklinger, R.S.

1982-01-01

248

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-07-28

249

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

NONE

1998-10-01

250

The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

251

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

252

Preliminary Economics of Mining a Thick Coal Seam by Dragline, Shovel-Truck, and Scraper Mining Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines publication compares the relative economics of three common coal strip-mining techniques. A general overview is presented relating to cost estimation for conventional dragline, shovel-truck, and scraper mining systems. A short-range e...

M. J. Bertoldi

1977-01-01

253

Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers. The survey consisted of a comprehensive questionnaire suitable to statistical interpretation and computer analysis.

J. Reynolds; S. Kreidenweis; L. Theodore

1982-01-01

254

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical report, July - September 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Alli...

1996-01-01

255

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. Commercial Plant Requirements Definition Update (Task 1.1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power system thermodynamic cycle is illustrated schematically. Pressurized air supplied at the discharge of gas turbine compressors is ducted to the pressure vessel of pressurized, fluidized-bed, combustor-steam genera...

1980-01-01

256

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

1981-03-01

257

Coal-Fired Boilers at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study, Phase II and III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual design and parametric cost studies of steam and power generation systems using coal-fired stoker boilers and stack gas scrubbers in several sizes were performed. Central plants containing four equal-sized boilers and central flue gas desulfuriz...

A. I. McCone J. D. Ruby Y. J. Yim T. P. Chen O. Terichow

1979-01-01

258

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

259

MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

260

The influence of burner injection mode on pulverized coal and biomass co-fired flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dual fuel burner designed for the co-firing of waste-derived solid fuels (e.g., biomass, refuse-derived fuel, sewage sludge) with pulverized coal in practical combustors was evaluated through trials undertaken in a 0.5 MW down-fired furnace. A new mathematical procedure was also constructed that accounts for multimode combustion of these fuels. Results included for sawdust-coal flames, show the significant effect

T. Abbas; P. Costen; N. H. Kandamby; F. C. Lockwood; J. J. Ou

1994-01-01

261

Magnesia scrubbing applied to a coal-fired power plant. Final report August 1973August 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur coal. The FGD installation was equipped with a first-stage wet scrubber for particle emissions control, followed by

Koehler

1977-01-01

262

Uncontrolled coal fires and their environmental impacts: Investigating two arid mining regions in north-central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled coal fires occur worldwide and pose a great threat to the environment. This paper introduces the problem of coal fires referring to two coalfields in north-central China. These areas were regularly investigated during numerous fieldwork campaigns between 2002 and 2005. Emphasis is put on the environmental impacts of the fires, such as atmospheric influences, land subsidence, landscape degradation, as

Claudia Kuenzer; Jianzhong Zhang; Anke Tetzlaff; Paul van Dijk; Stefan Voigt; Harald Mehl; Wolfgang Wagner

2007-01-01

263

Environmental Assessment of a Commercial Boiler Fired with a Coal/Waste Plastic Mixture. Volume 1. Technical Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terep...

R. DeRosier H. I. Lips L. R. Waterland

1986-01-01

264

Emissions control for a boiler firing high-sulfur coal and coal/RDF mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operates a stoker-fired boiler rated at 170,000 lb/h of steam as part of the site heating/cooling system. The flue-gas cleanup (FGC) equipment consists of a spray-dryer/fabric-filter combination, which was the first FGC system of its type to be installed and continuously operated on high-sulfur coal in the United States. Under a combined NO/sub x//SO/sub 2/ research program, changes in operating conditions and the addition of a chemical additive (NaOH) were studied. The results show that,under certain operating conditions, it is possible to achieve significant levels of combined control. Key variables include the spray-dryer exit temperature, the additive concentration, the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the flue gas, and the baghouse filter-cake thickness. A third set of tests involved firing several mixtures of coal and binder-enhanced refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 30% RDF (based on Btu content) was used with several different levels of lime binder. No significant operating problems were encountered, all ash samples passed the EP toxicity test, no detectable levels of dioxins or furans were found in the ash or flue gas, and both SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions at the boiler exit were decreased. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Ohlsson, O.O.

1989-01-01

265

Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

2006-06-30

266

Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

267

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

2003-12-31

268

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-06-30

269

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-01-01

270

Joint Combustion Tests with Coal Powder and Wood Powder in an Existing Oil Fired Boiler Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trials were performed in an originally oil fired hot water boiler, which was converted into a boiler fuelled by coal powder. The series of tests involved 12 separate trials where each trial operated for two hours. The firing tests were carried out wit...

G. Thaning

1987-01-01

271

CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

272

Industrial wastewater treatment with water reuse at a coal-fired generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case history of an industrial wastewater treatment system at a 200 MW coal-fired generating station built in the early 1920's. Wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in 1979 to treat low volume wastes, coal pile runoff, and ash handling wastes to comply with existing and proposed regulatory requirements. A new ash handling system was constructed simultaneously and included

J. F. Wagner; C. R. Kertell; T. E. Strittmatter

1984-01-01

273

A Pilot Study of Mercury Liberation and Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal

Jin Li; Xiaobing Gao; Bryna Goeckner; Dave Kollakowsky; Bruce Ramme

2005-01-01

274

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WATERTUBE BOILER FIRING A COAL-WATER SLURRY. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from field testing a watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry (CWS) containing about 60% coal. Emission measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas,...

275

MHD generating system. [open-cycle coal-fired two-phase liquid metal MHD generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coal-fired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and

M. Petrick; E. S. Pierson; F. Schreiner

1978-01-01

276

Distribution of volatile organic compounds during the combustion process in coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted during combustion processes in coal-fired power stations. Thermal desorption technique was employed to analyse VOC concentrations in gaseous emissions (trapped onto Carbotrap B sorbent) and solid samples (coal, fly ash and slag). An empirical parameter (Y) was employed to evaluate the relationships between the compounds emitted during a real

G Fernández-Mart??nez; P López-Mah??a; S Muniategui-Lorenzo; D Prada-Rodr??guez; E Fernández-Fernández

2001-01-01

277

The Co-Firing of Pulverised Bituminous Coals with Straw, Waste Paper and Municipal Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of pulverised coal with biomass waste materials for electricity generation has potential for addressing several areas of concern relating to waste disposal and reduction of harmful emissions. It is in this context that the European Union Clean Coal Technology programme; APAS, is executed. As one of the participants, the IFRF has performed semi-industrial scale studies on the co-firing

W. L. Van De Kamp; D. J. MORGAN

1996-01-01

278

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.

Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1991-09-20

279

Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on

Chittatosh Bhattacharya

2008-01-01

280

Emissions and efficiency performance of industrial coal stoker fired boilers: Data supplement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tables and plots of field test data on emissions and efficiency performance of coal stoker fired boilers are given. The tables contain the gaseous, particulate, coal and efficiency data. The plots correlate the major parameters with percent boiler design capacity and excess air. A few additional relationships are also included in the plots. The data supplement is based on the findings of an extensive coal stoker test program.

1981-08-01

281

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-12-31

282

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-09-30

283

Roof Fall Study, Pocahontas No. 3 Seam. Research and Development Contract to Conduct an Engineers Study of Coal and Coal Measure Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detailed geology in portions of five underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, were mapped, tabulated, and analyzed with respect to roof conditions. Cross-sections and maps were constructed to illustrate roof rock types and their distribution ...

J. C. Ferm R. A. Melton

1975-01-01

284

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2010-03-01

285

Transformations and Affinities for Sulfur of Chinese Shenmu Coal Ash in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca\\/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t\\/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less

J. Cheng; J. H. Zhou; J. Z. Liu; X. Y. Cao; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

286

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA  

EPA Science Inventory

China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

287

Design and operation experience with baghouse dust collectors for pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers: Sunbury Station, Holtwood Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fabric filter on a coal-fired boiler is an effective method of meeting today's stringent air pollution requirements, especially for high-resistivity dusts or where sulfur-content of coal varies widely. (PCS)

J. H. Phelan; A. A. Reisinger; N. H. Wagner

1976-01-01

288

Thin seam mines in Appalachia yield high production  

SciTech Connect

One-unit coal mines operating in certain flat, dry, and non-gassey seams often have continuous haulage from the face to the surface. Though some seams are so thin that miners must crawl on hands and knees, production is excellent. In thin coal seams that many an experienced miner might feel are unminable, operators in Harlan County, Kentucky, United States, are cutting coal with marked success. One-unit operations in seams no thicker than 625 millimeters (25 inches) are producing up to 7,000 tons of coal per month while operating only one shift per day, five days per week. Good mining conditions and continuous haulage of coal from the face to the surface are two reasons why.

Schneiderman, S.J.

1981-03-01

289

Analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Information circular/1995  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Fires were analyzed by year, state, coal bed thickness, mine size, mining method, ignition source, burning substance, location, equipment involved, detection, time of day, time of year, number of injuries and fatalities, method of extinguishment, and evacuation measures taken. In all, 164 fires are included, an average of 10.8 fires per year.

Pomroy, W.H.; Carigiet, A.M.

1995-10-01

290

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30

291

The research of underground coal fires based on thermal infrared images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal mine fires has become a very severe geologic disaster that affects the sustainable development of China's national economy. They result in a reduction of the coal reserve, attribute to atmospheric pollution through the emission of greenhouse related gases, cause land subsidence and negatively impact human health in nearby areas. Fire source localization is an important direction in the research area of fire detection at present. For application researches of fire source localization in fire nonage, a method of fire source localization and its algorithm are presented in the paper. The method is applied to estimate the characterization of infrared image for fire source localization in condition of radiation of fire source having a character of approximate spherical wave, and its convenience of fine orientation distinguishing ability is also presented. The coherence of detection precision for fire source localization applied with the method is similarity while detected in the closed or semi-closed space. Fine feasible and compatible of this detection method is represented in the paper, and especially suited for fire source localization in the rectangle restricted space.

Chen, Wei

2009-07-01

292

Methods and costs of thin-seam mining. Final report, 25 September 1977-24 January 1979. [Thin seam in association with a thick seam  

SciTech Connect

This report defines the state of the art (circa 1978) in removing thin coal seams associated with vastly thicker seams found in the surface coal mines of the western United States. New techniques are evaluated and an innovative method and machine is proposed. Western states resource recovery regulations are addressed and representative mining operations are examined. Thin seam recovery is investigated through its effect on (1) overburden removal, (2) conventional seam extraction methods, and (3) innovative techniques. Equations and graphs are used to accommodate the variable stratigraphic positions in the mining sequence on which thin seams occur. Industrial concern and agency regulations provided the impetus for this study of total resource recovery. The results are a compendium of thin seam removal methods and costs. The work explains how the mining industry recovers thin coal seams in western surface mines where extremely thick seams naturally hold the most attention. It explains what new developments imply and where to look for new improvements and their probable adaptability.

Finch, T.E.; Fidler, E.L.

1981-02-01

293

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ({approx}1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO{sub x} burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ({approx}70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ({approx}90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-04-30

294

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2003-09-30

295

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2003-01-30

296

Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants  

SciTech Connect

Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

White, M. K.

1980-06-01

297

Model Study of Combined Forced and Free Convection in Underground Coal Conversion of Thin Coal Seams. Annual Report January 1984 - January 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental test model, which is dynamically similar to an actual UCC (Underground Coal Conversion) system, has been used to determine fluid flow patterns and local heat transfer that occur in the UCC burn cavity. This study was designed to provide in...

J. B. Riggs

1985-01-01

298

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

299

An evaluation of micronized coal reburning for nitrogen oxide emissions reduction in pulverized coal-fired electric utility boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in the prices of imported fuels and increases in the cost of natural gas have underscored the need to consider other sources of energy for electric production in the United States. Our most abundant fuel source is coal, however the use of coal brings with it a set of environmental problems. This dissertation presents an investigation into the use of micronized coal reburning. This technology may provide a cost-effective solution to the requirements to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal-fired electric generating stations. This research effort evaluated the use of micronized coal as a reburning fuel to lower nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers. The research effort included: (1) an investigation of all available literature on the subject, (2) planning and supervision of a number of baseline and parametric tests on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The testing was carried out on the former NYSEG generating unit, Milliken 1. Milliken Unit 1 is a 150 MW coal-fired electric utility boiler located in Lansing, NY on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, (3) development of a model to predict NOx emissions from a coal-fired boiler, and (4) completion of a conceptual design for a micronized coal reburning system. The original plan of the research effort was to include a full-scale micronized coal reburn installation and subsequent modeling and testing. However, in 1998 the deregulation of the electric utility industry in New York caused the focus of the dissertation to be narrowed. The test site, Milliken Station was sold to another entity, and the installation of the micronized coal reburn system was cancelled. The following conclusions were drawn from the research: (1) Testing showed that nitrogen oxide production was significantly influenced by changes in controllable boiler operating parameters. (2) The predictive model for baseline nitrogen oxide production was fairly accurate in estimating NOx emissions. The model had an average error of 10.14%, with about half of the 27 model runs being within 10% accuracy, and only two runs having greater than a 20% error. (3) The conceptual design shows that in most cases, the physical characteristics of existing coal fired boilers, and existing operating methods will allow for installation of micronized coal reburn systems. (4) An estimate of micronized coal reburning performance was made. It is estimated from a review of existing bench and pilot scale tests, modeling, and natural gas reburn projects that nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by about 60%, to a level of approximately 0.128 pounds per mmbtu of heat input. (5) Given impending, more stringent NOx regulations, and the high cost of natural gas, which has been demonstrated as a successful reburn fuel, micronized coal reburning is a cost effective alternative to current methods of NO x control.

