Science.gov

Sample records for coal utilization ecological

  1. Environmental effects of increased coal utilization: ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, N R

    1979-01-01

    This report is limited to an evaluation of the ecological and environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. It deals with NOx, SOx, fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid precipitation as these pollutants affect natural and managed resources and ecosystems. Also, synergistic effects involving two or more pollutants are evaluated as well as ecosystem level effects of gaseous pollutants. There is a brief summary of the effects on materials and atmospheric visibility of increased coal combustion. The economic implications of ecological effects are identified to the extent they can be determined within acceptable limits. Aquatic and terrestrial effects are distinguished where the pollutants in question are clearly problems in both media. At present, acid precipitation is most abundant in the north central and northeastern states. Total SOx and NOx emissions are projected to remain high in these regions while increasing relatively more in the western than in the eastern regions of the country. A variety of ecological processes are affected and altered by air pollution. Such processes include community succession and retrogression, nutrient biogeochemical cycling, photosynthetic activity, primary and secondary productivity, species diversity and community stability. Estimates of the non health-related cost of air pollutants range from several hundred million dollars to $1.7 billion dollars per year. In general, these estimates include only those relatively easily measured considerations such as the known losses to cultivate crops from acute air pollution episodes or the cost of frequent repainting required as a result of air pollution. No substantial nationwide estimates of losses to forest productivity, natural ecosystem productivity which is tapped by domestic grazing animals and wildlife, and other significant dollar losses are available. PMID:44247

  2. Health and environmental impacts of increased generation of coal ash and FGD sludges. Report to the Committee on Health and Ecological Effects of Increased Coal Utilization.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, C J; Lunt, R R; Johnson, S L; Cooper, C B; Thayer, P S; Jones, J W

    1979-12-01

    This paper focuses on the incremental impacts of coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes associated with increased coal usage by utilities and industry under the National Energy Plan (NEP). In the paper, 1985 and 2000 are the assessment points using the baseline data taken from the Annual Environmental Analysis Report (AEAR, September 1977). In each EPA region, the potential mix of disposal options has been broadly estimated and impacts assessed therefrom. In addition, future use of advanced combustion techniques has been taken into account. The quantities of coal ash and FGD wastes depend on ash and sulfur content of the coal, emission regulations, the types of ash collection and FGD systems, and operating conditions of the systems and boiler. The disposal of these wastes is (or will be) subject to Federal and State regulations. The one key legal framework concerning environmental impact on land is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA and related Federal and State laws provide a sufficient statutory basis for preventing significant adverse health and environmental impacts from coal ash and FGD waste disposal. However, much of the development and implementation of specific regulations lie ahead. FGD wastes and coal ash and FGD wastes are currently disposed of exclusively on land. The most common land disposal methods are inpoundments (ponds) and landfills, although some mine disposal is also practiced. The potential environmental impacts of this disposal are dependent on the characteristics of the disposal site, characteristics of the coal ash and FGD wastes, control method and the degree of control employed. In general, the major potential impacts are ground and surface water contamination and the "degradation" of large quantities of land. However, assuming land is available for disposal of these wastes, control technology exists for environmentally sound disposal. Because of existing increases in coal use, the possibility of

  3. Health and environmental impacts of increased generation of coal ash and FGD sludges. Report to the Committee on Health and Ecological Effects of Increased Coal Utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, C J; Lunt, R R; Johnson, S L; Cooper, C B; Thayer, P S; Jones, J W

    1979-01-01

    This paper focuses on the incremental impacts of coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes associated with increased coal usage by utilities and industry under the National Energy Plan (NEP). In the paper, 1985 and 2000 are the assessment points using the baseline data taken from the Annual Environmental Analysis Report (AEAR, September 1977). In each EPA region, the potential mix of disposal options has been broadly estimated and impacts assessed therefrom. In addition, future use of advanced combustion techniques has been taken into account. The quantities of coal ash and FGD wastes depend on ash and sulfur content of the coal, emission regulations, the types of ash collection and FGD systems, and operating conditions of the systems and boiler. The disposal of these wastes is (or will be) subject to Federal and State regulations. The one key legal framework concerning environmental impact on land is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA and related Federal and State laws provide a sufficient statutory basis for preventing significant adverse health and environmental impacts from coal ash and FGD waste disposal. However, much of the development and implementation of specific regulations lie ahead. FGD wastes and coal ash and FGD wastes are currently disposed of exclusively on land. The most common land disposal methods are inpoundments (ponds) and landfills, although some mine disposal is also practiced. The potential environmental impacts of this disposal are dependent on the characteristics of the disposal site, characteristics of the coal ash and FGD wastes, control method and the degree of control employed. In general, the major potential impacts are ground and surface water contamination and the "degradation" of large quantities of land. However, assuming land is available for disposal of these wastes, control technology exists for environmentally sound disposal. Because of existing increases in coal use, the possibility of

  4. Coal processing and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, H.-D.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that the rising price of oil as well as supply concerns have lead to an increase in the use of coal. It is shown that in order for coal to take a greater role in energy supply, work must commence now in the areas of coal extraction and processing. Attention is given to new technologies such as coke production, electricity and heat generation, coal gasification, and coal liquifaction. Also covered are a separator for nitrogen oxides and active coal regeneration. Finally, the upgrading of coal is examined.

  5. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  6. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  7. TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  9. Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1996-10-01

    The utilization of coal ash in concrete is the most extensive and widespread throughout the world, as compared to other uses of ash. However, in addition to the use in 1992 of over 39 million tons of coal ash in concrete, there were over 40 billion tons used in structural, land, or embankment fill; almost 7 million tons for pavement base course or subgrade; over 40 million tons for filler for mines, quarries or pits; almost 3 million tons for soil amendment; over 1.8 million tons for lightweight aggregate; and over 7 million tons for aerated blocks. In 1992, China had the largest production of coal ash as well as the largest utilization. Russian and the US had the second and third largest production. Russia, Germany, US, and Poland were next to China in utilization. This paper summarizes recent coal ash production and utilization in the world and presents a country-by-country survey of the high-volume users.

  10. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  11. Chemistry and physics of coal utilization - 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.R.; Petrakis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Conference on the Chemistry and Physics of Coal Utilization was designed as an interdisciplinary conference centered on the physics and chemistry phenomena involved in coal utilization, including the chemistry and physics of coal itself. The Conference was designated as a Topical Conference of the American Physical Society, and was held on June 2-4, 1980, at the Lakeview Inn in Morgantown, West Virginia. It was primarily intended as a working conference for those already engaged in, or at least technically informed on, coal conversion and utilization research. The program consisted of lectures by 23 invited speakers and two panel discussions by invited experts. In addition there were two sessions at which a total of 49 poster contributions were presented. This volume contains the invited papers (with one exception), reports of the panel discussions, and abstracts for the poster contributions. The individual papers are entered individually into EDB from a tape prepared by the American Institute of Physics. (LTN)

  12. Chemistry of coal utilization. Second supplementary volume

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The first two volumes of this work, published in 1945, and the first supplemental volume, published in 1963, all under the editorship of H.H. Lowry, are recognized classics. Their comprehensive coverage and critical review of the literature on coal science and technology have been invaluable to workers at all levels of experience. Between 1963 and 1976, however, funding of coal research and development by government and industry in the United States increased from about $22 million to about $322 million per year. Throughout this period the expansion in the literature on coal science and technology and in the number of newcomers to the field made evident the need for a second supplementary volume to Chemistry of Coal Utilization. This second supplementary volume has the following four topics which are not covered in the earlier volumes: Coal Industry and Coal Research and Development in Perspective; Coal Resources; Control of Pollution from Combustion Processes; and Environmental, Health and Safety Implications of Increased Coal Utilization. In addition, the broad areas of pyrolysis, combustion, gasification, and liquefaction, are subdivided for treatment in three separate chapters on fundamentals, processes, and treatment of products. The 31 chapters in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  13. Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

  14. Coal waste classification and approaches to utilization in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Zuna

    1998-12-31

    The amounts of coal waste or coal refuse from mining and coal preparation are adding up rapidly in China because of the increase production of coal. The coal refuse disposed in 1996 amounted to 610 million tons. The stockpiled coal refuse had reached 3 billion tons by the end of 1996, occupying about an area of 8,000 hectare. It is very important to classify coal refuse scientifically, including its chemical composition and physical chemistry for proper treatment and comprehensive utilization. The significance or goal of proper classification of coal waste is: first, to make full use of coal waste on the basis of its useful mineral content and grade; second, to advance utilization methods for coal waste that use no processing technology so as to save processing time and cost; thirdly, to be able to determine relatively precisely coal waste quality and quantity so as to decrease manmade stockpiled coal waste mixtures and to be able to utilize all kinds of coal waste; and finally, to guide development of new refuse utilization approaches. According to characteristics of coal waste resources in China, all coal wastes are classified into six main classes on basis of their source and stockpiled situation. The six main classes are coal-heading coal waste, rock-heading coal waste, spontaneous combustion coal waste, mechanical separating coal waste, sorting coal waste and rock-stripping coal waste. Each is described.

  15. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization was held October 7-9, 1980, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Sixty-six papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB; two had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  17. EPA PROGRAM CONFERENCE REPORT: COAL CLEANING - AN OPTION FOR INCREASED COAL UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contents: The importance of coal in meeting national energy needs; Economics and technology of coal utilization; Regional and institutional perspectives; Environmental perspectives; Opening remarks, second day; Coal cleaning applications for SO2 emission control; Engineering/econ...

  18. Report on health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The National Energy Plan announced by President Carter on April 29, 1977 proposed a significant increase in the utilization of the vast domestic deposits of coal to replace the dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas, and increasingly expensive oil from foreign sources, to meet national energy needs. At the same time, in recognition of possible adverse health and ecological consequences of increased coal production and use, the President announced that a special committee would be formed to study this aspect of the National Energy Plan. The Committee held a series of public meetings during November and December 1977 to review a number of special papers on particular problems associated with increased coal utilization. These papers, which were prepared by scientists of the US Environmental Protection Agency; the Department of Energy; the HEW National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; New York University; and Vanderbilt University; provided essential background information for the deliberations of the Committee and were published in EHP Vol. 33, pp. 127–314, 1979. One paper by A. P. Altschuler et al. is published in this volume of EHP. The Committee's basic finding was that it is safe to proceed with plans to increase the utilization of coal if the following environmental and safety policies are adhered to: • Compliance with Federal and State air, water, and solid waste regulations • Universal adoption and successful operation of best available control technology on new facilities • Compliance with reclamation standards • Compliance with mine health and safety standards • Judicious siting of coal-fired facilities The Committee concluded that, even with the best mitigation policies, there will be some adverse health and environmental effects from the dramatic increase in coal use. However, these will not impact all regions and individuals uniformly. The Committee identified six

  19. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Coal slurry tanker movements of western coal to east coast utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, M.

    1983-02-01

    From four western coal areas, coal slurry pipelines of 10 MMTY and 25 MMTY are designed and costed (1982 basis) for coal delivery to three ports. Supertankers are routed around South America, Panamax through the Panama Canal. Tanker characteristics are specified statistically and costs determined. A tidewater utility alternative is investigated. Based on western coal prices, adjusted for quality differentials, plus transport costs, delivered coal costs are compared to current east coast delivered steam coal prices. The proposed system is not economically feasible at current prices but may become commercial as steam coal demand increases and eastern coal prices rise.

