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1

Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic

S.-T. Wang; L. Genens; J. Gonczy; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; E. Kraft; D. Gacek; Y.-C. Huang; C.-J. Chen

1981-01-01

2

Fabrication experiences of the coal-fired flow facility superconducting dipole magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory has constructed a large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet will generate a peak on-axis field of 6 T in a MHD warm bore of 80 cm diam at inlet, 100 cm diam at exit, and 300 cm effective

S.-T. Wang; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; L. Genens; E. Johanson; J. Nixon; D. Gacek; E. Kraft; J. Kotora; W. Sajdak; J. Morrison; T. Takagi

1981-01-01

3

Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic

S. T. Wang; L. Genens; J. Gonczy; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; E. Kraft; D. Gacek; Y. C. Huang; C. J. Chen

1980-01-01

4

Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail.

Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

1980-01-01

5

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01

6

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

7

The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

1993-10-01

8

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF), formerly the Research and Development Laboratory, are reported. CFFF Bid Package construction is now virtually complete. The remaining construction effort is being conducted by UTSI. On the quench system, another Task 1 effort, the cyclone was erected on schedule. On Tasks 2 through 6, vitiation heater and nozzle fabrication were completed, an investigation of a fish kill (in no way attributable to CFFF operations) in Woods Reservoir was conducted, major preparation for ambient air quality monitoring was made, a broadband data acquisition system for enabling broadband data to be correlated with all general performance data was selected, a Coriolis effect coal flow meter was installed at the CFFF. On Task 7, an analytical model of the coal flow combustor configuration was prepared, MHD generator testing which, in part, involved continued materials evaluation and the heat transfer characteristics of capped and uncapped electrodes was conducted, agglomerator utilization was studied, and development of a laser velocimeter system was nearly completed.

Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Baucum, W. E.

1980-07-31

9

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly/annual technical progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

In this Fourth Quarterly/Annual Report submitted under DOE contracts EX-76-C-01-1760 and DE-AC02-79ET10815, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, and development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Work on the CFFF progressed with only minor problems. Total construction activity for all site work presently awarded is nearly 98% complete. Water analysis shows that Woods Reservoir baseline conditions are within EPA or Tennessee drinking water standards. For the primary combustor, the vitiation heater and primary combustor fabrication drawings were completed and the nozzle design was completed. The drum module for the radiant slagging furnace was awarded. On the MHD Power Generator, development continued in several areas of advanced analysis including development of time-dependent models for use with the one-dimensional code. For seed regeneration, the tentative determination is that the Tomlinson Tampella is the most economically viable method. With regard to capped electrode erosion, investigations have shown that the major degradation of the cladding still present is at the leading edge of the capped anode. To alleviate this, plans are to hot work the noble metal in the bending operation. In resolving another problem, a system employing the modified line-reversal method has been assembled and successfully tested to measure absolute plasma temperatures.

Dicks, J. B.; Chapman, J. N.; Crawford, L. W.

1980-02-01

10

MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

Cooper, J.

1980-12-01

11

Final design of a superconducting MHD magnet for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnet system (SCMS) consists of a superconducting magnet, magnet cryostat, a helium refrigerator/liquefier facility, a helium gas-handling system, apparatus for cryogenic transfer and storage, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation and control system including a computer for magnet operation, data acquisition, system status and diagnosis, and magnet protection. The complete system will be tested at Argonne and installed at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in 1981. The coil configurations, conductor design, coil structure, cryostatibility, electromagnetic forces and pressure, structural support and stress analysis, and power supply and magnet protection are described. (WHK)

Wang, S.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Turner, L.R.; Genens, L.

1980-01-01

12

Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

White, M.

1996-01-01

13

Design and construction of a large superconducting MHD magnet for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a large superconducting MHD dipole magnet system for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). The complete system will be tested at Argonne and installed at the UTSI during the early part of 1981. The magnet system has a peak on-axis field of 6.0 T and a warm aperture of 80 cm at the MHD channel inlet, 100 cm diameter at the end of effective field and an effective field length of 3.0 m. The MHD warm bore and magnet cryostat are shown, and significant magnet parameters are given.

Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.

1980-01-01

14

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing has occurred or is scheduled, and the planned effort for this period was to maintain the DOE CFFF facility in a standby status and to complete test reports.

Not Available

1994-06-01

15

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The experimental program was effectively terminated and reoriented to preparation of reports on previous tests and maintaining the DOE facility. In this report, the results of tube corrosion studies for the samples removed after 500 hours of western coal testing are summarized. Plans for evaluating the tube samples after termination of the tests at 1,047 hours are discussed. The status of development of models to predict ash deposition on conductive heat transfer tubes and their validation with experimental data is presented. Modeling and experiments to induce agglomeration of particulate are also discussed. Significant accomplishments, findings and conclusions include: In summary, corrosion measurements on typical, commercial stainless steels and on low and intermediate chromium steels after 639 hours of LMF5 exposure in the SHTM test sections revealed corrosion that was generally acceptable in magnitude if corrosion kinetics are parabolic, but, except for the higher chromium alloys 253MA and 310, not if kinetics are linear. The production of bilayer scales, and the large amount of scale separation and fragmentation make long term parabolic kinetics unlikely, and result in a high likelihood for breakaway corrosion.

Not Available

1994-06-01

16

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility for the period April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multitask contract to develop the necessary technology for the steam bottoming plant of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. A Proof-Of-Concept (POC) test was conducted during the quarter and the results are reported. This POC test was terminated after 88 hours of operation due to the failure of the coal pulverizer main shaft. Preparations for the test and post-test activities are summarized. Modifications made to the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are described and measurements of its performance are reported. The baghouse performance is summarized, together with actions being taken to improve bag cleaning using reverse air. Data on the wet ESP performance is included at two operating conditions, including verification that it met State of Tennessee permit conditions for opacity with all the flow through it. The results of experiments to determine the effect of potassium seed on NO{sub x} emissions and secondary combustion are reported. The status of efforts to quantify the detailed mass balance for all POC testing is summarized. The work to develop a predictive ash deposition model is discussed and results compared with deposition actually encountered during the test. Plans to measure the kinetics of potassium and sulfur on flames like the secondary combustor, are included. Advanced diagnostic work by both UTSI and MSU is reported. Efforts to develop the technology for a high temperature air heater using ceramic tubes are summarized.

Not Available

1993-10-01

17

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

18

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

19

Measurements of priority pollutants in combustion products derived from the Dept. of Energy's (DOE) coal-fired flow facility magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetohydrodynamics is a branch of the physical sciences dealing with the electromagnetic fields and electrically conduction gases and liquids. Examples of MHD are everywhere, from stars and nuclear fusion to applications like MHD electrical power generation, i.e. when electrical conductors cut magnetic field lines, an electromotive force (EMF) is induced. If electrodes and external circuits are connected, current will flow.

K. D. Parks; A. C. Sheth

1988-01-01

20

Toxic mass flows in a modern coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

In Finland a large project is going on in which the main objectives are to control all the mass flows in power plants equipped with desulfurization or DENOx plants in respect to harmful emissions components. Another important goal is to develop a uniform sampling and analysis system to be used as a tool in the environmental impact assessment. The project is carried out in cooperation with Technical Research Centre of Finland, IVO international and Helsinki Energy Board. The first case in the project has been a coal-fired power plant in Helsinki equipped Semi-dry desulfurization plant in which a large measurement campaign was carried out in March, 1993. Mass balances of 12 elements were determined. The reproducibility of the determinations was good for all the mass balance elements. A satisfactory closure was obtained for almost all of the components. In the case of Pb and Be the total amount in the outcoming flows seemed to exceed the amount in the incoming flows, while in the case of Hg the amount in the outcoming flows were lower than in the incoming flows. Sample digestion and analysis methods were developed by means of comparison tests using commercial reference samples and real samples. The next case will be the newest coal-fired power plant in Finland equipped with wet desulfurization and DENOx plant. A modern peat-fired power plant with a fluidized-bed boiler will also be studied.

Larjava, K.; Laitinen, T.; Tolvanen, M.; Aunela, L.; Hahkala, M. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

1994-12-31

21

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31

22

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 53%. The average Hg concentration in the stack flue gas was 4.09 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The average stack mercury emission was 3.47 Ib/TBtu. The mercury material balance closures ranged from 87% to 108%, with an average of 97%. A sampling program similar to this one was performed on a similar unit (at the same plant) that was equipped with an SCR for NOx control. Comparison of the results from the two units show that the SCR increases the percentage of mercury that is in the oxidized form, which, in turn, lends to more of the total mercury being removed in the wet scrubber. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal.

J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

2005-11-01

23

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31

24

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01

25

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-01-01

26

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

27

Characterization of flow disturbances in a coal fired combustion flow train  

SciTech Connect

Audible rumbles are known to accompany operation of the CFFF low mass flow train and visual/aural observations indicate simultaneous dropouts in the diffuser light emission. Three hypotheses, coal flow disturbances, combustion instabilities, and slag entrainment into the flow, are presented as possible causes of the rumbles. Wideband instrumentation including line reversals, luminosities, and dynamic pressures were used to investigate the rumble phenomena. The observational evidence implies that briefly before the rumble sound, the vitation heater pressure rises and a cold opaque structure moves from upstream to downstream through the aerodynamic duct, diffuser, and radiant furnace. Steady state thermodynamic analysis of the flow train at conditions corresponding to measured rumble phenomena are presented. It is concluded that a dispersed structure of slag particles entrained from the combustor is the most viable hypothesis. 8 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Winkleman, B.C.; Giel, T.V.; Lineberry, J.T.; Yang, D.J.

1990-01-01

28

Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

1981-01-01

29

Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

1981-10-01

30

Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1994-05-01

31

Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

2009-04-01

32

Coal fired air turbine cogeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

Foster-Pegg, R. W.

33

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

NONE

1994-06-01

34

Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort is detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

1980-09-01

35

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

36

Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for carbon dioxide injection, there is still a large storage capacity in the basin to the west of the power plants. It will, however, require pipeline construction to transport the carbon dioxide to the injection sites.

Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

2012-08-31

37

Coal-fired steam locomotive  

SciTech Connect

A coal-fired steam locomotive powered by reciprocating steam engines. The locomotive is a two-unit drawbar-coupled locomotive. The units, which are designated as a power unit and a support unit, are arranged back-to-back, with each having a cab-in-front. Operation of the locomotive is equally effective in both directions. The power unit basically contains a furnace and combustion system, an ash storage system, a gas cleanup and exhaust system, a boiler and steam generator, steam engines, a jet condenser, and a control cab. The support unit, on two 6-wheel trucks, contains a modular coal storage area, a stoker motor, a water storage area, heat transfer assemblies and fans for air-cooling circulating.

Porta, L. D.; Berkowitz, D. A.; Hamilton, C. C.; Withuhn, W. L.

1984-01-17

38

Mercury speciation measurements on a 10 MW{sub e} coal-fired boiler simulator  

SciTech Connect

The current trends towards deregulation of electric utilities, air toxic regulations and stringent fine particulate emissions reflect an increased need for coal-based research. In response, Babcock and Wilcox invested in the state-of-the-art 100 million Btu/hr (10 MW, equivalent) Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located in Alliance, Ohio. The representative combustion conditions, flow patterns and residence times permit direct scale-up of CEDF test results to commercial boilers and pollution control devices. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Office of Development, B&W is employing the CEDF to conduct a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. The project specifically targets the control of mercury, the trace element under close scrutiny by the EPA. Due to the various forms of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, accurate mercury speciation measurements are required to develop mercury control strategies. Current uncertainty in the accuracy and mercury speciation capability of mercury sampling methods led B&W to use both EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro procedures to measure mercury emissions from CEDF pollution control devices. A comparison of the speciated mercury emissions is presented.

Evans, A.P.; Nevitt, K.D.

1997-06-01

39

Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2007-07-01

40

Multisensor data fusion for the detection of underground coal fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous combustion of coal causes widespread underground coal fires in several countries, amongst which is China. These coal fires cause serious environmental, economic and safety problems. In northern China, the coal fires occur within a wide region stretching 5000 km east-west and 750 km north-south. Remote sensing therefore provides an ideal tool for monitoring this environmental hazard over such

X. M. Zhang; C. J. S. Cassells; J. L. van Genderen

1998-01-01

41

Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

42

Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for existing boilers. The use of calcium bromide injection as an alternative to activated carbon approaches could save millions of dollars. The technology application described herein has the potential to reduce compliance cost by $200M for a 700 MW facility burning PRB coal.

Berry, Mark Simpson

43

Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration  

E-print Network

COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed... combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However...

Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

44

Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options  

E-print Network

Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options Xi Liang, Jia Li, Jon Gibbons and David Reiner December 2007 EPRG 0728 & CWPE 0761 #12;FINANCING CAPTURE READY COAL supercritical pulverized coal power plant in China, using a cash flow model with Monte-Carlo simulations

Aickelin, Uwe

45

FIELD STUDY TO OBTAIN TRACE ELEMENT MASS BALANCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to identify mass flow rates of minor and trace elements from streams of a coal-fired utility boiler (Colbert Steam Plant Unit No. 1). This information was used to obtain a mass balance for 25 elements. The mass balances used inlet and outlet fl...

46

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

1995-01-01

47

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04

48

Turbine-generator. [For American Electric Power's 1300MW coal-fired series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-compound turbine for the AEP coal-fired units has a guaranteed output of 1300 MW at a steam flow of more than 9,000,000 lb\\/h. Both shafts run at 3600 r\\/min. The nominal condenser pressure is 2 in. Hg. The turbine powering the boiler feed pump is a double-flow, throttle-controlled condensing machine with an individual condenser, rated 50 MW. The throttle

Hossli

1975-01-01

49

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2004-12-01

50

Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers  

E-print Network

Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

Swanson, K.

1981-01-01

51

Public attitudes to coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though coal remains the world's most abundant, safe and secure form of energy, the public's perception of coal-fired power plant is not always favourable. Much of the environmental concerns regarding coal-fired plant focus on emissions such as SO2 and NOx emissions, mercury emissions, particulates and ash disposal. However, the greatest concerns are those relating to CO2 emissions leading to the

Rohan Fernando

52

Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology  

E-print Network

EXXON CHEMICAL'S COAL-FIRED COMBINED CYCLE POWER TECHNOLOGY John J. Guide, P.E. Exxon Chemical Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT Exxon Chemical's Central Engineering Divi sion has recently developed and patented CAT...-PAC for Industrial Cogeneration and Utility Power Plants. It involves the marriage of a conven tional direct pulverized coal-fired boiler radiant section with a convection section adapted ~rom our furnace experience. In particular, it 1S an open-cycle, hot air...

Guide, J. J.

53

Air toxics removal from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels contain trace amounts of heavy metals, which are the sources of air toxics when they are burned. If the combustion flue gas is not properly treated, the release of large amounts of these heavy metals can severely pollute the environment as experienced in some developing countries. Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are widely used to reduce the emissions of particulate matters (PMs) from flue gases at stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants. Properly designed and operated ESPs can remove more than ninety-nine percent of the incoming PMs. Wet scrubbers installed at the power plants were originally designed to reduce the emissions of sulfur dioxide. However, scrubbers are also known to be very effective to further reduce the emissions of PMs. Some of the heavy metals removed in the scrubbers are usually present in the form of dissolved cations in the scrubbing liquors. Uncontrolled release of such liquors may pollute the surface water. A simple and economical method to remove dissolved heavy metals from spent scrubbing liquors has been developed. Bench scale tests using simulated scrubber liquors were conducted. The liquors were doped with various amounts of lead, mercury, copper, iron, and zinc ions. The test data showed that majorities of these cations were removed by this technique. Implications of this technique at full scale facilities will be discussed.

Tseng, S.; Berisko, D.; Babu, M. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

54

Coal-fired tile stoves -- Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection. Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected--60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Szewczyk, W. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland); Zaczkowski, A. [Biuro Rozwoju, Krakow (Poland); Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-08-01

55

Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

1995-08-01

56

A superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, and the cryogenics system design.

S.-T. Wang; R. Niemann; L. Turner; L. Genens; W. Pelczarski; J. Gonczy; J. Hoffmann; Y.-C. Huang; N. Modjeski; E. Kraft

1979-01-01

57

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar and Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation

58

Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants  

SciTech Connect

Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

White, M. K.

1980-06-01

59

Combustion Measurements in a Pulverised Coal-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion measurements are being performed in a laboratory cylindrical pulverised coal fired furnace as part of a continuing research programme, The data are primarily intended to assist the validation of mathematical models ultimately intended for the prediction of full scale plant. In this paper gas-species concentration and temperature data are presented and discussed for a bituminous coal fuel fired at

S. Godoy; K. A. Hirji; F. C. Lockwood

1988-01-01

60

Remediation of ash problems in pulverised coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the control methods for mitigating fouling and slagging in brown coal-fired power utilities. Two control methods were investigated, i.e. wet pretreatment of coal and the use of mineral additives. By the first technique, samples of brown coal were treated with aluminium solutions to adjust the levels of Na, Al and Cl. The effect of cleaning was tested

H. B. Vuthaluru

1999-01-01

61

Controlling the Furnace Process in Coal-Fired Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an outline of methods using which the furnace process in coal-fired boilers can be controlled to expand the range of loads, reduce the extent to which the furnace is contaminated with slag and the amount of harmful substances is emitted, and when a change is made to another kind of fuel.