de Angelo, Joseph Gerard

300

Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires  

PubMed Central

The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

Zhou, Fubao

2014-01-01

301

Thin, level and steep seam equipment used in the donets basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

While conditions of working thin seams in the Donets coalfield differ only slightly from those in many other coal producing countries, the precise method of working steep seams in the Donbass has no parallel anywhere else in the world. First of all in the regions where steep seams are found it is usually geographically complex. The frequency of faults is

S. A. Saratikjants; A. I. Bashkov

1978-01-01

302

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-02-26

303

Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Research Center of Power Engineering Problems

2009-02-15

304

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

2000-10-24

305

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

306

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and...

1993-01-01

307

Application of Active Disturbance Rejection Control technology in distributed Control System of coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Control System plays a role of “brain” and control center for coal-fired power generation unit. Super critical (SC) and Ultra-super critical (USC) power generation units with large capacity, high parameters, high efficiency have been the key units of coal fired power industry. Reliability and stability of these units are preconditions for safety of large grid. And the automatic control

Huang Huanpao; Nie Ling; Pan Gang; Xia Ming

2010-01-01

308

The influence of burner injection mode on pulverized coal and biomass co-fired flames  

SciTech Connect

A new dual fuel burner designed for the co-firing of waste-derived solid fuels (e.g., biomass, refuse-derived fuel, sewage sludge) with pulverized coal in practical combustors was evaluated through trials undertaken in a 0.5 MW down-fired furnace. A new mathematical procedure was also constructed that accounts for multimode combustion of these fuels. Results included for sawdust-coal flames, show the significant effect of co-firing ratio and fuel injection mode on flame ignition, combustion aerodynamics, and nitric oxide emissions. Predicted indices of the coal devolatilization rate along the particle trajectories emphasize the influence of the faster devolatilization and ignition of the sawdust on coal combustion in the near burner region. When the sawdust particles are injected through the center of the burner, surrounded by the annular coal jet, they immediately ignite thereby enhancing the combustion intensity of the coal within the internal recirculation zone. This injection mode leads to a subsequent reduction in the nitric oxide formation along with a higher combustion efficiency as compared with a flame where the sawdust and coal injection positions are reversed. An optimum co-firing ratio which the sawdust provided 30% of the total heat input was obtained for a lower reactivity and higher nitrogen content fuel (pulverized sewage sludge) as compared with sawdust, show that the fuel injection mode had a marginal effect on burnout and NO emissions. The sawdust and sewage sludge co-firing results emphasize the need to consider both the reactivity and nitrogen content of the fuel prior to selecting an injection mode.

Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Kandamby, N.H.; Lockwood, F.C.; Ou, J.J. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-12-01

309

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit  

SciTech Connect

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

2008-04-01

310

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.  

PubMed

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

2008-04-01

311

Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle for MHD-Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant application. The results of a 205-hour coal fired test are described. Performance of the Low Mass Flow Train components and the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) systems are reported. Failures of components and actions taken to correct problems are discussed. Application of advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and MSU are detailed. The status of other contractual tasks including Studies and Analyses, Environmental Control, Component Development and Management and Administrative Support are reported. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01

312

Integration of post-combustion capture and storage into a pulverized coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) presents a promising strategy to capture, compress, transport and store CO2 from a high volume–low pressure flue gas stream emitted from a fossil fuel-fired power plant. This work undertakes the simulation of CO2 capture and compression integration into an 800MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant using chemical process simulators. The focus is not only on

Teerawat Sanpasertparnich; Raphael Idem; Irene Bolea; David deMontigny; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

2010-01-01

313

CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

Dennis L. Laudal

2001-08-01

314

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-07-15

315

Industrial wastewater treatment with water re-use at a coal-fired generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-history is presented of an industrial wastewater treatment system at a 200 MW coal-fired power station. Wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in 1979 to treat low-volume wastes, coal pile runoff and ash handling wastes. A new ash handling system was constructed at the same time. The collection and combustion of various wastewater streams, and clarifier sludge handling are discussed.

1984-01-01

316

A Sensitivity Analysis for Radiative Heat Transfer in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for the radiative transfer in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. The third order spherical harmonics approximation is used to model the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in an axisymmetric, cylindrical furnace. To account for the highly forward scattering of radiation by the particles, such as pulverized coal, char, and fly-ash, the delta-Eddington phase function approximation is employed. The

M. P. MENGÜC; R. VISKANTA

1987-01-01

317

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

318

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in

B. G. Miller; H. H. Schobert

1990-01-01

319

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in

B. G. Miller; J. L. Morrison; Jiangyang Xie; P. M. Walsh; H. H. Schobert; A. W. Scaroni

1991-01-01

320

Construction raw materials from coal fired powerstations by-products management and quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to use the potentials of the by-products of coal combustion. Because of environmental, economical and technical reasons full utilization has to be stimulated.In the Netherlands, by-products from coal-fired power stations are fully accepted and utilized for 100% as construction raw materials in the building industry.Vliegasunie has the task to find and encourage responsible (and economically attractive)

J. W. van den Berg; A. Boorsma

1997-01-01

321

Effect of coal d-RDF co-firing on stack emissions at milwaukee county institutions' power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research and development project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a 'base line' condition. For the second series, a mixture

F. R. Rehm; M. I. Black; R. S. Hecklinger

1982-01-01

322

Modelling ash deposition in pulverized coal-fired applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model was applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility. The project is part of a collaborative research programme sponsored

F. C. C. Lee; F. C. Lockwood

1998-01-01

323

CDIF combustor design. [For coal-fired MHD generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power development offers a major opportunity for better utilization of U. S. coal supplies. Conceptual studies of MHD power systems project coal pile to bus bar plant efficiencies up to 50 percent better than modern steam cycles and 20 to 30 percent better than advanced combined gas turbine-steam turbine cycles. MHD offers further potential advantages in control

D. B. Stickler; R. T. Barnes

1976-01-01

324

Coal-Fired Power Plant with Zero Atmospheric Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator ...