  1. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  2. A resource and technology assessment of coal utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chikkatur, A.P.

    2008-10-15

    Electricity production in India is projected to expand dramatically in the near term to energize new industrial development, while also easing the energy shortages throughout the country. Much of the new growth in electricity production will be fueled by domestic coal resources; however, there is worldwide concern about increased coal use, as greater carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion will exacerbate climate change. At the same time, there are now a number of different existing and emerging technological options for coal conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction worldwide that could potentially be useful for the Indian coal-power sector. This paper reviews coal utilization in India and examines current and emerging coal power technologies with near- and long-term potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal power generation. 107 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Coal Utilization in Schools: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusey, Robert H.

    Coal, at one-third the cost of natural gas and one-fifth the cost of oil, is our cheapest source of energy and is also in abundant supply. Because of significant technological advances, coal-fired equipment now approaches the clean and automatic operational characteristics of gas- and oil-fired boilers. For these reasons, and because schools are…

  4. Expanded development of coal in Appalachian Pennsylvania through the utilization of coal-pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that the utilization of coal-pipeline technology can promote the development of Appalachian coal resources is investigated. The necessity of developing Appalachian coal is based on the assumptions that: (1) coal is the nation's primary medium-term energy source; and (2) eastern coal resources of the Appalachian and Midwestern regions constitute a significant supply source. Coal-pipeline technology offers potential for the resolution of a major impediment to coal development in the Appalachian region: the transportation constraints of handling the rapid expansion of coal production. Specifically, the integration of the coal pipeline into existing transportation networks may serve to upgrade the region's transportation capabilities, thereby facilitating the movement of coal to market places. This could enable many Appalachian coal resources, heretofore unavailable, to become available reserves. The most important contribution of this research was the creation of an analytical tool, with which a comparative cost analysis of short-haul coal-transport modes could be made. Given the assumptions of the hypothetical scenarios and the characteristics of the Appalachian region examined in the site-specific cases, results of this analysis indicated that the employment of the coal pipeline as a feeder mode could enable significant cost reductions in the short-haul transport of coal.

  5. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  6. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the competition of oil and gas and the increasing importance of nuclear power, coal is still one of the main sources of energy in the world. In some regions of the world, the reserve of oil and natural gas is nearly depleted. The supply of such fuels relies on shipment from foreign countries, and may be vulnerable to political crisis, while coals are still abundant and easily available. Therefore, the technology of burning coal for energy, which seems rather old, has not lost its vitality and is in fact developing fast. Because of industry development, especially in developing countries, more and more coal is burned each year. If coal is not burned properly, it may pollute the environment and affect the ecological balance of the surrounding regions. Great attention has been paid to curb these issues, and significant progress has been achieved. Technology of desulfurization of flue gases, low nitrogen oxide coal burners, and also the technology of clean burning of coal by fluidized-bed combustion have all been developed and commercialized. Further improvements are under development. At the same time, new techniques have been used in the measurements and diagnoses of coal combustion. These new techniques facilitate more efficient and cleaner burning of coal. Although coal combustion is a very complicated physiochemical phenomenon, the use of the computer enables and pushes forward the theoretical analysis of coal combustion. Besides, the mathematical modelling of the coal combustion process is also a fast progressing field of research and encouraging results have been obtained by scientists throughout the world. This book compiles the papers presented in the conference on the subject of clean cool technology and fluidized-bed combustion.

  7. Occupational safety and health implications of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Bridbord, K; Costello, J; Gamble, J; Groce, D; Hutchison, M; Jones, W; Merchant, J; Ortmeyer, C; Reger, R; Wagner, W L

    1979-01-01

    An area of major concern in considering increased coal production and utilization is the health and safety of increased numbers of workers who mine, process, or utilize coal. Hazards related to mining activities in the past have been especially serious, resulting in many mine related accidental deaths, disabling injuries, and disability and death from chronic lung disease. Underground coal mines are clearly less safe than surface mines. Over one-third of currently employed underground miners experience chronic lung disease. Other stresses include noise and extremes of heat and cold. Newly emphasized technologies of the use of diesel powered mining equipment and the use of longwall mining techniques may be associated with serious health effects. Workers at coal-fired power plants are also potentially at risk of occupational diseases. Occupational safety and health aspects of coal mining are understood well enough today to justify implementing necessary and technically feasible and available control measures to minimize potential problems associated with increased coal production and use in the future. Increased emphasis on safety and health training for inexperienced coal miners expected to enter the work force is clearly needed. The recently enacted Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 will provide impetus for increased control over hazards in coal mining. PMID:540621

  8. Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

  9. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  10. The Czechoslovak coal base and possibilities for its utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Roubicek, V.; Buchtele, J.; Nemec, J.

    1994-12-31

    The fuel and energy base in Czechoslovakia is presently in a period of great structural change. A substantial problem is the evolution from a centrally planned system to a market economy model of extraction, production, and consumption for fuel and energy sources. The paper describes the historical and current situation in the coal industry and the uses for the black coal, brown coal, and lignite resources of the country. The solution to the problem of how best to utilize the domestic coal base, and coal generally, is closely connected with the global restructuring of the Czechoslovak economy. The most difficult step of this process is, undoubtedly, adapting the Czechoslovak fuel and energy base to market economy conditions.

  11. Report of health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization by the Committee on Health and Environmental Effects of Increased Coal Utilization.

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    The National Energy Plan announced by President Carter on April 29, 1977 proposed a significant increase in the utilization of the vast domestic deposits of coal to replace the dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas, and increasingly expensive oil from foreign sources, to meet national energy needs. At the same time, in recognition of possible adverse health and ecological consequences of increased coal production and use, the President announced that a special committee would be formed to study this aspect of the National Energy Plan. The Committee held a series of public meetings during November and December 1977 to review a number of special papers on particular problems associated with increased coal utilization. These papers, which were prepared by scientists of the US Environmental Protection Agency; the Department of Energy; the HEW National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; New York University; and Vanderbilt University; provided essential background information for the deliberations of the Committee and were published in EHP Vol. 33, pp. 127-314, 1979. One paper by A. P. Altschuler et al. is published in this volume of EHP. The Committee's basic finding was that it is safe to proceed with plans to increase the utilization of coal if the following environmental and safety policies are adhered to:* Compliance with Federal and State air, water, and solid waste regulations* Universal adoption and successful operation of best available control technology on new facilities* Compliance with reclamation standards* Compliance with mine health and safety standards* Judicious siting of coal-fired facilitiesThe Committee concluded that, even with the best mitigation policies, there will be some adverse health and environmental effects from the dramatic increase in coal use. However, these will not impact all regions and individuals uniformly. The Committee identified six major areas of

  12. Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. II. Radionuclides in western coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.; Bishop, C.T.; Casella, V.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Yanko, W.H.

    1981-04-03

    A project has been initiated at Mound Facility specifically to evaluate the potential radiological impact of coal utilization. Phase I of the project included a survey of western US coal mines and an assessment of emissions from a power plant burning Western coal. Concentrations of uranium in coal from operating Western mines were slightly below the national average and roughly comparable to Eastern coal. Environmental deposition of radionuclides from stack emissions over a 20-year accumulation at a power plant burning Western coal was estimated to be 0.1 to 1.0% of measured background. Phase II of the project, the subject of the present report, has involved an interlaboratory comparison of results of radioanalytical procedures, determining partitioning coefficients for radionuclides in bottom ash and fly ash, and an assessment of the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites. Results from the various laboratories for uranium-238, uranium-234, thorium-230, radium-226, polonium-210, thorium-232, thorium-228, and uranium-235 were generally in very good agreement. However, values for lead-210 in coal varied widely. Essentially all the nonvolatile radionuclides (uranium, radium, and thorium) from feed coal were accounted for in fly ash and bottom ash. However, 20 to 50% of the volatile radionuclides (lead and polonium) from subbituminous and lignitic coals could not be accounted for in ash, and it is assumed that this fraction exits via the stack. At the power plant burning bituminous coal, essentially all the lead and most of the polonium remained with the ash.

  13. The proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkestad, B.A.

    1998-03-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held March 9-13, 1998 in Clearwater, Florida. Topics included advanced combustion systems, alternative fuels, coal liquefaction, climate change strategies, international highlights, combustion by-product utilization, co-firing, fuel gas treatment, low nitrogen oxide burners, carbon dioxide mitigation, power plant upgrades, Latin American coal perspective, coal fines utilization, upgraded coal for the power industry, hot gas particulate cleanup, coal conversion, hydraulics and transportation, coal briquetting and coal beneficiation, air toxics, materials and equipment, and coal-water fuels preparation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers presented at this conference.

  14. The proceedings of the 23rd international technical conference on coal utilization and fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkestad, B.A.

    1998-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Advanced combustion systems; Alternative fuels; Coal liquefaction; New strategies for coal to accommodate climate change and deregulation; International highlights; Combustion by-product utilization; Co-firing; Flue gas treatment; Low NOx burners; CO{sub 2} mitigation; Power plant upgrades; Latin American coal perspective; Coal fines utilization; Upgraded coal for the power industry; Hot gas particulate cleanup; Coal conversion; Hydraulics and transportation; Coal briquetting and coal beneficiation; Air toxics; Materials and equipment; and Coal-water fuels preparation. 104 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Economic realities of coal combustion by-product utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Colmar, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the economic issues associated with coal combustion by-product (CCB) utilization and to discuss both technical and cost considerations of commercialization. Handling, processing, and distribution aspects as well as geographic location and competing materials will affect utilization. Several case studies including fly ash in rick, FGD gypsum vs. mined gypsum, and bottom ash vs. lightweight aggregate are presented detailing these issues. Understanding these factors will provide insight to evaluating barriers for CCB utilization which is the first step toward high volume CCB utilization.

  16. COAL UTILITY EVIRONMENTAL COST (CUECOST) WORKBOOK USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for the Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) workbook (an interrelated set of spreadsheets) and documents its development and the validity of methods used to estimate installed capital ad annualize costs. The CUECost workbook produces rough-or...

  17. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  18. Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasificaiton Slags

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.

    1996-12-31

    The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power; however, it generates solid waste materials in relatively large quantities. For example, a 400-MW power plant using 4000 tons of 10% ash coal per day may generate over 440 tons/day of solid waste of slag, consisting of vitrified mineral matter and unburned carbon. The disposal of the wastes represents significant costs. Regulatory trends with respect to solid wastes disposal, landfill development costs and public concern make utilization of solid wastes a high-priority issue. As coal gasification technologies find increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feed stocks, it becomes imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. Praxis is working on a DOE/METC funded project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of making lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates from slags left as solid by-products from the coal gasification process. The project objectives are to develop and demonstrate the technology for producing slag-based lightweight aggregates (SLA), to produce 10 tons of SLA products with different unit weights from two slags, to collect operational and emissions data from pilot-scale operations, and to conduct laboratory and commercial scale evaluations of SLA with conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates.