Shatil', A. A.; Klepikov, N. S.; Smyshlyaev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.

2008-01-01

62

MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

63

EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

64

Energy ecological efficiency of coal fired plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a kind of primary energy, the main utilization of coal is combustion. Coal combustion is the greatest atmospheric pollution source in China. In this paper, the authors analyze the evolution of the coal fired power plant\\/thermal power plant (CFP\\/TPP, denoted by CFP) in China from the past, when there were no measures taken against pollution, to the present, when

Boshu He; Changhe Chen

2002-01-01

65

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used

M. K. Drost; S. Somasundaram; D. R. Brown; Z. I. Antoniak

1990-01-01

66

Erosion and corrosion in advanced coal fired FBC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, advanced coal-fired power generation systems are being introduced that offer significant economic and environmental advantages over pulverised fuel (pf) firing. Many of these systems are combined cycles based on fluidised bed combustion and\\/or gasifica- tion. In such combined cycles, materials selection and performance are key factors in determin- ing plant availability. Consequently material evaluation studies for the various components

A. J. Minchener; J. E. Oakey

1993-01-01

67

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

NONE

1998-10-01

68

Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation strongly depends on permeability variations. For the assumed model, no fire exists for permeabilities k < 10-10m2, whereas the fire propagation velocity ranges between 340ma-1 for k = 10-8m2, and drops to lower than 3ma-1 for k = 5 × 10-10m2. Additionally, strong temperature variations are observed for the permeability range 5 × 10-10m2 < k < 10-8m2.

Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

2008-01-01

69

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

2013-09-30

70

Power conditioning and control requirements of coal fired MHD generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational characteristics of coal fired open-cycle linear MHD generators are presented. The salient features of loading and control requirements of Faraday and diagonal generators are analyzed and circuits that meet these requirements are presented. Consolidation and current control circuits are discussed elaborating on the design considerations for operating them with MHD generators. Such circuits are shown to have relatively low losses reflecting in higher than 98-99% efficiencies.

Demirjian, A. M.; Quijano, I. M.

1981-01-01

71

Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and

J. H. Marten; G. M. Lloyd

1990-01-01

72

Monitoring of underground coal fires using thermal infrared data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential utility of thermal infrared and short wavelength infrared data for detecting and mapping sub-surface high temperature sources is analysed. In this study, NOAA-9 AVHRR data and Landsat-5 TM data were used to detect and map sub-surface coal fires. Brightness temperature depicted by AVHRR band 3 illustrated high thermal anomalies in the suspected area. Due to the relatively low

S. B. MANSOR; A. P. CRACKNELL; B. V. SHILIN; V. I. GORNYI

1994-01-01

73

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

Not Available

2004-06-01

74

Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase IIIB. First quarterly technical progress report, 13 January-30 April 1982  

SciTech Connect

The first quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase IIIB) presents the accomplishments during the period 13 January to 30 April, 1982. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report relates to those tasks associated with preparing the TRW 20 MW/sub t/ MHD coal combustor for delivery to AERL for integrated power tests and the work associated with the preliminary design of a 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired combustor. Progress during this reporting period is described. All new 20 MW/sub t/ hardware was designed and fabricated. Interface coordination meetings were conducted with AERL and DOE. Interface control drawings were completed and a 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustion User's manual was delivered to AERL. The User's manual contained a shipping plan, a crew training plan, an assembly manual, interface documentation and recommended operating procedures. Facility/combustor set-up was completed and the pre-delivery 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustor qualification test series was completed. The 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired MHD combustor preliminary designs were finalized and the DOE preliminary design review (PDR) was successfully completed.

none,

1982-05-20

75

Corrosion in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluate the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

Vausher, A.L.

1982-01-01

76

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

NONE

1995-08-31

77

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

2005-09-21

78

Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

1983-01-01

79

Evaluation of a candidate material for a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) high temperature recuperative air heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve the desired efficiency in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cycle, one of two procedures must be employed. The first is to inject pure oxygen during combustion in order to achieve higher combustion temperatures which will yield better conversion efficiencies. The other is to preheat the combustor air through the use of high temperature air heaters (HTAH). A recuperative air heater heats the combustor air directly by passing it through tubes which are in the exhaust gas flow before sending it into the combustor. The procedure of passing air through the furnace requires a material for the tubes which will withstand the high temperatures and corrosive environment of the furnace and should have a high heat transfer coefficient. All of the necessary properties seem to exist in ceramic materials, so ceramics have begun to be studied for high temperature air heaters as well as other high temperature applications. One such effort to evaluate the performance of a ceramic composite tube in a coal fired MHD facility in order to determine any changes in the tube material after exposure to high temperature and a highly corrosive environment is outlined. A recuperative high temperature air heater (HTAH) would be positioned in the radiant furnace, because the radiant furnace provides conditions comparable to an actual MHD facility and is adequate for testing HTAH materials. The temperature conditions in the furnace range from approximately 1600 C to 1890 C, and velocities of approximately 12 m/s to 100 m/s were measured depending on the location in the furnace. The evaluated tube was placed in the furnace in a reducing environment with approximately 14 m/s velocity, 1650 C gas temperature, and 1230 C tube temperature.

Winkler, J.; Dahotre, N. B.; Boss, W.

80

Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because mercury enters the food chain primarily through atmospheric deposition, exposure models require accurate information about mercury emission rates and mercury speciation from point sources. Since coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction of the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, the speciation of mercury in coal-fired power plant flue gas is currently an active topic of research. We

Constance L Senior; Adel F Sarofim; Taofang Zeng; Joseph J Helble; Ruben Mamani-Paco

2000-01-01

81

Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury?  

E-print Network

Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury? Dana K. Sackett · D. Derek+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Much of the mercury contamination in aquatic biota originates from coal of contaminated fish. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of proximity to coal-fired power plants

82

Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1  

E-print Network

Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1 Salomon B. Kroonenberg2 and Cor, the Netherlands Introduction Coal fires are one of the most serious problems for the Chinese coal indus- try. The estimated annual loss of coal by fires in China ranges from about 10­20 million tonnes (Guan et al., 1998

Utrecht, Universiteit

83

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid technologies for reduction of NOâ emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NOâ control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNOâ is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NOâ emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first

J. Newhall; G. England; W. R. Seeker

1992-01-01

84

EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

85

FORMATION AND CONTROL OF NO EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED SPREADER-STOKER BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attenti...

86

DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING  

E-print Network

DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING APPROACH ANDREW KUSIAK to analyze events leading to plug- gage of a boiler. The proposed approach involves statistics, data. The proposed approach has been tested on a 750 MW commercial coal-fired boiler affected with an ash fouling

Kusiak, Andrew

87

Efficiency and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants  

E-print Network

Efficiency and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants Hei WITHOUT PERMISSION Abstract We investigate the impacts of electricity market restructuring on fuel efficiency, cost of coal purchases, and utilization among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from

88

Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate control technologies in coal-fired power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models were derived which to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate control systems for coal fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold side electrostatic precipitators; (2) hot side electrostatic precipitators; (3) reverse flow baghouse; (4) shake baghouses; and (5) wet scrubbers. A stream generator performance model was developed, and the output from this model was used as input for the control device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters were used as inputs to the cost models.

Ramanathan, V.; Reigel, S.; Gorman, P.; Farber, P. S.; Tisue, M.; Bennett, F. C.

1980-04-01

89

NASA Dryden flow visualization facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

Delfrate, John H.

1995-01-01

90

Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. PMID:15242154

Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

2004-06-01

91

Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant  

E-print Network

Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant I coal-fired power plant. Aknowledgements: French environment agency ADEME (Contract number 04-74-C0018 that was carried out in March 2006 at a 600-MWe coal-fired power plant. 51 ineris-00973267,version1-4Apr2014 Author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-print Network

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples

Elliott, Emily M.

93

Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

2012-09-30

94

The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

1983-01-01

95

Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-04-30

96

Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash. PMID:21090555

Konidaris, Dimitrios N

2010-10-01

97

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01

98

Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

2005-01-01

99

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1994--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on completing the modifications to the test facility and completing a Test Plan for the long duration testing. The system modifications included the installation and shakedown testing of the new coal storage and feeding system, modifications to the existing batch handling system, and integration of a single wheel mineral wool fiberizer. All of the modifications required to conduct 100 hrs of continuous testing have now been completed. The test program will consist of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS will be fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas will be used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock will consist of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and any glass forming agents required to produce a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contains between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input will come from the fly ash.

Not Available

1994-07-30

100

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

101

Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers. The survey consisted of a comprehensive questionnaire suitable to statistical interpretation and computer analysis.

J. Reynolds; S. Kreidenweis; L. Theodore

1982-01-01

102

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-print Network

The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability....

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01

103

Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants : a real potions analysis  

E-print Network

Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal ...

Sekar, Ram Chandra

2005-01-01

104

Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

2011-01-01

105

SO2 impacts on forage and soil sulfur concentrations near coal-fired power plants  

E-print Network

The goal of this research was to determine if S02 emissions from coal-fired power plants could be contributing to the copper deficiency in cattle. Copper deficiency in cattle can result from excessive sulfur intake which is attributed...

Beene, Jack Stephen

2012-06-07

106

Coal fire mapping from satellite thermal IR data - A case example in Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fire has been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining processes. Coal fire burns valuable coal reserve and prevents access to proven reserve in the affected area. Moreover, it leads to severe environmental degradation of the region by an overall increase of the ambient atmospheric temperature, by the emission of obnoxious gases (e.g., SO 2, NO, CO, CH 4) along fissures and cracks and by causing land subsidence and collapse. Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India, is known for being the exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for hosting the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in the country. In this paper, some of the important issues of coal fire mapping from satellite thermal IR data have been addressed in particular reference to Jharia Coalfield. Namely, these are: retrieval of true spectral radiance from raw digital data using scene-specific calibration coefficients of the detectors, thermal emissivity of surface materials to obtain kinetic temperature at each ground resolution cell of satellite data, field-based modelling of pixel-integrated temperature for differentiating surface and subsurface fire pixels in Landsat TM thermal IR data, identification of surface coal fire locations from reflected IR data and lateral propagation of coal fire.

Chatterjee, R. S.

107

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA  

EPA Science Inventory

China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

108

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

109

Epidemiological monitoring in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.  

PubMed

An epidemiological monitoring program has been designed and put into operation in response to a health monitoring requirement of a permit to build a coal-fired power plant. It will consist of four 350 megawatt units and is being built on the Mediterranean coast about halfway between Tel-Aviv and Haifa; the first unit became operational in 1981. The resident population within a 10 km. radius consists of about 69,000 persons. The permit to build this power plant required the installation of a comprehensive monitoring network including environmental, health and agricultural monitoring. Four types of studies are included in the epidemiological monitoring program: mortality analyses, monitoring of requests for health services, studies of pulmonary symptoms and lung function in school children, and panel studies of children and adults with chronic pulmonary conditions. Areas of maximal expected exposure risk and two other comparable areas of lesser risk were chosen, based on expected emissions, meterological and topographical considerations; baseline data were gathered for a year prior to the operation of the first unit of the power plant. Subsequent data are planned to be collected for another 10 years. The program permits detection of short-term effects based on increases in health service requests, medium-term effects by repeat examination of panelists, and long-term effects based on pulmonary conditions among school children. The initial survey, before plant operations showed, among other things, lower flow rates for children in the area expected to have medium levels of exposure. PMID:6710124

Toeplitz, R; Goren, A; Goldsmith, J R; Donagi, A

1984-01-27

110

Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250{sup o}C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400{sup o}C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

Yan Liu; David J.A. Kelly; Hongqun Yang; Christopher C.H. Lin; Steve M. Kuznicki; Zhenghe Xu [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-08-15

111

Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

Khesin, M. [MK Engineering, N. Andover, MA (United States); Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D. [NYSEG, Barker, NY (United States); Girvan, R. [Forney Corp., Carrollton, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

112

Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant.  

PubMed

A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250 degrees C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400 degrees C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. PMID:18767688

Liu, Yan; Kelly, David J A; Yang, Hongqun; Lin, Christopher C H; Kuznicki, Steve M; Xu, Zhenghe

2008-08-15

113

Comment on "Effect of coal-fired power generation on visibility in a nearby National Park (Terhorst and Berkman, 2010)"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few electricity generating stations received more environmental scrutiny during the last quarter of the twentieth century than did the Mohave Power Project (MPP), a coal-fired facility near Grand Canyon National Park. Terhorst and Berkman (2010) examine regional aerosol monitoring data collected before and after the plant's 2006 retirement for retrospective evidence of MPP's impact on visibility in the Park. The authors' technical analysis is thoughtfully conceived and executed, but is misleadingly presented as discrediting previous studies and their interpretation by regulators. In reality the Terhorst-Berkman analysis validates a consensus on MPP's visibility impact that was established years before its closure, in a collaborative assessment undertaken jointly by Federal regulators and MPP's owners.

White, W. H.; Farber, R. J.; Malm, W. C.; Nuttall, M.; Pitchford, M. L.; Schichtel, B. A.

2012-08-01

114

Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, S.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-09-15

115

Emissions of mercury and other trace elements from coal-fired power plants in Japan.  

PubMed

To evaluate trace element emissions from modern coal-fired power plants into the atmospheric environment in Japan, trace elements in the coal used in electric utility boilers, stack concentrations, emission rates and emission ratios of coal-fired power plants, and proportions of trace elements in coal-fired power plants were studied. The elements were As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and V, which are designated in the Law of Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. The particulate trace elements were collected in an electrostatic precipitator and a wet desulfurization scrubber. Emissions into the atmosphere were lower than 1% of the quantity in coal, but the volatile trace elements showed somewhat higher emission ratios. For mercury, the mean concentration in coal was 0.045 ppm, the mean emission rate was 4.4 microg/kW h, and the mean emission ratio was 27%, the highest ratio among all elements in this study. The total annual emission of mercury from coal-fired power plants of the electric power industry in Japan was estimated to be 0.63 t/y. On the basis of these data, the atmospheric environment loads from a coal-fired power station were investigated. The calculation of stack gas dispersion showed that maximum annual mean ground level concentrations were in the order of 10(-2) to 10(-5) of the background concentrations, and that the adverse effect of the emissions from the coal-fired power station was small. PMID:16225907

Ito, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takahisa; Asakura, Kazuo

2006-09-01

116

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant  

E-print Network

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

Keinan, Alon

117

POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH IN EMISSIONS PLUMES.  

E-print Network

??Nucleation and growth of particles in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle concentrations near source regions. Pollution-control technologies have been added to coal-fired… (more)

Lonsdale, Chantelle

2012-01-01

118

Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future James McNerney,a,b  

E-print Network

Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future James Mc, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA Abstract We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy

119

Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant  

E-print Network

Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal 2009 Keywords: Corbicula fluminea Coal-fired power plant Selenium Mercury Glutathione Condition index Bioaccumulation a b s t r a c t Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have

Hopkins, William A.

120

Uncontrolled coal fires and their environmental impacts: Investigating two arid mining regions in north-central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled coal fires occur worldwide and pose a great threat to the environment. This paper introduces the problem of coal fires referring to two coalfields in north-central China. These areas were regularly investigated during numerous fieldwork campaigns between 2002 and 2005. Emphasis is put on the environmental impacts of the fires, such as atmospheric influences, land subsidence, landscape degradation, as

Claudia Kuenzer; Jianzhong Zhang; Anke Tetzlaff; Paul van Dijk; Stefan Voigt; Harald Mehl; Wolfgang Wagner

2007-01-01

121

Enhancement of natural radionuclides in the surroundings of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain.  

PubMed

The production of electricity in coal-fired power plants (CFPP) is considered a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) activity because the coals they burn can present relatively high contents of the naturally occurring radionuclides. In this study, the main radiological impact pathways into the surrounding environments of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain were analyzed. These pathways are, first, atmospheric evacuations and wind resuspension and, second, effluent evacuations to nearby rivers or directly to the sea. The atmospheric releases of radionuclides were evaluated by the analyses of soil profiles in the vicinities of the CFPPs. No significant enhancement of radionuclides in the surface soil was observed at the points of maximum deposition of combustion gases, located from 4.3 to 13 km away depending on the considered CFPP. However, an increase of (40)K, (226)Ra, and (232)Th in the surface soils was observed in the first kilometre from the chimney for two CFPPs. This suggested that these radionuclides were released in particulate form. There was also a net influence of the climate in which the CFPPs were located. This was observed in the two CFPPs that were in dry environments, while no increase was observed in the other two, located in more humid environments. The liquid effluents released usually presented an enhancement of dissolved chemical species regarding the initial intake water. Enrichments of the (234,238)U and (226)Ra contents in the water used in the plants' routine procedures were observed, and of (210)Po in the wastewater of just one of the plants. In any case, this enhancement was below the parametric value for the Total Indicative Dose for the hypothetical human consumption of the released waters. As a consequence of these releases of radionuclides, local products destined for human consumption produced in the vicinity of the facilities might incorporate natural radionuclides by these pathways, finding no significant enhancement of the natural radionuclide contents due to the CFPPs. PMID:22330984

Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Guillén, J; Salas, A; Mora, J C; Robles, B; Cancio, D

2012-03-01

122

Unit-based emission inventory and uncertainty assessment of coal-fired power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired power plants in China was developed which contains unit capacity, coal consumption, emission control technology and geographical location. Estimated total emissions of SO2, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and PM2.5 in 2011 were 7251 kt, 8067 kt, 1433 kt and 622 kt, respectively. Units larger than 300 MW consumed 75% coal, while emitting 46% SO2, 58% NOx, 55% PM and 63.2% PM2.5. Emission comparisons between key regions such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Shandong Province showed a general downward trend from 2005 to 2011, mainly because of the growing application ratio of desulphurisation, LNBs, denitration and dust-removal facilities. The uncertainties at unit level of SO2, NOx, PM and PM2.5 were estimated to be -10.1% ? +5.4%, -2.1% ? +4.6%, -5.7% ? +6.9% and -4.3% ? +6.5%, respectively. Meanwhile sector-based Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for better understanding of the uncertainties. Unit-based simulation yielded narrowed estimates of uncertainties, possibly caused by the neglected diversity of emission characteristics in sector-based simulation. The large number of plants narrowed unit-based uncertainties as large uncertainties were found in provinces with a small number of power plants, such as Qinghai. However, sector-based uncertainty analysis well depends on detailed source classification, because small NOx uncertainties were found in Shandong due to the detailed classification of NOx emission factors. The main uncertainty sources are discussed in the sensitivity analysis, which identifies specific needs in data investigation and field measures to improve them. Though unit-based Monte Carlo greatly narrowed uncertainties, the possibility of underestimated uncertainties at unit level cannot be ignored as the correlation of emission factors between units in the same source category was neglected.

Chen, Linghong; Sun, Yangyang; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

2014-12-01

123

Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

None

2005-09-01

124

Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

2011-04-01

125

Oxy-fuel combustion technology for coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in the development of new technologies with lower emissions and technologies that can accommodate capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide. For existing coal-fired combustion plants there are two main options for CO2 capture: removal of nitrogen from flue gases or removal of nitrogen from air before combustion to obtain

B. J. P. Buhre; L. K. Elliott; C. D. Sheng; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall

2005-01-01

126

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-print Network

. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals...

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2009-05-15

127

Status review of mercury control options for coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of research related to mercury control technology for coal-fired power plants and identifies areas requiring additional research and development. It critically reviews measured mercury emissions; the chemistry of mercury transformation and control; progress in the development of promising control technologies: sorbent injection, control in wet scrubbers, and coal cleaning; and projects costs for mercury control.

John H Pavlish; Everett A Sondreal; Michael D Mann; Edwin S Olson; Kevin C Galbreath; Dennis L Laudal; Steven A Benson

2003-01-01

128

APPLICABILITY OF THE THERMAL DENOX PROCESS TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a projection of the performance and cost of the Exxon Thermal DeNOx Process applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Eight units were selected, representing different boiler manufacturers, sizes, firing methods, and coal types. Thermal DeNOx performance was project...

129

ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

130

Radial growth of oak and aspen near a coal-fired station, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen stands of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were sampled and analyzed using dendrochronological methods to study the potential effects on tree growth of emissions from a 132 MW coal-fired generating station. Sixteen stands were sampled within a 16-km radius of the station, and two control stands were sampled outside of the range of

Rachel Boone; Jacques Tardif; Richard Westwood

2004-01-01

131

Method of operating a rotary calciner retrofitted to coal-firing  

SciTech Connect

Method of operating a rotary calciner retrofitted from oil- or natural gas-firing to coal-firing, in which coal is burned in a coal furnace and the coal combustion gases are then heated further in a booster burner utilizing oil or natural gas, to raise the combustion gas temperature to permit processing of calcine at up to a design capacity rate.

Pfeffer, H.A.; Fradkin, J.N.

1984-07-31

132

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual

1999-01-01

133

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

134

PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

135

Fe/Mg Ratio: A signature for local coal-fired power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern and midwestern U.S. coals have high Fe and low Mg concentrations relative to terrestrial crust, yielding Fe/Mg ratios of 30 ±14 and 53 ±40 (mean ± standard deviation) for these coals, respectively. Coal fly ash from the burning of these coals has similar ratios. The Fe/Mg ratios in emissions from coal-fired power plants should therefore be at least six-fold higher than the global crustal average of 2.4 and should be useful as a signature for emissions from coal combustion. The validity of this signature was determined by a comparative study at four sites in New York: Oneonta and Sugar Hill, both in close proximity to coal-fired power plants ( ~ 20-30 km), and Schoharie and Whiteface Mountain, both relatively distant from coal-fired power plants (> 100 km). High Fe/Mg ratios, up to 19, were observed only at Oneonto and Sugar Hill. Samples obtained at SCH and WFM bore a crustal character, with mean Fe/Mg ratios of 3.9 and 3.5. The Fe/Mg ratio thus holds promise as a signature for local coal-fired power plants.

Parekh, P. P.; Husain, Liaquat

136

LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

137

Ash fouling in coal-fired utility boilers. Monitoring and optimization of on-load cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though considerable advances have been made in the fields of boiler design and coal characterization, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces continues to be a significant problem in existing conventional utility boilers. A cost effective way to deal with this difficulty is the continuous monitoring of fouling tendencies. These techniques have become a widespread practice in coal-fired power stations

A Valero; C Cortés

1996-01-01

138

Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers: 1. Size distribution and combustion reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on

Robert H. Hurt; Jon R. Gibbins

1995-01-01

139

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

140

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

141

APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

142

AIR POLLUTION STUDIES NEAR A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of dry deposition of sulfur dioxide were investigated near a new 540-MW coal-fired generating station located in a rural area 25 miles north of Madison, Wisconsin. Monitoring data for 2 yr before the start-up in July 1975 and for the year 1976 were used to assess t...

143

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

144

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

145

Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

146

CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

147

MERCURY RESIDUES IN SOIL AROUND A LARGE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Seventy soil samples were collected on a radial grid around the Four Corners power plant. The soil samples were analyzed for total mercury using a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Even though the plant emits 1-2% of all the mercury released by U.S. coal-fired utilities...

148

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

149

Removal of Coal-Fired Pollutants in Wet Electrostatic Precipitators with Flexible Collection Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigorous new regulations in coal-fired pollutants emissions by power plant have caused new demands for electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology. The study was inspired by the requirement to use cheaper flexible polypropylene fiber and Terylene fabrics as substitutes for typical collection electrodes to save energy and structural materials, and to solve the adverse impacts caused by wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD)

Jingcai Chang; Yong Dong; Peng Wang; Liqiang Zhang; Peng Chen; Chunyuan Ma

2010-01-01

150

The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured.

Ruud Meij; Henk te Winkel

2007-01-01

151

EVALUATION OF NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS DATA FROM TVA COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study during which nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission rates from 30 boilers at 11 TVA coal-fired plants were calculated and compared with the calculated rate for each boiler type using EPA emission factors (AP-43). urrent AP-42 emission factors for NOx fr...

152

NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

153

FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

154

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

155

Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied.

M. Ajmal; M. A. Khan

1986-01-01

156

EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

157

External costs of electric power from coal-fired and nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to evaluate the externalities associated with coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The methodology applied is that of the new welfare economics, which is concerned with evaluating the efficiency costs of the externalities, rather than with the distributional or equity aspects as these are defined by economists. Two types of information are brought together in this dissertation.

1984-01-01

158

Leaf injury and elemental concentrations in vegetation near a coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf injury of two native grasses, needleandthread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.) and prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia [Hook.] Scribn.), and plains cottonwood (Populus sargentiii Dode) were slightly greater in a downwind direction from a coal-fired power plant in central Wyoming. Injury usually increased with proximity to the power station. A controlled experiment utilizing pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown within

M. J. Trlica; R. D. Child; B. A. Bauerle

1985-01-01

159

Monitoring NOx Emissions from Coal Fired Boilers Using Generalized Regression Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) associated with coal combustion systems is a significant pollutant source in the environment as the utilization of fossil fuels continues to increase, and the monitoring of NOx emissions is an indispensable process in coal-fired power plant so as to control NOx emissions. A novel \\

Ligang Zheng; Shuijun Yu; Minggao Yu

2008-01-01

160

Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

161

ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

162

Mass balance of trace elements in Walker branch watershed: relation to coal-fired steam plants.  

PubMed Central

A mass balance study of trace element flows at the TVA Allen Steam Plant at Memphis showed that most of the released Hg, some Se, and probably most Cl and Br are discharged to the atmosphere as gases. The elements As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in fly ash compared to slag and were more concentrated in the ash discharged through the stack than in that collected by the precipitator, while Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti showed little preferential partitioning between the slag and the collected or discharged fly ash. The elements Cr, Cs, Na, Ni, U, and V exhibited behavior intermediate between the latter two groups. This information about stack emissions of trace elements from the Allen Plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and input (dry and wet deposition) to the Walker Branch Watershed. The watershed, which is on the ERDA reservation at Oak Ridge, is within 20 km of three coal-fired steam plants, two in the TVA system and one belonging to ERDA. The estimated input values are compared to measurements of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in wet precipitation falling on the watershed during 1973 and 1974. Dry deposition of these elements could not be measured directly but estimates indicated that this could be of the same order of magnitude as the rainwater input. A six-month mass balance indicated that the watershed efficiently retains Pb (97-98% of the atmospheric input,) Cu (82-84%), while Cr (69%), Mn (57%), Zn (73%), and Hg (69%) are less well retained. Images FIGURE 3. PMID:1227866

Lindberg, S E; Andren, A W; Raridon, R J; Fulkerson, W

1975-01-01

163

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char, and char generated from the pyrolyzer tests performed at FWDC's pilot plant in Livingston, New Jersey. Construction is to begin next quarter to retrofit the CETF for additional HIPPS char combustion studies in a wall-fired configuration. Design of the char transfer system for the PSDF also progressed during this quarter. A number of arrangements have been developed to modify the existing N-Valve configuration. As an experimental test facility, the PSDF needs to maintain operating flexibility in order to test under a wide range of conditions. Although a new char transfer design is needed to support the HIPPS testing at the facility, the Second Generation PFB program will also utilize this system.

NONE

1999-05-01

164

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Analysis of the arch-fired burner continued during this quarter. Unburned carbon and NOx performance are included in this report. Construction commenced this quarter to modify the CETF for horizontal firing. A new indirect feed system will be required to provide a more stable fuel feed to the new wall-fired burner. The conceptual design of the char transfer system for the PSDF is complete. Final detailed design will commence after FETC has completed all cold model testing. DOE-FETC is utilizing an existing experimental facility to evaluate the performance of the proposed char transfer system.

NONE

1999-10-01

165

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. A general arrangement drawing of the char transfer system was forwarded to SCS for their review. Structural steel drawings were used to generate a three-dimensional model of the char transfer system including all pressure vessels and major piping components. Experimental testing at the Combustion and Environmental Test Facility continued during this quarter. Performance of the char burner, as benchmarked by flame stability and low NOx, has been exceptional. The burner was operated successfully both without natural gas and supplemental pulverized coal.

Unknown

1999-02-01

166

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-print Network

economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01

167

Design and operation experience with baghouse dust collectors for pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers: Sunbury Station, Holtwood Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fabric filter on a coal-fired boiler is an effective method of meeting today's stringent air pollution requirements, especially for high-resistivity dusts or where sulfur-content of coal varies widely. (PCS)

J. H. Phelan; A. A. Reisinger; N. H. Wagner

1976-01-01

168

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-print Network

pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01

169

DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

170

EVALUATION OF TUBEWALL CORROSION RATES ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER USING STAGED COMBUSTION FOR NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses NOx emissions, at an existing coal-firing utility boiler, that have been controlled by modifying normal combustion parameters using the boiler's normal operating control system (without adding new hardware). The combustion modifications (CMs) studied included...

171

Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power  

E-print Network

Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

172

New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina  

E-print Network

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

Kaskey, G. T.

1984-01-01

173

Performance Simulation and Cost Assessment of Oxy-Combustion Process for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate green house gas emissions, CO2 from large sources such as coal-fired power plants should be economically captured and sequestered. This paper describes the performance modeling and cost assessment of processes designed to capture and compress CO2 from sub-critical pulverized coal fired power plants (PC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) units. Plant capacity of 533 MWe

Rajani K Varagani; Fabienne Châtel-Pélage; Pavol Pranda; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Yongqi Lu; Arun C. Bose

174

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint: Part. 1  

SciTech Connect

Caps on greenhouse gas emissions are imminent in the US and they will change how we design tomorrow's coal-fired power plants. Efforts are already under way to develop alternative capture and sequestration technologies, mainly for CO{sub 2}. Unfortunately, the proposed processes all consume lots of energy, reducing plants' net output and efficiency. In Part 1 of our look at these technologies, we list and quantify the impacts of post combustion removal of CO{sub 2} from a coal plant's flue gas. Next month, in Part. 2 we will do the same for four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxyfuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-06-15

175

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31

176

Wasteless combined aggregate–coal–fired steam-generator\\/melting-converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate–steam-generator\\/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter

L. S. Pioro; I. L. Pioro

2003-01-01

177

Chemical, aerosol, and optical measurements in the plumes of three midwestern coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Airborne measurements were made in and near the plumes of the followiing midwestern coal-fired power plants in 1981: Kincaid in central Illinois in February, LaCygne near Kansas City in March, and Labadie near St. Louis in August and September. One objective of these measurements was to obtain data (reported elsewhere) to be used for the evaluation of plume visibility models. The results of the chemical and aerosol measurements are reported here.

Richards, L.W.; Anderson, J.A.; Blumenthal, D.L.; McDonald, J.A.; Macias, E.S.

1985-01-01

178

Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has

A. Evans; J. N. Pont; G. England; W. R. Seeker

1993-01-01

179

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-07-15

180

Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment  

SciTech Connect

Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

Nava, J.C. [ME Technical Services, Bridgeton, MO (United States)

2009-09-15

181

Trace-element emissions from Western U. S. coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory program to evalute the trace elements in stack emissions from coal-fired power plants is\\u000a described. Stack sampling and analysis of fly ash at modern, western U. S. power plants is discussed. Scanning-electron-microscope\\u000a techniques are shown to be essential for accurate sizing of stack particles sampled with cascade impactors. Particle-size\\u000a distributions for volatile and nonvolatile trace elements

R. C. Ragaini; J. M. Ondov

1977-01-01

182

Novel Mercury Oxidant and Sorbent for Mercury Emissions Control from Coal-fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power\\u000a plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants\\u000a burning a wide range of coals including bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. A preliminary analysis from the bench-scale\\u000a test results shows that this new sorbent

Joo-Youp Lee; Yuhong Ju; Sang-Sup Lee; Tim C. Keener; Rajender S. Varma

2008-01-01

183

Synergistic Mercury Removal by Conventional Pollutant Control Strategies for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the

Shuxiao Wang; Lei Zhang; Ye Wu; Maria Pia Ancora; Yu Zhao; Jiming Hao; Dino Musmarra; Paul Funk; Tony Ward; Christopher Palmer; Curtis Noonan; Sally Donovan; Thomas Bateson; Jan Gronow; Nikolaos Voulvoulis; Li-Long Chai; Ji-Qin Ni; Yan Chen; Claude Diehl; Albert Heber; Teng Lim; Yimei Zhang; Guohe Huang; Yan-Min Chen; Yuan-Chung Lin; Tzi-Yi Wu; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Wen-Feng Ma; Joao Gomes; Helena Mota; Joao Bordado; Manuela Cadete; Georgina Sarmento; Antonieta Ribeiro; Miguel Baiao; Joao Fernandes; Vasco Pampulim; Maria Custodio; Isabel Veloso; David Brenner

2010-01-01

184

Analysis of projected vs. actual costs for nuclear and coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of ERDA\\/Fossil Energy, MITRE collected and analyzed available data on projected and actual power plant costs for nuclear and coal-fired systems. A total of twenty-seven references were found to contain relevant data. Included were the annual FPC reports on Steam-Electric Plant Construction Costs and Annual Production Expenses, several of the WASH reports (including WASH-1345) published by the

C. Blake; D. Cox; W. Fraize

1976-01-01

185

Operating Performance and Latest Technology of DeNOx Plants for Coal-Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last quarter century, air pollution has become a global environmental problem. To remove NO x in flue gas emitted from thermal power plants, many DeNOx plants (NO x removal plants) have been constructed in and are being planned for Japan, the US, the EC, and Asia. DeNOx plants for coal-fired boilers require high technology system and catalyst designs

Masayuki Hirano; Yasuyoshi Kato; Okikazu Ishiguro; Akira Mori

186

Ash fouling and erosion of silicon-based ceramic expanders in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysholm-type helical-screw engines (expanders) are proposed as a means of generating electrical power from coal-fired power plants (topping cycle). Ash erosion and deposition (fouling) of silicon-based ceramic materials exposed to coal ash at topping-cycle temperatures (approximately 1270 K) was studied at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to select suitable expander materials. Silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (SiâNâ) blocks exposed to

R. W. Taylor; T. E. Shell

1978-01-01

187

Mosses as indicators of radioactivity deposition around a coal-fired power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of 210Pbex has been measured in mosses (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected over a wide area around a coal-fired power station located in La Spezia, Central Italy, in order to evaluate the possible increase of natural radioactivity levels due to the operation of the plant. The concentration of 210Pbex varies between 258±39 and 1898±385 Bq m?2. The 210Pbex distribution pattern

R Delfanti; C Papucci; C Benco

1999-01-01

188

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-11-27

189

Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposable. Net station (HHV) efficiency can be increased to 45 percent without increasing the cost of electricity.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [ABB Power Plant Laboratories (United States); Mirolli, M.D. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Inc. (United States)

1995-12-31

190

Study on the effect of the operating condition on a pulverized coal-fired furnace using computational fluid dynamics commercial code  

SciTech Connect

Computer models for coal combustion are not sufficiently accurate to enable the design of pulverized coal fired furnaces or the selection of coal based on combustion behavior. Most comprehensive combustion models can predict with reasonable accuracy flow fields and heat transfer but usually with a much lesser degree of accuracy than the combustion of coal particles through char burnout. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is recognized widely to be a cost-effective, advanced tool for optimizing the design and operating condition of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces for achieving cleaner and efficient power generation. Technologists and researchers are paying remarkable attention to CFD because of its value in the pulverized fuel fired furnace technology and its nonintrusiveness, sophistication, and ability to significantly reduce the time and expense involved in the design, optimization, trouble-shooting, and repair of power generation equipment. An attempt to study the effect of one of the operating conditions, i.e., burner tilts on coal combustion mechanisms, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), and heat flux distribution pattern, within the furnace has been made in this paper by modeling a 210 MW boiler using commercial CFD code FLUENT. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Manish Kumar; Santi Gopal Sahu [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Combustion Section, Dhanbad (India)]. man_manna@yahoo.com

2007-12-15

191

Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1  

SciTech Connect

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01

192

Diagnostic instrumentation development program for the heat recovery/seed recovery system of the open-cycle, coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient and environmentally acceptable, the coal-fired MHD power plant is an attractive facility for producing electricity. The design of its downstream system, however, presents technological risks which must be corrected if such a plant is to be commercially viable before the end of the century. The heat recovery/seed recovery system (HRSR) at its present stage is vulnerable to corrosion on the gas side of the radiant furnace, the secondary superheater, and the intermediate temperature air heater. Slagging and fouling of the heat transfer surface have yet to be eliminated. Gas chemistry, radiant heat transfer, and particulate removal are other problematic areas which are being researched in a DOE development program whose test activities at three facilities are contributing to an MHD/HRSR data base. In addition, a 20 MWt system to study HRSR design, is being now assembled in Tennessee.

Murphree, D. L.; Cook, R. L.; Bauman, L. E.; Benton, R. D.; Probert, P. B.; Selby, R. C.

1981-01-01

193

ANL Solids\\/Gas Flow Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solids\\/Gas Flow Test Facility (S\\/GFTF) has been designed and constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to promote development, testing, evaluation, and calibration of instruments, not currently available but ultimately needed, for advanced large-scale coal-conversion and combustion plants. This instrument effort is part of a program in instrumentation and process control for coal conversion at ANL funded by the United

L. R. Dates; J. P. Bobis

1982-01-01

194

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with nozzles for separate injection of char, coal, and limestone. Burner performance will be rated according to three criteria, carbon conversion efficiency, NOx generation, and flame stability. If initial testing in the arch configuration proves successful, further tests will be performed in the wall-fired arrangement. A complete set of process and instrumentation drawings (P/ID's) were completed for the Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) this quarter. These drawings established an ISA approved instrument tagging structure, and provided a coherent database for the development of a data acquisition system. The data acquisition system polls tag information (value, range, engineering units, etc.) from the distributed control system (DCS) highway, and provides a platform for data reduction. The quadrupole mass spectrometer, used during the pyrolyzer tests performed at the pilot plant in Livingston, N.J., has been redesigned for use at the CETF. The mass spectrometer is designed to provide on-line gas analysis by identifying all of the chemical components within the secondary air line, the flue gas recycle line, and the furnace exit ducting. The construction effort at the CETF continued this quarter with the completion of the char storage system, reheat burner, flue gas recycle piping, and the pulverized coal feed system.

NONE

1998-11-01

195

Development of cost-effective noncarbon sorbents for Hg(0) removal from coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Noncarbonaceous materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea, and active additives such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide to examine their potential as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor at coal-fired utility power plants. A number of sorbent candidates such as amine- silica gel, urea- silica gel, thiol- silica gel, amide-silica gel, sulfur-alumina, sulfur-molecular sieve, sulfur-montmorillonite, sodium sulfide-montmorillonite, and sodium polysulfide-montmorillonite, were synthesized and tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system under an argon flow for screening purposes at 70 degrees C and/or 140 degrees C. Several functionalized silica materials reported in previous studies to effectively control heavy metals in the aqueous phase showed insignificant adsorption capacities for Hg(0) control in the gas phase, suggesting that mercury removal mechanisms in both phases are different. Among elemental sulfur-, sodium sulfide-, and sodium polysulfide-impregnated inorganic samples, sodium polysulfide-impregnated montmorillonite K 10 showed a moderate adsorption capacity at 70 degrees C, which can be used for sorbent injection prior to the wet FGD system. PMID:16683613

Lee, Joo-Youp; Ju, Yuhong; Keener, Tim C; Varma, Rajender S

2006-04-15

196

Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

Not Available

1980-04-01

197

Theory and application of magnetic and self-potential methods in the detection of the Heshituoluogai coal fire, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are a major problem throughout the world. They threaten the environment and the health of people living nearby and result in significant economic losses. Efficient and economical control of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fire be delineated. In this paper, we first present laboratory experiments, revealing that new preferential alignment of magnetic moments, newly formed magnetite and thermoremanent magnetization are the root causes of magnetic anomalies in coal fire area. The redox potential and Thomson potential, which are the basis of the self-potential anomalies, are proposed additionally for application. Then, the geological setting and an overview of the Fifth Fire Area (FFA) of the Heshituoluogai coal fire in Xinjiang are introduced in detail. Finally, the magnetic and self-potential methods are combined to delineate the extent of the fire. Several data processing methods such as diurnal fluctuation rectification, reduction to pole and upward continuation are used to process the data to make the interpretation of results more straight forward. The locations of subsurface fire regions delineated by the magnetic and self-potential methods are consistent with the results of ground surveys, indicating that these two methods can be used effectively as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing

2014-05-01

198

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-05-09

199

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

2006-10-31

200

Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

2007-07-19

201

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10

202

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01

203

Problems and potential for MHD retrofit of existing coal-fired plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrofitting existing power plants with an open-cycle MHD system has been re-examined in light of recent developments in the heat and seed recovery technology area. A new retrofit cycle configuration has been developed which provides for a direct gas-gas coupling; also, the MHD topping cycle can be decoupled from the existing plant for either separate or joint operation. The retrofit concept has been applied to Vermilion Station No. 1, a coal-fired power plant presently in operation. Substantial increases in efficiency have been demonstrated and the economic validity of the MHD retrofit approach has been established.

Berry, G.; Dennis, C.; Johnson, T.; Minkov, V.; Pearson, V.; Petrick, M.

1981-12-01

204

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, a Request for Candidate Sorbents was sent to fourteen groups including activated carbon manufacturers and research groups. Several sorbent samples have been sent to URS for laboratory fixed-bed testing. A preliminary Test Plan has also been developed.

Sharon Sjostrom

2001-11-01

205

Effect of coal-fired power generation on visibility in a nearby national park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mohave coal-fired power plant has long been considered a major contributor to visibility impairment in Grand Canyon National Park. The permanent closure of the plant in 2005 provides the opportunity to test this assertion. Although this analysis, based on data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Environments (IMPROVE) Aerosol Network, shows that fine sulfate levels in the park dropped following the closure, no statistically significant improvement in visibility resulted. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to control for other influences. This finding has important implications for the methods generally employed to attribute visibility reductions to air pollution sources.

Terhorst, Jonathan; Berkman, Mark

2010-07-01

206

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.  

SciTech Connect

The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

2004-03-28

207

Development of advanced NOâ control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April 1June 30, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid technologies for reduction of NOâ emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NOâ control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNOâ is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NOâ emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first

J. Newhall; G. England; W. R. Seeker

1992-01-01

208

Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

2013-04-01

209

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2010-07-01

210

Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for

Krajick

2005-01-01

211

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS, PHASE THREE REPORT, SENSITIVITY STUDIES FOR THE SELECTION OF A REVISED STANDARD  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several potential revisions to the current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. The revised NSPS (RNSPS) is assumed to apply to all coal-fire...

212

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2014-07-01

213

Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

2008-11-15

214

Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

2013-01-01

215

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

Not Available

1992-12-31

216

Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

217

Environmental effects of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

The assessment of the environmental effects of natural radionuclides contained in fly ash released from a coal-fired power plant was carried out and the following results were obtained. Mean concentrations of U, Th and K in 28 kinds of domestic and foreign coals were 1.0 ppm, 3.3 ppm and 2300 ppm, respectively. A good correlation between U and Th concentrations appears evident. Natural radionuclide concentrations of bottom and fly ashes were approximately equal in both ashes, and the values were the same as those calculated by concentration in coal divided by ash content. Release rates of 40K and radionuclides of each decay chain of U or Th were evaluated in the range of 2 to 40,000 pCi/sec for model coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW and 250 MW. The natural radionuclide concentration in air in a plume at the maximum concentration point was 5 X 10(-9) to 5 X 10(-3) pCi/m3, and these values were below 1/200 of those of natural origin. PMID:6500942

Nakaoka, A; Fukushima, M; Takagi, S

1984-09-01

218

Radiation impact from lignite burning due to 226Ra in Greek coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Lignite contains naturally occurring radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 40K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes, such as 226Ra, that are discharged into the environment causing radiation exposures to the population. About 11,672 MBq y-1 of 226Ra are discharged into the environment from four coal-fired power plants totalling 3.62 GW electrical energy in the Ptolemais Valley, Northern Greece, in which the combustion of 1.1 x 10(10) kg of lignite is required to produce an electrical energy of 1 GW y. The collective committed equivalent dose to lung tissue per unit power generated resulting from atmospheric releases of 226Ra was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-2) person Sv (GW y)-1; i.e. more than 15 times higher than the average value for a modern type coal-fired power plant according to the UNSCEAR 1988 data. PMID:8567285

Papastefanou, C

1996-02-01

219

Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.  

PubMed

China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

2010-06-01

220

System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

Zauderer, B.

1976-01-01

221

Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

EPRI hosted the Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants (ICPP) from April 2--4, 1991, in San Francisco, California. The more than 130 conference participants included representatives of utilities, steelmakers, equipment fabricators, architect/engineering firms, government agencies, and R D organizations. Among the countries represented were the United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Israel. This international conference reviewed advances in fossil plant materials, components, and designs, and showcased results from the EPRI Improved Coal-Fired Power Plant project, similar collaborative European projects, and new power plants in Japan. The 54 papers in these proceedings are organized according to the conference sessions listed: General; Advanced Power Plant Designs; Standardized/Modular Power Plants; Improved Boiler Tubes; Improved HP, HP/IP, IP, and HP/LP Rotor Steels; Boiler Thick-Wall 9Cr Applications; Improved LP Rotor Steel; Boiler Water Chemistry, Turbine Valves, Casings, and Bolting Materials; Steam Turbine Design Advances; Power Plant Retrofits; Diagnostics and Controls. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Pace, S.; Poe, G. (eds.)

1992-08-01

222

Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

Not Available

1992-07-01

223

Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

Not Available

1992-07-01

224

Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

2007-08-01

225

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

226

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following: (1) There was some correlation between the prevailing wind direction and measured soil and oak leaf concentrations. This correlation was not statistically significant, but higher soil concentrations were generally found in the east and southeast from the plants and lower soil concentrations were found west/southwest from the plants. The prevailing winds are to the east. The Conemaugh plant which was the most southeast of the three plants did have the highest average oak leaf and soil mercury concentrations. Based on emissions, the Keystone plant would be expected to see the highest concentrations as it emitted about 25% more mercury than the other two plants. (2) The results of this study did not turn up strong evidence for large areas (several square miles) of elevated mercury concentrations around the three coal-fired power plants that were tested. This does not mean that there is no effect, there was some evidence of increasing mercury content to the east and south of these plants, however, the trends were not statistically significant suggesting that if the effects exist, they are small.

Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

2008-02-01

227

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.  

E-print Network

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves

Kusiak, Andrew

228

Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy`s NO{sub x} reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO{sub x} emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0{sub x} scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER`s 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions up to 92%. The program`s next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER`s Santa Anna test site.

Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1993-02-11

229

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

230

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

231

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot-spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot-spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that n

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

2005-12-01

232

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MASS CONCENTRATION AND LIGHT ATTENUATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are presented on 40 mass concentration-light attenuation tests of particulate emissions at coal-fired power plants with electrostatic precipitator controls, and on particle size measurements at two plants near the high and low extremes in the range of the mass concentration-...

233

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FISH NEAR A COAL-FIRED GENERATING STATION AND RELATED LABORATORY STUDIES. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Construction of a coal-fired electric generating station on wetlands adjacent to the Wisconsin River has permanently altered about one-half of the original 1,104-ha site. Change in the remaining wetlands continues as a result of waste heat and ashpit effluent produced by the stat...

234

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 5. APPENDIX F  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

235

High-temperature fireside corrosion monitoring in the superheater section of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work described in this report was the first British in-plant application of continuous online electrochemical corrosion monitoring technology in pulverized coal-fired superheater environments. The work was conducted at Drax Power Station, National Power plc, UK. The investigation was to evaluate the relative corrosion performance of stainless steel Alloys 316 and 310. Two electrochemical sensor assemblies fabricated from the test

W. Y. Mok; W. M. Cox

1992-01-01

236

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

237

ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

238

OHIO/KENTUCKY/TVA (TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY) COAL-FIRED UTILITY S02 AND N0X CONTROL RETROFIT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents initial results from an ongoing National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) study. The objective is to significantly improve engineering cost estimates for retrofit of the following control technologies at the 1980 'top 200' SO2-emitting coal-fired...

239

ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

240

ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

241

Temperature prediction in a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed by fuzzy logic based on numerical solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, steady state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. Temperature distributions in the combustion chamber of a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed are predicted using fuzzy logic based on data obtained from the numerical solution method for various coal and air feeding rates. The numerical solution method and the discretization of the

A. B?y?ko?lu; M. A. Akcayol; V. Özdemir; M. Sivrio?lu

2005-01-01

242

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

243

Kinds and quantities of organic combustion products in solid and liquid wastes from a coal-fired power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds recovered from solid and liquid wastes from the Four Corners Coal-Fired Power Station at Fruitland, New Mexico, were analyzed. Total organic carbon, total extractable hydrocarbons, and identities and quantities of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are reported. Organic constituents in water and particulate samples were extracted into organic solvents and characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography, mass

F. L. Harrison; D. J. Bishop; B. J. Mallon

1983-01-01

244

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-237 Kilgroe*, J.D., Sedman*, C.B., Srivastava*, R.K., Ryan*, J.V., and Thorneloe*, S. Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report. EPA-600/R-01-109, Available: NTIS. 12/20/2001 The report provides additional information on mer...

245

RETROFIT COSTS FOR LIME/LIMESTONE FGD AND LIME SPRAY DRYING AT COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying S02 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. he costs of retrofitting conventiona...

246

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

247

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

Not Available

1993-10-30

248

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

249

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

250

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

Rubin, E.S.

1988-06-01

251

[Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers. PMID:24812935

Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

2014-02-01

252

[Characterization of arsenic emissions from a coal-fired power plant].  

PubMed

An emissions study for arsenic was conducted at a 300 MW coal-fired plant equipped with an electrostatic precipitator. The input and output streams such as coal, slag, ESP ash, and flue gas containing the post-ESP particulates were collected. Gaseous arsenic was sampled using EPA method 29 and the arsenic concentrations in the samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES). The mass balance recovery of arsenic estimated in this study was 87.2%. Arsenic concentration in stack gas was 2.5 microg/m3. Approximately 0.53% of the coal-derived arsenic was incorporated into slag, 84.6% of the arsenic was found on the fly ash collected by electrostatic precipitators, and 2.16% was found in the vapor phase. The relationship between arsenic concentration and ash particle size was also assessed, and arsenic is significantly concentrated in the small sized particles. PMID:16767977

Guo, Xin; Zheng, Chu-guang; Cheng, Dan

2006-04-01

253

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-10-29

254

Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

2009-08-31

255

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22

256

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, ongoing tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests were conducted. A draft final report for the sorbent evaluations at Powerton was submitted. Sorbent evaluations at Valley Power Plant were completed on April 24, 2003. Data analysis and reporting for the Valley evaluations are continuing. A statement of work for sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant was submitted and approved. Work will begin late August 2003. A no cost time extension was granted by DOE/NETL.

Trevor Ley

2003-07-01

257

Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

NONE

1996-09-01

258

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01

259

Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

Davis, S.E. [Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

260

The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

Not Available

1992-07-16

261

The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate regional temperature responses may provide additional insight.

Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

2010-01-01

262

Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

263

Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

2012-03-31

264

Trace elements in sediments, water, and American coots ( Fulica americana ) at a coal-fired power plant in Texas, 1979–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the temporal accumulation of trace element concentrations in water, sediments, and waterbirds at a coal-fired power plant ash pond and to document aquatic bird use of the ash pond.

Donald H. White; Kirke A. King; Christine A. Mitchell; Bernard M. Mulhern

1986-01-01

265

Trace elements in sediments, water, and American coots (Fulica americana) at a coal-fired power plant in Texas, 1979-1982  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the temporal accumulation of trace element concentrations in water, sediments, and waterbirds at a coal-fired power plant ash pond and to document aquatic bird use of the ash pond.

White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Mitchell, C.A.; Mulhern, B.M.

1986-03-01

266

Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around a uraniferous coal-fired power plant in western Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Gökova region where Yata?an is located there are three major uraniferous coal-fired power plants (CPPs) and they cause some pollution in the surroundings. Studies were realized over a wide area around the coal-fired power station located at Yata?an to evaluate the possible increase of natural radioactivity level due to the operation of the plant. The lichens Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Cladonia

A. U?ur; B. Özden; M. M. Saç; G. Yener

2003-01-01

267

Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming  

SciTech Connect

China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

Krajick, K.

2005-05-01

268

The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: <1% in the bottom ash, 49% in the pulverized fuel ash (ash collected in the ESP), 16.6% in the FGD gypsum, 9% in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%. PMID:12184689

Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

2002-08-01

269

Assessing the value of CO 2 capture ready in new-build pulverised coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making new plants CO2 capture ready (CCR) would enable them to retrofit to capture CO2 at a later date at lower cost when the appropriate policy and\\/or economic drivers are in place. In order to understand the economic value and investment characteristics of making new plants CCR in China, a typical 600MW pulverised coal-fired ultra-supercritical power plant, locating in Guangdong

Xi Liang; David Reiner; Jon Gibbins; Jia Li

2009-01-01

270

NO[sub x] removal on a coal-fired utility boiler by selective non-catalytic reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant for Selective Non-catalytic Reduction (SNR) of NO[sub x] emissions by NH[sub 3] (ammonia) injection has been designed, installed and successfully tested on a 135 MW[sub e] coal-fired utility boiler. The final 2000 hours test was performed with the plant automatically controlled. The NO[sub x] level in the untreated flue gas is typically 400-700 ppm, and NH[sub 3] is

M. Jodal; T. L. Lauridsen; K. Dam-Johansen

1992-01-01

271

Results of Closed-Loop Coal-Fired Boiler Operation Using a TDLAS Sensor and Smart Process Control Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Technologies Laboratory (NETL) has sponsored two technology demonstration projects at coal-fired power plants to reduce CO2 through combustion balancing and optimization. The Zolo Technologies–led projects at DTE Belle River Unit 2 and AEP Amos demonstrate significant reduction of CO2\\/MWh via generation efficiency improvements enabled by new laser-based sensor technology in conjunction with smart process software. The primary

Andrew D. Sappey; Pat Masterson; Eric Huelson; Jim Howell; Mike Estes; Henrik Hofvander; Atilio Jobson

2011-01-01

272

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2010-03-01

273

A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NOx control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are

Samudra Vijay; Joseph F. DeCarolis; Ravi K. Srivastava

2010-01-01

274

Effect of the existing air pollutant control devices on mercury emission in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ontario-Hydro method (OHM) and semi-continuous mercury emission (SCEM) were used to study the effects of the existing air pollutant control devices on mercury emission in coal-fired power plants. The results indicate that more than 50% of Hg0 is oxidized into Hg2+ by selective catalytic (V2O5\\/TiO2) reduction (SCR), but SCR itself couldn't control mercury emission. The collection of fly ash by

Li-ping ZHONG; Yan CAO; Wen-ying LI; Wei-ping PAN; Ke-chang XIE

2010-01-01

275

A New Method to Assess Mercury Emissions: A Study of Three Coal-Fired Electric-Generating Power Station Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy has proved successful for use in Hg assessment at coal-fired power stations. In an analysis time of ?5 min per sample, this instrumental methodology can directly analyze total Hg—with no discrete sample preparation—in the solid matrices associated with a

Helen M. Boylan; Randy D. Cain; H. M. “Skip” Kingston

2003-01-01

276

Characterization and inventory of PCDD/F emissions from coal-fired power plants and other sources in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to quantify (1) the emission factors of a variety of dioxin emission sources; (2) the overall dioxin emission inventory in Taiwan as well as in a major metropolitan (KC area); and (3) the contribution of power plants to the overall PCDD/F emission. To achieve these goals, a total of 95 flue gas samples were collected and analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs from 20 sources to develop emission factors. The emission factor of PCDD/Fs from coal-fired power plants (0.62 microgI-TEQton(-1)) obtained in this study is considerably higher than the values reported from different countries including UK, USA, and Spain by a factor of 2-265. It means that the air pollution control devices in certain power plants need to be more efficient. The emission data showed that there is a total annual release to air of 6.1 and 95gI-TEQ from major sources in the KC area and Taiwan, respectively. The dominant sources of PCDD/Fs in the KC area are the coal-fired power plants, secondary aluminum smelting, electric arc furnaces, and open burning of rice straw, which contributed for 56%, 17%, 13%, and 3.3% to the total, respectively. However, in Taiwan, the dominant sources of PCDD/Fs are the iron ore sintering, coal-fired power plants, electric arc furnaces, and open burning of rice straw, which contributed for 32%, 28%, 23%, and 8.1% to the total, respectively. The results of this study showed that coal-fired power plants are very significant sources of PCDD/Fs and also provide an important database to assist the decision makers for formulating policies to alleviate dioxin concerns. PMID:17509649

Lin, Long-Full; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Mao-Sung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

2007-08-01

277

Measurements of gas-to-particle conversion in the plumes from five coal-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particles and trace gases in the plumes of five coal-fired power plants in the western and midwestern U.S. have been measured. Gas-to-particle conversion rates are estimated from changes in total particle volume, changes in the ratio of particulate sulfur to the total mass of sulfur, and from particle nucleation rates. The conversion rates ranged from 0-5.7% of sulfur dioxide

D. A. Hegg; P. V. Hobbs

1980-01-01

278

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

NONE

1996-12-31

279

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical progress report 2, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired high performance power system was developed, and small scale R and D was done in critical areas of design. The current Phase of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage, and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been identified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs and general operation of the system. These goals are: Total station efficiency of at least 47 percent on a higher heating value basis; emissions: NO{sub x} < 0.06 lb/MMBtu, SO{sub x} < 0.06 lg/MMBtu, and particulates < 0.003 lb/MMBtu; all solid wastes must be benign with regard to disposal; over 95% of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65% of the heat input; and ten percent lower cost of electricity (COE) relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS.

NONE

1996-02-01

280

Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

1994-06-01

281

A new method to assess mercury emissions: a study of three coal-fired electric-generating power station configurations.  

PubMed

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy has proved successful for use in Hg assessment at coal-fired power stations. In an analysis time of approximately 5 min per sample, this instrumental methodology can directly analyze total Hg--with no discrete sample preparation--in the solid matrices associated with a coal-fired power plant, including coal, fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material. This analysis technique was used to investigate Hg capture by coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) in three different coal-fired power plant configurations. Hg capture and associated emissions were estimated by partial mass balance. The station equipped with an FGD system demonstrated 68% capture on FGD material and an emissions estimate of 18% (11 kg/yr) of total Hg input. The power plant equipped with low oxides of nitrogen burners and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) retained 43% on the fly ash and emitted 57% (51 kg/yr). The station equipped with conventional burners and an ESP retained less than 1% on the fly ash, emitting an estimated 99% (88 kg/yr) of Hg. Estimated Hg emissions demonstrate good agreement with EPA data for the power stations investigated. PMID:14649751

Boylan, Helen M; Cain, Randy D; Kingston, H M

2003-11-01

282

Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

None

1999-01-01

283

Detecting coal fires in China using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of detecting fires in subsurface coal deposits through InSAR observations of accompa- nying surface displacements. Uncontrolled burning of subsurface coal seams have been reported from many locations around the world. In northern China alone, more than 10 Million tons (Mt) of coal are estimated to burn every year. This has massive implications for the regional economy and ecology. In fighting these fires and controlling burning coal seams the timely and reliable detection and mapping of the affected regions is critical. However, this has proven to be ex- tremely difficult in the often remote regions of northern China, where many of the fires have been caused by uncontrolled, small-scale mining operations. Both volume change of the burning coal and thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass are expected to cause measurable surface displacements and numerous reports of collapses of the earth's surface exist. Unfortunately, reliable data on surface deformation accompanying the fires are not available. Nevertheless, theoretical considerations and individual reports suggest that subsidence mapping using differential InSAR may be a suitable tool to detect burning regions and map the spatial extent of the affected areas. Though topography, temporal decorrelation, and poor data coverage complicate the analysis we have identified several localized areas of subsidence in the region. Here we discuss the potential and limitations of using InSAR for coal-fire detection in northern China.

Hoffmann, J.; Roth, A.; Voigt, S.

2004-06-01

284

Fe/Mg ratio: A signature for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem in the northeastern United States has led to an intensive search for tracers that could characterize emissions from specific source type(s) or source region(s). In the past two years or so, several tracers have been suggested for this purpose. Crustal-corrected Mn/V ratios have been demonstrated to be good qualitative regional signatures for midwestern and northeastern aerosols. Applying a seven-element signature system, others have used a least-square statistical approach not only to characterize aerosols from different regions but also to apportion the SO/sub 4/ contributions by these regions. The validity of their technique, however, has been questioned. A new tracer has been suggested in La:Sm ratio for emissions from oil-fired power plants and refineries. The element boron has been proposed as a potential tracer for coal combustion. The authors suggest the Fe:Mg ratio as a new tracer for coal emission. Advantage is taken of the fact that the Fe:Mg ratio is distinctly higher (at least 6- to 10-fold) in coals and their combustion products relative to those expected from crustal-derived aerosols. The validity of this signature was checked from a comparative study of aerosols collected at receptors near and distant from coal-fired power plants (CFPP).

Parekh, P.P.; Husain, L.

1986-04-01

285

Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, the results of an operation and maintenance fabric filter survey conducted by APAC were presented. In view of the potential usefulness of such information, Manhattan college was requested by APAC to follow up the initial survey with another improved version. To maximize the usefulness and insure a greater degree of validity to the conclusions, it was decided to limit the participants to users of coal-fired boilers only. A more comprehensive questionaire and one more suitable to computer interpretation than that used in the first study was developed and employed. In this paper, the results of an analysis of these data are presented. Some of the conclusions and opinions of the authors include: (1) Bag life may well be greater than the 2-3 yr reported in the literature, a fact that could reduce projected operating costs for proposed units. (2) Abrasion/erosion difficulties, once a major factor for baghouse users, apparently has been resolved by the equipment manufacturers. (3) Compliance is not a problem with the baghouse. (4) Both utilities and industry would recommend a baghouse to control fly ash for other boilers. (5) O and M problems are more severe with pulse-jet than with reverse-air systems. (6) The three most prevalent O and M problems appear to be higher than design pressure drop, bag failure, and the fly ash handling system.

Reynolds, J.; Kreidenweis, S.; Theodore, L.

1983-04-01

286

Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-11-01

287

A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.  

PubMed

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented. PMID:15828667

Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

2005-03-01

288

Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain.  

PubMed

This paper is a study of the radiological impact of a coal-fired power plant in Spain. Activity concentrations of six natural radionuclides were determined in coal, ash, mine wastes and sediments by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (210)Pb, (232)Th and (40)K in coal were 24, 30, 28, 41, 23 and 242 Bq kg(-1)  and in ash were 103, 128, 101, 124, 88 and 860 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The enrichment factor, radium equivalent activity and alpha index in the ash sample have been estimated. For the five waste pile samples, the absorbed dose rate was higher than the world average dose rate (60 nGy h(-1)). The dependence of radionuclide concentration on the grain size of nine sediments was also studied. The analysis of the radionuclides in waste and sediment samples will demonstrate the distribution and mobility of these elements through the environment, where a potential risk of contamination can be detected. PMID:22807496

Charro, Elena; Peña, Víctor

2013-01-01

289

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2012-04-01

290

An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

1994-12-01

291

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User's Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

Rubin, E.S.

1989-04-01

292

The influence of a coal-fired power plant operation on radionuclide concentrations in soil.  

PubMed

Fifty-two soil samples in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) in Figueira (Brazil) were analyzed. The radionuclide concentration for the uranium and thorium series in soils ranged from <9 to 282 Bq kg(-1). The range of 40K concentration in soils varied from <59 to 412 Bq kg(-1). The CFPP (10 MWe) has been operating for 35 years and caused a small increment in natural radionuclide concentration in the surroundings. This technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) was mainly due to the uranium series (234Th, 226Ra and 210Pb) and was observable within the first kilometer from the power plant. The CFPP influence was only observed in the 0-25 cm soil horizon. The soil properties prevent the radionuclides of the 238U-series from reaching deeper soil profiles. The same behavior was observed for 40K as well. No influence was observed for 232Th, which was found in low concentrations in the coal. PMID:12440517

Flues, M; Moraes, V; Mazzilli, B P

2002-01-01

293

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

NONE

1995-12-01

294

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.; Balsavich, J.

1992-01-01

295

The use of pulse-jet baghouses on utility coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFFs) are widely used in U.S. industrial boiler applications and in utility and industrial boilers abroad. The recent success of PJFFs on large utility boilers overseas has stimulated the interest of U.S. utilities. These installations demonstrate that PJFFs can operate at sizes that are 50% smaller and at 30 to 40% lower capital costs than conventional reverse-gas baghouses, yet still achieve comparable reliability and particulate emissions. There are over 300 PJFFs installed on industrial and utility coal-fired boilers worldwide. This paper summarizes key findings of a survey involving site visits to over 30 full-scale installations representing over 70 individual units in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia. The site visits were conducted to interview technical and plant personnel involved in the design, installation and day-to-day operation of the PJFFs. The results summarized in this paper characterize the pressure drop ({Delta}P), outlet emissions and bag life performance of these PJFFs, and verify the maintainability and suitability of PJFFs for application to large utility boilers in the U.S.

Grubb, W.T. (Grubb Filtration Testing Services, Inc., Delran, NJ (US)); Chang, R.L. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

296

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Novel sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant (P4) Unit 1 (no SCR in place) have been completed. Nineteen sorbents were evaluated for mercury control. A batch injection rate of 1 lb/Mmacf for 1 hour was conducted for screening purposes at a temperature of 300 F. Four sorbents were further evaluated at three injection rates and two temperatures. The multi-pollutant control test system (PoCT) was installed on P4's Unit 2 (with an SCR) and sorbent evaluations are continuing. Evaluations will continue through the end of January 2004. Tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests are continuing. A no-cost time extension for work to be completed by March 31, 2004 was granted by DOE/NETL.

Trevor Ley

2004-01-01

297

Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress on the program â??Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systemsâ? funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

Anbo Wang; Gary Pickrell

2011-12-31

298

Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter.  

PubMed

A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The "gross" thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concrete and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. PMID:12781221

Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

2003-01-01

299

Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants  

PubMed Central

The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

2013-01-01

300

Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future  

E-print Network

We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant determinants of costs at present are the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 - 1970, increasing from 1970 - 1990, and leveling off or decreasing a little since then. This leads us to forecast that even without carbon capture and storage, and even under an optimistic scenario in which construction costs resume their previously decreasing trending behavior, the cost of coal-based electricity will drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which varies stochastically but shows no long term decreasing trends. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and compari...

McNerney, James; Farmer, J Doyne

2010-01-01

301

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

302

Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

2005-01-01

303

BACHMAN TREATMENT FACILITY FOR EXCESSIVE STORM FLOW IN SANITARY SEWERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bachman Treatment Facility was built in Dallas, Texas, to provide physical-chemical treatment to those municipal wastewater flows that during periods of heavy precipitation exceed the capacity of a downstream interceptor. The treatments provided in the facility include the ad...

304

Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

305

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

306

Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility  

ScienceCinema

What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Mcllroy, Hugh

2013-05-28

307

Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

2014-08-01

308

Atmospheric behavior of trace elements on particles emitted from a coal-fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter and cascade impactor samples of suspended particles were collected in-stack and at distances up to 64 km downwind in the plume of a large western coal-fired power plant equipped with both electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and venturi wet particulate scrubbers (VWS) to investigate modifications of the particulate signatures of minor and trace elements during transport. Samples were analyzed for 40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Precipitator malfunction during the experiment caused greater than normal emission of large particles, and concentrations of As, Zn, Sb, Mo, Ga, W, U, V and Ba in near-plume particles collected on filters were enriched relative to their concentrations in stack particles by factors of 1.4 to 2.5, presumably because of sedimentation of very large particles. Selenium was enriched by up to 6-fold (plume:stack). However, enrichment of elements in the plume relative to more typical in-stack particles were insignificant for all elements except Se, which was enriched 2.3-fold. Concentrations of Se on particles in the stack and plume suggest that most of the Se vapor in stack gases became associated with aerosol particles soon after emission. Thus although significant post-emission modifications of elemental signatures of particles may occur for poorly controlled plants, little change is expected for well-controlled plants equipped with ESPs except for Se. Source signatures measured for Se must account for vapor deposition. Impactor data showed a preferential decrease in the concentrations of the above elements in submicrometer particles; suggesting that either intermodal coagulation or size selective sampling losses were important. The impactor data further suggest that enrichment-particle-size profiles for VWS emissions were not conservative during transport.

Ondov, J. M.; Choquette, C. E.; Zoller, W. H.; Gordon, G. E.; Biermann, A. H.; Heft, R. E.

309

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

Gundelach, Volker

2010-05-01

310

Performance of natural gas cofiring on a coal-fired spreader stoker  

SciTech Connect

Tightening environmental regulations create special challenges with coal fired stoker boilers where the moving bed firing configuration greatly limits operational flexibility. For stokers, gas cofiring is an efficient way to achieve compliance, enhance performance and treat operational problems. Firing from 5 to 30% of total heat input through side-wall gas burners offers a spectrum of benefits including faster and cleaner warmup and light-off, reduced opacity, recovered derate, coal flexibility, and improved turndown and load following. In this project, the4 165,000 lb/hr Babcock and Wilcox spreader stoker boiler at Dover Light and Power was retrofit with dual Coen gas fired burners rated at 37 MWBtu/hr each. The burners were positioned on opposite sidewalls 6 feet above the grate and offset 8 feet. A high-pressure drop burner design with a small throat opening was used to increase flame penetration into the combustion gases and minimize pressure part modifications. The gas burners in this staggered configuration promote better mixing and heat distribution and reduce the load per unit area on the grate. The unit has been operated since August 4, 1995, cofiring gas a majority of the time. Test results show significant improvement in emissions efficiency, and operability. Particulate emissions at the electrostatic precipitator inlet were reduced by an average of 25% with 10% cofire. Firing from 8 to 10% of total heat input from gas increased boiler efficiency 2 to 3% due to improved carbon utilization and reduced excess air. Carbon in flyash was reduced by 35 to 40% by cofiring. Excess oxygen was a function of coal quality and was reduced up to 2 to 3% with gas cofiring.

Mason, H.B. [Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States); Drennan, S. [Coen Co., Burlingame, CA (United States); Chan, I.S. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States); Kinney, W.L. [East Ohio Gas, Cleveland, OH (United States); Borland, D.G. [Dover Light and Power, Dover, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

311

Gas cofiring in coal-fired stokers for emissions reduction and performance improvement  

SciTech Connect

Adding gas burners above the grate of a coal-fired stoker can be an economical method of reducing gaseous and particulate emissions and improving efficiency and operational flexibility. With this cofiring configuration, the improved heat distribution and mixing with the stoker combustion products can give reduced opacity, reduced emissions of particulate, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, improved carbon burnout and lower overall ash, reduced excess air, faster load response, cleaner and quicker lightoffs, improved turndown at both lower and upper capacity limits, and improved performance with problematic coals. To develop and validate the cofiring technology, three cofire field experiments have been conducted. A 165,000 lb/hr spreader stoker and mass feed chain grate stokers rated at 40,000 and 75,000 lb/hr have been retrofit with gas burners and tested in the field. The two larger units used dual, opposed burners, while the smaller unit was retrofit with a single burner. With the spreader stoker, the primary benefits of gas cofire was reduction in opacity episodes with coal quality variability and recovery of lost derate. With the larger chain grate unit, the primary benefit was reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to within Title V limits and elimination of opacity episodes during startup and load swings. With the smaller chain grate, the primary benefit was ability to operate at low loads without unacceptable opacity excursions which had previously required a backup boiler. In all cases, the economics justified the capital burner system retrofit cost and incremental fuel costs.

Mason, H.B.; Drennan, S.; Chan, I.; Kinney, W.L.; Borland, D.

1996-12-31

312

Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal variation, and nitric acid dry removal.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2005-12-01

313

A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside corrosion in a reliable and timely manner can provide significant benefits to the plant operation. Current corrosion inspection and measurement are typically performed during scheduled maintenance outages, which is often after the damage is done. In the past, there have been many attempts to develop real time continuous corrosion monitoring technologies. However, there is still no short-term, online corrosion monitoring system commercially available for fireside corrosion to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. This report describes the results of a laboratory feasibility study on the development effort of a novel sensor for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. A novel sensor principle and thin-film technologies were employed in the corrosion sensor design and fabrication. The sensor and the measurement system were experimentally studied using laboratory muffle furnaces. The results indicated that an accurate measure of corrosion rate could be made with high sensitivity using the new sensor. The investigation proved the feasibility of the concept and demonstrated the sensor design, sensor fabrication, and measurement instrumentation at the laboratory scale. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system was also performed to provide a basis for further improvement of the system for future pilot or full scale testing.

Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

2003-03-01

314

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

315

Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China.  

PubMed

The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent. All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series. During the course of coal stream, the samples, such as coal, bottom ash, fly ash, gypsum and flue gas, were collected. The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer. The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching. The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%, 77.1%, 118% and 85.8% for the four power plants, respectively. The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 microg/m3. The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash, ESP, WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%, 2.17%-23.4%, 2.21%-87.1%, and 21.8%-72.7%, respectively. The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions. The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%. The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago. PMID:22432308

Wang, Juan; Wang, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhao, Song

2011-01-01

316

Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants  

SciTech Connect

The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent contained large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both crops when irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. Germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. Samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of effluents on canal water and its subsequent effect on crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both cases, the growth of plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was slightly reduced.

Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.

1986-04-01

317

Tracing fly ash emitted from a coal-fired power plant with enriched rare-earth isotopes: An urban scale test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificially enriched isotopes of neodymium (Nd) were released from a 100 MW(e) coal-fired power plant at rates ranging from 40 to 61 mg h -1 in an experiment designed to test a new intentional particulate tracer technique. During each release, ambient samples of airborne particles with diameters < 2.5 ?m were collected for 6 h at 13 locations along a 72° arc 20 km from the plant on 47-mm diameter Teflon filters operated at nominal flow rates of 130 l min -1. Samples collected when estimates of the meteorological dispersion parameter, X/ Q, ranged from 0.3 × 10 -10 to 350 × 10 -10 s m -3, were analysed for total Nd mass and excess 148Nd, the tracer isotope, by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were in good agreement with predictions of ambient tracer concentrations made with a Gaussian plume model in which lateral and vertical plume dispersion parameters were derived from the standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction. The observed tracer concentrations correspond to signal-to-noise ratios ( S: N) of 150-450. The concentration of 148Nd measured in particles <0.65 ?m in diameter corresponds to an S: N in excess of 4500.

Ondov, J. M.; Kelly, W. R.; Holland, J. Z.; Lin, Z. C.; Wight, S. A.

318

Hot helium flow test facility summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility and cost of modifying an existing circulator test facility (CTF) at General Atomic Company (GA). The CTF originally was built to test the Delmarva Power and Light Co. steam-driven circulator. This circulator, as modified, could provide a source of hot, pressurized helium for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) component testing. To achieve this purpose, a high-temperature impeller would be installed on the existing machine. The projected range of tests which could be conducted for the project is also presented, along with corresponding cost considerations.

Not Available

1980-06-01

319

Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

2010-01-01

320

An evaluation of micronized coal reburning for nitrogen oxide emissions reduction in pulverized coal-fired electric utility boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in the prices of imported fuels and increases in the cost of natural gas have underscored the need to consider other sources of energy for electric production in the United States. Our most abundant fuel source is coal, however the use of coal brings with it a set of environmental problems. This dissertation presents an investigation into the use of micronized coal reburning. This technology may provide a cost-effective solution to the requirements to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal-fired electric generating stations. This research effort evaluated the use of micronized coal as a reburning fuel to lower nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers. The research effort included: (1) an investigation of all available literature on the subject, (2) planning and supervision of a number of baseline and parametric tests on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The testing was carried out on the former NYSEG generating unit, Milliken 1. Milliken Unit 1 is a 150 MW coal-fired electric utility boiler located in Lansing, NY on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, (3) development of a model to predict NOx emissions from a coal-fired boiler, and (4) completion of a conceptual design for a micronized coal reburning system. The original plan of the research effort was to include a full-scale micronized coal reburn installation and subsequent modeling and testing. However, in 1998 the deregulation of the electric utility industry in New York caused the focus of the dissertation to be narrowed. The test site, Milliken Station was sold to another entity, and the installation of the micronized coal reburn system was cancelled. The following conclusions were drawn from the research: (1) Testing showed that nitrogen oxide production was significantly influenced by changes in controllable boiler operating parameters. (2) The predictive model for baseline nitrogen oxide production was fairly accurate in estimating NOx emissions. The model had an average error of 10.14%, with about half of the 27 model runs being within 10% accuracy, and only two runs having greater than a 20% error. (3) The conceptual design shows that in most cases, the physical characteristics of existing coal fired boilers, and existing operating methods will allow for installation of micronized coal reburn systems. (4) An estimate of micronized coal reburning performance was made. It is estimated from a review of existing bench and pilot scale tests, modeling, and natural gas reburn projects that nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by about 60%, to a level of approximately 0.128 pounds per mmbtu of heat input. (5) Given impending, more stringent NOx regulations, and the high cost of natural gas, which has been demonstrated as a successful reburn fuel, micronized coal reburning is a cost effective alternative to current methods of NO x control.

de Angelo, Joseph Gerard

321

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

322

An intelligent ultrasonic flowmeter for improved flow measurement and flow calibration facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing need for reduced uncertainty has forced metrologists to look for novel ways to improve the calibration standards for flow. The NIST is experimenting with the use of an advanced ultrasonic flowmeter (AUFM) to improve flow measurement and to detect the dynamic properties of calibration facilities. Ultrasonic technology is evolving rapidly and technical advances have significantly improved flow measurement

T. T. Yeh; P. I. Espina; Stephen A. Osella

2001-01-01

323

Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal regime in the coal fire zone 18. The occurrence of various thermal alteration products indicates temperatures in the range of 500-700°C.

Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

2010-05-01

324

Novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired syngas  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of a novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coalfired syngas (award number DE-FE0001124). The work was conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) from September 15, 2009, through December 14, 2011. Tetramer Technologies, LLC (Tetramer) was our subcontract partner on this project. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at Wilsonville, AL, provided access to syngas gasifier test facilities. The main objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective membrane process that could be used in the relatively near-term to capture CO{sub 2} from shifted syngas generated by a coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this project, novel polymeric membranes (designated as Proteus™ membranes) with separation properties superior to conventional polymeric membranes were developed. Hydrogen permeance of up to 800 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 50 psig, which exceeds the original project targets of 200 gpu for hydrogen permeance and 10 for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Lab-scale Proteus membrane modules (with a membrane area of 0.13 m{sup 2}) were also developed using scaled-up Proteus membranes and high temperature stable module components identified during this project. A mixed-gas hydrogen permeance of about 160 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 100 psig. We believe that a significant improvement in the membrane and module performance is likely with additional development work. Both Proteus membranes and lab-scale Proteus membrane modules were further evaluated using coal-derived syngas streams at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The results indicate that all module components, including the Proteus membrane, were stable under the field conditions (feed pressures: 150-175 psig and feed temperatures: 120-135°C) for over 600 hours. The field performance of both Proteus membrane stamps and Proteus membrane modules is consistent with the results obtained in the lab, suggesting that the presence of sulfur-containing compounds (up to 780 ppm hydrogen sulfide), saturated water vapor, carbon monoxide and heavy hydrocarbons in the syngas feed stream has no adverse effect on the Proteus membrane or module performance. We also performed an economic analysis for a number of membrane process designs developed in this project (using hydrogen-selective membranes, alone or in the combination with CO{sub 2}- selective membranes). The current field performance for Proteus membranes was used in the design analysis. The study showed the current best design has the potential to reduce the increase in Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) caused by 90% CO{sub 2} capture to about 15% if co-sequestration of H{sub 2}S is viable. This value is still higher than the DOE target for increase in LCOE (10%); however, compared to the base-case Selexol process that gives a 30% increase in LCOE at 90% CO2 capture, the membrane-based process appears promising. We believe future improvements in membrane performance have the potential to reach the DOE target.

Merkel, Tim [MTR Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2011-09-14

325

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 4, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; and increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-12-29

326

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

Not Available

1994-01-30

327

The relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution.  

PubMed

To study the relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution, ecological and case-control studies were carried out. We determined the concentrations of 11 chemical elements and pH values in soil in two fluorosis-affected counties in Chongqing, China, and analyzed the correlation between these values and prevalence of dental fluorosis. Ni, I, F, Hg, and pH values positively correlated with fluorosis prevalence (P?coal-fired pollution fluorosis. Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations in whole blood, and fluoride levels in urine of residents in epidemic and non-epidemic areas were determined. Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe levels of the children in the case group were lower than those of the children in the external control group; urine fluoride level in the children in the case group was higher than that of the children in the internal and external control groups (P?

Wang, Hao; Mu, Lihong; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Yingxiong; Yan, Wei; Jiao, Yongzhuo

2014-04-01

328

Development of Novel Activated Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Control of Mercury Emission From Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of activated carbon adsorption for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate such as sulfur, chloride and other chelating agents for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The main process variables to be evaluated include temperature, mercury concentration and speciation, relative humidity, oxygen content, and presence of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas. The optimal amount of impregnate for each of these carbons will be determined based on the exhibited performance. Another important parameter which governs the applicability of adsorption technology for the flue gas clean up is the rate at which vapor phase mercury is being removed from the flue gas by activated carbon. Therefore, the second part of this study will evaluate the adsorption kinetics using the impregnated activated carbons listed above. The rate of mercury uptake will also be evaluated under the process conditions that are representative of coal-fired power plants. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also focus on the mercury desorption rate as a function of the type of impregnate, loading conditions, and the time of contact prior to disposal.

Radisav D. Vidic

1997-09-08

329

Development of a Novel Activated Carbon Based Adsorbents for control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of activated carbon adsorption for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate such as sulfur, chloride and other chelating agents for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The main process variables to be evaluated include temperature, mercury concentration and speciation, relative humidity, oxygen content, and presence of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas. The optimal amount of impregnate for each of these carbons will be determined based on the exhibited performance. Another important parameter which governs the applicability of adsorption technology for the flue gas clean up is the rate at which vapor phase mercury is being removed from the flue gas by activated carbon. Therefore, the second part of this study will evaluate the adsorption kinetics using the impregnated activated carbons listed above. The rate of mercury uptake will also be evaluated under the process conditions that are representative of coal-fired power plants. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also focus on the mercury desorption rate as a function of the type of impregnate, loading conditions, and the time of contact prior to disposal.

Vidic, R.D.

1997-03-17

330

After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak [University of Colorado at Boulder, CO (United States)

2009-04-15

331

Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office

2007-01-15

332

Power Systems Development Facility: Design, Construction, and Commissioning Status  

SciTech Connect

This paper will provide an introduction to the Power Systems Development Facility, a Department of Energy sponsored, engineering scale demonstration of two advanced coal-fired power technologies; and discuss current status of design, construction and commissioning of this facility. 28 viewgraphs, including 2 figs.

Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand; Hendrix, H.L.; Honeycut, P.M.

1996-12-31

333

Real-time tracking of CO? injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO? signature.  

PubMed

CO? was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO? isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO? with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO? was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO? was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO? isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO? provided clear evidence that injected CO? had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO? signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO? injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

2011-05-01

334

Measurement Requirements for Improved Modeling of Arcjet Facility Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current efforts to develop new reusable launch vehicles and to pursue low-cost robotic planetary missions have led to a renewed interest in understanding arc-jet flows. Part of this renewed interest is concerned with improving the understanding of arc-jet test results and the potential use of available computational-fluid- dynamic (CFD) codes to aid in this effort. These CFD codes have been extensively developed and tested for application to nonequilibrium, hypersonic flow modeling. It is envisioned, perhaps naively, that the application of these CFD codes to the simulation of arc-jet flows would serve two purposes: first. the codes would help to characterize the nonequilibrium nature of the arc-jet flows; and second. arc-jet experiments could potentially be used to validate the flow models. These two objectives are, to some extent, mutually exclusive. However, the purpose of the present discussion is to address what role CFD codes can play in the current arc-jet flow characterization effort, and whether or not the simulation of arc-jet facility tests can be used to eva1uate some of the modeling that is used to formu1ate these codes. This presentation is organized into several sections. In the introductory section, the development of large-scale, constricted-arc test facilities within NASA is reviewed, and the current state of flow diagnostics using conventional instrumentation is summarized. The motivation for using CFD to simulate arc-jet flows is addressed in the next section, and the basic requirements for CFD models that would be used for these simulations are briefly discussed. This section is followed by a more detailed description of experimental measurements that are needed to initiate credible simulations and to evaluate their fidelity in the different flow regions of an arc-jet facility. Observations from a recent combined computational and experiment.al investigation of shock-layer flows in a large-scale arc-jet facility are then used to illustrate the current state of development of diagnostic instrumentation, CFD simulations, and general knowledge in the field of arc-jet characterization. Finally, the main points are summarized and recommendations for future efforts are given.

Fletcher, Douglas G.

2000-01-01

335

Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

2012-01-01

336

An axial flow research compressor facility designed for flow measurement in rotor passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axial flow research compressor facility, which is designed for relative flow measurement, is described in this paper. The facility has a rotating probe traverse mechanism which is capable of traversing hot wire, pitot and other probes at 0.09 deg intervals across the rotor blade passage. The data transmission system includes rotating transducers, pressure transfer device, ten-channel mercury slip ring unit, scanivalve, etc. The instrumentation includes on-line data processing capability. A brief description of probes used as well as some typical data on the rotor blade static pressure, rotor endwall flow and rotor wake characteristics are given in the paper.

Lakshminarayana, B.

1980-01-01

337

Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity from MEA production and the impact of increased coal use including the increased generation of NOx from combustion and transportation, impacts of increased mining of coal and limestone, and the disposal of toxic fly ash and boiler ash waste streams. Overall, the implementing CCS technology could contribute to a dramatic decrease in global GHG emissions, while most other environmental and human health impact categories increase only slightly on a global scale. However, the impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity have not been studied as extensively and could have more severe impacts on a regional or local scale. More research is needed to draw strong conclusions with respect to the specific relative impact of different CCS technologies. Specifically, a more robust data set that disaggregates data in terms of component processes and treats a more comprehensive set of environmental impacts categories from a life-cycle perspective is needed. In addition, the current LCA framework lacks the required temporal and spatial scales to determine the risk of environmental impact from carbon sequestration. Appropriate factors to use when assessing the risk of water acidification (groundwater/oceans/aquifers depending on sequestration site), risk of increased human toxicity impact from large accidental releases from pipeline or wells, and the legal and public policy risk associated with licensing CO2 sequestration sites are also not currently addressed. In addition to identifying potential environmental, social, or risk-related issues that could impede the large-scale deployment of CCS, performing LCA-based studies on energy generation technologies can suggest places to focus our efforts to achieve technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally conscious energy generation technologies for maximum impact.

Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

2011-11-30

338

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/wet FGD system. Final report, Volume 2 of 2 - appendices  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices for a coal-fired power plant toxic emissions study. Included are Process data log sheets from Coal Creek, Auditing information, Sampling protocol, Field sampling data sheets, Quality assurance/quality control, Analytical protocol, and Uncertainty analyses.

Not Available

1994-07-01

339

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture from an existing coal-fired power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O 2\\/CO 2 recycle combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing fleet of modern pulverised coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years providing that efficient and economical CO2 capture technologies are available for retrofit. One option is to separate CO2 from the products of combustion using conventional approaches such as amine scrubbing. An emerging alternative, commonly known

D Singh; E Croiset; P. L Douglas; M. A Douglas

2003-01-01

340

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 6. APPENDICES G THROUGH I  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

341

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 1. SECTIONS 1 THROUGH 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

342

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 2. SECTIONS 6 THROUGH 9  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

343

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 4. APPENDICES C THROUGH E  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

344

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 3. APPENDICES A AND B  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

345

Development of advanced NOâ control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992June 30, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NOâ emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NOâ control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NOâ control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to

A. Evans; J. N. Pont; G. England; W. R. Seeker

1993-01-01

346

Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

NONE

1996-11-01

347

WATER RECYCLE/REUSE ALTERNATIVES IN COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS: VOLUME I. PLANT STUDIES AND GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of water recycle/treatment/reuse alternatives in coal-fired power plants. Five power plants from representative U.S. regions were studied. The major water systems encountered were cooling, ash sluicing, and SO2/particulate scrubbers. R...

348

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE, FL, GA, IL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

349

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

350

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

351

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

352

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

353

Thermal Integration of CO2 Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture. Final Technical Report December 1, 2009 to June 29, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO2 capture, will require a CO2 compression system to increase the pressure of the CO2 to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO2 compression will have ...

E. Levy

2012-01-01

354

Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

355

COAL BLENDING, ASH SEPARATION, ASH RE INJECTION, ASH CONDITIONING, AND OTHER NOVEL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE HG UPTAKE BY ASH IN COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in coal type and pollution control devices make it necessary to develop customized solutions for each utility, which will be most effective and economical for each configuration. In addition, the complicated chemistry and multiple mechanisms governing mercury speciation in coal-fired boilers makes it necessary to investigate Hg emission control technologies at conditions relevant to full-scale units. Experiments were performed

Thomas K. Gale; Randy L. Merritt

356

An evaluaton of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 2, Sensitivity studies and appendixes: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute contracted with Bechtel Group, Inc., to provide an evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD). A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The

J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. J. Milkavich; G. S. Booras; G. O. Thomas; H. Doss

1988-01-01

357

Ozone monitoring instrument observations of interannual increases in SO2 emissions from Indian coal-fired power plants during 2005-2012.  

PubMed

Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71% during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year(-1) produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R = 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and annual average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by >60% during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India. PMID:24274462

Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A

2013-12-17

358

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

359

Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame  

SciTech Connect

The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfield, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Turner, Paul C.

2005-01-01

360

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-01-01

361

Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for control of Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of adsorption-based technologies for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The first part of the study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The second part of the study will evaluate the rate of mercury uptake (adsorption kinetics) by several impregnated activated carbons. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also determine the fate of mercury adsorbed on these impregnated carbons.

Vidic, R.D.; Liu, W.; Brown, T. D., University of Pittsburgh

1998-01-01

362

A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

2014-01-01

363

Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

2001-01-01

364

Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S. [GZS College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-06-15

365

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-05-01

366

Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

2006-06-01

367

Effects of a coal-fired power plant on the rock lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma: chlorophyll degradation and electrolyte leakage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chlorophyll degradation and electrolyte leakage were measured for the umbilicate desert lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Ram.) Leuck. & Poelt in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant near Page, Arizona. Patterns of lichen damage indicated by chlorophyll degradation were similar to those indicated by electrolyte leakage. Regression analyses of chlorophyll degradation as well as electrolyte leakage on distance from the power plant were significant (p < 0.001), suggesting that lichen damage decreased with increasing distance from the power plant. Mean values for both variables at the two sites closest to the power plant (7 and 12 km) differed significantly from values for the two sites farthest from the plant (21 and 42 km; p < 0.001). Mean values within each group (7 and 12 km; 21 and 42 km) do not differ significantly for either parameter. It is suggested that effluents from the power plant combine with local weather factors to produce the observed levels of damage.

Belnap, Jayne; Harper, Kimball T.

1990-01-01

368

Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.

Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.

2003-01-01

369

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-10-26

370

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium-based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e., mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste from a coal-fired power generation system.

Steven T. Derenne

2006-04-28

371

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium-based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e., mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2006-01-25

372

Acute respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects living near a coal-fired plant  

SciTech Connect

Daily symptom rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects with presumed high sensitivity to air pollution who lived near a coal-fired power plant were compared with 24 h ambient air concentrations of NO/SUB/2, SO/SUB/2, soot and suspended particles, as well as with emissions from the plant. The mean concentrations of each of the pollutants during the 4-month study period were below 30GAMMA/m/SUP/3, and no single 24h concentration exceeded 100GAMMA/m/SUP/3. There were no consistent associations between plant emissions and pollutant levels, or between these two variables and daily symptom rates. The results indicate that the coal-fired plant was not of major importance for the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms in the surrounding population.

Pershagen, G.

1984-01-01

373

Study of the evolution of aerosol emissions from coal-fired power plants due to coagulation, condensation, and gravtitational settling and health impact.  

PubMed

This paper studies the scavenging efficiencies of aerosol emissions from coal-fired power plants under different removal mechanisms (coagulation, heterogeneous nucleation and gravitational settling) as a function of time. It also analyses the 'health impact' of the aerosol before and after the above dynamic mechanisms by comparing the respirable dust fractions. The well-known equations of evolution are applied to an average PSD that represents the exhaust particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants (i.e. Aboño power plant in Asturias that belongs to Hidrocantábrico Group, S.A.). From this study it is inferred that respirable dust is scavenged with the greatest difficulty and when compared with the initial volume of respirable dust, roughly 20% remains after 18 h of gravitational settling. Therefore, gravitational settling is the main removal mechanism of respirable dust compared to condensation and coagulation. PMID:16337081

García-Nieto, P J

2006-06-01

374

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed between October 1 and December 31, 1996 by the ABB team on U.S. Department of Energy project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` (LEBS), which is part of the DOE`s Combustion 2000 Program. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future coal-fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that are partially developed, will be used to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emission to one-sixth current NSPS limits and particulates to one- third current NSPS limits.

Regan, J.W.; Bender, D.J.; Clark, J.P.; Wesnor, J.D.

1997-01-01

375

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29

376

Effective retrofitting of post-combustion CO 2 capture to coal-fired power plants and insensitivity of CO 2 abatement costs to base plant efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing coal-fired power plants were not designed to be retrofitted with carbon dioxide post-combustion capture (PCC) and have tended to be disregarded as suitable candidates for carbon capture and storage on the grounds that such a retrofit would be uneconomical. Low plant efficiency and poor performance with capture compared to new-build projects are often cited as critical barriers to capture

Mathieu Lucquiaud; Jon Gibbins

2011-01-01

377

Experimental investigations on visualization of three-dimensional temperature distributions in a large-scale pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a novel flame image processing technique, the 3-D temperature distributions of combustion in the pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace of a 200MW power generation unit were visualized experimentally. With the assumption of gray radiation, multiple color flame image detectors were used to capture approximately monochromatic radiation intensity images under the visible wavelengths of red (R), green (G), and blue (B),

Huai-Chun Zhou; Chun Lou; Qiang Cheng; Zhiwei Jiang; Jin He; Benyuan Huang; Zhenlin Pei; Chuanxin Lu

2005-01-01

378

Controlling SOâ emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generators: water pollution impact. Volume II. Technical discussion. Final task report, April--December 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of one task in a comprehensive program to review the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for SOâ emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generating plants. The results compare two alternative standards to the existing NSPS (1.2 lb SOâ\\/million Btu of heat input): (1) 0.5 lb SOâ\\/million Btu of heat input, allowing credit (as does the existing NSPS) for

R. L. Sugarek; T. G. Sipes

1978-01-01

379

Controlling SOâ emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generators: water pollution impact. Volume I. Executive summary. Final task report April--December 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of one task in a comprehensive program to review a New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for SOâ emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generating plants. The results compare two alternative standard to the existing NSPS (1.2 lb SOâ\\/million Btu of heat input): (1) 0.5 lb SOâ\\/million Btu of heat input, allowing credit (as does the existing NSPS) for

R. L. Sugarek; T. G. Sipes

1978-01-01

380

An evaluation of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 1, Base case studies: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is provided. A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The study incorporated numerous sensitivity cases along with up-to-date operating and

J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. J. Milkavich; G. S. Booras; G. O. Thomas; H. Doss

1988-01-01

381

Lichens and mosses for correlation between trace elements and 210 Po in the areas near coal-fired power plant at Yata?an, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lichensRhizoplaca melanophthalma, Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia pyxidata and the mossesGrimmia pulvinata,\\u000aHypnum cupressiforme were analyzed for Pb, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a wide area around a coal-fired power plant located in Yataan. The results were compared with the 210Po concentrations previously measured in the same samples. Correlations between 210Po and

A. Ugur; B. Özden; M. M. Saç; G. Yener; Ü. Altinba?; Y. Kurucu; M. Bolca

2004-01-01

382

Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004–2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within

Filiz Gür; Günseli yaprak

2011-01-01

383

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the development of an a coal-fired low-emission boiler system. During march, separate kick-off meetings were held with PSI Powerserve, Raytheon and B&W`s Environmental Equipment Division to begin work on Phase I Task 5, the Commercial Plant Design. In addition, a meeting was held with MIT to discuss and review work completed and schedule work remaining on the project.

Not Available

1994-04-28

384

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Emission Burden from Coal-Fired Electric Power Plants - A Case Study of the Indian Power Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the experimental energy efficiency and estimates of CO2 emissions of low-grade power station coals as well as of coal-fired power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. It has been shown that increase in ash and moisture in coal increases the greenhouse emission burden. Simultaneously, increase in the maturity of coal increases its greenhouse index. The sensitivity of the

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2000-01-01

385

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

NONE

1996-08-19

386

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

1996-09-01

387

Penn State axial flow turbine facility: Performance and nozzle flow field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to gain a thorough understanding of the flow field in a turbine stage including three-dimensional inviscid and viscid effects, unsteady flow field, rotor-stator interaction effects, unsteady blade pressures, shear stress, and velocity field in rotor passages. The performance of the turbine facility at the design condition is measured and compared with the design distribution. The data on the nozzle vane static pressure and wake characteristics are presented and interpreted. The wakes are found to be highly three-dimensional, with substantial radial inward velocity at most spanwise locations.

Lakshminarayana, B.; Zaccaria, M.; Itoh, S.

1991-01-01

388

Use of outpatient clinics as a health indicator for communities around a coal-fired power plant.  

PubMed

The permit to operate the first coal fired power plant in Israel was issued with the condition that a comprehensive network to monitor its effects on the environment, health, and agriculture must be installed and operated around the plant. The health monitoring system consists of four studies, which started 1 year prior to the operation of the plant and were carried out for 10 years. In the framework of the health monitoring system, a study of requests for health services was carried out. In this survey, 8 clinics of the Sick Fund, served by 16 physicians, were followed up. The clinics were located as near as possible to air pollution monitoring stations and represent expected different levels of pollution. A health recorder summarized each day's visits to each physician and tabulated the total visits for each day and the visits due to respiratory tract complaints. Multivariate stepwise regressions on total as well as on respiratory complaints were carried out. The independent variables in the regressions were sulfur dioxide, meteorological parameters (such as temperature and humidity), and flu epidemics. Temperature was almost always significantly correlated with respiratory complaints, but less correlated with total visits among, adults and children. Sulfur dioxide, most meterological parameters and flu epidemics were not meaningful explanatory factor in the regressions. Ambient air pollution levels did not exceed the Israeli air quality or the more stringent local air quality standards, the monthly and annual average sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides values were very low. PMID:8747016

Goren, A I; Hellmann, S; Glaser, E D

1995-12-01

389

Follow-up of schoolchildren in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Israel  

SciTech Connect

This study was carried out in the framework of a health monitoring system set up in the vicinity of a 1400 megawatt coal-fired power plant in Israel. Second- and fifth-grade schoolchildren were followed up every 3 years; they performed pulmonary function tests (PFT), and their parents filled out American Thoracic Society-National Heart and Lung Institute health questionnaires. Among the cohort of second graders (in 1983) living in the area expected to be most polluted, a significant increase in the prevalence of part of the respiratory symptoms was evident in 1986. The prevalence of asthma among fifth graders in this area doubled compared with prevalence when they were second graders. Among the children from the older cohort (fifth graders in 1983) living in this community, a similar although milder trend could be observed, especially in regard to an increased prevalence of asthma in 1986 compared with 1983. Annual increases in PFT in the four groups of children (boys and girls from both cohorts) were found to be higher in the community expected to be polluted (especially in the younger cohort) compared with the two other communities. The discrepancy between the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases and the higher annual increase in PET among children from the expected more polluted community may be partly attributable to differential annual increase in height and to different distribution of background variables in the three communities.

Goren, A.I.; Hellmann, S.; Brenner, S. (Univ. of Tel-Aviv (Israel)); Goldsmith, J.R. (Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel))

1991-08-01

390

Advanced intelligent coordinated control of coal fired power plant based on fuzzy reasoning and auto-tuning  

SciTech Connect

The load following operation of coal-fired boiler-turbine unit in power plants can lead to changes in operating points, and it results in nonlinear variations of the plant variables and parameters. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. PID-type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. Moreover, PID-type controllers can be auto-tuned to achieve a better control performance in the whole operating range and to reject the unmeasurable disturbances. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, namely the Gaussian partition system with evenly spaced midpoints, is also proposed to auto-tune the PID controller in the main steam pressure loop based on the error signal and its first difference to overcome uncertainties caused by changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors, etc. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process.

Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

2004-07-01

391

Gas-phase mercury reduction to measure total mercury in the flue gas of a coal-fired boiler.  

PubMed

Gaseous elemental and total (elemental + oxidized) mercury (Hg) in the flue gas from a coal-fired boiler was measured by a modified ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. Challenges to Hg measurement were the spectral interferences from other flue gas components and that UV measures only elemental Hg. To eliminate interference from flue gas components, a cartridge filled with gold-coated sand removed elemental Hg from a flue gas sample. The Hg-free flue gas was the reference gas, eliminating the spectral interferences. To measure total Hg by UV, oxidized Hg underwent a gas-phase, thermal-reduction in a quartz cell heated to 750 degrees C. Simultaneously, hydrogen was added to flash react with the oxygen present forming water vapor and preventing Hg re-oxidation as it exits the cell. Hg concentration results are in parts per billion by volume Hg at the flue gas oxygen concentration. The modified Hg analyzer and the Ontario Hydro method concurrently measured Hg at a field test site. Measurements were made at a 700-MW steam turbine plant with scrubber units and selective catalytic reduction. The flue gas sampled downstream of the selective catalytic reduction contained 2100 ppm SO2 and 75 ppm NOx. Total Hg measured by the Hg analyzer was within 20% of the Ontario Hydro results. PMID:14871013

Meischen, Sandra J; Van Pelt, Vincent J; Zarate, Eugene A; Stephens, Edward A

2004-01-01

392

The evolution of particles in the plume from a large coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization.  

PubMed

Airborne measurements were made of gaseous and particulate species in the plume of a large coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls were installed. These measurements were compared with measurements made before the controls were installed. The light scattering and number and volume distributions of plume excess particles were determined by nephelometry and optical particle counting techniques. The plume impact based on optical techniques was much lower than that observed in earlier measurements. Indeed, plume excess volumes as a function of particle size were of the same magnitude as the variability of the background volume distribution. In situ excess plume scattering actually decreased with distance from the source, in contrast to pre-FGD conditions. The upper limit for the dry rate of SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion was estimated from plume excess volume measurements to be about 4% hr-1. This is slightly greater than the upper limit, 3.5% hr-1, estimated by earlier researchers, but the same as that estimated using the present technique with the earlier data. The cross-plume profile of volume suggests SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion is highest at the plume edges. The greatest benefit of SO2 reduction on plume excess volume and visibility appears to occur far down-wind of the source. PMID:10939213

Imhoff, R E; Tanner, R L; Valente, R J; Luria, M

2000-07-01

393

The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource & Earth Science

2006-01-15

394

Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

Szpunar, C.B.

1993-08-01

395

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuels consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

396

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

397

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

398

Techno-economic assessment of polymer membrane systems for postcombustion carbon capture at coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

This study investigates the feasibility of polymer membrane systems for postcombustion carbon dioxide (CO(2)) capture at coal-fired power plants. Using newly developed performance and cost models, our analysis shows that membrane systems configured with multiple stages or steps are capable of meeting capture targets of 90% CO(2) removal efficiency and 95+% product purity. A combined driving force design using both compressors and vacuum pumps is most effective for reducing the cost of CO(2) avoided. Further reductions in the overall system energy penalty and cost can be obtained by recycling a portion of CO(2) via a two-stage, two-step membrane configuration with air sweep to increase the CO(2) partial pressure of feed flue gas. For a typical plant with carbon capture and storage, this yielded a 15% lower cost per metric ton of CO(2) avoided compared to a plant using a current amine-based capture system. A series of parametric analyses also is undertaken to identify paths for enhancing the viability of membrane-based capture technology. PMID:23406504

Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

2013-03-19

399

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, were evaluated in a full-scale trial at the American Electric Power Conesville plant. Ammonia conditioning was also evaluated for comparison. ADA-51 and ammonia conditioning significantly reduced rapping and non-rapped particulate re-entrainment based on stack opacity monitor data. Based on the successful tests to date, ADA-51 will be evaluated in a long-term test.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-02-01

400

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

Elliott, Jeannine

2013-08-31

401

Indian coal fired utility boiler operation -- its critical issues and their resolution: A role model for IPPs  

SciTech Connect

The operational experience of 26 pulverized coal fired utility units -- 14 x 200/210 MW and 12 x 500 MW of 5 plants of National Thermal Power Corporation has been reviewed. The operational problems included--excessive superheater and reheater spray, high metal temperature, excessive tube failure, low life of grinding elements, clinkering/slagging despite using non-slagging coal and high back end temperature. As a result, the turbine heat rate increased by over 1% and the plant load factor was around 60%. A detailed investigation carried out by means of Flame Track, a state of the art boiler model, revealed off design heat absorption by both the radiant and convective zones due to the under size furnace design. This arose from the vendors inadequate experience of the unique slow burning characteristics of inertinite rich and highly abrasive Indian coal. The grinding element material was modified and the heat transfer surfaces were adjusted in accordance with the heat absorption profiles of the individual units to suit the individual coal quality. These resulted in significant improvement in the operation of the units with respect to the grinding element life, spray requirement, plant load factor and heat rate. Guidelines were devised for coal specific boiler design and bid evaluation protocol. These are of value to the owners and the vendors alike for future use.

Sanyal, A. [International Environmental and Energy Consultants, Oakbrook Terrace, IL (United States); Chandan, R. [National Thermal power Corp., Noida (India)

1998-12-31

402

Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85 {+-} 0.25 {mu} g/g (dry mass)), selenium (17.75 {+-} 0.80 {mu} g/g), and cadmium (7.28 {+-} 0.34 {mu} g/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33 {+-} 0.83 to 0.81 {+-} 0.11 {mu} g/g (dry mass) in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

Peltier, G.L.; Wright, M.S.; Hopkins, W.A.; Meyer, J.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

2009-07-15

403

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-09-01

404

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-05-01

405

Biomonitoring of ²¹?Po and ²¹?Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey.  

PubMed

Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yata?an (Mu?la), Soma (Manisa), Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (210)Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for (210)Po and (210)Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more (210)Po and (210)Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yata?an (Mu?la), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. PMID:21458118

Sert, Emel; U?ur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay

2011-06-01

406

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT (EPA/600/R-00/020)  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

407

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27

408

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2003 through August 2003. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Major accomplishments included: Development of an emission profile for an integrated coke production facility and simulations using PMCAMx for a two week period during July 2001. The emissions from the coke facility are dominated by carbonaceous compounds. Forty seven percent of the organic carbon mass was identified on a compound level basis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compound class in the coke emissions. Initial comparisons with the data collected in Pittsburgh suggest good agreement between the model predictions and observations. Single particle composition data appear useful for identifying primary sources. An example of this unique approach is illustrated using the Fe and Ce particle class with appear associated with steel production.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2003-11-01

409

Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1997, 11 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of December 1997 was 103, of which 30 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO emissions as x low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post- 2 combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. This report also contains clarification of project results reported in the 22 Quarterly Technical Report in response to nd comments by DOE.

Bert Lauderer

1998-01-17

410

Simulation of Combustion in a Coal-Fired Boiler with a Fixed Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, steady-state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. The solution method and the discretization of the governing equations of two-dimensional turbulent reactive flow in the combustion chamber and one-dimensional coal combustion in the fixed bed are explained. Control volume and finite difference methods are used in the discretization of the equations in the combustion

A. BIYIKOGLU; M. SIVRIOGLU

2004-01-01

411

Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

In the third quarter of calendar year 1997, 10 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of September 1997 was 93, of which 19 tests were implemented as part of another DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. Key project objectives have been exceeded, including NO emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 x 2 lb/MMBtu. The tests in the present quarter focussed on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for SO2 and NOx control processes. The results were in the same range as in previous tests. In addition, initial tests of Coal Tech?s post-combustion NOx control process were implemented on a 100 MW and a 37 MW utility boiler, and NOx reductions as high as 40% were measured in the latter boiler.

Bert Zauderer

1998-01-15

412

Oxy-fuel combustion systems for pollution free coal fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen's patented oxy-fuel combustion systems1 are capable of economically generating power from coal with ultra-low emissions and increased boiler efficiency. Jupiter's system uses pure oxygen as the combustion agent, excluding air and thus nitrogen, concentrating CO2 and pollutants for efficient capture with near zero NOx production, reducing exhaust mass flow, and increasing radiant heat transfer. Flue-gas recirculation rates can be varied to add flexibility to new boiler designs using this technology. Computer modeling and thermal analysis have identified important design considerations in retrofit applications.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Dietrich (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Dogan, Cindy; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfeld, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.)

2004-01-01

413

Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

None

2006-12-31

414

Evaluation of technologically enhanced natural radiation near the coal-fired power plants in the Lodz region of Poland.  

PubMed

Radionuclide releases together with escaping fly ashes (from 45 x 10(6) kg in previous decades to 8 x 10(6) kg annually in 1996) from the main local and several small coal-fired power plants resulted in a relatively small increase in natural radioactivity levels in the Lodz region. The natural gamma terrestrial radiation dose rates (1 m above ground level) were measured at 82 points including in the vicinity of power plants, in the center of the town and on edge of the town. The average dose rate value for the first area was 36 +/- 1.2 nGy h (-1), whereas the same dose rate for the edge of town was slightly lower 30 +/- 0.9 nGy h (-1) but this difference was statistically significant. Further confirmation of the technologically slightly enhanced exposure of the local population to natural radionuclides was achieved by gamma-spectrometry measurement of the uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in the surface soil profiles (up to 30 cm depth). The average increase of 226Ra and 232Th radionuclides in the top layer of soil (0-10 cm) according to the 20+/-30 cm depth layer was 21% and 17%, respectively. However, due to the relatively low levels of 232Th (14.3 Bq kg (-1)) and 238U (16.8 Bq kg (-1)) in this area, the annual average effective dose from the natural terrestrial radiation for the local population is also relatively low, 0.28 mSv only. PMID:12066980

Bem, H; Wieczorkowski, P; Budzanowski, M

2002-01-01

415

Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.  

PubMed

The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3). PMID:20380437

Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

2010-05-01

416

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

417

Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

1993-11-01

418

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

CombiNO{sub x} is a NO{sub x} reduction process which incorporates three different NO{sub x} control technologies: reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and methanol injection. Gas reburning is a widely used technology that has been proven to reduce NO{sub x} up to 60% on full-scale applications. The specific goals of the CombiNO{sub x} project are: 70% NO{sub x} reduction at 20% of the cost of selective catalytic reduction; NO{sub x} levels at the stack of 60 ppm for ozone non-attainment areas; Demonstrate coal reburning; Identify all undesirable by-products of the process and their controlling parameters; Demonstrate 95% N0{sub 2} removal in a wet scrubber. Before integrating all three of CombiNO{sub x}'s technologies into a combined process, it is imperative that the chemistry of each individual process is well understood. Pilot-scale SNCR tests and the corresponding computer modeling were studied in detail and discussed in the previous quarterly report. This quarterly report will present the results obtained during the pilot-scale advanced reburning tests performed on EER's Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). Since methanol injection is a relatively new NO{sub x} control technology, laboratory-scale tests were performed to better understand the conditions at which methanol is most effective. The experimental set-up and results from these tests will be discussed.

Evans, A.; Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1992-06-23

419

Flow turbulence characterization in a large scale bubble plume facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study consists of characterizing the flow turbulence in a large scale bubble plume facility based on a set of water velocity measurements conducted in a large tank (diameter = 15m) at a wastewater treatment plant. The tank was filled to a depth of 7m above the diffuser and six different air discharges were analyzed. Six acoustic Doppler velocimeter probes were placed on a down rod and arranged vertically at different distances above the diffuser. Data were collected during a period of 20 minutes at each of the more than ten radial locations. A hydrodynamic analysis of the generated bubble plume was performed first in order to characterize the frequency of the swinging motion of the plume. This information was used to remove this low frequency oscillation component by filtering the recorded velocity signals. Turbulence parameters such as turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence time and length scales, and dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy were then computed based on the processed signals. The results help to understand the bubble phenomenon and provide basis for the validation of numerical models of bubble plume systems used in the design of combined-sewer-overflow reservoirs. These reservoirs are being built by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago as part of the Chicago land Tunnel and Reservoir Plan.

Garcia, Carlos

2005-11-01

420

Continuous-flow variable-density wind tunnel facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unique features of wind tunnel facilities at Jet Propulsion Laboratory permit variety of conventional and novel tests to be performed at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. Facilities and operations are described.

Herrera, J. G.

1972-01-01

421

The distribution and sea-air transfer of volatile mercury in waste post-desulfurization seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant.  

PubMed

The waste seawater discharged in coastal areas from coal-fired power plants equipped with a seawater desulfurization system might carry pollutants such as mercury from the flue gas into the adjacent seas. However, only very limited impact studies have been carried out. Taking a typical plant in Xiamen as an example, the present study targeted the distribution and sea-air transfer flux of volatile mercury in seawater, in order to trace the fate of the discharged mercury other than into the sediments. Samples from 28 sampling sites were collected in the sea area around two discharge outlets of the plant, daily and seasonally. Total mercury, dissolved gaseous mercury and dissolved total mercury in the seawater, as well as gaseous elemental mercury above the sea surface, were investigated. Mean concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury and gaseous elemental mercury in the area were 183 and 4.48 ng m(-3) in summer and 116 and 3.92 ng m(-3) in winter, which were significantly higher than those at a reference site. Based on the flux calculation, the transfer of volatile mercury was from the sea surface into the atmosphere, and more than 4.4 kg mercury, accounting for at least 2.2 % of the total discharge amount of the coal-fired power plant in the sampling area (1 km(2)), was emitted to the air annually. This study strongly suggested that besides being deposited into the sediment and diluted with seawater, emission into the atmosphere was an important fate for the mercury from the waste seawater from coal-fired power plants. PMID:23589251

Sun, Lumin; Lin, Shanshan; Feng, Lifeng; Huang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Dongxing

2013-09-01

422

Task 2.3 - Review and Assessment of Results From the Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

To help meet the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Phase I of a study entitled "Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic - Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants" in 1992. Final reports which detail air toxic emissions from eight power plants (nine conilgurations) were completed by the contractors. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) served as an independent third-party reviewer of these reports; it has completed the activities as outlined for the initial review process and has prepared two reports. The fiist report, entitled "A Comprehensive Assessment of Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Phase I Results from the U.S. Department of Energy Study" was published in September 1996 and is available to the public and private sectors through the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh. This report surnmar izes and evaluates the stack emission data. The second report prepared by the EERC, entitled "A Comprehensive Assessment of Toxic Emission from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Statistical Correlations from the Combined DOE and EPRI Field Test Data," details empirical correlations derived horn the Phase I DOE data and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPIU) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies) data. The objective of the project was to provide an independent review of the Phase I data, evaluate the scientific validity of the conclusions, identify significant correlations between emissions and fuel or process parameters, compare the data with available data from EPRI studies, make recommendations for future studies, and complete a combined report that summarizes Phase I, Phase II, and EPRI findings.

Sumitra R. Ness

1997-08-01

423

Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

NONE

1996-02-01

424

Benefits and Experience with Coal and Air Flow Measurement and Automatic Control on Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers - Update 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even the best burners is the world will not achieve optimal performance if fuel and air is not balanced. Controlling near field stoichiometries at the burners is being demonstrated as essential toward achieving ultra low emission performance. In an effort to provide continuous technology updates on the effects of air to fuel balance, this paper presents new results and benefits

S. Laux; A. Headman; J. Grusha; T. Rosin

425

Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201  

SciTech Connect

Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

Bhattacharya, C. [National Power Training Institute, Durgapur (India)

2008-09-15

426

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

During the last reporting period the experimental setup in the University of Utah Laminar-Flow Drop Tube was modified to allow for batch experiments. This modification was made in order to guarantee complete conversion of the char in the reactor. Once the setup was optimized, the effect of particle size, oxygen concentration, type of char and NO bulk concentration on the conversion of char-N to NO was evaluated. In this report, we present the results obtained for different chars and for different NO background concentrations. The effect of oxygen and particle size is currently being analyzed and will be presented in the final report. Experiments were performed with three different carbonaceous materials and were conducted at temperatures close to that of pulverized combustion conditions (1700 K) in a laminar drop tube reactor under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The results obtained show that the process of NO reduction on the char surface plays an important role on the total amount of char-N converted to NOx. This effect tends to reduce as the NO background concentration is reduced and doesn't seem to strongly depend on the nature of the char. Some of these results were presented at the 2nd Joint Meeting of the US Sections of the Combustion Institute, held in March of 2001. In addition to the experimental observations on char-N conversion to NO, a single particle model was developed and the predictions of the model were compared with the experimental results. Although the model predicts the linear reduction on the conversion of char-N to NO, it overpredicts the general value. A higher value for the rate of NO destruction on char surface doesn't seem to explain this phenomenon, which may be more related to the availability of char surface for the destruction of NO.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

2001-06-01

427

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01

428

Multiphase flow simulation of a simplified coal pulveriser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coal-fired power plants, the first major component is pulveriser, whose performance dictates the total power station efficiency. Pulveriser is employed to grind the lumped coal and transport the fine coal powder to furnace chamber for an efficient combustion. In this study, we have simulated motion of air and coal particles inside a commercial-scale pulveriser. Multiphase flow simulation of a

H. B. Vuthaluru; V. K. Pareek; R. Vuthaluru

2005-01-01

429

ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 2: APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

430

ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

431

LIME/LIMESTONE WET-SCRUBBING TEST RESULTS AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. CAPSULE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This Capsule Report describes a program conducted by EPA to test prototype lime and limestone wet-scrubbing systems for removing sulfur dioxide and particulate matter from coal-fired boiler flue gases. The program is being carried out in a test facility which is integrated into t...

432

Rayleigh Scattering for Measuring Flow in a Nozzle Testing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-engine-component test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust. A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-enginecomponent test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust

Gomez, Carlos R.; Panda, Jayanta

2006-01-01

433

Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {ge} 10% NSPS; coal {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. The HIPPS generating plant integrates a combustion gas turbine/HRSG combined cycle arrangement with an advanced coal-fired boiler. The unique feature of the HIPPS plant is the partial heating of gas turbine (GT) compressor outlet air using energy release