J. Martinez-Frias S. M. Aceves J. R. Smith H. Brandt

2003-01-01

325

Life cycle analysis of UK coal fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the life cycle GHG emissions from existing UK pulverized coal power plants. The life cycle of the electricity generation plant includes construction, operation and decommissioning. The operation phase is extended to upstream and downstream processes. Upstream processes include the mining and transport of coal including methane leakage and the production and transport of limestone and ammonia, which

Naser A. Odeh; Timothy T. Cockerill

2008-01-01

326

Design and implementation of a pulverised coal flow monitoring system for coal-fired power plant applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-line continuous monitoring of pulverised coal in fuel injection pipelines will allow power plant operators to understand fuel conveying conditions and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. This paper presents the design, implementation and trials of an instrumentation system for on-line non-intrusive measurement of pulverised coal in a power plant environment. An array of three identical electrostatic electrodes is housed in a sensing head to determine multiple measurement results from different electrode pairs. Flow parameters such as flow velocity, relative mass flow rate and fuel distribution between injection pipes can be obtained by fusing the multiple results. On-plant trials on 488 mm bore pneumatic conveying pipelines at a 600 MW coal-fired power plant were undertaken following preliminary system evaluation tests on a 50 mm bore laboratory test rig. Experimental results demonstrate that monitoring of pulverised coal flow is achieved using the developed instrumentation system under real industrial conditions. The developed technology is likely to find immediate applications, leading to improved performance of coal-fired power plants, efficient use of fuel, and subsequent reductions in emissions.

Qian, Xiangchen; Hu, Yonghui; Huang, Xiaobin; Yan, Yong

2014-04-01

327

Longwall mining of thin seams  

SciTech Connect

Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

Curth, E A

1981-01-01

328

Blend of magnesium oxide and copper oxychloride as calcium oxide deposit inhibitors in coal fired lime kilns  

SciTech Connect

The instant invention is directed to a method of inhibiting and dispersing calcium oxide deposit formation in coal-fired lime kilns, comprising burning the coal in the presence of from 1 to 2 pounds/ton of coal of a blend of 80 to 95%, by weight, magnesium oxide and 5 to 20%, by weight, copper oxychloride.

Sinha, R.K.

1985-03-05

329

Research into the Dynamics of Methane Pressure in Underlying and Overlying Coal Seams with Sudden Outburst Hazard when Artificial Degasification Is Used.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tests of the degree of gas depletion and the dynamics of the decrease in methane pressure in the protected seams with applied artificial degassing through rifts were performed with the aid of 236 experimental rifts of a total length of over 34,000 m. ...

A. T. Ayruni

1977-01-01

330

SAMPLING AND MODELING OF NON-POINT SOURCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, included measurement of overland...

331

EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

332

Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants: an application to a coal fired electrical generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermodynamic relations between energy and exergy losses and capital costs for thermal systems and equipment are developed and applied to a modern coal fired electrical generating station. Some possible generalizations of the results are also discussed. The application considers the overall station and the following station devices: turbine generators, steam generators, preheating devices and condensers. The data suggest that

Marc A Rosen; Ibrahim Dincer

2003-01-01

333

Theoretical Cost Estimates for a Coal-Fired Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper contains the development of a costing method for coal-fired atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers and the results of applying this method to a 200,000 lb/h boiler. The costs of concern are capital costs. The hardwares are those components att...

V. T. Nguyen M. T. Lethi

1981-01-01

334

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

335

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

336

OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

337

Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO? allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

2012-04-01

338

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

339

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

340

ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

341

Sampling and Modeling of Non-Point Sources at a Coal-Fired Utility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, include...

G. T. Brookman

1977-01-01

342

NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

343

Status of proof-of-concept testing at the Coal Fired Flow Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the POC testing at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) during calendar year 1988 are summarized. Emphasis is on the development of technology for the steam bottoming plant for the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The first 500 hours of corrosion testing on candidate boiler tubes were completed and preliminary results are discussed. Ash deposition and

R. C. Attig; M. E. Sanders; J. N. Chapman

1989-01-01

344

Operation of a MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly Technical Progress Report, January-March 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this quarterly progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle components for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. No testing was scheduled this quarter in the Coal Fired Flow Facility and activ...

1987-01-01

345

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly Progress Report, July-September 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle for MHD-Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant application. The results of a 205-hour coal fired test are described. Performance of ...

1988-01-01

346

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal?Fired Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility?scale coal?fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated

Michael Whitaker; Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Martin Vorum

2012-01-01

347

Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out

Buckholtz; H. T. Y

1980-01-01

348

FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

349

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

350

CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

351

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

352

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

353

Feasibility Study of Burning Waste Paper in Coal-Fired Boilers on Air Force Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examine...

K. P. Smith

1993-01-01

354

Estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the responsibilities of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) is to develop cost and performance information on various methods for reducing the emissions of acid rain precursors. A major factor affecting the cost and performance of SOâ and NOâ controls for coal-fired power plants is the degree of difficulty associated with retrofitting controls at existing boilers. This

J. W. Jones; T. E. Emmel; B. A. Laseke

1987-01-01

355

A Field Test Using Coal:dRDF Blends in Spreader Stoker-Fired Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons...