  19. An evaluation of disposal and utilization options for advanced coal utilization wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    If the US is to continue to effectively use its substantial coal reserves, new clean coal technologies must be developed to improve power production efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants. In order to gain information about wastes produced by advanced coal utilization processes, a research project is being conducted to characterize the geotechnical and geochemical properties of advanced coal process wastes. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) analyzed 34 of these wastes for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and for the disposal-related physical properties listed in a table. This paper discusses potentially useful waste management practices for eight bulk waste samples obtained from four different clean coal processes: gas reburning with sorbent injection (GRSI); pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC); SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX (SNRB); and coal reburning (CR). All four processes have been demonstrated at either full-scale or pilot-scale facilities in the US. Since the properties of advanced process wastes are different from conventional coal combustion wastes, an analysis was performed to identify any potential problems that could occur when standard, off-the-shelf waste management technologies are used for handling and disposal of advanced process wastes. When potential problems were identified, possible alternative technologies were evaluated.

  20. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  1. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  2. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  3. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  4. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  5. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  6. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  8. Gas turbine materials evaluation program utilizing coal derived gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Yates, C. C.; Manning, G. B.; Peterson, R. R.

    1981-03-01

    A gas turbine materials evaluation test facility under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy is described. The objective of the mobile test facility is to obtain dynamic and static test data on the erosion/corrosion characteristics of materials exposed to the hot products of the combustion of coal-derived fuels. The engine being utilized for the tests is the WR 24-7 aircraft turbojet unit reconfigurated to burn coke oven gas. Approximately 100 hours of engine operating time have been logged to date.

  9. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  10. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  11. Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

  12. Illustrative comparison of one utility's coal and nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Sicherman, A.

    1983-01-01

    The technology choices facing an individual utility are complex decision problems. The paper illustrates a method designed to assist an individual utility company in making the choices in a logically consisnt manner. The resulting evaluation model, based on the principles of decision analysis, explicitly addresses the complexity to provide a basis for decision making and support for defending the decision before reviewers. The model, which incorporates economic, environmental, social, safety, and regulatory effects, is demonstrated using a coal/nuclear choice which may be faced by Utah Power and Light Company in the near future. This analysis is meant to be illustrative; more effort would be needed to gather information to support a policy decision.

  13. Research of land resources comprehensive utilization of coal mining in plain area based on GIS: case of Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chunxiao; Wang, Songhui; Sun, Dian; Chen, Dong

    2007-06-01

    The result of land use in coalfield is important to sustainable development in resourceful city. For surface morphology being changed by subsidence, the mining subsidence becomes the main problem to land use with the negative influence of ecological environment, production and steadily develop in coal mining areas. Taking Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp as an example, this paper predicted and simulated the mining subsidence in Matlab environment on the basis of the probability integral method. The change of land use types of early term, medium term and long term was analyzed in accordance with the results of mining subsidence prediction with GIS as a spatial data management and spatial analysis tool. The result of analysis showed that 80% area in Panyi Coal Mine be affected by mining subsidence and 52km2 perennial waterlogged area was gradually formed. The farmland ecosystem was gradually turned into wetland ecosystem in most study area. According to the economic and social development and natural conditions of mining area, calculating the ecological environment, production and people's livelihood, this paper supplied the plan for comprehensive utilization of land resource. In this plan, intervention measures be taken during the coal mining and the mining subsidence formation and development, and this method can solve the problems of Land use at the relative low cost.

  14. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-24

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for, various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  15. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-29

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  16. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale

  17. A Course in Fundamentals of Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovic, Ljubisa R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the content, objectives, and requirements for a one-semester (30 20-hour sessions) graduate engineering course at the University of Concepcion, Chile. Major course topics include: structure and properties of coal; coal pyrolysis and carbonization; coal liquefaction; coal combustion and gasification; and economic and environmental…

  18. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  1. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  2. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  3. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale

  4. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-24

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  5. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF COAL BED METHANE UTILIZING GIS TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2003-04-01

    During the second half of the 1990's, Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period were the advancements in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies generating terra-bytes of new data for the oil and gas industry. Coupled to these accelerating initiatives are many environmental concerns relating to production wastes and water table depletion of fresh water resources. It is these concerns that prompted a vital need within the industry for the development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and mitigation strategies utilizing GIS technologies for efficient environmental protection in conjunction with effective production of CBM. This was accomplished by developing a framework to take advantage of a combination of investigative field research joined with leading edge GIS technologies for the creation of environmentally characterized regions of study. Once evaluated these regions had BMP's developed to address their unique situations for Coal Bed Methane production and environmental protection. Results of the project will be used to support the MBOGC's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement as required by the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) and by the BLM for NEPA related issues for acreage having federally owned minerals.

  7. Cleaning and utilization of coals for low emission at Swedish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Forssberg, K.S.E.; Ryk, L.

    1995-10-01

    The paper discusses coal utilization in Sweden. All hard coals have to be imported from other countries. Peat from domestic sources is used as a complement. environmental legislation and taxation on fuel and emissions are severe. This situation affects the procurement, preparation, handling and use of coal. The paper presents: R and D projects concerning deep cleaning of thermal coal; handling and treatment of coal used in PFBC boilers and for blast furnace injection; dust prevention for coal and peat briquettes; and procurement of col emphasizing quality and environmental issues.

  8. Utilization of coal as a source of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2007-07-01

    Coal consists carbon-based substances can be used as a source of specialty aromatic chemicals and aliphatic chemicals. Four widespread processes allow for making chemicals from coals: gasification, liquefaction, direct conversion, and co-production of chemicals and fuels along with electricity. Coal is gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas) with a gasifier which is then converted to paraffinic liquid fuels and chemicals by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Liquid product from coal gasification mainly contains benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), phenols, alkylphenols, and cresol. Methanol is made using coal or syngas with hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a 2 to 1 ratio. Coal-derived methanol has many preferable properties as it is free of sulfur and other impurities. Syngas from coal can be reformed to hydrogen. Ammonium sulfate from coal tar by pyrolysis can be converted to ammonia. The humus substances can be recovered from brown coal by alkali extraction.

  9. The characterization of brown coals of Kansk-Achinsk Basin for improved utilization in the coal-burning power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Solntsev, S.I.; Shorokhov, V.P.

    1998-12-31

    Kansk-Achinsk Brown Coal Basin in Siberia is the largest one of Russia. There are several large deposits in the Basin. Two main open cuts currently annually supply 35 million tonnes of brown coal for the pulverized fired boilers operated by number of Power Stations in Central Siberia. The main part of Kansk-Achinsk brown coals are characterized by low sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metal content. However, they differ in the ash content (within the range of 4--12%) and in the ash composition (in Ca, Al, Fe, Na, in particular). This has a major influence on the boiler fouling and slagging tendency. The paper describes the work in defining the geological, chemical and utilization characteristics of the coals from the different cuts and places of Kansk-Achinsk Basin. The emphasis on the ash fouling and slagging on burning brown coals from different places was made. The methods of coal preparation were developed to improve the utilization characteristics and to comply with the emission regulations. The preparation and burning of blended coals and coal-water slurry is the focus of the discussion. The technology of briquetted brown coal both with oil-derived binder and with no binder is described.

  10. PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING FOR UTILITY BOILER SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Various alternatives to ...

  11. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  12. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM

  13. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  14. The state of the art of coal ash utilization technologies in India

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, S.K.; Cobb, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    The present paper has been developed at the behest of Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh to have an overview of the state of the art of technologies for coal ash utilization adopted in India. The paper deals with the situation of the thermal power availability, growth, investment envisaged and the generation of coal ash by the use of coal as a fuel. The avenues and the technologies for the coal ash utilization are discussed. The main areas where high amount of ash is being consumed are: (a) building products, (b) road and embankments, (c) hydraulic structures, (d) mine filling, (e) agriculture related applications, (f) reclamation of ash lagoon. The area of (g) administrative efforts also plays an important role in the utilization of coal ash. It is evident that without the support of the governmental bodies it will not be possible to use ash.

  15. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  16. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  17. Hydrogenation of coal liquid utilizing a metal carbonyl catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1979-01-01

    Coal liquid having a dissolved transition metal, catalyst as a carbonyl complex such as Co.sub.2 (CO.sub.8) is hydrogenated with hydrogen gas or a hydrogen donor. A dissociating solvent contacts the coal liquid during hydrogenation to form an immiscible liquid mixture at a high carbon monoxide pressure. The dissociating solvent, e.g. ethylene glycol, is of moderate coordinating ability, while sufficiently polar to solvate the transition metal as a complex cation along with a transition metal, carbonyl anion in solution at a decreased carbon monoxide pressure. The carbon monoxide pressure is reduced and the liquids are separated to recover the hydrogenated coal liquid as product. The dissociating solvent with the catalyst in ionized form is recycled to the hydrogenation step at the elevated carbon monoxide pressure for reforming the catalyst complex within fresh coal liquid.

  18. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd) > E(Pb) > E(Cu) > E(Cr) > E(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  19. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  20. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  1. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  2. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  3. The implications of new toxic release inventory requirements for coal utilization and R and D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Recent action by the US Environmental Protection Agency will require coal-fired power plants to begin reporting their annual release of toxic chemicals covered by the national Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI is a widely-reported public inventory of emissions to air, water and land which has had a major impact on the industries affected to date. Similar impacts can be expected for the utility industry. Utilities also will be required to develop and report on pollution prevention activities to reduce or eliminate TRI releases. This paper reviews the new TRI requirements for coal-fired power plants and presents illustrative results of TRI releases to the environment. The implications of these results for future coal utilization, and for coal R and D priorities, are discussed.

  4. Implications of new toxic release inventory requirements for coal utilization and R & D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1998-04-01

    Recent action by the US Environmental Protection Agency will require coal-fired power plants to begin reporting their annual release of toxic chemicals covered by the national Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI is a widely-reported public inventory of emissions to air, water and land which has had a major impact on the industries affected to date. Similar impacts can be expected for the utility industry. Utilities also will be required to develop and report on pollution prevention activities to reduce or eliminate TRI releases. This paper reviews the new TRI requirements for coal-fired power plants and presents illustrative results of TRI releases to the environment. The implications of these results for future coal utilization, and for coal R&D priorities, are discussed.

  5. The utilization of forward osmosis for coal tailings dewatering

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used fo...

  6. Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

    2008-09-09

    In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

  7. Comparative analysis of coal use options for reducing the dependence of utilities on imported oil

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, Jr, A J

    1980-01-03

    The President and the Congress are finalizing National Goals to reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil. A key element of these goals is the conversion of utilities from oil-fired to coal-fired to yield an import reduction of 0.75 MBD by 1990. Since these utilities already exist at fixed locations, this element of the National Goals has the focus of Appolo, Polaris, Minuteman and other major successful programs. It is indicated, therefore, that the program development and management techniques employed in these programs may have useful application to the utility conversion program. These techniques include comparative systems and mission mode analysis, and the application of these techniques to the utility conversion program is discussed. It is observed that the conversions of coal-capable utilities will most likely be achieved in the first half of the next decade, while those for non coal-capable utilities will likely occur in the latter half of the next decade. It is suggested that DOE/RA initiate an in-house task force effort to make a comparative analysis of conversion alternatives to meet this goal. This analysis is discussed in some detail and it should consider the coal delivery as well as the conversion elements of the overall coal use system with a view to focusing on problems which must be addressed, and discarding those which are of no consequence to meeting the National Goal.