G. H. Degler H. G. Rigo B. T. Riley

1980-01-01

356

Modeling and control system design study of coal fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twelfth-order, physically based, nonlinear boiler-turbine model of a 360 MW coal fired power plant is developed for use in control system design. The existing computer controlled feedback and feedforward control system is modeled in the normal operating mode for use in validating the process model. The process and control system models simulate the plant well in the normal operating

Nam

1986-01-01

357

Exergy cost analysis of a coal fired power plant based on structural theory of thermoeconomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a cost analysis method based on thermoeconomics is applied to a 300MW pulverized coal fired power plant located in Yiyang (Hunan Province, China). This method, as derived from the second law of thermodynamics, can provide detailed analysis for cost formation of the power plant as well as the effects of different operating conditions and parameters on the

Chao Zhang; Yan Wang; Chuguang Zheng; Xinsheng Lou

2006-01-01

358

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

359

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

360

NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

361

Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are

S. C. Morris; L. D. Hamilton

1984-01-01

362

Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

363

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

364

PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

365

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing

B. G. Miller; S. V. Pisupati; R. L. Poe; J. L. Morrison; J. Xie; P. M. Walsh; S. Shamanna; H. H. Schobert; A. W. Scaroni

1992-01-01

366

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a

B. G. Miller; S. V. Pisupati; R. L. Poe; J. L. Morrison; J. Xie; P. M. Walsh; R. T. Wincek; D. A. Clark; A. W. Scaroni

1993-01-01

367

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal- water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine is SCCWS (a fuel

B. G. Miller; J. L. Morrison; J. T. Elston; P. M. Walsh; H. H. Schobert; A. W. Scaroni

1991-01-01

368

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission

E. G. Eddings; A. Molina; D. W. Pershing; A. F. Sarofim; K. A. Davis; M. P. Heap; T. H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

2001-01-01

369

Impact of the air staging on the performance of a pulverized coal fired furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of the air staging on the overall performance of a large-scale laboratory furnace fired by an industry-type pulverized coal swirl burner. Data have been obtained for pollutant emissions and particle burnout for a wide range of the furnace operating conditions. The influence of the axial position of the staged air

A. Ribeirete; M. Costa

2009-01-01

370

A FIELD TEST USING COAL:DRDF BLENDS IN SPREADER STOKER-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-...

371

EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

372

Modeling Mercury Behavior in Coal-Fired Boilers with Halogen Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for compliance with regulations for mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, utilities need useful tools for technology assessment and compliance planning. Such tools should capture observed mercury behavior with existing NOx, SO2 or particulate pollution control equipment that provides \\

Connie Senior; Andrew Fry; Brydger Cauch

373

An Intelligent Emissions Controller for Fuel Lean Gas Reburn in Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the

Jaques Reifman; Earl E. Feldman; Thomas Y. C. Wei; Roger W. Glickert

2000-01-01

374

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not deactivate the catalyst to the extent that these same poisons do in the deliberately wet-impregnated laboratory-prepared samples (1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-9%WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}). At least in this case, the fouling deposits generated by field exposure present little if any chemical deactivation or barrier to mass transfer. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 1000 hours on flue gas. Periodic NO{sub x} reduction measurements were made, showing some decrease in activity relative to fresh catalyst samples. Plans are being made to take the reactor out of service at the Rockport plant and move it to Plant Gadsden. At Gadsden, inlet and outlet ports were installed on Unit 1 for the slipstream reactor during an outage.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-03-31

375

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

NONE

1994-06-01

376

A Coal-Fired Power Plant with Zero Atmospheric Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive

J. Martinez-Frias; S. M. Aceves; J. R. Smith; H. Brandt

2003-01-01

377

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

378

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1990-01-01

379

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-05-29

380

Theory and application of magnetic and self-potential methods in the detection of the Heshituoluogai coal fire, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are a major problem throughout the world. They threaten the environment and the health of people living nearby and result in significant economic losses. Efficient and economical control of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fire be delineated. In this paper, we first present laboratory experiments, revealing that new preferential alignment of magnetic moments, newly formed magnetite and thermoremanent magnetization are the root causes of magnetic anomalies in coal fire area. The redox potential and Thomson potential, which are the basis of the self-potential anomalies, are proposed additionally for application. Then, the geological setting and an overview of the Fifth Fire Area (FFA) of the Heshituoluogai coal fire in Xinjiang are introduced in detail. Finally, the magnetic and self-potential methods are combined to delineate the extent of the fire. Several data processing methods such as diurnal fluctuation rectification, reduction to pole and upward continuation are used to process the data to make the interpretation of results more straight forward. The locations of subsurface fire regions delineated by the magnetic and self-potential methods are consistent with the results of ground surveys, indicating that these two methods can be used effectively as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing

2014-05-01

381

Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-08-01

382

Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.  

PubMed

China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

2010-06-01

383

COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements  

SciTech Connect

COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

1980-10-01

384

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-05-09

385

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL-FIRED CONTROLLED UTILITY BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comprehensive multimedia emissions assessment of the cyclone-fired La Cygne No. 1 boiler, equipped with SO2 and particulate emission controls. Levels 1 and 2 procedures were used to characterize pollutant emissions in gaseous, liquid, and solid proce...

386

[Mercury emission characteristics from coal-fired power plants based on actual measurement].  

PubMed

To sample and test mercury emission characteristics in different power plants, six representative coal-fired power plants were selected. And based on the data of mercury emission concentration from actual measurement, mercury removal rate and mercury average emission factor of every plant can be calculated, and mercury emission characteristics about every level capacity can be given, so as to provide support and foundation for the mercury control in China. The mercury emission concentration is about 4.72-14.54 microg/m3, mercury removal rate is about 20.89%-70.63%, and mercury average emission factor is about 14.09-56.08 microg/(kW x h). To compare the mercury emission characteristics with mercury emission characteristics from coal-fired power plants in USA, it is shown that the concentration of mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in China is far higher than those in USA, and the mercury removal rate is much lower than removal rate required by American national standard. To get conclusion that mercury average emission factor can come down with installed capacity and power generation load went up. And the function relation have been provided through comprehensive simulation between mercury average emission factor and installed capacity, generation load, mercury content in coal, the environmental protection equipment running level, and so on. PMID:21404661

Wang, Sheng; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhu, Fa-Hua; Chen, Hui; Sun, Xue-Li; Zuo, Yi; Liu, Gang

2011-01-01

387

MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

388

Control of ash deposition in pulverized coal fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the ash generated through the combustion process of solid fuels, such as pulverized coal, adheres to the tube surface during heat exchange. This causes problems of heat transfer inhibition such as slagging and fouling as well as boiler drive troubles. In this research the surface characteristics of a heat exchanger tube were changed using thermal spraying and an

Hiroshi Naganuma; Nobuya Ikeda; Takayuki Kawai; Tsuyoshi Takuwa; Tadashi Ito; Yoshiaki Igarashi; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2009-01-01

389

Temporal variability in charcoal distribution in Permian coal: Implications for interpreting palaeowildfire history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of fossil charcoal [inertinite (Scott and Glasspool, 2007)] in coal provides evidence for palaeowildfire event/s. Charcoal distribution has been shown to vary both spatially and temporally in modern wildfires, therefore this needs to be taken into consideration when studying inertinite from palaeowildfires in order to better understand palaeowildfire history. To determine whether this variation occurs in the geological past, charcoal produced by palaeowildfires from four randomly sampled Late Permian in situ coal (fossil peat) pillars from the Kuznetsk Basin, Russia [seam 78 (a and b) and seam 88 (a and b)] have been studied using petrographic techniques. The use of in situ coal pillars are judged to be essential for this type of work as they retain the orientation of the original inertinite distribution, unlike the crushed coals that are typically used for commercial petrographic analysis. These coal pillars contain charcoal in all lithotype units, but show temporal variation both in the amount and type of inertinite between successive lithotype units. Furthermore, the pillars also contain varying amounts of charcoal both within and between seams [mean inertinite: 78(a) 29.8%, 78(b) 42.6%, 88(a) 48% and 88(b) 35%]. The distribution of this charcoal in these pillars can be used to interpret palaeowildfire type. All pillars show: (1) microscopic, scattered charcoal which is interpreted to represent background fire events and (2) macroscopic charcoal which is either scattered or contained in charcoal horizons, which is interpreted to represent surface fire events. Previous petrographic work on crushed coals by Pakh and Artser (2003) has shown that seam 78 has a higher inertinite content (33%) than seam 88 (22%), in contrast this study has shown that the pillars from seam 88 contain more inertinite (with a combined mean of 41.5%) than those from seam 78 (combined mean = 36.2%). This may suggest that during the formation of pillars 88(a,b) fires were either more frequent or that more charcoal was produced in individual fire events compared to the rest of seam 88. The variation in the amount of inertinite both within and between pillars provides evidence for temporal variation in wildfire history for the duration of both pillar and seam formation in this Late Permian peat-forming environment.

Hudspith, V. A.; Scott, A. C.; Collinson, M. E.

2012-04-01

390

COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

391

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1991-03-01

392

CFD evaluation of waterwall wastage in coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of substoichiometric low NOx combustion in coal-fired utility boilers during recent years, problems with waterwall corrosion have increased. A predictive tool capable of assessing corrosion potential and aiding in the design of problem solutions could help alleviate the utility downtime and cost associated with waterwall wastage. Waterwall wastage has been associated with various mechanisms, including gaseous phase reducing sulfur species, wall deposition of unoxidized sulfur fuel, and fuel chlorine. Integration of predictive correlations for corrosion into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code can provide a framework for evaluation of corrosion potential. In this paper, CFD studies and predictions of corrosion in five utility boilers are examined and compared with observed wastage. The CFD code makes use of approximations of empirically developed corrosion correlations for gaseous phase reducing sulfur species, wall deposition of unoxidized sulfur fuel, and fuel chlorine. Model corrosion predictions are compared with observed or measured wastage in several coal-fired utility boilers, including tangentially fired, wall-fired, and cyclone-fired units. 15 refs., 12 figs.

James R. Valentine; Hong-Shig Shim; Kevin A. Davis; Sang-Il Seo; Tae-Hyung Kim [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2007-01-15

393

Influence of mercury and chlorine content of coal on mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.  

PubMed

China is the largest mercury emitter in the world and coal combustion is the most important mercury source in China. This paper updates the coal quality database of China and evaluates the mercury removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCDs) based on 112 on-site measurements. A submodel was developed to address the relationship of mercury emission factor to the chlorine content of coal. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in China were estimated using deterministic mercury emission factor model, nonchlorine-based and chlorine-based probabilistic emission factor models, respectively. The national mercury emission from CFPPs in 2008 was calculated to be 113.3 t using the deterministic model. The nonchlorine-based probabilistic emission factor model, which addresses the log-normal distribution of the mercury content of coal, estimates that the mercury emission from CFPPs is 96.5 t (P50), with a confidence interval of 57.3 t (P10) to 183.0 t (P90). The best estimate by the chlorine-based probabilistic emission factor model is 102.5 t, with a confidence interval of 71.7 to 162.1 t. The chlorine-based model addresses the influence of chlorine and reduces the uncertainties of mercury emission estimates. PMID:22533359

Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Meng, Yang; Hao, Jiming

2012-06-01

394

Perspectives on the potential of clean coal technologies to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how emerging clean coal technologies can play an important role in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. A major issue is whether they will be commercially available for widespread deployment within the time frame needed to meet requirements of acid rain control legislation. On the basis of current reviews and past reports, it appears that clean coal technologies should contribute, but in all likelihood not significantly, to the nationwide reduction of acid rain during the next 15 years. Few utilities have plans to use clean coal technologies in this time frame, and although utilities indicated that they would give much greater consideration to using such technologies if acid rain control legislation were enacted, the technologies are generally not expected to penetrate the market within the next 15 years. Greater emphasis on funding multiple demonstrations of the more promising clean coal technologies could accelerate their successful demonstration and allow them to play a greater and more timely role in reducing acid rain-causing emissions.

Fultz, K.O.

1989-10-01

395

The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Hower, J. C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M. A.; Blake, D. R.; Stracher, G. B.

2009-01-01

396

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

2013-09-30

397

COAL BLENDING, ASH SEPARATION, ASH RE INJECTION, ASH CONDITIONING, AND OTHER NOVEL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE HG UPTAKE BY ASH IN COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in coal type and pollution control devices make it necessary to develop customized solutions for each utility, which will be most effective and economical for each configuration. In addition, the complicated chemistry and multiple mechanisms governing mercury speciation in coal-fired boilers makes it necessary to investigate Hg emission control technologies at conditions relevant to full-scale units. Experiments were performed

Thomas K. Gale; Randy L. Merritt

398

Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A. [JSC Khabarovskenergo, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Heat and Power Plant No. 3

1996-05-01

399

Investigation of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the study of converting oil-fired boilers to pulverized coal as well as the use of pulverized coal for fueling the unique boiler of a new construction vessel. The Phase I feasibility analysis involved a study of overall fueling system requirements and the evaluation of major elements including boilers, pulverizers, burners and pollution control equipment. Preliminary conceptual layouts of systems for conversion and new construction vessels were prepared. Phase II established final system design approach and tentative equipment selection for refinement of the Phase I conceptual layouts. Boiler performance comparisons relative to fuel consumption with fuel oil, pulverized and stoker coal are presented. Benefits to be gained, relative to fueling system costs for conversion and new construction vessels, are analyzed in the light of today's availability and price of fuel oil and coal.