  8. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  9. [Ecological protection and sustainable utilization of Erhai Lake, Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang-Zhou; Jin, Xiang-Can; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Shen, Bing; Li, Ning-Bo; Huang, Chang-Zhu; Xiong, Zhong-Hua

    2005-09-01

    Economic development and increase of population pressure have caused a series of ecological environmental problems of Erhai Lake. These problems include: (1) Quickening of eutrophication process, (2) Decrease of water level and water resources, (3) Habitat deterioration of lakeside zone, and (4) Overfishing and slow depletion of aboriginal fish. Pollutant loading of Erhai Lake is as follows: COD(Cr) 3 008 t x a(-1), TP 137.31 t x a(-1), TN 1 426.35 t x a(-1). According to the mestrophic target of water quality, loading of nitrogen and phosphorus is far above environmental capacity of Erhai Lake. Erhai Lake is now in a pivotal and hypersensitive period of trophic states change, and the position is very critical. Therefore, some countermeasures to solve the problems are presented as follows: (1) Defining the dominant functions of Erhai Lake, (2) Paying attention to the adjustment of the industrial structure and distribution in the course of urbanization, (3) Setting up lakeside zone reserve, (4) Strengthening the control of tourism pollution, (5) Properly adjusting the water level of Erhai Lake, and (6) Some ecological engineering measures for water resources protection in the basin should be taken through collecting and treating of urban sewages, ecological rehabilitating of the main inflowing rivers, constructing of ecological agricultures and improving of rural environment, ecological restoring of aquatic ecosystem, and soil and water conservation. PMID:16366467

  10. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  11. Financing coal mine, methane recovery and utilization projects

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The article describes types and sources of funding that may be available to project developers and investors that are interested in pursuing coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities particularly in developing countries or economies in transition. It briefly summarizes prefeasibility and feasibility studies and technology demonstrations. It provides a guide to key parties involved in project financing (equity, debt or carbon financing) as well as project risk reduction support. This article provides an update to the information contained in two previous guides - Catalogue of Coal Mine Methane Project Finance Sources (2002) and A Guide to Financing Coalbed Methane Projects (1997) - both available on the CMOP web site http://www.epa.gov/cmop/resources/reports/finance.html.

  12. The remote sensing of air pollution from coal utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, B. M.; Mccrea, D. H.; Forney, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of applying earth resources data to the detection of air pollution, particularly pollution from coal burning. Efforts were also made to detect any damage caused by such pollution to vegetation growth and tree life. Results show that vegetative vigor even at low ambient concentrations was damaged and that Eastern white pine trees were severely damaged by the pollutants.

  13. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  14. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  16. ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

  17. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F.

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  18. Ecology and distribution of major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bahls, L.L.; Weber, E.E.; Jarvie, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    From 1975 through 1980, samples were collected to determine the ecology and distribution of the major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana. Altogether, 370 diatom samples and 289 concurrent water-quality samples were collected at 52 surface-water stations. Sixty-eight major diatom ecotypes were selected for identification on the basis that their percent relative abundance equalled or exceeded 10 following proportional counts of 300 to 400 frustules. Each major diatom ecotype is systematically described in terms of taxonomy and morphology, abundance, ecology, and distribution in the study area. Included are tables of 24 water-quality variables of biological significance for each ecotype. Illustrations and brief descriptions of representative specimens are included to document and facilitate identification. This information may be used to help establish water-quality criteria for the region's aquatic communities, to identify indigenous diatoms or diatom groups that are useful as water-quality indicators, and to provide a basis for an ecological classification of the various diatom associations in the study area. Many of the major diatom ecotypes are identified as having sufficiently narrow ecological amplitudes to be useful as indicators of dissolved solids, suspended sediment, and temperature. These are three of the water-quality variables most likely to be affected by surface mining and related activities. 48 references.

  19. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  20. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  1. Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R.; Wright, I.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

  2. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  3. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Dolence, R.C.; Giovannitti, E.

    1997-09-01

    Society`s demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations.

  4. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

  5. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  6. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

  8. Potential displacement of oil by nuclear energy and coal in electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Discrepancies exist between estimates of the amount of oil displaced by nuclear fuels or coal in 1979 as determined by DOE and other researchers. Future trends in utility fuel use are discussed from the point of view of construction, replacement, energy costs to consumer, availability of fossil fuels (other than oil), and site selection.

  9. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  12. ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

  13. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  14. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-08

    Praxis is working on a DOE/METC funded project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of making lightweight and ultra- lightweight aggregates from slags left as solid by-products from the coal gasification process. These aggregates are produced by controlled heating of the slags to temperatures ranging between 1600 and 1900{degrees}F. Over 10 tons of expanded slag lightweight aggregates (SLA) were produced using a direct-fired rotary kiln and a fluidized bed calciner with unit weights varying between 20 and 50 lb/ft{sup 3}. The slag-based aggregates are being evaluated at the laboratory scale as substitutes for conventional lightweight aggregates in making lightweight structural concrete, roof tiles, blocks, insulating concrete, and a number of other applications. Based on the laboratory data, large-scale testing will be performed and the durability of the finished products evaluated. Conventional lightweight aggregates made from pyroprocessing expansible shales or clays are produced for $30/ton. The net production costs of SLA are in the range of $22 to $24/ton for large systems (44 t/d) and $26-$30/ton for small systems (220 t/d). Thus, the technology provides a good opportunity for economic use of gasification slags.

  15. WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT--1979. VOLUME IV. UTILIZATION OF FGC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, the fourth of five volumes, focuses on utilization of coal ash and FGD wastes. With increasing utilization of coal, generation of these wastes is expected to grow, but at a slower rate than generation, thus increasing the volume of wastes sent to disposal. Many uses f...

  16. Utilization of wet FGD material for AMD abatement in underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility response to certain amendments of the Clean Air Act has resulted in the production of several types of alkaline coal combustion byproducts. Alkaline combustion byproducts are gaining increasing usage for acid mine drainage mitigation as research leads to a better understanding of their beneficial applications. Since January of 1997, Mettiki Coal Corporation has been injecting alkaline flue gas desulfurization material from Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit No. 3 wet limestone scrubber into abandoned portions of the active Mettiki mine. This paper provides an overview of the key design, transportation, regulatory, and environmental issues faced in the project.

  17. An integrated approach to the utilization of low rank coals and biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S.; Sen, M.; Moitra, N.

    1999-08-01

    While suggesting an integrated approach for utilization of inferior low rank coals for power in India, the importance of low temperature carbonization followed by retrieval of all value-based products has been stressed. It is further suggested that tar, obtained in the process, could be hydrogenated and fractionated in a central plant for conversion to hydrocarbons. High ash char, the principal product of pyrolysis, has been experimentally found to be amenable to beneficiation, yielding suitable fractions for power generation, briquetting, or blending. Experimental studies have shown that forest litters and agricultural wastes, containing significant proportions of spore, cuticle, and exine--considered as precursors of hydrocarbon-generating coal macerals--also yield large quantities of tar, ammonical liquor, and the principal product, char, which can be respectively utilized for the production of petroleum substitutes, value-based chemicals, and source material for blending, briquette making, and char-water slurries, opening up new avenues for fuel utilization and conservation.

  18. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Ismail B.

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that

  19. Comparative genomics reveals new evolutionary and ecological patterns of selenium utilization in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Lin, Jie; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient for many organisms, which is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine, selenouridine and Se-containing cofactor. Several key genes involved in different Se utilization traits have been characterized; however, systematic studies on the evolution and ecological niches of Se utilization are very limited. Here, we analyzed more than 5200 sequenced organisms to examine the occurrence patterns of all Se traits in bacteria. A global species map of all Se utilization pathways has been generated, which demonstrates the most detailed understanding of Se utilization in bacteria so far. In addition, the selenophosphate synthetase gene, which is used to define the overall Se utilization, was also detected in some organisms that do not have any of the known Se traits, implying the presence of a novel Se form in this domain. Phylogenetic analyses of components of different Se utilization traits revealed new horizontal gene transfer events for each of them. Moreover, by characterizing the selenoproteomes of all organisms, we found a new selenoprotein-rich phylum and additional selenoprotein-rich species. Finally, the relationship between ecological environments and Se utilization was investigated and further verified by metagenomic analysis of environmental samples, which indicates new macroevolutionary trends of each Se utilization trait in bacteria. Our data provide insights into the general features of Se utilization in bacteria and should be useful for a further understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of Se utilization in nature. PMID:26800233

  20. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration. Fourth Quarterly progress report, August 1989--October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O&R) Utility Corporation`s Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  1. Overview of the effects of the coal fuel cycle on hydrology, water quality and use, and aquatic ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Gough, S.B.; Moran, M.S.

    1980-05-01

    Literature is summarized for the effects of the coal fuel cycle (mining, mine-site processing, transportation, storage, onsite processing, combustion, and waste collection and disposal) on water resources. Aspects considered include surface- and ground-water hydrology, water quality and use, and aquatic ecology. Water use is discussed with regard to both availability and water quality constraints on use. Requirements of the recently enacted Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act are introduced where appropriate. For the combustion step in the fuel cycle, only those effects which are specific to coal as a fuel are addressed. Effects not specific to coal use (such as thermal effects, impingement, and entrainment resulting from cooling water withdrawal and use) are not considered. Reference is made to more exhaustive studies of the topics reviewed. A summary of the major environmental effects of the coal fuel cycle is given below.

  2. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using eleven readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study was completed for all major input parameters, which yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute who has included it in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  3. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  4. Coal-fired power plant ash utilization in the TVA region. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.L.; Weeter, D.W.; Davis, W.T.

    1980-10-01

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported methods of coal ash use, emphasizing potential markets in the TVA system; and (3) to recommend potential R and D for coal ash use in the TVA system. Uses discussed include: concrete mixtures, mineral and magnetite recovery, lightweight aggregate, wastewater treatment, sanitary landfill liners, cenosphere reuse, agriculture, mineral wool insulation, and bituminous paving mixtures. The TVA region's predominant historical use of fly ash has been as a concrete additive; however, extensive pilot scale development is underway to advance ash use in the TVA region in such areas as mineral and magnetite recovery, and mineral wool insulaton. Recommended studies include: (1) the feasibility of converting existing wet fly ash collection systems to dry collection and storage; (2) mechanical properties of ash to learn how to separate nonfloating cenospheres from ash; (3) other mineral recovery process choices (in addition to the one with Mineral Gas Co.); and (4) the potential uses, markets, generation points, transportation, and feasibility of extensive coal ash utilization in the TVA area.