Kacir, I.R.

1983-03-01

400

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

1992-10-13

401

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

402

EVALUATION OF TUBEWALL CORROSION RATES ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER USING STAGED COMBUSTION FOR NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses NOx emissions, at an existing coal-firing utility boiler, that have been controlled by modifying normal combustion parameters using the boiler's normal operating control system (without adding new hardware). The combustion modifications (CMs) studied included...

403

Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002  

SciTech Connect

This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

Not Available

2002-12-01

404

ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

405

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, May 1--July 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon, Pennsylvania Veteran's Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste prov...

J. M. Stuart

1995-01-01

406

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste: Quarterly report, 1 May 1996-31 July, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran's Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste provi...

J. M. Stuart

1996-01-01

407

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, February 1, 1995--April 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran's Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste provi...

J. M. Stuart

1996-01-01

408

DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

409

Coal-fired CAES system using fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Utility requirements for peaking power can be addressed with coal through the unique marriage of the compressed air energy storage and fluidized bed combustion technologies. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of a pressurized fluidized bed combustion system at air storage pressures from 27 to 68 atm. A conceptual design of the PFBC configuration in a CAES system is presented. Major components of the system are identified as either state-of-the-art or requiring further R and D. The performance of the compressed air energy storage system with an efficiency of 83.4% (based on coal input energy) is presented. The effects of recovery of rejected heat are discussed also.

Moskowitz, S.; Schaeffer, R.

1983-11-01

410

On heat balance in coal-fired MHD systems, channel heat transfer and electrode temperature distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results from heat transfer studies performed in 7.5 MWt and 15 MWt direct coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic systems for electrical power generation. Heat transfer from the various components is measured to determine system heat balance and the influence of parameters related to coal combustion on heat transfer. The measured heat flux from electrode walls is compared with a quasi-one-dimensional model and extended for off-design operation. The heat flux values are used in a computer model to evaluate temperature distributions in electrode frames and caps and are compared with measurements taken during power runs.

Roy, G. D.; Crawford, L. W.

1980-11-01

411

Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

Not Available

1991-05-01

412

Pneumatic conveying of coal and ash with particular reference to coal-fired ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of dense-phase (non-fluidized) pneumatic conveyings of coal and ash is presented. Today, there are over 200 dense-phase coal and ash handling systems in land-based boiler plants. In this system, the volume ratio of air-to-material is 25: 1 or less. The velocities normally range from 5 to 7 in\\/s for coal and 6 to 7 m\\/s for boiler ash.

Westbrook

1981-01-01

413

Inferential sensor for on-line monitoring of ammonium bisulfate formation temperature in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a byproduct of the selective catalytic reduction system, ammonium bisulfate could lead to frequent unit outages by forming sticky deposits on the surface of air preheaters and heat rate deterioration in coal-fired power plants. Field tests were carried out to investigate the variation of ammonium bisulfate formation temperature at a coal-fired unit, retrofit with an on-line ammonium bisulfate probe.

Fengqi Si; Carlos E. Romero; Zheng Yao; Zhigao Xu; Robert L. Morey; Barry N. Liebowitz

2009-01-01

414

An investigation into the likely impact of oxy-coal retrofit on fire-side corrosion behavior in utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time electrochemical measurements of corrosion rate were performed to evaluate the respective corrosion rates of one boiler waterwall material (SA210) and three boiler superheater materials (T22, P91 and 347H) while firing Utah Western bituminous, Illinois high-sulfur bituminous and Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coals in a 1.5MW pulverized coal-fired furnace. The raw average measured corrosion rates were very low, between

Andrew Fry; Brad Adams; Kevin Davis; Dave Swensen; Shawn Munson; William Cox

2011-01-01

415

Retrofit costs for lime\\/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime\\/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L\\/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are

T. E. Emmel; J. W. Jones

1990-01-01

416

Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. However, many uncertainties still remain in our knowledge of primary anthropogenic releases of mercury to the atmosphere in China. In situations involving large uncertainties, our previous mercury emission inventory that used a deterministic approach could produce results that might not be a true reflection of reality; and in such cases stochastic simulations incorporating uncertainties need to be performed. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed as an uncertainty case study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content of coal and mercury removal efficiency.

Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

2010-03-01

417

Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

2009-11-01

418

Design practices for multiple-seam room-and-pillar mines. Information circular/1994  

SciTech Connect

Effective mine planning and design is essential for avoiding ground problems related to multiple-seam interactions. The U.S. Bureau of Mines, as part of its mission to improve coal conservation and utilization, has been investigating multiple-seam room-and-pillar designs to increase coal recovery and reduce interactions between operations. This report presents design practices when using room-and-pillar methods in the multiple-seam environment and is a review of relevant literature on multiple-seam ground control, mine planning, and mine design. Its objective is to provide mine planners and operators with practical guidelines and information to design sale and productive mines.

Chekan, G.J.; Listak, J.M.

1994-01-01

419

High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 ?g/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200?g/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global model simulations of BC over our study region, that indicate substantial underestimate against observations in the IGP. Results from this detailed observational study provide an insight into carbonaceous aerosol characteristics in complex and mesoscale environments of coal-fired TPPs, which are major emission sources in the IGP.

Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

2013-12-01

420

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

421

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

422

Electrostatic Precipitators, Bag Filters and Emission Standards for Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1980 to 2003, power installed capacity in China grown from 65,869 MW to 384,500 MW, near 6-foldes increased. By the end of 2003, coal-fired power increased to 285,640 MW, thus induced continuosly increased air pollutions. Accompanying the emission standards from tolerant to stringent, high efficiency dust collectors gradually played dominative role. From 1955, precipitators went into Chinese power plant

Wang Liqian; Zhang Dexuan; Yang Xiuyun

423

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop\\/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-01-01

424

Characteristics of particulate matter from emissions of four typical coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distribution, microstructure, and chemical composition of particulate matter samples from coal-fired power plants in China were measured using a laser particle analyzer, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The size distribution showed differences between the electrostatic precipitator capture efficiencies for coarse and fine particles. The microstructure measurements showed three typical particulate

Chengfeng Zhang; Qiang Yao; Junming Sun

2005-01-01

425

Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment  

SciTech Connect

Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

Nava, J.C. [ME Technical Services, Bridgeton, MO (United States)