  5. Effect of geological processes on coal quality and utilization potential: review with examples from western Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Fariborz, G

    2000-05-29

    This review article compares the elemental and radionuclide concentrations in coals from western Canada, the vast majority of which are used for power generation in Alberta. The coals range in age from lower Cretaceous to middle Eocene, and in rank from subbituminous to high volatile bituminous. Some of the coals were deposited in deltaic lagoonal to marine settings while others formed under lacustrine conditions in intermontane graben settings or in alluvial plains. The role of source rock (provenance), depositional environment, tectonic regime and hydrologic conditions on elemental concentration and distribution will be discussed, with specific examples from western Canada. In addition, the effect of natural weathering, igneous intrusion and self-burning (spontaneous combustion) on the enrichment and/or depletion of elements will be presented. The emphasis throughout this review article will be on the fate of elements of environmental concern and interest (e.g. As, Ba, B, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) and of radionuclides of the U and Th series upon coal utilization. This article is also intended for those not familiar with the geological or environmental sciences, particularly as related to fossil fuel utilization. PMID:10781721

  6. [Ecological and hygienic evaluation of the lignin by-products utilization].

    PubMed

    Semenova, V V; Vorob'eva, L V; Chernova, G I

    2002-01-01

    Main trends in utilization of lignin wastes formed in complex wood processing are discussed. Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of lignins and products of their biotransformation and chlorination are presented. Ecology and hygiene of fertilizers, preserving agents, and construction materials based on lignins are evaluated. PMID:11899881

  7. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  8. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Commercialization of coal diesel engines for non-utility and export power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Mayville, R.A.; Itse, D.; Kimberley, J.; Parkinson, J.

    1993-11-01

    The basic motivation behind this project is to develop coal-burning heat engine technology primarily for 10-100 MW modular stationary power applications in the late 1990`s and beyond, when oil and gas prices may return to the $5--7/MMBtu range. The fuel is a low-cost, coal-based liquid with the consistency of black paint, composed of 12-micron mean size premium 2% ash coal dust mixed 50/50 with water. The Clean Coal Diesel Plant of the future is targeted for the 10-100 MW non-utility generation (NUG) and small utility markets, including independent power producers (IPP) and cogeneration. A family of plant designs will be offered using the Cooper-Bessemer 3.8, 5.0, and 6.3 MW Model LS engines as building blocks. In addition, larger plants will be configured with an engine in the 10-25 MW class (Cooper will license the technology to other large bore stationary engine manufacturers). The reciprocating engine offers a remarkable degree of flexibility in selecting plant capacity. This flexibility exists because the engines are modular in every sense (fuel cell stacks have similar modularity). Scale-up is accomplished simply by adding cylinders (e.g., 20 vs 16) or by adding engines (4 vs 3). There is no scale-up of the basic cylinder size. Thus, there is essentially no technical development needed to scale-up the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Coal Diesel Technology all the way from 2 MW (one 6-cylinder engine) to 50 MW (eight 20-cylinder engines), other than engineering adaptation of the turbocharger to match the engine.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  11. [Influence of Marine Aquaculture Around Coal Power Plant on Mercury Species Change in Auuatic Ecological Environment].

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Wang, Yuan-na; You, Qiong-zhi; Gao, Xue-fei; He, Shan-shan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of marine aquaculture around coal power plant on Hg species change in aquatic ecological environment, the fish farming area in Xiangshan Harbor, Zhejiang province, was studied. The concentrations of different Hg species in sea water collected from marine aquaculture sites (MS) and references sites (RS) were measured. The result showed that the total mercury (THg) concentration in the surface water reached 83.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 97.1 pmol x L(-1). Dissolved Hg (DHg) in pore water of core sediment decreased with the increasing depth. Meanwhile, the DHg content in pore water above 10 cm was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that below 10 cm, which confirmed the influence of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding areas. THg concentration in MS (96.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 133 pmol x L(-1)) was higher than that in RS (69.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 39.4 pmol x L(-1)), which was mainly resulted from the accumulation of sewage discharge by the employees and fish feed material in sediments during breeding that were further released to the overlying water. Methylmercury concentration in pore water of MS (24.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 16.7 pmol x L(-1)) was also significantly higher than that in RS (6.60 pmol x L(-1) +/- 5.11 pmol x L(-1)), which demonstrated that marine aquaculture activities promoted the methylmercury production by increasing the accumulation of organic matter in sediment. PMID:26592015

  12. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  13. Tire-derived fuel cofiring test in a pulverized coal utility boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joensen, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    In recent years, several states have enacted legislation that outlaws the landfilling of whole tires and forces the implementation of various integrated waste management alternatives to dispose of passenger car and truck tires. Alternate disposal options include source reduction, recycling, composting, incineration, and, as a last resort, landfilling of only shredded tires in conventional landfills or in lined monofills, as required by several states. The high energy content of scrap tires, 13,000-16,000 Btu/lb, has resulted in the use of processed tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF). Previous TDF applications include cement kilns, fluidized bed combustion, stoker, and cyclone-fired boilers. Up to now, no data have been reported for cofiring TDF with coal in pulverized coal boilers. This report presents the results of a Phase I feasibility test program conducted in a 65-MW Babcock and Wilcox pulverized coal steam generator at the City of Ames, Iowa, Municipal Power Plant. This unit currently cofires western coal with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and utilizes a bottom dump grate to ensure the complete combustion of RDF in the furnace.

  14. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  15. Neural network predictions of slagging and fouling in pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Smouse, S.; Chi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks were trained to relate the occurrence and characteristics of troublesome slagging and fouling deposits in utility boilers to coal properties, boiler design features, and boiler operating conditions. The data used in this effort were from a survey of utility boilers conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories in an Electric Power Research Institute project. Two networks were developed in this study, one for slagging and one for fouling, to predict ash deposition in various types of boilers (wall-, opposed wall-, tangentially, and cyclone-fired) that fire bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Both networks predicted the frequency of deposition problems, physical nature (or state) of the deposit, and the thickness of the deposit. Since deposit characteristics vary with boiler location and operating conditions, the worst documented cases of ash deposition were used to train the neural networks. Comparison of actual and predicted deposition showed very good agreement in general. The relative importance of some of the input variables on the predicted deposit characteristics were assessed in a sensitivity analysis. Also, the slagging and fouling characteristics of a blend of two coals with significant different deposition characteristics were predicted to demonstrate a practical application of developed neural networks.

  16. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  17. 2200 MW SCR installation on new coal-fired utility project

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, D.P.; Uysal, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    NO{sub x} regulations in Germany and Japan in the mid-1980s resulted in the mandatory retrofit of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology on many utility installations. The early 1990s brought SCR technology to small, single unit new coal fired installations around the world. This paper describes the application of high NO{sub x} reduction SCR technology to the first large scale, coal fired, multiple unit new installation. By integrating the SCR design into the initial boiler equipment arrangement and design, significant simplification of equipment arrangement resulted in project cost savings. The four 550 MW units at Taiwan Power`s Taichung 5--8 Power Plant were installed, commissioned (Unit 8 went on line in early 1997), and tested demonstrating the low NO{sub x} emission capabilities of SCR technology.

  18. Ecological assessment of coal mine and metal mine drainage in South Korea using Daphnia magna bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the ecological effect of acid mine drainage, metal mine (Dalsung) and coal mine (Samtan) drainage in South Korea were collected. The each mine drainage then investigated by whole effluent toxicity test (WET) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). WET results demonstrated that DS leachate and ST mine water is more toxic than other mine drainage due to the presence of cationic metals and acidic pH. TIE results revealed that the acidic pH and copper (Cu) could be the main toxicants in both mine drainage. The strong acidic pH (pH < 3.5) enhanced the metal toxicity by increase of metal activity and bioavailability. The toxicity of most mine drainage revealed that the positive correlation between metal concentration and toxicity unit (TU). The regression data between TU and sum of cumulative criterion unit (CCU) demonstrated the reasonable statistical significance (R = 0.89; p < 0.01), however the excessive iron concentration in mine drainage could be an inhibition factor to estimate the toxicity by the effect of amorphous iron precipitate. PMID:26405638

  19. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, December 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, this process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) along with some unconverted carbon, which is disposed of as solid waste. The objectives of this project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of slag utilization technologies for commercial production of lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The scheduled date for completing Phase I, which includes production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, is 14 December 1995. The scheduled start date for Phase II, which involves commercial utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications, is 15 December 1995, and the scheduled completion date of the project is 14 March 1997.

  20. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasfication process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and landfill. We determined that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that would meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag could be made into a lightweight material by heating it to between 1600 and 1900{degree}F in a kiln, which indicated the potential for using such materials as substitutes for lightweight aggregates. Between 1987 and 1993, the technologies to produce these materials from slag were developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute, Illinois Clean Coal Institute, and internal resources.

  1. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  2. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. PMID:22218183

  3. The use of pulse-jet baghouses on utility coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Grubb, W.T. ); Chang, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFFs) are widely used in U.S. industrial boiler applications and in utility and industrial boilers abroad. The recent success of PJFFs on large utility boilers overseas has stimulated the interest of U.S. utilities. These installations demonstrate that PJFFs can operate at sizes that are 50% smaller and at 30 to 40% lower capital costs than conventional reverse-gas baghouses, yet still achieve comparable reliability and particulate emissions. There are over 300 PJFFs installed on industrial and utility coal-fired boilers worldwide. This paper summarizes key findings of a survey involving site visits to over 30 full-scale installations representing over 70 individual units in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia. The site visits were conducted to interview technical and plant personnel involved in the design, installation and day-to-day operation of the PJFFs. The results summarized in this paper characterize the pressure drop ({Delta}P), outlet emissions and bag life performance of these PJFFs, and verify the maintainability and suitability of PJFFs for application to large utility boilers in the U.S.

  4. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry. PMID:24638274

  5. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results indicated the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  6. Economics of utilization of high sulfur coal resources - an integrated market approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Before the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, coal policies - especially coal research policies - were geared to find a solution to the sulfur emission problem. However, technologies to reduce sulfur emissions cannot be tailored for a single coal. A technology that will clean Illinois coal to compliance levels will do the same, or nearly the same, for most other types of coal. This paper will discuss an integrated approach to the analysis of the future of coals from different regions in the United States and its implications for coal-related policies by government and industry.

  7. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  9. Near-field Mercury Deposition During Summertime Precipitation Events: the Impact of Coal Fired Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, E. M.; Keeler, G. J.; Landis, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin that has been shown to enter water bodies, and consequently the food chain, via atmospheric deposition to the earth's surface. Anthropogenic emissions of the pollutant play a significant role in contributing to the atmospheric pool of Hg, but the near filed impact from point source on surface deposition has been poorly defined to date. An intensive study during July-September 2006 established eight networked precipitation collection sites in northeastern Ohio, U.S.A., located at varying proximities to coal combustion facilities to evaluate the spatial scale of Hg wet deposition concentration enhancement about the sources. It was found that an average of 42% of the Hg wet deposited at sites in the immediate vicinity (<1 km) of coal fired utilities could be attributed to that adjacent source. Several meteorological variables were shown to account for the degree to which Hg concentration in precipitation was enhanced. A detailed meteorological analysis of the individual precipitation events as well as overall implications of local deposition gradients will be discussed.

  10. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  11. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight (ULWA) from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. The following significant events occurred during this reporting period: testing of slag-based lightweight aggregates for roof tile and concrete applications.

  12. Residues From Coal Comversion and Utilization: Advanced Mineralogical Characterization and Disposed Byproduct Diagensesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. McCarthy

    1998-12-04

    The goals of the project are two-fold: 1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction(QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB)systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and 2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: 1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, 2) development of a set of CCB specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and 3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  13. Residues From Coal Conversion and Utilization: Advanced Mineralogical Characterization and Disposed Byproduct Diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. McCarthy

    1998-12-04

    The goals of the project are two-fold: 1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction(QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB)systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and 2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: 1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, 2) development of a set of CCB specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and 3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  14. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  15. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  16. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    1998-09-01

    The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  17. Sacrificing the West for power: utilities risk region's ruin for nukes and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, E.

    1980-09-01

    Uranium and coal development in the western states is progressing at a rate which ignores the socio-economic and environmental impacts of desertification of the West in exchange for reducing oil imports. Westerners are organizing to save their homelands by challenging the large utilities, particularly the Tennessee Valley Authority. Water is the central issue, with residents claiming that agriculture replenishes ground water, but mining and energy production do not. Uranium ore tailings are another area of concern for those left to deal and live with the radioactive wastes. Environmentalists oppose the water contamination associated with TVA's in-situ mine projects and its aggressive uranium development. At least 26 energy companies have development plans involving power generation for midwest cities and the West Coast. (DCK)

  18. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    1998-03-01

    The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  19. Thermal pollution consequences of the implementation of the president's energy message on increased coal utilization.

    PubMed

    Parker, F L

    1979-12-01

    The thermal consequences of coal utilization are most meaningfully assessed in comparison with the form of power generation replaced by coal which is most likely nuclear. The different effects are influenced by siting decisions and the intrinsic thermal efficiencies of the two fuel systems. Nuclear power plants discharge 50% more waste Rheat to the atmosphere through cooling towers or to a water body than coal-fired plants. Coal-fired plants require about 2/3 as much water as nuclear power plants. Nearly every property of water is affected nonlinearly by temperature, and biological effects may amplify these changes because protein denaturation takes place more rapidly above 30 degrees C and these high temperatures affect bactericidal and viricidal activity of chlorine compounds. Usually algal populations change from a dominance of diatoms and green algae to dominance by blue-green algae. All organisms experience elevated metabolic rates at higher temperatures which may affect total energy needs, foraging ability, reproduction, migration and susceptibility to disease. Intake structures inevitably draw many organisms into the cooling system of a power plant, but the number and kind are influenced by its location, configuration, and mode of operation. Use of water recirculation systems reduces water use and with it, the number of organisms entrained. Mechanical damage in the cooling system to small organisms is generally low, but fish and their larvae and eggs may be seriously damaged. Discharge effects may also be severe but are generally local. The near field, where there are strong shear velocities and rapid temperature changes are particularly stressful to fish, and stringent limitations on the timing and strength of discharges may be required to reduce these stresses to nondamaging levels. Off-stream cooling systems may increase cloudiness, ground fog, precipitation, temperature and local winds, but these effects generally extend no further than 1000 m even in

  20. Thermal pollution consequences of the implementation of the president's energy message on increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, F L

    1979-01-01

    The thermal consequences of coal utilization are most meaningfully assessed in comparison with the form of power generation replaced by coal which is most likely nuclear. The different effects are influenced by siting decisions and the intrinsic thermal efficiencies of the two fuel systems. Nuclear power plants discharge 50% more waste Rheat to the atmosphere through cooling towers or to a water body than coal-fired plants. Coal-fired plants require about 2/3 as much water as nuclear power plants. Nearly every property of water is affected nonlinearly by temperature, and biological effects may amplify these changes because protein denaturation takes place more rapidly above 30 degrees C and these high temperatures affect bactericidal and viricidal activity of chlorine compounds. Usually algal populations change from a dominance of diatoms and green algae to dominance by blue-green algae. All organisms experience elevated metabolic rates at higher temperatures which may affect total energy needs, foraging ability, reproduction, migration and susceptibility to disease. Intake structures inevitably draw many organisms into the cooling system of a power plant, but the number and kind are influenced by its location, configuration, and mode of operation. Use of water recirculation systems reduces water use and with it, the number of organisms entrained. Mechanical damage in the cooling system to small organisms is generally low, but fish and their larvae and eggs may be seriously damaged. Discharge effects may also be severe but are generally local. The near field, where there are strong shear velocities and rapid temperature changes are particularly stressful to fish, and stringent limitations on the timing and strength of discharges may be required to reduce these stresses to nondamaging levels. Off-stream cooling systems may increase cloudiness, ground fog, precipitation, temperature and local winds, but these effects generally extend no further than 1000 m even in

  1. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, March 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, this process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) along with some unconverted carbon, which is disposed of as solid waste. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag could be made into a lightweight material by controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results indicated the potential for using such materials as substitutes for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project, funded by DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  2. RETROFIT COSTS FOR LIME/LIMESTONE FGD AND LIME SPRAY DRYING AT COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying S02 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. he costs of retrofitting conventiona...

  3. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: A COMPUTER MODEL APPROACH FOR DESIGN AND COST-ESTIMATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), a computerized program that can be used to estimate the cost and performance of pre-combustion, in situ, and post-combustion air pollution control configurations in pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers of 1...

  4. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

  5. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

  6. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

  7. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  8. The proceedings of the 30th international technical conference on coal utilization and fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkestad, B.A.

    2005-07-01

    Topics covered: low NOx burners; coal mining and preparation; biomass for power; CO{sub 2} management; hydrogen form coal; computer modelling/virtual reality; CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration; emissions control; oxy-fuel; energy visions and perspectives; coal compatible fuel cells; gasification technologies; advances in technology; mercury; advanced materials; real-time analysis of coal; computational techniques for ash behaviour; advanced power plant controls and sensors; and opportunity fuels and by-products.

  9. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  10. Utilizing Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling to Enhance Ecological and Biological Studies of Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.; Gates, R. D.; Takabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs profoundly affects the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional survey techniques utilize 2-dimensional metrics that are inadequate for accurately capturing and quantifying the intricate structural complexity of scleractinian corals. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach improves the capacity to accurately measure architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that play a significant role in habitat facilitation and ecosystem processes. This study utilized Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to create 3D mesh models for several Hawaiian corals that represent distinct morphological phenotypes. The orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from the SfM process were imported into geospatial analysis software in order to quantify several metrics pertaining to 3D complexity that are known to affect ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. The 3D structural properties of the reconstructed coral colonies were statistically analyzed to determine if the each species represents a unique morpho-functional group. The SfM reconstruction techniques described in this paper can be utilized for an array of research purposes to improve our understanding of how changes in coral composition affect habitat structure and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.

  11. Examining the Utility of Stable Hydrogen Isotopes in Aquatic Food-Web Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucett, R. R.; Blinn, D. W.; Caron, M.; Ellis, B. K.; Marks, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    The utility of stable hydrogen isotopes (dD) in hydrology and terrestrial ecology is well understood, but it has not been sufficiently examined in the field of aquatic ecology. Here, we present initial results from: (1) the Colorado River (AZ), Fossil Creek (AZ) and Devil's Hole (NV), where we examined the usefulness of dD to distinguish between allochthonous and autochthonous inputs to aquatic food webs, and (2) from the Sopochnaya River, Russia, where we tested the ability of dD to discern between anadromous and freshwater steelhead trout. In general, aquatic inputs (-320 to -168 per mil) were much more depleted than terrestrial inputs (-166 to -105 per mil). Macroinvertebrates displayed dD values similar to presumed food sources (e.g., baetid mayflies ranged from -299 to -222 per mil). In some cases, mixing models suggested that dD was a better predictor of food-source origin than d13C. As expected, dD values for anadromous trout (-121 to -103 per mil) were more enriched than those of freshwater residents (-161 to -123 per mil), and strong correlations existed between dD, d34S, and d13C. Methodological considerations (e.g., exchangeable hydrogen) and certain assumptions (e.g., importance of food vs. water on tissue dD) will be discussed.

  12. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+. PMID:20480850

  13. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

    1998-03-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the dust

  14. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  15. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 17000F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Accomplishments are described.

  16. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  17. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  18. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  19. Canary in the Coal Mine: Monitoring Indicators and Thresholds of Ecological Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ecological integrity is the ability of an ecosystem to maintain resilience when disturbed; retain native or natural components and processes; and remain sustainable without external inputs. Ecosystems may be subject to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances from intentional natural resource harvesting such as cattle grazing or timber harvest to unintentional large scale processes including climate change. Monitoring ecological integrity can aid in the prevention of irreversible degradation of a system by identifying indicators to serve as early warning signs of degradation. Our central hypothesis is that changes in ecological integrity and movement towards thresholds may be anticipated through monitoring. Our research objective is to develop efficient and effective methods and indicators for natural resource management. We have collected data for four years (2006-2010) on grazed Wildlife Management Areas in southeastern Washington State using a replicated study design in two ecosystem types stratified by six ecological sites distributed within nine pastures. Methods and metrics were developed from quantitative data (cover, frequency, and species richness), qualitative data (photo monitoring and rangeland health surveys), and desired ecological conditions based on state and transition models and classification systems previously published for the study area. The data are a first step to identify efficient and effective methods and metrics to enable natural resource managers to monitor ecological integrity and identify and avoid crossing irreversible thresholds. Study area, southeast Washington State. Photo by Laura Applegate

  20. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  1. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  2. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  3. In-situ study of beneficial utilization of coal fly ash in reactive mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Kyu; Shang, Julie Q; Wang, Hongliu; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-03-15

    Oxidation of reactive mine tailings and subsequent generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) have been long recognized as the largest environmental concern for the mining industry. Laboratory studies on utilization of coal fly ash in management of reactive mine tailings have shown reducing water and oxygen infiltration into tailings matrix, thus preventing oxidation of sulphide minerals and acid generation. However, few data from field studies to evaluate the performance of co-placement of mine tailings and fly ash (CMF hereafter) are reported in the open literature. This paper documents the construction and instrumentation of three CMF systems on the Musselwhite mine located in Ontario, Canada and presents results of 3-year real time monitoring. The field data indicates that the CMFs reduced the ingress of water due to cementation generated by hydration of fly ash. It was also found that the electrical conductivity of leachate from CMFs decreased in the early stage of co-placement, compared to the control. With further study, the principle and approach demonstrated in this paper can be adopted as a sustainable technology in the mine tailings management. PMID:24525077

  4. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September--November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. Slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln. The potential exists for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed. The project scope consists of collecting a 20-ton sample of slag (primary slag), processing it for char removal, and subjecting it to pyroprocessing to produce expanded slag aggregates of various size gradations and unit weights, ranging from 12 to 50 lb/ft{sup 3}. A second smaller slag sample will be used for confirmatory testing. The expanded slag aggregates will then be tested for their suitability in manufacturing precast concrete products (e.g., masonry blocks and roof tiles) and insulating concrete, first at the laboratory scale and subsequently in commercial manufacturing plants. These products will be evaluated using ASTM and industry test methods. Technical data generated during production and testing of the products will be used to assess the overall technical viability of expanded slag production. In addition, a market assessment will be made based on an evaluation of both the expanded slag aggregates and the final products, and market prices for these products will be established in order to assess the economic viability of these utilization technologies.

  5. Controlling mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and (Hg{sup 2}) from coal-fired utility flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1998-12-31

    Mercury is one of listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated as a potential concern for coal-fired utilities. EPA has indicated in their two Congressionally mandated reports that coal-fired utilities are the major anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the United States. There are still many issues and questions to be answered regarding the relative risk of the bioaccumulation of mercury from utilities and the subsequent adverse health effects. The Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) has worked closely with EPA to answer these and other questions regarding the control of mercury emissions from the utility industry. The presentation will focus on the Department`s mercury measurement and control programs, while addressing the issues and problems associated with the control of the relatively small concentrations of mercury and its different forms in the large volumes of flue gas as a result of coal combustion. Costs of controlling mercury under the various control scenarios will also be presented.

  6. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  7. Distribution of environmentally sensitive elements in residential soils near a coal-fired power plant: potential risks to ecology and children's health.

    PubMed

    Tang, Quan; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Ruoyu

    2013-11-01

    One hundred and twelve soil samples were collected from residential areas surrounding a coal-fired power plant at Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. The concentrations of environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in soil samples were determined, and their potential ecological and health risks were assessed. Mean concentrations of ESEs in the downwind soils of the power plant are relatively higher than those in the upwind soils, pointing to a potential ESEs input from coal combustion. The calculated ecological risk of ESEs in soils indicates a relatively low ecological risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) of ESEs in downwind soils is 1.5, suggesting a potential health risk for children. However, the carcinogenic risk values of ESEs in soils are within the acceptable non-hazardous range of 1E-06-1E-04. PMID:24091246

  8. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  9. MERCURY AND AIR TOXIC ELEMENT IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    2003-07-01

    On April 3, 2003, a project kickoff meeting was held at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. As a result of this meeting and follow-up communications, a final work plan was developed, and a schedule of laboratory tasks was developed. Work for the remainder of the second quarter of this project focused on sample collection, initiating laboratory tests, and performing literature searchers. The final project partner, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, signed its contract for participation in the project. This effort will focus on the evaluation of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) for their potential to release mercury and other air toxic elements under different controlled laboratory conditions and will investigate the release of these same air toxic elements in select disposal and utilization field settings to understand the impact of various emission control technologies. The information collected will be evaluated and interpreted together with past Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data and similar data from other studies. Results will be used to determine if mercury release from CCBs, both as currently produced and produced with mercury and other emission controls in place, is a realistic environmental issue. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxics on the disposal and/or utilization of CCBs. The project will provide data on the environmental acceptability of CCBs expected to be produced in systems with emission controls for typical disposal and utilization scenarios. The project will develop baseline information on release mechanisms of select elements in both conventional CCBs and modified or experimental CCBs. The modified or experimental CCBs will be selected to represent CCBs from systems that have improved emission controls. Controlling these emissions has high potential to change the chemical characteristics and environmental performance of CCBs. Development of reliable

  10. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities--Leaching and Characterization Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes in composition and constituent release by leaching that may occur to fly ash and other coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants. The addition of flue-gas desulfurization (FG...

  11. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  12. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT ASH UTILIZATION IN THE TVA REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported metho...

  13. Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  14. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  15. Combining support vector regression and ant colony optimization to reduce NOx emissions in coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligang Zheng; Hao Zhou; Chunlin Wang; Kefa Cen

    2008-03-15

    Combustion optimization has recently demonstrated its potential to reduce NOx emissions in high capacity coal-fired utility boilers. In the present study, support vector regression (SVR), as well as artificial neural networks (ANN), was proposed to model the relationship between NOx emissions and operating parameters of a 300 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The predicted NOx emissions from the SVR model, by comparing with that of the ANN-based model, showed better agreement with the values obtained in the experimental tests on this boiler operated at different loads and various other operating parameters. The mean modeling error and the correlation factor were 1.58% and 0.94, respectively. Then, the combination of the SVR model with ant colony optimization (ACO) to reduce NOx emissions was presented in detail. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce NOx emissions from the coal-fired utility boiler by about 18.69% (65 ppm). A time period of less than 6 min was required for NOx emissions modeling, and 2 min was required for a run of optimization under a PC system. The computing times are suitable for the online application of the proposed method to actual power plants. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  17. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  18. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  19. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 8, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J.F.; Alderman, J.K.; Buttermore, W.H.; Durham, D.L.; Gierl, D.B.; Grady, W.C.; McMillan, B.G.; Muter, R.B.; Simonyi, T.A.

    1980-03-31

    Work continued at the Morgantown pilot preparation facility to upgrade system components. The primary focus of this report period, as documented herein, was on the mineralogical quantification/semiquantification of the District 3 Pittsburgh seam coal samples. An in-depth discussion of the combined-techniques-mineralogical-quantification (CTMQ) of major coal-associated minerals in this coal, and a review of how standardized equations and data are derived is discussed in depth. The development of a procedure for the production of aerated concrete was started.

  20. Initial study of dry ultrafine coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging with subsequent electrostatic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Link, T.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Elstrodt, R.H.; Haden, N.H.

    1990-10-01

    A novel, dry process using electrostatics to beneficiate ultrafine coal is being developed by the Coal Preparation Division at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The historical concept of triboelectricity and its eventual use as a means of charging coal for electrostatic separation will be discussed. Test data from a first-generation and a second-generation Tribo-Electrostatic separator are presented showing the effects of feed particle size, separator voltage, solids concentration in air, and particle velocity on separation performance. 10 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  2. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  3. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  4. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand. PMID:26023722

  5. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  6. Phanerozoic changes in hardpart availability and utilization in benthic communities: evolutionary ecology or evolutionary stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kidwell, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Published experiments on modern communities and quantitative data from Miocene assemblages indicate that the accumulation of dead hardparts can drive specific changes in the composition of benthic communities (taphonomic feedback). Both opportunities and pathways of taphonomic feedback have changed over the Phanerozoic, however, owing to the evolution and environmental expansion of hardpart producers, utilizers, and destroyers. These changes were tracked using semi-quantitative estimates of hardpart availability based on familial diversity of the most abundant taxa, scored according to preservation potential at or near the seafloor. The data suggest a dramatic increase in hardpart availability from the Cambrian into the later Paleozoic, with a decline through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic related to the loss or dramatic reduction in calcitic epifauna, recliners on soft substrata, and large shelled nekton/plankton. The reduction in opportunities for taphonomic feedback among epifauna was accompanied by an increase in levels of infaunal interactions in the Cenozoic, which is characterized by fully three-dimensional shell gravels. In addition to evolutionary change in body sizes of hardpart producers and biotically-driven declines in certain benthic life habits, the change in pathways of taphonomic feedback was also a consequence of the large-scale shift from predominantly carbonate sedimentation in the Paleozoic to predominantly terrigenous sedimentation in the Cenozoic. For example, the waning of epifauna-dominated communities is closely associated with the restriction of level-bottom carbonate environments through the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The global evolution of sedimentary environments and their relative representation is important not only in its consequences for sampling but as a driving mechanism of evolutionary ecology of marine benthos.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  8. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  9. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  10. Potential health and environmental effects of trace elements and radionuclides from increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, R I

    1979-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of coal-derived trace and radioactive elements. A summary of our current understanding of health and environmental effects of trace and radioactive elements released during coal mining, cleaning, combustion, and ash disposal is presented. Physical and biological transport phenomena which are important in determining organism exposure are also discussed. Biological concentration and transformation as well as synergistic and antagonistic actions among trace contaminants are discussed in terms of their importance in mobility, persistence, availability, and ultimate toxicity. The consequences of implementing the President's National Energy Plan are considered in terms of the impact of the NEP in 1985 and 2000 on the potential effects of trace and radioactive elements from the coal fuel cycle. Areas of needed research are identified in specific recommendations. PMID:540619

  11. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization

  12. Utilization of the Baker soil test in synthetic soil preparation for reclamation of coal ash disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, J.P.; Baker, D.E.; Amistadi, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    Application of procedures developed for preparation of synthetic soils for reclamation of two coal ash disposal sites in Pennsylvania is presented. These procedures include determination of water holding properties, lime requirement, and the Baker Soil Test (BST) for chemical element analysis. Results from soil and plant analyses following establishment of vegetation on the sites have shown that the BST predicts plant incorporation of chemical elements from the synthetic soils. The results confirm the utility of the BST in planning and executing successful reclamation on disturbed lands in a manner which protects the soil-plant-animal food chain.

  13. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  14. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. ANALYSIS TEST DATA FOR NOX CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the analyses of a large quantity of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale, multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing coal fuel. Objectives of the study include: (1) evaluation of the effects of combustion mod...

  16. OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

  17. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

  18. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, W.S.; Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  19. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida

  20. Materials research for the clean utilization of coal. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Data Center personnel have received training in the use of the new Data Base Management System (DBMS). The Failure Information Data Base has been transferred to the new DBMS and is now operative on it. The normal activities of the Data Center have proceeded, especially with regard to production of the book of data for materials for coal gasification. This report describes the twelve station creep facility and presents data obtained on fused-cast-alumina and hot-pressed silicon carbide.

  1. Utilization of high sulfur coal in carbon fiber production. Final report, April 1993--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.J.; Guth, J.R.

    1994-12-12

    PYROGRAF-III{trademark} is a highly graphitic vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) produced by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon on metallic catalysts in the temperature range of 1000{degrees}C. This is entirely different from commercial carbon fiber, which is made by first forming a filament and then graphitizing it in a high temperature oven. For PYROGRAF-III{trademark} small amounts of sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide are added to the process to enhance the yield. This method of supplying the necessary sulfur is both expensive and hazardous since hydrogen sulfide is flammable, toxic, and corrosive. To supply the sulfur more economically and safely, high sulfur coal was proposed as a replacement for the hydrogen sulfide gas. Applied Sciences, Inc. is the sole producer of this material in pound quantities. The primary objective of research grant OCDO-922-8 was to demonstrate that Ohio`s high sulfur coal can replace the expensive, toxic hydrogen sulfide in the production of vapor grown carbon fiber as well as become a partial or complete source of carbon. The secondary objective was to analyze the exhaust for the release of harmful sulfur compounds and to project the economic potential of the use of coal.

  2. COMPARING THE UTILITY OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ANALYSIS: TWO CASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of models are available for exposure assessment; however, few are used as tools for both human and ecosystem risks. This discussion will consider two modeling frameworks that have recently been used to support human and ecological decision making. The study will compare ...

  3. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  4. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  5. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quaterly report, March 1, 1997--May 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  6. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quaterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  7. Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khesin, M.; Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D.; Girvan, R.

    1997-09-01

    Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

  8. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2003-01-01

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  9. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  10. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  11. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  12. Demonstration of Orimulsion{reg{underscore}sign} reburning on a coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Rostorfer, C.R.; Krueger, S.; Payne, R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Orimulsion Reburn Demonstration Project recently conducted at Illinois Power's Hennepin Power Station during September through November 1997. The demonstration consisted of three major activities: Modify the Hennepin Station Unit 1 boiler for Orimulsion reburn; Deliver Orimulsion fuel to the Station on the Illinois River via double-hulled barge; and Conduct the demonstration through a series of parametric and duration tests. Hennepin Station Unit 1 was selected to host the demonstration because it had been the site of a US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program involving natural gas reburn in the early 1990s. Consequently, the modifications required for the Orimulsion reburn system were relatively minor since penetrations in the boiler walls existed and overfire air and flue gas recirculation fans and ducts were still in place. The reburn fuel system was designed and installed to transfer the Orimulsion from the barge and inject it into the boiler. A double-hulled barge was used to transport about 16,500 barrels of Orimulsion to the plant on the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers and served as the storage facility during the testing. Illinois bituminous coal provided approximately 80% of the unit's heat input, with Orimulsion providing approximately 20%. The objective of the project was to demonstrate NO{sub x} reductions of up to 65% from the original baseline levels with no unexpected impacts on boiler performance or operation.

  13. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.7, Fuel utilization properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Gasification-type entrained ash and deposits were produced in a pressurized test furnace at high temperature. For the subbituminous Black Thunder coal, the effect of fuel-rich conditions was an increase in quartz, calcite, dolomite, and calcium-rich phases in the entrained ash. Lower particle temperatures, as compared to full air conventional combustion, and the oxygen-lean atmosphere may have caused a reduction in the interaction and assimilation of pure quartz and organically bound calcium into calcium aluminosilicate phases. For the Illinois No. 6 entrained fly ash fuel-rich conditions prevented the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite to iron oxide. Lower temperatures within and surrounding char particles during reducing conditions combustion may have prevented the decomposition of pyrrhotite and enhanced the reaction of iron with aluminosilicate phases. The deposits show similar trends, with the Illinois No. 6 deposit grown under pressurized conditions at a lower temperature having Na and (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K) aluminosilicates, calcium carbonate, and an iron sulfide, probably pyrrohotite, present. At higher temperature, loss of sulfur occurs with the increased formation of iron aluminosilicate phases. The Illinois No. 6 and Black Thunder coals were tested with kaolin and lime additives under highly reducing conditions to simulate a gasification environment. The deposit collection zone temperature was varied from 750{degree}C to 1OOO{degree}C. Although no clear trends were evident for the interaction of kaolin or lime with the deposits, the deposits did become more porous, with greatly reduced strength shown for both additives.

  14. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H.; Dahotre, N.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  15. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  17. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  18. Nesting ecology of a population of Gopherus agassizii at a utility-scale wind energy facility in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Bjurlin, Curtis; Arundel, Terence R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the annual nesting ecology of a population of Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inhabiting a utility-scale renewable energy (USRE) facility in southern California and compared our results with populations inhabiting relatively undisturbed sites. In 2000, 15 radio-tracked females produced 29 clutches, and 24 nests were monitored to examine nest-site selection, nest predation, hatching success, date of emergence of hatchlings, and hatchling mass and carapace length. Overall, the nesting ecology of the population inhabiting the USRE facility was very similar to other populations of Desert Tortoises inhabiting relatively undisturbed habitats. Oviposition occurred from 12 May to 8 July, which was similar to other sites. Nest depths (11.1 cm), nest predation (12%), hatchling emergence date (7 August and 29 September), and hatchling morphometrics (i.e., MCL: 44.5 mm; mass: 23 g) were all within ranges reported in other populations. Unlike within other populations, we observed no relationship between hatchling size and either maternal body size or egg width. We found no evidence of females selecting for a particular burrow for oviposition of eggs based on environmental or anthropogenic variables. Most nests were located in or near burrows, and nest depth was greater for nests near the entrance than those deeper in the burrow. Although this study suggests that the nesting ecology of the Desert Tortoise population we studied was not adversely affected by the USRE facility, this relationship is only correlative because our study was not a before-after-control-impact (BACI) study, which would establish a cause and effect relationship. As pointed out in a recent review, BACI studies are critically needed to address the wildlife impacts of utility-scale renewable energy development.

  19. Utilization and control of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections and community-based microbial cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth; Amador, Cristina Isabel; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sternberg, Claus; Jelsbak, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activities are most often shaped by interactions between co-existing microbes within mixed-species communities. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms of species interactions within communities is a central issue in microbial ecology, and our ability to engineer and control microbial communities depends, to a large extent, on our knowledge of these interactions. This review highlights the recent advances regarding molecular characterization of microbe-microbe interactions that modulate community structure, activity, and stability, and aims to illustrate how these findings have helped us reach an engineering-level understanding of microbial communities in relation to both human health and industrial biotechnology. PMID:27092245

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  1. Urea injection NO sub X removal on a 325 MW brown coal-fired electric utility boiler in West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Negrea, S.; Jones, D.G. ); Rose, G. ); Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H. )

    1990-01-01

    An advanced urea injection system for NO{sub x} control has been installed and is providing compliance with 200 mg/Nm3 (i.e., about 100 ppm) regulatory requirements on a 325 MW brown coal-fired Block C Offleben boiler operated by Braunschweigische Kohlen-Bergwerke AG (BKB), a Wester German electric utility company. The boiler is part of BKB's Offleben plant, located near Hannover on the border with East Germany. This paper concludes that proper urea injection system design (i.e., injection nozzle parameters and nozzle locations), combined with proper operation and adjustment of automatic load-following control, has provided BKB with a reliable means of compliance with NO{sub x} control regulations. Of particular importance in this application was achieving low levels of NH{sub 3} slip, which would have otherwise combined with sulfur oxides, causing deposits and/or air preheater fouling.

  2. Wear-resistant materials for coal conversion and utilization. First progress report, October 1979-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Block, F E.; Kelley, John E.; Leavenworth, Jr, Howard W.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of wear-resistant materials were concentrated mostly on hard coatings and surface treatments, such as chemical vapor deposited materials, thermal-sprayed materials with post-deposition laser treatments, and surface-bonded materials. Several coatings were found to have extremely good erosion resistance. A nickel-bonded titanium diboride material was found to have extremely high erosion resistance. An erosion data bank for existing and promising valve materials was begun. Erosion test results at six impingment angles and four particle velocities were produced. Testing of a 6-inch ball-valve ball coated with a Cr-Ni-B coating in a laboratory ball-valve testing facility reached the half-way point; 10,000 open-close cycles in coal-ash.

  3. Options and costs for CO{sub 2} reductions at coal-burning utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, E.W. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The power generation industry may be required to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions if regulations related to global climate change are enacted. Coal-fired generation, which emits 88% of the power sector CO{sub 2}, would be a likely target for CO{sub 2} reduction. Compliance with the Kyoto protocol will require a 33% reduction from the projected year 2012 emission level even with moderate load growth. This paper describes an analysis of power industry CO{sub 2} reduction options and their costs to assess how a generator would make compliance decisions under a mandatory CO{sub 2} emissions reduction program. Carbon sequestration, fuel switching and new plant construction are considered.

  4. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  5. Project Wild and the Dominant Western Paradigm: A Content Analysis Utilizing Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Blake

    Environmental educators utilize activity guides as a primary method of diffusing environmental education material into educational settings. The most popular environmental education activity guide in use today is Project WILD. Project WILD has come under fire by various groups, especially animal rights groups. Accordingly, a content analysis study…

  6. Lumber Ecology: Unit L#5 Grade 7. Project COULD: Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coos County Intermediate Education District, North Bend, OR.

    Project COULD (Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development) was developed as a means of building skills, knowledges, and attitudes on elementary children's previously acquired backgrounds. Children learn to speak the grammar and vocabulary characteristic of the language heard most frequently at home and in the immediate environment. Each…

  7. Fishing Ecology: Unit F#5 Grade 7. Project COULD: Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coos County Intermediate Education District, North Bend, OR.

    Project COULD (Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development) was developed as a means of building skills, knowledges, and attitudes on elementary children's previously acquired backgrounds. Children learn to speak the grammar and vocabulary characteristic of the language heard most frequently at home and in the immediate environment. A series…

  8. This Land is Your Land. The Problem of Land Utilization. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Carl; And Others

    This unit, written for seventh-grade school children, focuses on the variety of factors that are involved in land utilization. It specifically examines land use in St. Louis County, Missouri, and discusses such concepts as the variety of ways man has used this land, the influence surface features have on land use, the influence of socio-cultural…

  9. Assessing the utility of whole genome amplified DNA for next-generation molecular ecology.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Campbell, C Ryan; Yoder, Anne D

    2015-09-01

    DNA quantity can be a hindrance in ecological and evolutionary research programmes due to a range of factors including endangered status of target organisms, available tissue type, and the impact of field conditions on preservation methods. A potential solution to low-quantity DNA lies in whole genome amplification (WGA) techniques that can substantially increase DNA yield. To date, few studies have rigorously examined sequence bias that might result from WGA and next-generation sequencing of nonmodel taxa. To address this knowledge deficit, we use multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and double-digest RAD sequencing on the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) to quantify bias in genome coverage and SNP calls when compared to raw genomic DNA (gDNA). We focus our efforts in providing baseline estimates of potential bias by following manufacturer's recommendations for starting DNA quantities (>100 ng). Our results are strongly suggestive that MDA enrichment does not introduce systematic bias to genome characterization. SNP calling between samples when genotyping both de-novo and with a reference genome are highly congruent (>98%) when specifying a minimum threshold of 20X stack depth to call genotypes. Relative genome coverage is also similar between MDA and gDNA, and allelic dropout is not observed. SNP concordance varies based on coverage threshold, with 95% concordance reached at ~12X coverage genotyping de-novo and ~7X coverage genotyping with the reference genome. These results suggest that MDA may be a suitable solution for next-generation molecular ecological studies when DNA quantity would otherwise be a limiting factor. PMID:25619406

  10. Utilizing the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) in ecological risk assessments of bioaccumulative contaminants.

    PubMed

    Seston, Rita Marie; Zwiernik, Matthew John; Fredricks, Timothy Brian; Coefield, Sarah Jean; Tazelaar, Dustin Lee; Hamman, David Wayne; Paulson, John David; Giesy, John Paul

    2009-10-01

    Selection of an appropriate species is a key element of effective ecological risk assessments (ERA), especially when site-specific field studies are to be employed. Great blue herons (GBH) possess several ideal characteristics of a receptor species for the assessment of bioaccumulative compounds in the environment, such as ease of study, high potential for exposure, widespread distribution, and territorial foraging behavior. Methodologies for assessing exposure and population health are described herein. As outlined, the collection of GBH eggs, GBH nestling blood, and adult GBH blood allows for the determination of contaminant concentrations in various GBH tissues, a top-down assessment, which can be done in conjunction with predicted dietary exposure, a bottom-up assessment, to support a multiple lines of evidence approach. Additionally, population parameters, such as productivity and survival, can also be measured to elucidate if the contaminant exposure may be causing population level effects. Over the course of two years, three GBH rookeries were monitored for productivity and nestling exposure. Nests were monitored from blinds and individually accessed at multiple time points to obtain measures of nestling health, band nestlings, and collect eggs and nestling plasma. Multiple nests could frequently be accessed by climbing one tree, resulting in minimal effort to obtain the necessary sample size. Additionally, 51 adult GBH, captured in their foraging areas, were banded, and provided a blood sample. With these samples, a statistical difference in tissue based exposure was identified between the reference and target area. Statistically significant differences were also identified between the upper and lower reaches of the target area, thereby identifying a range of doses geographically which could be correlated to specific measurement endpoints. The ability to identify a dose response greatly increases the ability of the dataset to determine causation, a key goal