2009-09-15

426

An economic analysis of air pollution from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of air-pollution-control techniques on a coal-fired power plant are simulated with a scientifically based environmental model. Air-pollution-abatement techniques are assessed in terms of their resource cost (measured in dollars) and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage (measured in dollars and healthy days lost). Which air-pollution techniques are most efficient depend upon how much value is placed on a

Robert Mendelsohn

1980-01-01

427

Controlling Mercury Emission for China's Coal Fired Electricity Plants: an Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the least-cost strategy for controlling the emission of mercury from coal-fired electricity generation plants in China, which helps to provide technical guidance to firms and decision making basis for designing mercury control strategy and policy for the government. Based on the analysis and evaluation of technical and economic features of the available technologies\\/alternatives, this study

Dan Wu; Shiqiu Zhang; Tong Zhu

2011-01-01

428

Emissions of volatile organic compounds by coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al~traet--This study concerns the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by coal-fired power stations. The most abundant compounds are aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and benzene) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (tetrachlorocthene). The relative importance of combustion parameters determining the level and the nature of emissions is described. The most important of these is th,e load

J. P. GARCIA; S. BEYNE-MASCLET; G. MOUVIER; P MASCLET

1992-01-01

429

Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

430

A Computational Model Study of NOx Reduction Strategies for a Coal-Fired Stoker Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, two-phase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been used to model the combustion processes in a coal-fired stoker furnace as a design aid in the evaluation of NOx reduction technologies. A validated spreader stoker combustion model has been incorporated to evaluate the NOx reduction potential of flue gas recirculation (FGR) and water injection strategies in two

J. R. Valentine; K. A. Davis; M. K. Denison; D. Cron; R. Morrow; T. Giaier

431

The Fate of Fuel Nitrogen in Coal-Fired Spreader Stokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers are recognized as significant stationary sources of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Abatement of NOx emissions from spreader stokers has received relatively little research attention. The purpo se of this investigation was to assess the role of first-stage stoichiometry and local thermal environment in the fate of fuel nitrogen. The research was specifically concerned with identifying nitrogenous species

G. P. STARLEY; F. W. Bradshaw; C. S. Carrel; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1985-01-01

432

Parameters influencing nitrogenous species formation and reaction in stoker coal-fired combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the influence of combustion parameters on NO formation mechanisms in the fuel-bed burning regimes of spreader and mass-burning stokers. The approach utilized an experimental fixed-bed furnace configured to provide specific simulations of either stoker system. In the spreader-stoker configuration, large coal particles were fired in a continuous simulation of bed-phase combustion. In

Starley

1982-01-01

433

Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxides in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel suspension phase, the conversion of fuel nitrogen during fixed-bed combustion, and the coupling between the two combustion phases. The results indicate

G. P. Starley; D. M. Slaughter; J. M. Munro; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1982-01-01

434

Demonstration of wood\\/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood\\/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research

J. T. Jr. Cobb; W. W. Elder; G. E. Geiger; N. J. Campus; W. F. Miller; M. C. Freeman; L. R. McCreery

1999-01-01

435

Acid rain: control strategies for coal-fired utility boilers. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a detailed evaluation of the cost and effectiveness of conventional controls for emissions of sulfur oxides (SO\\/sub x\\/) and nitrogen oxides (NO\\/sub x\\/) from coal-fired utility boilers. The cost and control efficiency data are based on analyses of the 50 US utility plants emitting these pollutants in the greatest quantities in 1979 (the 50 highest emitters for

M. Szabo; Y. Shah; J. Abraham

1982-01-01

436

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

Rubin, E.S.

1988-10-01

437

Numerical Investigation of Different Burner Arrangement on a Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of combustion process in a 200 MW coal-fired boiler is performed using CFD software. The work is focused on concentrate-lean burner, which arranges with different horizontal tilts and the air-staging technique. The numerical simulations on the regular burner have been validated with the experiment data. The other simulation results using the same models could be considered for the

Fei Xing; Tingwei Ji; Shuai Zhang; Peiyong Wang

2011-01-01

438

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-01-01

439

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF)

J. A. Withum

2006-01-01

440

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2005-01-01

441

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

Unknown

2002-07-01

442

High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.  

PubMed

Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. PMID:21511456

García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

2011-08-01

443

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

444

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

2003-08-28

445

PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.  

PubMed

With the increased interest in the possible adverse health effects attributed to inhalation of fine particle matter, this study was conducted to gather preliminary information about workplace exposures at coal- and gas-fired power plants to fine particles (PM(1); i.e. <1 ?m) and ultrafine particles (i.e. <0.1 ?m). Combustion of fossil fuel is known to produce fine particles, and due to their proximity and durations of exposure, power plant workers could be a group of individuals who experience high chronic exposures to these types of particles. The results of a series of real-time instrument measurements showed that concentrations of PM(1) were elevated in some locations in power plants. The highest concentrations were in locations near combustion sources, indicating that combustion materials were leaking from conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers or it was associated with emission plume downwash. Concentrations were the lowest inside air-conditioned control rooms where PM(1) were present at levels similar to or lower than upwind concentrations. Microscopic examinations indicate that PM(1) at the coal-fired plants are dominated by vitrified spheres, although there were also unusual elongated particles. Most of the PM(1) were attached to larger coal fly ash particles that may affect where and how they could be deposited in the lung. PMID:22127876

Hicks, Jeffrey B; McCarthy, Sheila A; Mezei, Gabor; Sayes, Christie M

2012-03-01

446

Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.  

PubMed

Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2011-01-01

447

Site specific health risk assessment: discussion of application of methodologies at coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Release of hazardous chemicals into the environment is an issue of growing concern. The primary impetus behind increased attention to this problem has been concern over the potential for development of adverse human health effects from exposure to such chemicals. Health risk assessment is one technique available to address this complex problem in a structured way. The use of health risk assessment methodologies for analysis of the potential for and effects from ground water contamination is discussed in this report. A risk assessment methodology developed for application at coal-fired power plants is used as an example methodology. The preliminary steps and problems with application of the methodology at a specific coal-fired power plant are presented. The report includes: an introduction to the problem of ground water contamination and the use of risk assessment to address that problem; description of the regional and site characteristics of the coal-fired power plant under study; description of the risk assessment; description of the current activities to characterize the subsurface region under the plant; and a discussion of the impetus behind development of site-specific health risk assessment methodologies.

Bailey, D.A.

1985-01-01

448

Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposa