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1

Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute''; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

Casey, J.L.; Holt, J.K.

1992-01-01

2

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

1990-12-01

3

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective is to advance the technology of direct coal-fired MHD components and systems required for MHD power systems operating under engineering simulation of central power station power conditions. The specific objectives of the UTSI R and D MHD Facility and the MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility are to resolve experimentally and analytically the key technical problems which have been

J. B. Dicks; H. P. Markant; L. W. Crawford

1979-01-01

4

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

1981-03-01

5

Description of the DOE Coal-Fired MHD Flow Facility \\/CFFF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components, instrumentation, and operating parameters of the DOE MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility are described, noting its extension and expansion from a previous prototype plant. The CFFF features three bays for coal delivery, offering hot gas flows of 8 and 30 lb\\/sec, and a third rate for outside contractor studies. A Low Mass Flow test train is intended for engineering tests

J. B. Dicks; J. F. Martin; J. W. Muehlhauser; S. S. Strom

1980-01-01

6

Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic

S.-T. Wang; L. Genens; J. Gonczy; H. Ludwig; M. Lieberg; E. Kraft; D. Gacek; Y.-C. Huang; C.-J. Chen

1981-01-01

7

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01

8

Environmental Audit of the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF)  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the audit at the CFFF was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of CFFF operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of CFFF facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributedto the finding and will assist line management in developing root causes'' for implementing corrective actions. The overall conclusion of the audit is that The University of Space Institute's Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs (ECP) management of the CFFF has not kept pace with DOE's increasing expectation for environmental performance. ECP has not applied the same door and formality to environmental compliance and protection activities as they apply to their research and development activities.A total of 31 findings were identified in this audit.

Not Available

1992-12-01

9

Environmental Audit of the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF)  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the audit at the CFFF was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of CFFF operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of CFFF facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributedto the finding and will assist line management in developing ``root causes`` for implementing corrective actions. The overall conclusion of the audit is that The University of Space Institute`s Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs (ECP) management of the CFFF has not kept pace with DOE`s increasing expectation for environmental performance. ECP has not applied the same door and formality to environmental compliance and protection activities as they apply to their research and development activities.A total of 31 findings were identified in this audit.

Not Available

1992-12-01

10

Ash deposition in the Coal Fired Flow Facility while burning Illinois [number sign]6 coal  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of coal fly ash and potassium sulfate on tubes representative of superheaters and intermediate temperature air heaters at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility during a 2000 hour POC test period is herein described. The deposition is unique to this test facility because of the high combustion temperatures and the use of potassium carbonate as the conducting seed.'' This seed material is required for coal fired MHD applications as a means to control sulfur dioxide emissions as it combines with the sulfur in coal to form potassium sulfate. Most of the potassium sulfate solids removed are in the form of a fine ash from which potassium can be recovered and recycled. Testing clearly indicated that the majority of ash/seed deposits can be removed by conventional sootblowing. A significant difference in ash removal is the increased volume of deposits, as potassium compounds make up 75% of the total deposits which must be removed for efficient heat transfer. Tube deposits on the heat exchange surfaces in the area of highest gas temperature have been difficult to remove due to the presence of molten potassium sulfate.

Dace, J.F.; Shaver, T.C.

1993-01-01

11

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and maintenance in preparation for a 225 hour POC test that is scheduled for early next quarter. The modifications to the dry ESP to replace the electrodes with smaller diameter wires is discussed. Continued work on the rotary vacuum filter, which is designed to separate the more soluble potassium carbonate from the potassium sulfate and fly ash, is reported. Environmental activities for the quarter are summarized.

Not Available

1993-07-01

12

The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Sanders, M.E.

1996-02-01

13

Disposition of chlorine-containing species in an MHD coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine-containing species in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) will decrease plasma conductivity, release Cl[sub 2] and HCl gas and cause fouling and corrosion in downstream components. Therefore, this work was conducted to characterize the disposition of chlorine containing species under CFFF conditions to identify parameters affecting gas phase chloride emission; to propose possible reaction pathways in the CFFF system; and to rationalize chlorine mass balance across the CFFF. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, extracted gas samples and bulk solid samples were taken at certain major MHD downstream components. Equilibrium concentrations of chlorine-containing species in the CFFF were calculated using the NASA-SP 273 computer code. Bench scale experiments were then carried out by simulating the MHD downstream test conditions. The results of the test sampling, the theoretical calculations, and the bench scale experiments were compared. Based on this comparison, the possible disposition of various chlorine-containing species in the CFFF system is reported. An overall chlorine mass balance for the CFFF was also attempted and the results are reported.

Wang, Shuying.

1993-01-01

14

Disposition of chlorine-containing species in an MHD coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine-containing species in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) will decrease plasma conductivity, release Cl{sub 2} and HCl gas and cause fouling and corrosion in downstream components. Therefore, this work was conducted to characterize the disposition of chlorine containing species under CFFF conditions to identify parameters affecting gas phase chloride emission; to propose possible reaction pathways in the CFFF system; and to rationalize chlorine mass balance across the CFFF. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, extracted gas samples and bulk solid samples were taken at certain major MHD downstream components. Equilibrium concentrations of chlorine-containing species in the CFFF were calculated using the NASA-SP 273 computer code. Bench scale experiments were then carried out by simulating the MHD downstream test conditions. The results of the test sampling, the theoretical calculations, and the bench scale experiments were compared. Based on this comparison, the possible disposition of various chlorine-containing species in the CFFF system is reported. An overall chlorine mass balance for the CFFF was also attempted and the results are reported.

Wang, Shuying

1993-01-01

15

Status of Proof-Of-Concept testing at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Proof-of-concept (POC) testing, and collection and evaluation of data continued at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility during the past year. Following four preliminary tests firing Rosebud coal in 1991 to establish base conditions for the Rosebud coal POC tests, three POC tests were run in 1992, and a fourth test early in 1993. Major equipment additions or modifications included installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which replaced a badly deteriorated venturi. This component also provides improved capability to meet Tennessee pollution regulations while operating the dry ESP and/or baghouse off design, or if one of these two control devices does not function properly. Improvements were also made to the dry ESP prior to the 1993 test, which appear to have improved the performance of this equipment. This paper will present an overview of the major results obtained during the Rosebud coal POC tests, including the performance of the dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Differences between the Rosebud and Illinois coals will be described, but it is emphasized that these observations are based on incomplete results for the Rosebud coal.

Attig, R.C.; Chapman, J.N.; Johanson, N.R.

1993-06-01

16

Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl{sub 2} and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

1991-01-01

17

NO sub x emissions: Recent CFFF (Coal Fired Flow Facility) results and estimates for MHD retrofit scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Subjects related to NO{sub x} formation and decomposition are discussed in this paper. An experimental and theoretical study of NO behavior in the radiant furnace of the Coal Fired Flow Facility is described. Calculations are presented on the necessary size of an MHD Retrofit plant, to ensure current and possible future NO{sub x} emission indices are satisfied. The possibility of using high stoichiometry in the MHD generator, then decreasing the stoichiometry in the radiant furnace to control NO{sub x} emissions, is considered, using the principle of fuel injection at the furnace entrance. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Crawford, L.W.; Attig, R.C.; Lynch, T.P.; Rasnake, D.G.

1990-01-01

18

Results of 500-hour superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion data have been obtained for tubes, (austenitic steels, carbon steels, and intermediate chromium steels), exposed to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater components for 500 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics MHD coal fired flow facility (MHD CFFF). The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, developed oxide surface scales which were not protective against intergranular sulfur penetration of the subsurface metal. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. The implications of the results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions. 4 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

White, M.K.; Li, M.

1991-05-01

19

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, January-March 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective is to advance the technology of direct coal-fired MHD components and systems required for MHD power systems operating under engineering simulation of central power station power conditions. The specific objectives of the UTSI R and D...

J. B. Dicks H. P. Markant L. W. Crawford

1979-01-01

20

Superheater\\/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western

1996-01-01

21

Particulate sampling methods used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute's coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), operates a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) research facility with downstream components capable of simulating a steam bottoming plant with particulate control devices. The major downstream components of the coal fired flow facility (CFFF) include a superheater test module (SHTM); an air heater; and three parallel particulate control devices, a baghouse, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and

1988-01-01

22

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum due to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and actions progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater. Data and documentation on results of the MHD program have been identified for archiving and are being maintained for archival storage.

NONE

1995-07-01

23

Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

White, M.K.

1993-11-01

24

Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

White, M.

1996-01-01

25

Design and construction of a large superconducting MHD magnet for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a large superconducting MHD dipole magnet system for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). The complete system will be tested at Argonne and installed at the UTSI during the early part of 1981. The magnet system has a peak on-axis field of 6.0 T and a warm aperture of 80 cm at the MHD channel inlet, 100 cm diameter at the end of effective field and an effective field length of 3.0 m. The MHD warm bore and magnet cryostat are shown, and significant magnet parameters are given.

Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.

1980-01-01

26

Development Program for MHD Direct Coal Fired Power Generation Test Facility. Annual Technical Progress Report, January--December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests conducted in the existing MHD facility supported areas critical to the design of test components for the new intermediate-size, direct coal fired MHD development facility. Experimental results provided evidence as to what the flow train downstream o...

J. B. Dicks H. P. Markant R. C. Attig

1978-01-01

27

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

Not Available

1993-06-01

28

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force was completed for FY94. No further testing occurred or was scheduled during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status. Plans progressed for environmental actions needed at the site. Work began on archiving the results of the MHD program.

Not Available

1994-10-01

29

Research on Resource Value Flow Accounting Based on Circular Economy for Coal-fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology of resource value flow accounting developed for a study which combined material flow analysis (MFA) for the coal-fired power generation plant, in order to shed light on concepts such as resource productivity and dematerialization of the coal-fired power plant. Different from the previous macro-level MFA, this paper analyses the material cycle of coal-fired power plant

Xie Zhiming; Yi Xuan

2010-01-01

30

A description of the direct coal-fired MHD facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct coal-fired MHD facility capable of running continuously at the coal flow rate of 3 tons\\/hour and intermittently of up to one hour continuous operation at a coal flow rate of about 10 tons\\/hour is described. The facility contains all essential components of a central power MHD station except the air preheater. Current results in seed recovery and SO2

J. B. Dicks; K. E. Tempelmeyer; H. P. Markant; Y. C. L. Wu; J. F. Martin; J. W. Muehlhauser; L. W. Crawford

1977-01-01

31

Proof-of-concept tests of the magnetohydrodynamic steam-bottoming system at the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power can be viewed as consisting of two parts; the topping cycle and the bottoming cycle. The topping cycle consists of the coal combustor, MHD generator and associated components. The bottoming cycle consists of the heat recovery, steam generation, seed recovery/regeneration, emissions control (gas and particulate), ash handling and deposition, and materials evaluation. The report concentrates on the bottoming cycle, for which much of the technology was developed at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Because of the complexity of the required technology, a number of issues required investigation. Of specific concern regarding the bottoming cycle, was the design of the steam cycle components and emissions control. First, the high combustion temperatures and the use of large quantities of potassium in the MHD combustor results in a difference in the composition of the gases entering the bottoming cycle compared to conventional systems. Secondly, a major goal of the UTSI effort was to use a variety of coals in the MHD system, especially the large reserves of high-sulfur coals available in the United States.

Attig, R.C. [ed.

1996-10-09

32

Gas stream composition and temperature determination in a coal-fired MHD simulation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minicomputer controlled and monitored test stand for simulation of the gas stream conditions which will exist in various components of a coal-fired baseline MHD power plant and for evaluation of the substructures is described. Emphasis is devoted to the thermal aspects of the design and operation of this facility. A comprehensive thermal model of the system is described, and

R. E. Powe

1978-01-01

33

A trace metal study surrounding a coal-fired electrical generating facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 1300 coal-fired facilities that generate more than 55% of the nation's electricity. State-of-the-art technology removes 99% of the particulates in coal and 97% of the SOâ. That kind of efficiency appears to be more than adequate until one realizes that the coal consumption of some power generating facilities may exceed 15,000 tons\\/day. Hence, it becomes very obvious

D. L. Mitchell; B. L. Wilson

1987-01-01

34

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

35

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

36

Development Program for MHD Direct Coal-Fired Power Generation Test Facility. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, July-September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests conducted in the existing MHD facility supported areas critical to the design of components for the new intermediate-size, direct coal-fired MHD development facility. A new combustor design concept was developed and tested. In the coal to oxygen rat...

J. B. Dicks H. P. Markant R. C. Attig

1977-01-01

37

Development Program for MHD Direct Coal-Fired Power Generation Test Facility. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, April--June 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests conducted in the existing MHD facility were concentrated in areas critical to the design of components for the new intermediate-size, direct coal-fired MHD test facility. Tests in the area of slag/seed separation and seed recovery were begun for the...

J. B. Dicks H. P. Markant M. S. Beaton

1977-01-01

38

Development program for MHD direct coal-fired power generation test facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted in the existing MHD facility were concentrated in areas critical to the design of components for the new intermediate-size, direct coal-fired MHD test facility. Tests in the area of slag\\/seed separation and seed recovery were begun for the purpose of evaluating a seed condensing unit for potassium sulfate recovery and a commerical bagfilter as a second stage collection

J. B. Jr. Dicks; H. P. Markant; M. S. Beaton

1977-01-01

39

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31

40

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 53%. The average Hg concentration in the stack flue gas was 4.09 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The average stack mercury emission was 3.47 Ib/TBtu. The mercury material balance closures ranged from 87% to 108%, with an average of 97%. A sampling program similar to this one was performed on a similar unit (at the same plant) that was equipped with an SCR for NOx control. Comparison of the results from the two units show that the SCR increases the percentage of mercury that is in the oxidized form, which, in turn, lends to more of the total mercury being removed in the wet scrubber. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal.

J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

2005-11-01

41

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01

42

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31

43

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

J.A. Withum

2006-03-07

44

An emission absorption technique suitable for automatic measurement of seed atom density in coal-fired MHD flows  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a spectroscopic method for determination of the number density of seed atoms in a coal-fired MHD flow is presented. The method is based upon solving a system of radiative transfer equations for light intensity measurements at two independent wavelengths on the wing of an atomic resonance line. The calculations are based upon the assumption that the particle effects are broad band relative to the width of the resonance line radiation. The number density calculation presumes a Voigt profile for the atomic emission line although the technique could be extended to any known profile. Numerical calculations and experimental data from simulated coal-fired MHD flows support the analysis. Comparisons show that classical measurements overestimate the emitter atom number density, with the results sensitive to the choice of measurement wavelength.

Bauman, L.E.; Luthe, J.C.; Ma, X. (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Lab., Mississippi State Univ., MS (US))

1991-01-01

45

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF)

J. A. Withum

2006-01-01

46

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

47

A LOW COST AND HIGH EFFICIENCT FACILITY FOR REMOVAL OF SO2 AND NOx IN THE FLUE GAS FROM COAL FIRE POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of toxic gas, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides has become serious issue in the world. A review of EB method to remove the SOx and NOx in flue gas from coal-fired power plants was described in this paper. A design of an electron curtain accelerator of 600 keV was given, and a facility for purification of flue gas

Yuan Ji Pei; Ge Li; Xiang Qi Wang; Yun Wu Zhang; Guang Yao Feng; Yong Wang; Wei Wei

48

Environmental Audit of the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope of the audit at the CFFF was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assura...

1992-01-01

49

Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications such as the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

1980-10-01

50

Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1994-05-01

51

Coal Firing Installations 1987. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary of the papers presented at the VGB conference 'Coal Firing Installations 1987'. The individual topics are: Coal dust combustion in industrial steam generators - theory and operating results. Evaluation of optimization measures involvin...

1987-01-01

52

Coal fired air turbine cogeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

Foster-Pegg, R. W.

53

Soda Flames in Coal Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

IF a coal-fire be looked into with some attention after a fresh supply of coals has nearly ceased to give out its gases, there will be seen here and there in the hottest parts, and coming out of them through crannies and round dark corners, a pale translucent yellow flame, which one soon gets to recognise easily. What does it

J. Herschel

1882-01-01

54

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit of the J. E. Corette Plant: Design definition  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, and operation of a fully integrated coal burning MHD/steam-power system has been identified as a necessary step for commercialization of MHD power gerneation. The addition of an MHD power system to an existing utility's conventional steam power plant is presently considered an efficient and attractive method for realization of this, and the conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD power plant has been initiated as an important item of the National MHD development program. Current activities of the MHD development program comprise proof-of-concepts testing of MHD topping cycle components and bottoming cycle components at the Components Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), respectively, at subscale levels. The MHD plant will provide for operation and testing of a fully integrated MHD/steam power system in a utility environment at a larger size consistent with its objectives. Its main objectives are to verify the technical and economic feasibility of commercial MHD power genration including environmental aspects and to provide electric utilities and equipment manufacturers with the necessary information and confidence to proceed with commercialization of MHD. The coal-fired J.E. Corette steam plant unit of the Montana Power Company at Billings, Montana has been selected for this MHD conceptual design activity.

Not Available

1988-02-01

55

Investigation of direct coal-fired MHD power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various experiments were carried out in a direct coal-fired MHD power generation facility. It was found that the generator's overall performance is not affected by the presence of coal slag in the generator channel. However, the erosion\\/corrosion is greatly reduced by the slag. Seed\\/slag interaction investigation showed that at 1300 K, up to 90% of potassium can be easily recovered

J. B. Dicks; K. E. Tempelmeyer; Y. C. L. Wu; L. W. Crawford

1976-01-01

56

Coal fire extinguishing and prevention  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

Greene, J.S.

1988-02-16

57

Permitting coal-fired industrial boilers: Case histories  

SciTech Connect

A critical step before constructing an industrial size coal-fired boiler and associated equipment is obtaining the necessary air quality permits. Since the passage of the 1970 and 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been a significant increase in the scope of the air permitting process. As a result, the nature of permitting is such that a permit is negotiated on a case-by-case basis under a complex set of rules and regulations. The permit applicant has the burden of proof that the project will not have any adverse impacts on air quality and that appropriate and adequate control technology will be used. The degree of proof or documentation required to convince the regulatory agencies, and sometimes the public, that these requirements will be met depends upon the judgment and experience of all parties concerned with the project. The permitting process can cause concern to the companies and individuals involved because of the open-ended process and the unpredictability of the final results. This paper presents six recent case histories of permitting coal-fired industrial boilers and discusses the background information used in preparing the permit applications. The boilers ranged from a small package boiler to a large pulverized coal-fired boiler. All the projects involved additions or modifications to an existing facility. A detailed summary is provided for each project including a description of the boiler, the predicted air quality impacts, and the negotiated emission rates.

Neil, P.E.; Mayfield, D.R.

1983-06-01

58

Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002  

SciTech Connect

This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

Not Available

2002-12-01

59

Coal-fired steam locomotive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A coal-fired steam locomotive powered by reciprocating steam engines. The locomotive is a two-unit drawbar-coupled locomotive. The units, which are designated as a power unit and a support unit, are arranged back-to-back, with each having a cab-in-front. Operation of the locomotive is equally effective in both directions. The power unit basically contains a furnace and combustion system, an ash storage system, a gas cleanup and exhaust system, a boiler and steam generator, steam engines, a jet condenser, and a control cab. The support unit, on two 6-wheel trucks, contains a modular coal storage area, a stoker motor, a water storage area, heat transfer assemblies and fans for air-cooling circulating water, and a second control cab. The coal-gasification furnace, steam boiler, and steam engines are all in a closed system. Further, the steam engines of the locomotive are in the form of a four cylinder, balanced system for driving the running gear of the locomotive. The steam expansion cycle is compounded; two high pressure cylinders exhaust into two low pressure cylinders, with all cylinders sized for equal thrust. Spent steam is condensed, cooled on-board, and the water recycled through the boiler. A condensing cycle is utilized to both obtain more power and minimize water make up. A large water supply is carried on the support unit to minimize way side water points. Condensing of the water is by jet condensing which takes place on the power unit and utilizes feedwater as the jet condensing means. The heated water is pumped through a heat exchanger provided on the support unit before returning to the water supply tank. In order to eliminate nusiance dirt, coal is prepackaged in large modules. Up to three modules are placed over the stoker screw mechanism contained on the support unit.

1984-01-17

60

Research and Management of Coal fire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is suffering the heaviest coal fire disaster in the world, distributing in the north of north latitude 35°,between Pamirs Altiplano and Great Xing'an Mountains, locating in arid and semiarid area such as desert, gobi and loess. The earliest underground coal fire ocuured before Palaeozoic era. Since the Quaternary period, there are widespread coal fire in north of China. There

Guan Haiyan; Kong Bing; Wu Chacha

61

Dupont switches to coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DuPont has committed itself to coal-fired boilers. In 1973, only two of its thirteen coal capable plants were solely on coal, nine used a mix of coal, oil and gas, and two used only gas and oil. As of last year, all of its manufacturing sites with coal capable steam generating systems had been reconverted. Coal use increased from 22%

1981-01-01

62

PILOT-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-NOX COAL-FIRED TANGENTIAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirem...

63

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu\\/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the

J. T. Kelly; R. A. Brown; E. K. Chu; J. B. Wightman; R. L. Pam; E. L. Swenson; E. B. Merrick; C. F. Busch

1981-01-01

64

THE BIOENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT, COLSTRIP, MONTANA, DECEMBER 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA has recognized the need for a rational approach to the incorporation of ecological impact information into power facility siting decisions in the northern great plains. Research funded by the Colstrip, Coal-fired Power Plant Project is a first attempt to generate methods ...

65

THE BIOENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: FIFTH INTERIM REPORT, COLESTRIP, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA has recognized the need for a rational approach to the incorporation of ecological impact information into power facility siting decisions in the northern great plains. Research funded by the Colstrip, Coal-Fired Power Plant project is a first attempt to generate metho...

66

Simulation of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangential coal fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For tangential coal fired boilers, the gas temperature deviation at the exit of the furnace will occur when boiler capacity becomes large. In this paper, the flow, heat transfer and combustion process in a boiler of 300 MWe unit at Shiheng Power Plant, Shandong, China and a boiler of 600 MWe unit at Shidongkou Power Plant, Shanghai are simulated. The

Minghou Xu; Jianwei Yuan; Shifa Ding; Handing Cao

1998-01-01

67

Fuzzy rule-based combustion control on air adjustment applied to a coal fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy modelling and control is a technique to handle qualitative information in a formal, rigorous and efficient way if such information is properly used. In this paper it is presented an alternative fuzzy logic rule-based method to correct the excess air flow to the combustion furnace of a large coal fire boiler. The developed algorithm for decision on the control

Ramdn Ferreiro Garcia

1994-01-01

68

Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application as thermal transport systems for integrating fluidized bed combustors (FBC) with prime movers ranging from Stirling engines in total energy systems (approx.10 MWe) to closed-cycle gas turbines in central power plants (approx.1000 MWe). The results of initial investigations at ANL demonstrated that high-temperature sodium heat pipes provided the best heat exchanger technology for integrating Stirling engines with coal-fired FBC systems. A major accomplishment included the development and validation of a computer code (ANL/HTP) which calculates heat pipe operating limits and other significant characteristics necessary for power plant design. A number of developmental and prototype heat pipes were designed and fabricated through a subcontract effort with Thermacore, Inc., and delivered to ANL for performance testing. Preliminary test results from ANL's Heat Pipe Test Facility, using induction heating and a gas-water calorimeter to establish energy balances, are given in the report. Test data obtained to date are consistent with ANL/HTP code predictions. 47 refs., 53 figs., 22 tabs.

Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

1985-04-01

69

Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation  

SciTech Connect

Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15

70

In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions  

SciTech Connect

In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

2008-12-15

71

Design of Advanced Fossil Fuel Systems (DAFFS): A Study of Three Developing Technologies for Coal-Fired, Base-Load Electric Power Generation. Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plant with a Lime Slurry Spray Dryer/Fabric Filter Flue Gas Desulfurization System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this report are to present: the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, performance and cost estimates for the pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant which utilizes ...

1983-01-01

72

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04

73

Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

1996-10-16

74

THE BIOENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT, FOURTH INTERIM REPORT, COLSTRIP, MONTANA, DECEMBER, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA has recognized the need for a rational approach to the incorporation of ecological impact information into power facility siting decisions in the northern great plains. Research funded by the Colstrip, Coal-fired Power Plant Project is a first attempt to generate methods ...

75

Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

76

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP)\\u000a with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen\\u000a is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the\\u000a pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-01-01

77

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

Nakoryakov, V. E.; Nozdrenko, G. V.; Kuzmin, A. G.

2009-12-01

78

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined production of power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen is considered. The results of investigation are presented. Such CCCP have higher technical and economic efficiency than the pulverized coal cogeneration plant modified by gas-turbine.

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-01-01

79

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2004-12-01

80

SCE go-ahead for 100-MW coal fired combined cycle plant  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary plans for the 90 to 100-MW coal-fired combined cycle plant due to be built by a team headed by Southern California Edison and Texaco in the mid-1980s are reviewed. The basic operating goals call for having a gasifier with a 1,000 ton coal capacity per day feeding a 70-MW turbine which then provides waste heat to run a 30-MW steam turbine. Texaco will have responsibility for the gasifier part of the facility with the turbine-generator vendor charged with providing both gas and steam turbine equipment. If the 100-MW demonstration plant achieves 32 to 33% design efficiency, then a commercial plant with expansion turbines and steam reheat should hit 38% and require 20 to 30% less water than a conventional coal fired plant.

Stambler, I.

1980-01-01

81

A superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, and the cryogenics system design.

S.-T. Wang; R. Niemann; L. Turner; L. Genens; W. Pelczarski; J. Gonczy; J. Hoffmann; Y.-C. Huang; N. Modjeski; E. Kraft

1979-01-01

82

Superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, and the cryogenics system design.

S. T. Wang; R. C. Niemann; L. R. Turner; L. Genens; W. Pelczarski; J. Gonczy; J. Hoffman; Y. C. Huang; N. Modjeski; E. Kraft

1978-01-01

83

CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

84

Investigation of Direct Pulverized Coal Firing of Marine Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the stu...

I. R. Kacir

1983-01-01

85

Development and evaluation of a photochemical chamber to examine the toxicity of coal-fired power plant emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When investigating the toxicity of individual particle sources, it is important to consider the contribution of both primary and secondary particles. In this article, we present the design of a new photochemical chamber that can be used to form secondary sulfuric acid particles from diluted coal-fired power plant emissions. The chamber is a relatively small, well-mixed flow reactor that can

Pablo A. Ruiz; Joy E. Lawrence; Jack M. Wolfson; Stephen T. Ferguson; Tarun Gupta; Choong-Min Kang; Petros Koutrakis

2007-01-01

86

Effect of Ash in Coal on the Performance of Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants. Part I: Primary Energy Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the effect of ash content in raw coal on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants of capacity range 30–500 MW. The focus is on primary energy effects—combustion, heat transfer, and flow hydrodynamics. The effects of variation of ash in coal from 6% (taken as standard) up to 75% on component performance are studied and

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2006-01-01

87

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-01-01

88

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

NONE

1996-03-01

89

Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

1995-08-01

90

Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

1985-05-01

91

Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world  

SciTech Connect

Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

2008-01-15

92

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production  

SciTech Connect

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

1999-09-01

93

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

SciTech Connect

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01

94

Economic analysis of coal-fired cogeneration plants for Air Force bases  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Appropriations Act of 1986 requires the Department of Defense to use an additional 1,600,000 tons/year of coal at their US facilities by 1995 and also states that the most economical fuel should be used at each facility. In a previous study of Air Force heating plants burning gas or oil, Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that only a small fraction of this target 1,600,000 tons/year could be achieved by converting the plants where coal is economically viable. To identify projects that would use greater amounts of coal, the economic benefits of installing coal-fired cogeneration plants at 7 candidate Air Force bases were examined in this study. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed that included two types of financing (Air Force and private) and three levels of energy escalation for a total of six economic scenarios. Hill, McGuire, and Plattsburgh Air Force Bases were identified as the facilities with the best potential for coal-fired cogeneration, but the actual cost savings will depend strongly on how the projects are financed and to a lesser extent on future energy escalation rates. 10 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

Holcomb, R.S.; Griffin, F.P.

1990-10-01

95

Applying fabric filtration to coal fired industrial boilers. A pilot scale investigation. Final report, Jun 1974Apr 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a pilot scale investigation to determine the technoeconomic feasibility of applying a fabric filter dust collector to coal fired industrial boilers. The pilot facility, on a slip stream of a 60,000 lb\\/hr boiler, was capable of handling 11,000 acfm at an air-to-cloth (A\\/C) ratio of 6\\/1. Filter media evaluated were Nomex felt, Teflon felt (two

J. D. McKenna; J. C. Mycock; W. O. Lipscomb

1975-01-01

96

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOX coal-fired tangential system. Final report Sep 78Feb 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu\\/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirements, a burner concept was developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into

J. T. Kelly; R. A. Brown; E. K. Chu; J. B. Wightman; R. L. Pam

1981-01-01

97

Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks  

SciTech Connect

A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E. [Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

2007-06-15

98

Erosion and corrosion in advanced coal fired FBC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, advanced coal-fired power generation systems are being introduced that offer significant economic and environmental advantages over pulverised fuel (pf) firing. Many of these systems are combined cycles based on fluidised bed combustion and\\/or gasifica- tion. In such combined cycles, materials selection and performance are key factors in determin- ing plant availability. Consequently material evaluation studies for the various components

A. J. Minchener; J. E. Oakey

1993-01-01

99

Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application

K. L. Uherka; R. E. Holtz; G. A. McLennan; E. R. Koehl

1985-01-01

100

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used

M. K. Drost; S. Somasundaram; D. R. Brown; Z. I. Antoniak

1990-01-01

101

PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A final report is presented on the design, environmental characteristics, performance and maintainability, and economic analysis of a commercial 663 MWe coal-fired combined cycle power plant using pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and advanced technology in the hot gas cleanup system and gas turbines. Experimental data on the performance of each of the major components are included. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-03-01

102

Availability model for a coal-fired cycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to support decision making concerning the choice of the type of plant which will provide cycling capacity for the lowest cost of electricity. A coal-fired cycling plant designed with minimal redundancies for low initial capital cost can be compared to a combined cycle plant, for example, as an option to meet future generation

J. J. Lofe; A. D. Ouinn; R. R. Richwine

1990-01-01

103

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical\\/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO is described. The impact of NO control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the

1996-01-01

104

Gas fired combined cycle beats coal fired steam plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbine options and developments, including experience with alternative fuels, combined cycles, and coal gasification, are discussed. Performance specifications are given for combined cycle power plants. It is concluded that gas fired combined cycle power plants are more economical than coal fired steam plants.

de Biasi

2009-01-01

105

Fortschrittliche Kohlekraftwerke. (Advanced coal-fired power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whereas for conventional coal-fired power plants the end of development possibilities of improving the efficiency is farly reached for material reasons, the so-called advanced types of power plants have a considerable development potential on the basis of...

1990-01-01

106

Open-Cycle Coal-Fired Liquid-Metal MHD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open-cycle, coal-fired, liquid-metal MHD combines the simplicity of using the coal combustion products directly as the thermodynamic working fluid in the energy-conversion process with the moderate temperatures and inherent high thermodynamic efficiency o...

E. S. Pierson M. Petrick F. Schreiner D. Cohen

1979-01-01

107

Fugitive emissions from coal-fired power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential sources of airborne and waterborne fugitive emissions at coal-fired power plants are identified and discussed. Fugitive emissions are defined as pollutant discharges that do not pass through a chimney, vent, discharge pipe, or other functionally equivalent opening. A search of the literature was conducted to locate, evaluate, and report the available data pertaining to such emissions. Data from various

E. L. Currier; B. D. Neal

1984-01-01

108

Fabric Filter Technology for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes information and results presented at a conference on a fabric filter technology for electric utility coal-fired power plants held 15-17 July 1981. The conference highlighted utility experience to date with the technology, identified critical questions about bag and baghouse design and operating parameters, and arrived at a number of important conclusions. Fabric filters have been proved to

Robert C. Carr

1982-01-01

109

Coal Fired Combined Cycle for Electric Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal-fired combined cycle (CFCC) is a unique power plant concept which when developed will provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle suitable for base load application. The combined cycle operation offers the potential...

R. D. Brooks J. R. Peterson G. Weth

1977-01-01

110

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified

Pillsbury; Paul W

1990-01-01

111

Coal-fired gas turbine power cycles with steam injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two proposed coal-fired gas turbine power cycles using steam injection have been studied via a parametric cycle analysis. The steam-injected cycles are configured to achieve the following: direct and environmentally acceptable use of coal as a fuel; no contact between hostile combustion products and the turbine expander; high efficiency without need for a bottoming cycle; and modest operating temperatures compatible

W. Fraize; C. Kinney

1978-01-01

112

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion

Pillsbury; Paul W

1990-01-01

113

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a direct coal-fired gas turbine system of the type having a primary combustion zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to product hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag, and a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The secondary combustion zone is coupled

Pillsbury

1990-01-01

114

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for

Pillsbury

1990-01-01

115

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

NONE

1998-10-01

116

Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers 1: Size distribution and combustion reactivity  

SciTech Connect

The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction-proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on char combustion kinetics based on data in the early and intermediate stages of carbon conversion. A critical fundamental question is whether the small fraction of the fuel carbon that passes unreacted through a boiler is representative of the char during the main portion of the combustion process. This article addresses that question through a detailed characterization of eight carbon-containing fly ash samples acquired from commercial-scale combustion systems. The fly ash characterization included measurement-of joint carbon/size distribution and determination.of the combustion reactivity of the residual carbon. To minimize mineral matter interactions in the reactivity tests, the technique of incipient fluidization was developed for separation of carbon-rich extracts from the inorganic portion of the fly ash. Reactivity measurements were made at 1400--1800 K to represent conditions in pulverized coal fired boilers. Measurements were also made at 700--1100 K to. minimize transport effects and isolate the influence of char chemistry and microstructure. In both temperature regimes, the residual carbon extracts. were significantly less reactive than chars extracted from a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor in the early-to-intermediate stages of combustion. It is concluded that the boiler environment deactivates chars, making high carbon burnout more difficult to achieve than is predicted by existing char combustion kinetic models that were developed from data on the laboratory chars. Finally, the results are used to discuss potential char deactivation mechanisms, both thermal and oxidative, in coal-fired boilers.

Hurt, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gibbins, J.R. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-08-01

117

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS program. The CETF design effort continued through this quarter with the completion of the following systems: 1. Char Storage and Transport System 2. Reheat Burner The char storage system is required for the HIPPS program because the ball mill needs to be de-coupled from the burner. This de-coupling of the mill and the burner allows greater flexibility in changing char particle size distribution ? one of the main test variables under the HIPPS program. The reheat burner is employed to prevent condensation of the flue gas in the baghouse.

NONE

1998-10-01

118

Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation strongly depends on permeability variations. For the assumed model, no fire exists for permeabilities k < 10-10m2, whereas the fire propagation velocity ranges between 340ma-1 for k = 10-8m2, and drops to lower than 3ma-1 for k = 5 × 10-10m2. Additionally, strong temperature variations are observed for the permeability range 5 × 10-10m2 < k < 10-8m2.

Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

2008-01-01

119

Multiobjective framework for developing environmental regulatory policies for coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The types and rates of pollutant emissions from a coal-fired boiler depend on plant design, coal characteristics, and environmental control policy. A decade ago a national program of environmental control adopted regulatory requirements calling for the application of best available technology to minimize emissions of individual pollutants to each environmental medium. While reducing emission levels of particular pollutants, these control measures also have added significant costs to power production and have aggravated secondary cross-media environmental effects. This paper presents a multi-objective approach to decision making on pollution-control standards for coal-fired boilers that systematically examines interpollutant trade-offs in environmental regulatory policy. The assessment methodology employed both objective and subjective information to seek a regulatory alternative that minimizes total social cost for a single facility. By linking a human preference model to assess the social damage costs with an environmental simulation model, the authors examined the policy implications of subjective judgements of social-damage costs from pollutant emissions. The results suggest that a provision for interpollutant trade-offs could be a reasonable extension of efforts to increase the flexibility in developing and applying environmental regulations. Also, regulations that are sensitive to regional fuel characteristics and boiler size should be considered. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Lincoln, D.R.; Damodaran, N.; Rubin, E.S.

1983-01-01

120

A multiobjective framework for developing environmental regulatory policies for coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The types and rates of pollutant emissions from a coal-fired boiler depend on plant design, coal characteristics, and environmental control policy. A decade ago a national program of environmental control adopted regulatory requirements calling for the application of ''best available technology'' to minimize emissions of individual pollutants to each environmental medium. While reducing emission levels of particular pollutants, these control measures also have added significant costs to power production and have aggravated secondary crossmedia environmental effects. We discuss in this paper a multiobjective approach to decision making on pollution control standards for coal-fired boilers that sytematically examines interpollutant trade-offs in environmental regulatory policy. Our assessment methodology employed both objective and subjective information to seek a regulatory alternative that minimizes total social cost for a single facility. By linking a human preference model to assess the social damage costs with an environmental simulation model, we were able to examine the policy implications of subjective judgments of social damage costs from pollutant emissions. The results suggest that a provision for interpollutant trade-offs could be a reasonable extension of efforts to increase the flexibility in developing and applying environmental regulations. Also, regulations that are sensitive to regional fuel characteristics and boiler size should be considered.

Lincoln, D.R.; Domadaran, N.; Rubin, E.S.

1983-01-01

121

Methylmercury in mosquitoes around a large coal-fired power plant in central Ohio.  

PubMed

Emissions from coal-fired power plants are the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) in the environment. Because emitted Hg can be deposited near the source, concerns arise about the effects of coal-burning facilities on levels of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in biota near such sources. We investigated the potential impact of a large Hg-emitting (450 kg in 2005) coal-fired power station in Conesville, Ohio, on MeHg levels in adult mosquitoes near the plant. In July 2010, mosquitoes were sampled at 23 locations within a 60-km radius of the plant and at three reference sites distant from major combustion sources of Hg. Nearly all of the Hg in mosquitoes appeared in the form of MeHg (mean=91%). Concentrations of MeHg in mosquitoes were unrelated to either distance or direction from the Conesville plant and did not differ from those at the three reference sites. Moreover, measured levels of MeHg in mosquitoes near Conesville are in good agreement with those predicted from an empirical relationship to wet atmospheric Hg fluxes alone. This suggests that either little of the Hg emitted from the Conesville plant is deposited locally or near-source deposition of Hg does not have a significant impact on MeHg in mosquitoes and, by extension, other insects with similar life histories in the local food web. PMID:22504728

Konkler, Matthew J; Hammerschmidt, Chad R

2012-05-09

122

Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country`s fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

LaGuardia, T.S.

1998-12-31

123

Waste Generation Comparison: Coal-Fired Versus Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of our country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of our generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical 1150-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

Thomas S. LaGuardia

1998-12-31

124

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

125

Land-cover change of the wuda coal fire area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fire generates a number of environmental problems and results in disorderly changes of landcover. Detecting the change of Land-cover is an important scientific issue of the land evaluation and the eco-environmental change forecasting. The temporal land cover maps with high accuracy make it possible to explore the eco-environmental changes of coal fire area. In thispaper, the multi-layer segmentation-based classification approach, Markov Transition Matrix methodology and Dynamic indexesby using Landsat TM data was carried out. The results reveal that coal mine and resident change are mostly in recent decades among all land cover types. Private coal mining exploitation and government administrative measures are the deriving factors.

Zhang, Chunyan; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Li, Jiahong; Wu, Jianjun; Jia, Yuerong; Cai, Danlu; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Tiejun; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

2010-09-01

126

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO2 and under certain circumstances to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named “Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires” [Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

2007-12-01

127

Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants  

SciTech Connect

The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-10-15

128

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emissions of filterable particulate matter (FPM), condensible PM (CPM), PM10, and PM2.5 at FGD inlet and stack in a coal-fired power plant were measured by EPA method 201A and method 202. The results indicated that emissions of total particulate matter (TPM) are 40.99mg\\/m3 and 120.58mg\\/m3, and the filterable PMs are the highest emissions at both sampling locations which

Ping Lu; Jiang Wu; Wei-Ping Pan

2010-01-01

129

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

1993-01-01

130

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev\\/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a

R. P. Wilson; E. N. Balles; K. R. Benedek; C. E. Benson; K. Rao; F. Schaub; J. Kimberley; D. Itse

1993-01-01

131

Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been

Dennis L. Laudal; Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lynn A. Brickett; Paul Chu

2004-01-01

132

Aerosol nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New-particle nucleation within coal-fired power-plant plumes can have large effects on particle number concentrations, particularly near source regions, with implications for human health and climate. In order to resolve the formation and growth of particles in these plumes, we have integrated TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a large-eddy simulation/cloud-resolving model (LES/CRM). We have evaluated this model against aircraft observations for three case studies, and the model reproduces well the major features of each case. Using this model, we have shown that meteorology and background aerosol concentrations can have strong effects on new-particle formation and growth in coal-fired power-plant plumes, even if emissions are held constant. We subsequently used the model to evaluate the effects of SO2 and NOx pollution controls on newparticle formation in coal-fired power-plant plumes. We found that strong reductions in NOx emissions without concurrent reductions in SO2 emissions may increase new-particle formation, due to increases in OH formation within the plume. We predicted the change in new-particle formation due to changes in emissions between 1997 and 2010 for 330 coal-fired power plants in the US, and we found a median decrease of 19% in new-particle formation. However, the magnitude and sign of the aerosol changes depend greatly on the relative reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions in each plant. More extensive plume measurements for a range of emissions of SO2 and NOx and in varying background aerosol conditions are needed, however, to better quantify these effects.

Stevens, Robin; Lonsdale, Chantelle; Brock, Charles; Makar, Paul; Knipping, Eladio; Reed, Molly; Crawford, James; Holloway, John; Ryerson, Tim; Huey, L. Greg; Nowak, John; Pierce, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

133

Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and

J. H. Marten; G. M. Lloyd

1990-01-01

134

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE\\/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal fired MHD retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The utility plant considered in this study is the

J. R. Lance; F. E. Bernard; F. F. Klein

1991-01-01

135

Fabric Filter Technology for Utility Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third in a series of papers discussing the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series presents new data obtained in research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on reverse-gas and shake\\/deflate cleaned baghouses, and specifically addresses a number of unresolved

Robert C. Carr; Wallace B. Smith

1984-01-01

136

Fabric Filter Technology for Utility Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth in a series of papers discussing the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of participate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series presents new data obtained in research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on reverse-gas and shake\\/deflate cleaned baghouses, and specifically addresses a number of unresolved

Robert C. Carr; Wallace B. Smith

1984-01-01

137

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

1990-11-01

138

Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

139

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

1981-08-01

140

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

NONE

1995-08-31

141

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

2005-09-21

142

Selecting sites for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Methods that have been used to select sites for coal-fired power plants are reviewed. A specific site selection procedure is presented that has been successfully applied in a number of cases. Screening criteria and expert judgement are utilized to determine candidate sites within a large study area. These candidate sites are evaluated using multiobjective decision analysis methods to select preferred and alternate sites for the power plant. An illustrative application is presented to show how the site selection procedure is carried out. 11 refs.

Bennedsen, M.B.; Kirkwood, C.W.

1982-06-01

143

Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because mercury enters the food chain primarily through atmospheric deposition, exposure models require accurate information about mercury emission rates and mercury speciation from point sources. Since coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction of the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, the speciation of mercury in coal-fired power plant flue gas is currently an active topic of research. We

Constance L Senior; Adel F Sarofim; Taofang Zeng; Joseph J Helble; Ruben Mamani-Paco

2000-01-01

144

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

145

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment (MCEA) methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

146

Characterization and growth modeling of ash deposits in coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash deposit growing model based on surface growing theory is developed in order to represent the coal fired ash deposits. The predicted characteristics are compared to physical and chemical measurements of a typical ash deposit collected from an existing coal fired power plant located in the south of Brazil. Several structures were generated and compared to scanning electron images

Edson Bazzo

147

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15

148

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01

149

Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's NO[sub x] reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO[sub x]. CombiNO[sub x] is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO[sub x] emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0[sub x] scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0[sub 2] which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER's 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO[sub x] reductions up to 92%. The program's next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER's Santa Anna test site.

Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1993-02-11

150

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

2004-03-30

151

Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-04-30

152

Mercury control for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

On 15 March 2005 the US Environmental Protection Agency issued its Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMP) to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPRI is working with the US Department of Energy and the power industry to develop mercury control technologies needed to meet the final 2018 emission limits. Some improvements can be made by modifying existing SO{sub 2} or NOx control devices. Precombustion cleaning reduces mercury content of eastern coals by about one third. Adding a little halogen is another technology being researched - this promotes oxidation improving short-term mercury capture. EPRI is developing the TOXECON{trademark} technology to address a major problem of using sorbents to control mercury emissions: contamination of fly ash. 5 figs.

Haase, P.

2005-06-30

153

Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

1982-04-01

154

Repowering a small coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

Miell, R.

2007-11-15

155

Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project, Phase 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (phase 3D) is reported. The scope encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, fabrication and assembly of first and second stage hardware, plans for second stage design verification testing and power testing, and designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section. Progress includes the following: (1) operational verification testing of the first stage at the CDIF was completed; (2) assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM is 75 to 90% completed; (3) conceptual designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section are completed and low preheat preliminary design work is 75% completed; and (4) revision of the users' manual to include the second stage is 75% completed and a draft Test Plan for power train testing is reviewed.

1985-02-01

156

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOEpatents

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01

157

Principles of optimization of combustion by radiant energy signal and its application in a 660 MWe down- and coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the optimization of combustion in utility coal-fired boilers, a simple analytic model was set up to relate the radiant\\u000a energy signal (RES) with the combustion rate (heat release rate) based on the heat transfer equation inside a boiler furnace.\\u000a It was pointed out that as the air flow rate into the furnace changes, the highest RES corresponds to the

Zixue Luo; Fei Wang; Huaichun Zhou; Rutie Liu; Wenchang Li; Gengzhou Chang

158

Integrated gasification combined cycle and carbon capture: A risky option to mitigate CO2 emissions of coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–ş IGCC is a vital technology for the introduction of CCS for coal fired power plants. â–ş Entrained flow gasification is the most suitable technology for IGCC with CCS. â–ş IGCC costs indicated in literature are lower than those indicated for real projects. â–ş This difference is due to the technology risk IGCC plants put up with. â–ş Public funding

Bettina Susanne Hoffmann; Alexandre Szklo

2011-01-01

159

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

None

2000-12-31

160

Investigation of Spread dynamics, Carbon emissions and Suppression Efficiency of smouldering coal fires using small-scale experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are driven by smouldering which is defined as a slow, low temperature flameless form of combustion sustained by the heat evolved when oxygen directly attacks the surface of a condensed fuel. Once these fires have been ignited, they are difficult to detect, locate and extinguish. Despite extensive fire-fighting attempts in hundreds of cases around the globe, very few cases of successful extinction by human intervention have been confirmed. This work reports two sets of small-scale laboratory experiments that have been used to investigate ignition, spread, emissions and suppression of coal fires. The combustion reaction was characterised by reaching maximum temperatures of 700-1000 C with an average spread rate of 0.11 mm/min. A repeatable coal fire is defined in the smouldering apparatus and suppression is attempt after 300 min of free burning. The effectiveness of three water suppression methods is investigated (pipe,shower, and spray). Water was identified as a good extinguishing agent and it is shown that significant differences in extinguishing efficiency arise from different methods. The amount of water required was measured to be on the order of 1 to 2 litres of water per kg of burning coal. The CO and CO2 emissions are measured using a fire propagation calorimeter and mass flow, yields and the CO to CO2 ratio are reported as a function of the burning conditions. These experiments aim to provide a fundamental step into the understanding of subsurface fires, asses their impact in global emissions and find the best method to extinguish them.

Hadden, Rory; Garcia Saez, Jose; Rein, Guillermo

2010-05-01

161

Modelling passenger flows in public transport facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the developement of a new type of simulation tool for the assessment of designs of public transport facilities (stations, airports) and other public spaces with intensive pedestrian flows. Since the available space for such facilities is increasingly under pressure, the space efficiency and walking comfort is becoming more and more important. The developed simulation tool provides designers

W. Daamen

2004-01-01

162

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of adv...

A. Abu-Baker E. S. Rubin H. C. Frey J. S. Salmento M. Berkenpas

1991-01-01

163

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

164

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

165

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program: Commercial Plant Economic Analysis (Task 1.6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbin...

1980-01-01

166

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program: Turbine Materials Evaluation, March 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of cladding technology development under the Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DOE Project. Clad Alloy Development, involved the selection, fabrication and burner rig evaluation of advanced clad alloy composition diffusion-bonded ...

1980-01-01

167

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES ON COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of fine particulate from coal-fired utility boilers, using electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. It provides guidelines to utility personnel, responsible for selecting fine particulate control equipment, on signifi...

168

Cost of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Application for NOx Control on Coal-Fired Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NO-x) control technology capable of pr...

D. Foerter W. Jozewicz

2001-01-01

169

MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

170

Unified process assessment for resources use and waste emissions by coal-fired power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified process assessment is carried out to integrate various resources and emissions associated with the life cycle of typical coal-fired power generation systems, based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy as a common objective measure. For a comprehensive assessment of industrial production systems, three indicators termed as ecological efficiency, resources use efficiency and environmental emission intensity are devised to evaluate the overall efficacy. Concretely assessed in the present work are three typical modes of coal-fired power generation systems, i.e., the Average mode that represents the average emissions and efficiency of coal-fired power plants operating in the US in 1999, the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) mode that meets the New Source Performance Standards, and the low emission boiler system (LEBS) mode as a kind of highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler, as benchmark cases in related NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) report.

Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, G. Q.

2010-09-01

171

Aerodynamic flow visualization in the ONERA facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadowgraphy, schlieren and interferometry are used in the ONERA facilities for transonic and supersonic aerodynamic flow visualization. Apparatus equipping several wind tunnels are described and results shown. Studies of aerodynamic flows in turbomachinery compressors require special visualization set-ups: an optical system with cylindrical lenses concentric to the hub carrying the blades has been achieved for a supersonic annular blade cascade,

C. Veret; M. Philbert; J. Surget; G. Fertin

1977-01-01

172

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

173

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As

Elcock

2011-01-01

174

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not

T. M. Sullivan; F. D. Lipfert; S. M. Morris; S. Renninger

175

Particulate air pollution control for Army coal-fired boiler plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army has several coal-fired boiler plants, and, in accordance with its Solid Fuel Conversion Program, will have many more in the future. Particulate emissions from such plants are strictly regulated by state agencies. The current coal-fired plants use various particulate-control technologies, with mixed success. This study examined these technologies and determined several design deficiencies which could contribute to the

Mikucki

1983-01-01

176

Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power, Inc. (ALSTOM) is developing an Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants to address present and anticipated NOX emissions control legislation for US coal-fired boilers. The proposed system will build on ALSTOM's field-proven TFS 2000TM low NOX firing system to achieve furnace outlet NOX emissions at or below 0.15 lb\\/MMBtu for existing tangentially fired boilers firing

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; John L. Marion; Robert Lewis; Chris Smith

177

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year

Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

2009-01-01

178

Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating\\/cooling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2\\/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating\\/cooling demand of their locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired

Hasan Huseyin Erdem; Ahmet Dagdas; Suleyman Hakan Sevilgen; Burhanettin Cetin; Ali Volkan Akkaya; Bahri Sahin; Ismail Teke; Cengiz Gungor; Selcuk Atas

2010-01-01

179

Analysis of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrofitting of existing coal-fired power plants with a carbon dioxide capture offers a promising opportunity to achieve the global target reduction in CO2 emissions. This paper deals with the integration of an amine-based flue gas scrubber with a coal-fired power plant including compression of CO2 and the resulting effects of the integration on the power plant’s operation.

Özgür Korkmaz; Gerd Oeljeklaus; Klaus Görner

2009-01-01

180

Performance\\/cost estimates for retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives results of estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting pollution-control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid-rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and conduct detailed evaluations of 12 coal-fired plants--5 in Ohio and 7 in Kentucky and the Tennessee Valley Authority system. A variety of

J. W. Jones; T. E. Emmel; B. A. Laseke

1988-01-01

181

ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

2009-12-01

182

Respiratory symptoms and annoyance in the vicinity of coal-fired plants.  

PubMed Central

This study constitutes one part of a program for assessing the impact of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding communities. A questionnaire was mailed to a total of 12,000 subjects living in six areas with coal-fired plants and in matched reference areas. The participation rate was 77.3%. In one coal-fired plant/reference area pair, a more detailed medical examination was carried out among subjects who reported symptoms of the respiratory tract. The match between coal-fired plant and reference areas was successful primarily in three pairs. Neither respiratory symptoms nor disease rates were increased among adults or children near any of these plants, but one plant seemed to give rise to annoyance. For the remaining coal-fired plants, consistently higher prevalences of respiratory tract symptoms and annoyance were observed in the surrounding population. The effects cannot, however, conclusively be related to the coal-fired plants. It should be pointed out that the air pollution levels were relatively low, also in the vicinity of most of the plants in this study.

Pershagen, G; Hammar, N; Vartiainen, E

1986-01-01

183

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31

184

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

SciTech Connect

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. [Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States); Kimberley, J. [AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States); Itse, D. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)

1993-01-01

185

Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant  

SciTech Connect

The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. (Cooper-Bessemer, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)); Kimberley, J. (AMBAC, West Springfield, MA (United States)); Itse, D. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

186

Analysis of particulate emissions of stoker coal fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this paper includes the study of over 100 particulate emission rate compliance test reports collected by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association under a program entitled ''A Testing Program to Update Equipment Specifications and Design Criteria for Stoker-Fired Boilers'', and analysis of the results of selected tests. All of the 98 tests reported in this study were conducted in accordance with EPA Method 5, ''Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources'', and were observed by state and/or federal enforcement officials. A total of 45 small institutional and industrial multiple pass boilers in the size range of 10,000 to 77,000 lb/hr maximum steam output are represented in the test data. Stoker types include multiple and single retort underfeed, and traveling grate (chain and bar-key) and vibrating grate overfeed. Coals fired include Pennsylvania anthracite and bituminous, and Indiana bituminous. Sample locations for the particulate emission rate tests include boiler outlet, breeching, short stub stack downstream of mechanical collector, and tall masonry stack. The tests were conducted with boilers operating at normal conditions, and fired with coal from the normal source.

Owens, H.K.; Axtman, W.H.; Davis, J.W.

1983-06-01

187

Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.  

PubMed

Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. PMID:19350920

Clack, Herek L

2009-03-01

188

Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Clack, H.L. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering

2009-03-01

189

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

2009-06-30

190

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA  

EPA Science Inventory

China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

191

Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Nitrogen Flow Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An uncertainty analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology nitrogen flow facility was performed. The facility functions as a cryogenic flow calibration laboratory and as an applied research laboratory for high pressure nitrogen gas flow...

J. L. Scott M. A. Lewis

1994-01-01

192

Simplified procedure for approximating electrostatic precipitator size/collection efficiency relationship for coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) achieve high particle control efficiencies due to the electrostatic charging and attraction of the fly ash particles. Several procedures have been developed to predict ESP efficiencies, but the most accurate of these are based on empirical measurements from operating data. Using the available information and data from ESP efficiency including data from personal communications, an improved and simplified efficiency relationship is developed for coal-fired systems. The data can be expressed for coal combustion systems as the empirical equation SCA = 433S/sup -0/ /sup 59/(100 - E)/sup -0/ /sup 24/, where SCA is the specific collecting area in ft/1000 acfm gas flow, S is the as-received coal percent sulfur and E is the percent particulate collection efficiency. The relationship requires that the ESP and the entire system be properly designed, operated and maintained. ESP efficiency can also be profoundly affected by gas temperature, by sodium and other alkali substances present in the coal burned, and by moisture content of the gases. 10 references, 1 figure.

Hesketh, H.E.

1985-11-01

193

Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250{sup o}C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400{sup o}C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

Yan Liu; David J.A. Kelly; Hongqun Yang; Christopher C.H. Lin; Steve M. Kuznicki; Zhenghe Xu [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-08-15

194

Design of a 165 MWe reheat coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for Nova Scotia Power Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In October 1989, a contract was awarded to Pyropower Corporation for the design, supply and erection of the 165 MW{sub e} reheat coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for the Point Aconi site in Nova Scotia, Canada. This order represented the largest capacity circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler sold to date. This paper presents the boiler design parameters, design arrangement and specific, unique design features such as the reheat system and reheat temperature control. A particular concern with the boiler design was the relatively high chlorine content in the coal fuel. To resolve this concern, a test burn was conducted in Pyropower's Research and Development facility in December 1989. The test burn and it's results are also examined.

Schaller, B. (Pyropower Corp. (US)); Darguzas, J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Fraser, S. (Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada))

1990-01-01

195

Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

196

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

197

Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, S.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-09-15

198

Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Research Center of Power Engineering Problems

2009-02-15

199

Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR's concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. It will provide a design of an advanced technology furnace/heat exchanger combination in which a ceramic heat exchanger is aerodynamically protected from the corrosive particle laden coal combustion products. The heat exchanger is fired by radiative and convective heat transfer from a moderately clean fuel stream and by radiative heat transfer from the flame of a much larger uncleaned fuel stream. In principle, 35% of the energy will be provided by the former and 65% by the later. The fluid mechanics in the furnace/heat exchanger are controlled so that the flow of the combustion products, from the moderately clean fuel stream, sweeps past the heat exchanger to prevent the contact of coal particles with the uncleaned stream.

Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Yuxin; Pines, D.S.

1993-02-01

200

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local

Margarete Vasterling; Stefan Schloemer; Christian Fischer; Christoph Ehrler

2010-01-01

201

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

202

Enhancement of natural radionuclides in the surroundings of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain.  

PubMed

The production of electricity in coal-fired power plants (CFPP) is considered a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) activity because the coals they burn can present relatively high contents of the naturally occurring radionuclides. In this study, the main radiological impact pathways into the surrounding environments of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain were analyzed. These pathways are, first, atmospheric evacuations and wind resuspension and, second, effluent evacuations to nearby rivers or directly to the sea. The atmospheric releases of radionuclides were evaluated by the analyses of soil profiles in the vicinities of the CFPPs. No significant enhancement of radionuclides in the surface soil was observed at the points of maximum deposition of combustion gases, located from 4.3 to 13 km away depending on the considered CFPP. However, an increase of (40)K, (226)Ra, and (232)Th in the surface soils was observed in the first kilometre from the chimney for two CFPPs. This suggested that these radionuclides were released in particulate form. There was also a net influence of the climate in which the CFPPs were located. This was observed in the two CFPPs that were in dry environments, while no increase was observed in the other two, located in more humid environments. The liquid effluents released usually presented an enhancement of dissolved chemical species regarding the initial intake water. Enrichments of the (234,238)U and (226)Ra contents in the water used in the plants' routine procedures were observed, and of (210)Po in the wastewater of just one of the plants. In any case, this enhancement was below the parametric value for the Total Indicative Dose for the hypothetical human consumption of the released waters. As a consequence of these releases of radionuclides, local products destined for human consumption produced in the vicinity of the facilities might incorporate natural radionuclides by these pathways, finding no significant enhancement of the natural radionuclide contents due to the CFPPs. PMID:22330984

Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Guillén, J; Salas, A; Mora, J C; Robles, B; Cancio, D

2012-02-13

203

Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

2011-04-01

204

Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

None

2005-09-01

205

Development and evaluation of a photochemical chamber to examine the toxicity of coal-fired power plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

When investigating the toxicity of individual particle sources, it is important to consider the contribution of both primary and secondary particles. In this article, we present the design of a new photochemical chamber that can be used to form secondary sulfuric acid particles from diluted coal-fired power plant emissions. The chamber is a relatively small, well-mixed flow reactor that can fit in a mobile reaction laboratory. It produces high concentrations of hydroxyl radical (OH) from the photolysis of ozone (O{sub 3}) in the presence of water vapor. Two chambers were built and tested. A pilot chamber was tested in the laboratory, using mixtures of NO and SO{sub 2} in air, at concentrations that are approximately 100 times lower than those in power plant stack emissions. This chamber was able to oxidize about 20% of the SO{sub 2}, thereby producing 1350 {mu}g m{sup -3} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles. Further tests showed that increasing O{sub 3} concentrations and residence time increased the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} production. A field chamber was built subsequently and used in a toxicological study. Diluted coal-fired power plant emissions were introduced in the chamber. Over 19 days of exposure, the chamber, on average, converted 17% of the supplied SO{sub 2} emissions and produced an average of 350 {mu}g m{sup -3} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles. Particle losses were determined for the pilot chamber, using artificial particles whose size ranged from 50 to 1000 nm. The determined losses ranged from 21 to 42%, with no trend between the amount of particle loss and particle size. Losses for the field chamber, estimated using model calculations, were found to be similar to those of the pilot chamber.

Pablo A. Ruiz; Joy E. Lawrence; Jack M. Wolfson; Stephen T. Ferguson; Tarun Gupta; Choong-Min Kang; Petros Koutrakis [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health

2007-06-15

206

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2005-09-01

207

MHD generating system. [open-cycle coal-fired two-phase liquid metal MHD generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coal-fired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and

M. Petrick; E. S. Pierson; F. Schreiner

1978-01-01

208

EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

209

Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. Tehy came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations, although they use differ...

1999-01-01

210

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

211

Probabilistic methodology for estimating air-pollution health effects from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published estimates of the local health impact from sulfur air pollutants released by large coal-fired power plants vary widely, and, as a consequence, provide rather limited guidance for policymakers. Uncertainties are introduced into such estimates through the meteorological and epidemiological models used and through incomplete knowledge of the critical model parameters. Subjective probability distributions reflecting present knowledge of the value

M. G. Morgan; S. C. Morris; A. K. Meier; D. L. Shenk

1978-01-01

212

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC

Trevor Ley

2003-01-01

213

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Novel sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant (P4) Unit 1 (no SCR in place)

Trevor Ley; T. Ebner; K. Fisher; R. Slye; R. Patton; R. Chang

2004-01-01

214

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, ongoing tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste

Trevor Ley

2003-01-01

215

Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants: an application to a coal fired electrical generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermodynamic relations between energy and exergy losses and capital costs for thermal systems and equipment are developed and applied to a modern coal fired electrical generating station. Some possible generalizations of the results are also discussed. The application considers the overall station and the following station devices: turbine generators, steam generators, preheating devices and condensers. The data suggest that

Marc A Rosen; Ibrahim Dincer

2003-01-01

216

A study of techniques for reducing ash deposition in coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion and deposition on engine components are potential barriers to the utilization of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines. The US Department of Energy has established a program to study mechanisms of ash deposition, with the goal of developing methods to alleviate deposition problems in coal-fired gas turbines. Ash deposits are formed in the turbines by the adherence of

R. G. Logan; G. A. Richards; C. T. Meyer; R. J. Anderson

1989-01-01

217

Status review of mercury control options for coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of research related to mercury control technology for coal-fired power plants and identifies areas requiring additional research and development. It critically reviews measured mercury emissions; the chemistry of mercury transformation and control; progress in the development of promising control technologies: sorbent injection, control in wet scrubbers, and coal cleaning; and projects costs for mercury control.

John H Pavlish; Everett A Sondreal; Michael D Mann; Edwin S Olson; Kevin C Galbreath; Dennis L Laudal; Steven A Benson

2003-01-01

218

Sustainability assessment of algae cofiring in a coal-fired power plant: A hybrid LCA model  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE environmental performance of various algae cofiring scenarios in a 300 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated using an ecologically based hybrid LCA model. Scenarios included cofiring options utilizing 100% Coal, 75% Coal & 25% Algae, 50% Coal & 50% Algae, 25% Coal & 75% Algae, and 100% Algae. These percentage values represent the share of energy production (MJ) by

M. Kucukvar; O. Tatari

2011-01-01

219

NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

220

Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

Chu, P.; Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gould, L. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Botros, P. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-31

221

ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

222

Experiments on heat exchanger solidity for coal-fired fluidized bed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient extraction of a high-temperature working fluid from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor depends, to a great extent, on the design of the immersed heat exchanger. Of special importance is the solidity of the cooling tubes immersed in the bed. The interaction between increasing solidity and the consequent degradation of proper fluidization and circulation is being studied at the

G. Miller; V. Zakkay

1980-01-01

223

The optimization of heat exchanger solidity for coal-fired fluidized bed combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient extraction of a high-temperature working fluid from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor depends, to a great extent, on the design of the immersed heat exchanger. Of special importance is the solidity of the cooling tubes immersed in the bed. The interaction between increasing solidity and the consequent degradation of proper fluidization and circulation is being studied at the

G. Miller; V. Zakkay; S. Rosen

1979-01-01

224

A coal fired gas turbine using an air cooled fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine cogeneration system using a coal fired atmospheric fluid bed (AFB) combustor represents an environmentally clean and less costly alternative to the oil or gas fired electric power generators, process steam boilers and process heaters that are necessary for the operations of both small and large industrial energy users. This paper describes a cogeneration system which uses an

S. Moskowitz; J. Mullen; S. Vanderlinden

1983-01-01

225

Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnances. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1980March 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor

1980-01-01

226

Cross-Media Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations for a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types and rates of pollutant emissions from a coal-fired power plant depend upon plant design, coal characteristics, and environmental control policy. In the past, air pollution regulations were often promulgated without rigorous analysis of the resulting energy penalties and secondary environmental impacts that occur in other environmental media (air, land, or water), which are counterproductive to overall environmental quality.

Edward S. Rubin; Francis Clay McMichael

1978-01-01

227

Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are

S. C. Morris; L. D. Hamilton

1984-01-01

228

Reducing Water Freshwater Consumption at Coal-Fired Power Plants: Approaches Used Outside the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with incre...

B. Carney

2011-01-01

229

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.  

PubMed

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

2005-09-01

230

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

231

MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

232

NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

233

CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

234

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

235

Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fired turbines. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid oxide electrochemical systems were evaluated for the reduction of NO(sub x) and SO(sub x) in a coal-fired turbine exhaust. Yttria stabilized ceria and zirconia were studied as electrolytes over the temperature range 1,600---2,500(degrees)F. Yttria s...

L. A. Siwajek D. Ku

1990-01-01

236

The Analysis of Influencing Factors for Combustion Stability on 300MW Tangentially Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the research of the pulverized coal ignition and steadily combustion mechanism and the numerical Simulation of the 300MW tangentially pulverized coal fired boiler by coalfire software, combining the operating data of the boiler, we establish the corresponding relation between the result of numerical simulation and combustion stability. The result indicates that the higher volatile, lower content of ash and

Jun Li; Fei Jin

2011-01-01

237

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to

Jianzhong Zhang; Claudia Kuenzer

2007-01-01

238

SAMPLING AND MODELING OF NON-POINT SOURCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, included measurement of overland...

239

PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. System analyses and trade-offs (Task 1. 3)  

SciTech Connect

The systems analyses and optimization studies performed in connection with a program to design and evaluate a commercial 663 MWe coal-fired combined cycle power plant using pressurized fluidized bed combustion and advanced technology in the hot gas cleanup system and gas turbines are presented. Details on the plant control system are included. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-02-01

240

Optimum cycle parameters of coal fired closed cycle gas turbine in regenerative and combined cycle configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology developed for the estimation of thermodynamic performance and reports the optimum cycle parameters of coal fired CCGT in regenerative and combined cycle configurations using air, helium and carbon dioxide as working gases. A rigorous approach has been followed for the determination of the cycle efficiency by assuming the specific heat of working gases as a

Rao

1982-01-01

241

A proposed scheme for coal fired combined cycle and its concise performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For IGCC, the primary investment is too high due to the demand of high gasification efficiency. For PFBCC, the thermal efficiency is too low due to the relatively low turbine inlet temperature and the hot working medium of the gas turbine is not easy to clean. A new scheme is proposed for coal fired combined cycle to overcome the main

Ruixian Cai; Chenhua Gou

2007-01-01

242

Assessment of toxic air pollutants from TVA's coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the potential effects of toxic air pollutants emitted from TVA's coal-fired power plants. Ambient air quality standards exist for some of the substances, the criteria pollutants, emitted when coal is burned in power plants. One of these criteria pollutants, particulate matter, consists of many different elements that may

D. Lokey; J. A. Manning

1988-01-01

243

Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the

Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

2007-01-01

244

Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury

S. N. Khawaja; L. Odom; W. Landing

2010-01-01

245

Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

Zauderer, B.

1993-02-15

246

Modeling and control system design study of coal fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twelfth-order, physically based, nonlinear boiler-turbine model of a 360 MW coal fired power plant is developed for use in control system design. The existing computer controlled feedback and feedforward control system is modeled in the normal operating mode for use in validating the process model. The process and control system models simulate the plant well in the normal operating

Nam

1986-01-01

247

Evaluation of a Particulate Scrubber on a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a performance test and engineering analysis of a mobile-bed scrubber on a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler. The scrubber nominally operated at the design particulate removal efficiency of 95%, but the concentration of submi...

D. S. Ensor B. S. Jackson S. Calvert C. Lake D. V. Wallon

1975-01-01

248

APPLICATION OF THE DUAL ALKALI PROCESS AT A 280 MW COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of applying the dual alkali (D/A) flue gas resulfurization (FGD) process to a 280-MW coal-fired power plant. (NOTE: D/A is a generic term applied to FGD systems that use soluble alkali to absorb SO2 and then react the spent scrubber solution with lime and/...

249

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.

1988-01-01

250

Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

251

PARTICULATE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS ON AN ESP INSTALLED ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of fractional and overall collection efficiency measurements of an electrostatic precipitator collecting fly ash from a coal-fired boiler burning high-sulfur coal. The mass median diameter of the particulate entering the collector was approximately 40 mic...

252

Changes in Coal Fired Power Station Fly Ash: Recent Experiences and Use in Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

concrete Abstract The coal fired power generation industry has changed significantly over a relatively short time. Many of the changes that have taken place relate to protection of the environment, e.g. increasing EU regulation with corresponding UK implementation on reduced NOx and SOx emissions, co-combustion, dangerous substances, waste, IPPC, etc. In turn, these have affected fly ash characteristics and, at

M Roderick Jones; Lindon K A Sear; Michael J McCarthy; Ravindra K Dhir

253

TEST FIRING REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN AN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Program entitled, 'Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler' evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler effic...

254

Modeling and Optimization of Efficiency and NOx Emission at a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve boiler efficiency and to reduce the NOx emission of a coal-fired utility boiler using combustion optimization, a hybrid model, by combining support vector regression (SVR) with simplified boiler efficiency model, was proposed to express the relation between operational parameters of the utility boiler and both NOx emission and boiler efficiency. SVR' parameters were determined by the

Huan Zhao; Pei-hong Wang

2009-01-01

255

ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

256

EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

257

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC LOADINGS OF MERCURY FROM A COAL FIRED POWER PLANT TO LAKE ERIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loadings of atmospheric mercury to Lake Erie were numerically simulated with the use of speciated Hg emission scenarios from a coal fired power plant on the shore of Lake Erie in Ontario. Three-dimensional numerical modeling experiments were conducted using the BLFMAPS- a Mesoscale Boundary Layer forecast and Air pollution prediction system. The modeling system was utilized to simulate meteorology and

Sreerama M. Daggupaty; C. M. Banic; P. Blanchard

2009-01-01

258

An Intelligent Emissions Controller for Fuel Lean Gas Reburn in Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the

Jaques Reifman; Earl E. Feldman; Thomas Y. C. Wei; Roger W. Glickert

2000-01-01

259

Radon concentrations in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of radon activity concentration in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant (Istrian Peninsula) started in the winter of 1990 upon the assumption that certain old houses in this region were built using mortar and plaster prepared from slag and ash.This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation carried out in the winter of 1990 and spring of

Nevenka Lokobauer; Zdenko Frani?; Jasminka Sen?ar; Alica Bauman; Enis Sokolovi?

1997-01-01

260

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal?Fired Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility?scale coal?fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated

Michael Whitaker; Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Martin Vorum

2012-01-01

261

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt, the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. E. Davis

1981-01-01

262

Laser-particulate control for open-cycle, coal fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbines need efficient high temperature particulate control in order to be an attractive option for the efficient conversion of coal to electrical energy. Particulates in the range of three to ten microns are very difficult to remove and it is, therefore, proposed that they be fragmented into particulates below the threshold size for turbine blade erosion using

T. E. Botts; J. R. Powell

1979-01-01

263

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. Annual Report, July 1978-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) is the unique powerplant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle powerplant. On the basis of previous studies...

1980-01-01

264

The development in direct coal-fired gas turbines for locomotive application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturation of the basic technical knowledge base relating to coal processing, handling, and combustion; materials of construction; and systems design of gas turbines has provided an opportunity to revisit the concept of direct coal firing in a gas turbine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a scoping program beginning in 1983, and based on promising results has recently entered

T. F. Bechtel; A. A. Pitrolo

1986-01-01

265

Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper,

C. L. Spiro; C. C. Chen; S. G. Kimura; R. G. Lavigne; P. W. Schields

1989-01-01

266

DOE\\/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE\\/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew OPalko

2005-01-01

267

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char, and char generated from the pyrolyzer tests performed at FWDC's pilot plant in Livingston, New Jersey. Construction is to begin next quarter to retrofit the CETF for additional HIPPS char combustion studies in a wall-fired configuration. Design of the char transfer system for the PSDF also progressed during this quarter. A number of arrangements have been developed to modify the existing N-Valve configuration. As an experimental test facility, the PSDF needs to maintain operating flexibility in order to test under a wide range of conditions. Although a new char transfer design is needed to support the HIPPS testing at the facility, the Second Generation PFB program will also utilize this system.

NONE

1999-05-01

268

Mass balance of trace elements in Walker branch watershed: relation to coal-fired steam plants.  

PubMed

A mass balance study of trace element flows at the TVA Allen Steam Plant at Memphis showed that most of the released Hg, some Se, and probably most Cl and Br are discharged to the atmosphere as gases. The elements As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in fly ash compared to slag and were more concentrated in the ash discharged through the stack than in that collected by the precipitator, while Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti showed little preferential partitioning between the slag and the collected or discharged fly ash. The elements Cr, Cs, Na, Ni, U, and V exhibited behavior intermediate between the latter two groups. This information about stack emissions of trace elements from the Allen Plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and input (dry and wet deposition) to the Walker Branch Watershed. The watershed, which is on the ERDA reservation at Oak Ridge, is within 20 km of three coal-fired steam plants, two in the TVA system and one belonging to ERDA. The estimated input values are compared to measurements of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in wet precipitation falling on the watershed during 1973 and 1974. Dry deposition of these elements could not be measured directly but estimates indicated that this could be of the same order of magnitude as the rainwater input. A six-month mass balance indicated that the watershed efficiently retains Pb (97-98% of the atmospheric input,) Cu (82-84%), while Cr (69%), Mn (57%), Zn (73%), and Hg (69%) are less well retained. PMID:1227866

Lindberg, S E; Andren, A W; Raridon, R J; Fulkerson, W

1975-12-01

269

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-08-30

270

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. A general arrangement drawing of the char transfer system was forwarded to SCS for their review. Structural steel drawings were used to generate a three-dimensional model of the char transfer system including all pressure vessels and major piping components. Experimental testing at the Combustion and Environmental Test Facility continued during this quarter. Performance of the char burner, as benchmarked by flame stability and low NOx, has been exceptional. The burner was operated successfully both without natural gas and supplemental pulverized coal.

Unknown

1999-02-01

271

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Analysis of the arch-fired burner continued during this quarter. Unburned carbon and NOx performance are included in this report. Construction commenced this quarter to modify the CETF for horizontal firing. A new indirect feed system will be required to provide a more stable fuel feed to the new wall-fired burner. The conceptual design of the char transfer system for the PSDF is complete. Final detailed design will commence after FETC has completed all cold model testing. DOE-FETC is utilizing an existing experimental facility to evaluate the performance of the proposed char transfer system.

NONE

1999-10-01

272

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. In order to prepare the CETF for the HIPPS char combustion test program, the following three subsystems were designed during this quarter: (1) Flue Gas Recycle System; (2) Pulverized Coal Feed System; and (3) Limestone Feed System The flue gas recycle system is added to simulate the performance of a commercial char burner fired with gas turbine exhaust. Since synthetically made char will be used for the tests at the CETF, the limestone injection system was added to produce a char more representative of that from an actual pyrolyzer. The pulverized coal system is included to provide a supplemental support fuel if a stable flame can not be maintained with char firing only.

NONE

1998-10-01

273

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Detailed design of the components to be used to for the circulating bed gasification tests is underway. The circulating fluidized bed will allow for easy scale-up to larger size plants. The existing pyrolyzer will be outfitted with a cyclone and a j-valve to capture and reinject char into the lower combustion zone. Additional development work has been performed to evaluate advanced cycles utilizing the HIPPS system concept.

York Tsuo

1999-12-31

274

CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

Dennis L. Laudal

2001-08-01

275

Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Technical progress report, October--December 1986  

SciTech Connect

This progress report presents a detailed description of the background, technology and application, and Statement of Work for the development of a coal-fired pulse combustor for residential space heating.

NONE

1986-12-31

276

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. System Analyses and Trade-Offs (Task 1.3).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The systems analyses and optimization studies performed in connection with a program to design and evaluate a commercial 663 MWe coal-fired combined cycle power plant using pressurized fluidized bed combustion and advanced technology in the hot gas cleanu...

1981-01-01

277

EVALUATION OF TUBEWALL CORROSION RATES ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER USING STAGED COMBUSTION FOR NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses NOx emissions, at an existing coal-firing utility boiler, that have been controlled by modifying normal combustion parameters using the boiler's normal operating control system (without adding new hardware). The combustion modifications (CMs) studied included...

278

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-11-27

279

Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500km2 area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the

Maxwell Mazur; Rachel Mintz; Monique Lapalme; Brian Wiens

2009-01-01

280

Performance Analysis of Existing 300MW Coal-Fired Power Plant with Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of ASPEN simulations of a carbon-dioxide (CO2) removal and recovery plant that captures CO2 from a 300 MW conventional coal-fired power plant. It also analyzes the techno-economic performance of 300 MW coal-fired power plant with and without ammonia-based CO2 capture process, based on the operating data of an existing power plant. Simulation and calculations indicate

Gang Xu; Shoucheng Li; Yongping Yang; Le Li; Haizhan Chen

2011-01-01

281

Experimental Research on Mercury Emission and Its Speciation in the Flue Gas from Coal-Fired Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is harmful to our health and environment, so research on mercury emission from coal-fired power station, the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission, is very important. In this paper, mercury emission and speciation in the flue gas from a coal-fired power station was measured by three methods, i.e., OHM (Ontario Hydro method), Hg SCEM (semi-continuous emission monitors), and EPA

Jiang Wu; Yanyan Zhang; Weiguo Pan; Ping He; Jianxing Ren; Minqiang Shen; Yun Jin; Yuying Du; Peng Wang; Jiehe Chen; Ping Lu; Yan Cao; Wei-Ping Pan

2009-01-01

282

Performance Simulation and Cost Assessment of Oxy-Combustion Process for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate green house gas emissions, CO2 from large sources such as coal-fired power plants should be economically captured and sequestered. This paper describes the performance modeling and cost assessment of processes designed to capture and compress CO2 from sub-critical pulverized coal fired power plants (PC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) units. Plant capacity of 533 MWe

Rajani K Varagani; Fabienne Châtel-Pélage; Pavol Pranda; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Yongqi Lu; Arun C. Bose

283

Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01

284

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31

285

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint: Part. 1  

SciTech Connect

Caps on greenhouse gas emissions are imminent in the US and they will change how we design tomorrow's coal-fired power plants. Efforts are already under way to develop alternative capture and sequestration technologies, mainly for CO{sub 2}. Unfortunately, the proposed processes all consume lots of energy, reducing plants' net output and efficiency. In Part 1 of our look at these technologies, we list and quantify the impacts of post combustion removal of CO{sub 2} from a coal plant's flue gas. Next month, in Part. 2 we will do the same for four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxyfuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-06-15

286

Trace elements in the terrestrial environment of a coal-fired powerhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired powerhouse at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina operated for more than 20 years without electrostatic precipitators and consumed about 360,000,000 kilograms of coal per year. Twenty-nine trace elements were measured in fly ash, and in samples of soil, vegetation, and ground water collected along a 29-km traverse centered on the powerhouse. There were statistically significant effects

J. H. Horton; R. S. Dorsett; R. E. Cooper

2012-01-01

287

One-stage cyclone combustor for coal fired test stand of 4MW thermal power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented on the 4 MW coal-fired MHD test rig at Swierk. Stable operation of a single-stage coal combustor was achieved during several runs of 4-6 hours duration. The protection of the inner walls by a slag layer is highly effective. Heat losses due to cooling of the combustor walls have not exceeded the predicted values and may

T. Kozlowski; Z. Rybacki; W. S. Brzozowski

1979-01-01

288

Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes were collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESPs) and\\/or the baghouse of seven coal-fired power plants. The fly ashes were sampled from power plants that use pulverized subbituminous and bituminous feed coals. Fly ash from bituminous coals and limestone feed coals from fluidized-bed power plant were also sampled. The fly ashes were examined for their mineralogies and elemental compositions.

Fariborz Goodarzi

2006-01-01

289

Conceptual study of providing incremental peaking capability in combined-duty coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This volume reports the results of the first part of a two phase study on the feasibility of providing built-in peaking capability in baseloaded, coal-fired power plants. The results indicate that the baseload/peaking plant can extend the use of coal, the nation's most abundant energy resource, to intermediate and peakload generation without the need for synthetic fuels or the construction of expensive coal-fired cycling plants, or energy storage plants. The b/p plant peaking capacity was estimated to be substantially less expensive than all other peaking power generation options currently available to utility planners. The total capital cost of the b/p plant's peaking capacity was estimated to range from 153 to 430 $/kW in 1982 prices. This is considerably cheaper than the cost of Coal-Fired Cycling plants (1004 $/kW), Underground Pumped Hydro plants (UPH, 850 $/kW), and Compressed Air Energy Storage plants (CAES, 709 $/kW). The levelized busbar cost of peaking power from b/p plants ranges from 50% less than the cost of power from the least expensive of the alternate technologies for 500 hours of peaking per year to 10% less expensive for 3000 hours per year. The potential benefits of the b/p plant which motivated the funding of this conceptual study have been borne out by the results. Phase II of the study will provide the impetus and confidence for further b/p plant development. It will demonstrate the generation economics of the b/p plant by simulating its operation in a typical or actual utility system. To improve the accuracy of the conceptual estimate, the design of a recently constructed coal-fired plant will be modified to incorporate the peaking features of the b/p plant concept. The detailed cost and performance data for the modified plant will be used for Phase II economic analysis.

Not Available

1982-12-01

290

How clean is clean? Incremental versus radical technological change in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discussion on innovations for sustainable development, radical innovations are frequently called for in order to transform\\u000a society into a system perceived as sustainable successfully. The reason for this is the greater environmental efficiency of\\u000a these innovations. This hypothesis is, however, not supported by empirical evidence. Given the background of a global increase\\u000a in coal-fired power plants and the

Klaus Rennings; Peter Markewitz; Stefan Vögele

2009-01-01

291

Some economic and engineering considerations for floating, coal-fired 100mw power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to develop the concept of utilizing marine space for the deployment of an electric power plant. The analysis developed suggests that a floating coal-fired power plant in a semi-submersible hull is technically and economically feasible. Technical considerations indicate that the system should be composed of three 50MW electric generating units modified with marine boilers. This system

J. Craven; C. Gopalakrishnan; I. Swatzburg

1975-01-01

292

The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emissions of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. For steadily increasing emissions without substantial pollution controls, we find that the net global mean climate forcing ranges from near zero to a substantial negative value, depending on the magnitude of aerosol indirect effects, due to aerosol masking of the

D. T. Shindell; G. Faluvegi

2009-01-01

293

Particle growth in the plumes of coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicron particle-size distributions were measured with 10-s resolution aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D Orion research aircraft in the plumes downwind of coal-fired power generation plants in the eastern United States and the urban areas of Nashville, Tennessee, and Atlanta, Georgia. Recently formed particles were present at the edges of some power plant plumes within 2 hours of

Charles A. Brock; Rebecca A. Washenfelder; Michael Trainer; Thomas B. Ryerson; J. Charles Wilson; J. Michael Reeves; L. Gregory Huey; John S. Holloway; David D. Parrish; Gerhard Hübler; Fred C. Fehsenfeld

2002-01-01

294

Heat exchanger fouling in a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating experience with fouling of a finned tube flue gas heat exchanger is described. The heat exchanger is located in the convection pass of an industrial type, pilot-sized coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustor using a forced circulation water\\/glycol coolant loop. Values of heat transfer coefficient were calculated from actual run data, and compared with design values. It was found that

H. M. Stanton; S. Adibhatla; R. D. Cunningham

1983-01-01

295

Ten years experience with large pulverized-coal-fired boilers for utility service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a review of trends affecting the design of large pulverized coal-fired utility boilers, including unit size, fuels, and the design approach for both 3500 lb\\/in² and 2400 lb\\/in² nominal steam cycles. Typical designs for various fuels are discussed, as well as operating experience and availability results. Standardization of design and improvements made as a result of experience

G. W. Boulton; K. H. Haller; H. K. Smith

1982-01-01

296

Significant radioactive contamination of soil around a coal-fired thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples were collected around a coal-fired power plant from 81 different locations. Brown coal, unusually rich in uranium, is burnt in this plant that lies inside the confines of a small industrial town and has been operational since 1943. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K were determined in the samples. Considerably elevated concentrations of

Z Papp; Z Dezs?; S Daróczy

2002-01-01

297

Experimental investigation on aggregation of coal-fired PM 10 by magnetic seeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle aggregation by magnetic seeding was proposed for removing the coal-fired PM10. To better understand the particle aggregation properties by magnetic seeding, experiments on the fly ash particles in the size range of 0.023–9.314?m were conducted in a uniform magnetic field by seeding magnetic particles of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3. The fly ash particles were produced from combustion of bituminous coal

Changsui Zhao; Yongwang Li; Xin Wu; Duanfeng Lu; Song Han

2007-01-01

298

Erosion-corrosion modelling of gas turbine materials for coal-fired combined cycle power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of coal-fired combined cycle power generation systems is receiving considerable worldwide interest. The successful development and commercialisation of these new systems require that all the component parts are manufactured from appropriate materials and that these materials give predictable in-service performance. Corrosion and erosion-corrosion, resulting from coal derived particulates, deposition and gaseous species, have been identified as potential life

N. J. Simms; J. E. Oakey; D. J. Stephenson; P. J. Smith; J. R. Nicholls

1995-01-01

299

Coal-fired combined-cycle plants are on the horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) can meet the projected environmental, efficiency, and investment criteria established by electric utilities for new powerplants. The PFBC combined cycle gives an overall energy-conversion-efficiency boost of at least 5% over a conventional pulverized-coal-fired plant equipped with a wet scrubber. PFBC technology has demonstrated in-situ reduction of around 95% of SOâ and NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions - well

Makansi

1982-01-01

300

Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Concerns about global climate change have prompted interest in capturing and sequestering CO2 generated at coal-fired power plants. This document provides a technical introduction to methods of capturing CO2, which involves separating the CO2 from the other constituents in the flue gas. The methods discussed in this paper are post-combustion capture, oxygen-fired combustion, and pre-combustion capture: • Post-combustion capture

Lance C. Elwell; Willard S. Grant

301

SCE go-ahead for 100MW coal fired combined cycle plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary plans for the 90 to 100-MW coal-fired combined cycle plant due to be built by a team headed by Southern California Edison and Texaco in the mid-1980s are reviewed. The basic operating goals call for having a gasifier with a 1,000 ton coal capacity per day feeding a 70-MW turbine which then provides waste heat to run a 30-MW

Stambler

1980-01-01

302

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

303

CO2 EMISSION AND CARBON CAPTURE FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS IN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal consumption in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the rate of 9.7 and 4.7% per year since 2002, respectively. The increase in coal utilization usually tallies fairly well with the increase in CO2 emission. The present study attempts at predicting the emissions of CO2 from coal fired power plants from 2005 until 2020. The paper also analyzes the potential

M. R. OTHMAN; R. ZAKARIA; W. J. N. FERNANDO

304

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates\\u000a the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency\\u000a and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC\\u000a is carried out. The effects of

Yue Xu; Yining Wu; Shimin Deng; Shirang Wei

2004-01-01

305

Evaluation of a modified-line-reversal temperature measurement in coal-fired MHD plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the modified-line-reversal technique for measurements of the plasma temperature of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power generators is studied. The optical system employed is analyzed to allow its effects to be included into the general modified-line-reversal equations. Furthermore, the size of images produced by the optical system are obtained and used to calculate measured temperature inaccuracies due to misalignment of

Winkleman

1983-01-01

306

Coal-fired gas turbine pilot project gets under way. [Use of high-sulfur coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERDA has awarded a contract to Curtiss-Wright Power Systems to design, construct, and operate a pilot plant comprising a gas turbine with a fluidized-bed combustor capable of burning high-sulfur coals. The 5-year program covers five phases and the project site is adjacent to Curtiss-Wright's gas turbine plant at Wood Ridge, N.J. The existing coal-fired steam generators were converted to gas

Jeffs

1976-01-01

307

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-07-15

308

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

Not Available

1992-10-30

309

Pathologic changes induced by coal-fired fly ash in hamster tracheal grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1, 2, 4, and 14-15 months of exposure. Histopathologic effects and the autoradiographic pattern of (ÂłH)thymidine incorporation were determined. In

L. J. Schiff; J. A. Graham

1984-01-01

310

Determination of volatile organic compounds in emissions by coal-fired power stations from Spain.  

PubMed

This study concerns the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by coal fired power stations. The main compounds are monoaromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds have less importance. The influence of combustion parameters can not be clearly established. Emissions factors were calculated and they are smaller than those of other anthropogenic combustions. A comparative study of two sources of VOCs, power stations and motor vehicles, indicates that the environmental impact of the latter are most important. PMID:11424734

Fernández-Martínez, G; López-Vilarińo, J M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

2001-05-01

311

Morphology and chemistry of fine particles emitted from a Canadian coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles emitted from coal-fired power plants burning subbituminous coal from Alberta, Canada were examined for total particulates (PM) and size fractions PM>10, PM10, and PM2.5. The sampling was carried out following EPA Method 201A. Three tests were performed at each station. The emitted particles were examined using SEM\\/EDX and gravimetric method for the determination of their sizes. The elemental composition

F. Goodarzi

2006-01-01

312

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion\\u000a is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt,\\u000a the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. EL DAVIS

1981-01-01

313

The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be significant shortages in supply if response to new demand is not well-timed.

Robin Stewart

2008-03-12

314

Study on the effect of the operating condition on a pulverized coal-fired furnace using computational fluid dynamics commercial code  

SciTech Connect

Computer models for coal combustion are not sufficiently accurate to enable the design of pulverized coal fired furnaces or the selection of coal based on combustion behavior. Most comprehensive combustion models can predict with reasonable accuracy flow fields and heat transfer but usually with a much lesser degree of accuracy than the combustion of coal particles through char burnout. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is recognized widely to be a cost-effective, advanced tool for optimizing the design and operating condition of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces for achieving cleaner and efficient power generation. Technologists and researchers are paying remarkable attention to CFD because of its value in the pulverized fuel fired furnace technology and its nonintrusiveness, sophistication, and ability to significantly reduce the time and expense involved in the design, optimization, trouble-shooting, and repair of power generation equipment. An attempt to study the effect of one of the operating conditions, i.e., burner tilts on coal combustion mechanisms, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), and heat flux distribution pattern, within the furnace has been made in this paper by modeling a 210 MW boiler using commercial CFD code FLUENT. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Manish Kumar; Santi Gopal Sahu [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Combustion Section, Dhanbad (India)]. man_manna@yahoo.com

2007-12-15

315

Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposable. Net station (HHV) efficiency can be increased to 45 percent without increasing the cost of electricity.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [ABB Power Plant Laboratories (United States); Mirolli, M.D. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Inc. (United States)

1995-12-31

316

Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3\\/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor:

Takashi Shimada; Ryouji Doihara; Yoshiya Terao; Masaki Takamoto

2007-01-01

317

Three phase low pressure flow facility at Institutt for energiteknikk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the three phase low pressure flow facility at Institutt for energiteknikk (Norway). The facility was built during 1993 and 1994, and was tailor made for experiments which are being performed in the PhD project titled Stratified flow o...

M. Espedal

1994-01-01

318

Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion\\/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean

J. Rothrock; R. Wenglarz; P. Hart; H. Mongia

1993-01-01

319

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with nozzles for separate injection of char, coal, and limestone. Burner performance will be rated according to three criteria, carbon conversion efficiency, NOx generation, and flame stability. If initial testing in the arch configuration proves successful, further tests will be performed in the wall-fired arrangement. A complete set of process and instrumentation drawings (P/ID's) were completed for the Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) this quarter. These drawings established an ISA approved instrument tagging structure, and provided a coherent database for the development of a data acquisition system. The data acquisition system polls tag information (value, range, engineering units, etc.) from the distributed control system (DCS) highway, and provides a platform for data reduction. The quadrupole mass spectrometer, used during the pyrolyzer tests performed at the pilot plant in Livingston, N.J., has been redesigned for use at the CETF. The mass spectrometer is designed to provide on-line gas analysis by identifying all of the chemical components within the secondary air line, the flue gas recycle line, and the furnace exit ducting. The construction effort at the CETF continued this quarter with the completion of the char storage system, reheat burner, flue gas recycle piping, and the pulverized coal feed system.

NONE

1998-11-01

320

Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Th...

R. A. Martin B. Gardner X. Cuan H. Hendrix

2005-01-01

321

Trace elements in two pulverized coal-fired power stations.  

PubMed

Beside major pollutants (particulates, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides), coal combustion generates emissions of potentially toxic trace elements. The current work focuses on predicting the fate of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in power stations that fire pulverized coal and are equipped with flue gas scrubbers. The core of the study is global equilibrium analysis carried out with the aid of three extensive databases. The first set of equilibrium constants describes conditions prevailing in the furnace and the flue gas duct, while the second set describes reactions in the flue gas scrubber. Melting behavior of ash and solubility of trace elements within the slag are described as a third set of data. To test the modeling approach taken in this paper, the predicted overall partitioning of trace elements is compared with measured data from two full-scale facilities. The results of the study indicate that As, Cd, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn are captured in the fly ash, and that the fate of these element correlates with the overall particle capture of the power plants. Calculations for the flue gas scrubber facilities show that nonvolatile trace elements are likely to dissolve in the scrubber solution, and that capture of these elements likewise is correlated with the overall particulate behavior. Theoretical predictions of the melting behavior indicate that As, Ni, Zn, and to some extent Pb are likely to dissolve in the molten ash. PMID:11351523

Sandelin, K; Backman, R

2001-03-01

322

Development of cost-effective noncarbon sorbents for Hg(0) removal from coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Noncarbonaceous materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea, and active additives such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide to examine their potential as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor at coal-fired utility power plants. A number of sorbent candidates such as amine- silica gel, urea- silica gel, thiol- silica gel, amide-silica gel, sulfur-alumina, sulfur-molecular sieve, sulfur-montmorillonite, sodium sulfide-montmorillonite, and sodium polysulfide-montmorillonite, were synthesized and tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system under an argon flow for screening purposes at 70 degrees C and/or 140 degrees C. Several functionalized silica materials reported in previous studies to effectively control heavy metals in the aqueous phase showed insignificant adsorption capacities for Hg(0) control in the gas phase, suggesting that mercury removal mechanisms in both phases are different. Among elemental sulfur-, sodium sulfide-, and sodium polysulfide-impregnated inorganic samples, sodium polysulfide-impregnated montmorillonite K 10 showed a moderate adsorption capacity at 70 degrees C, which can be used for sorbent injection prior to the wet FGD system. PMID:16683613

Lee, Joo-Youp; Ju, Yuhong; Keener, Tim C; Varma, Rajender S

2006-04-15

323

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

2006-10-31

324

CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

1990-05-01

325

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01

326

Refuse and coal fired boilers team up at Duesseldorf to cogenerate electricity and district heat  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the Duesseldorf refuse power plant (RPP) with the Flingern Cogeneration Station (FCS) for the purpose of forming the Flingern energy complex is discussed. Up to six refuse fired boiler systems deliver high pressure, superheated steam from the RPP to a variety of turbines at the nearby FCS via a system of cross country steam lines. Both condensate and electricity are returned from the the FCS to the RPP. Additional steaming capacity is provided at the FCS in the form of several coal fired boiler systems. Most of the district heating output is delivered to the inner city district heating network (DHN) by means of a recirculating, pressurised hot water system.

Feindler, K.S.

1984-01-01

327

Coal-fired combined-cycle plants are on the horizon  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) can meet the projected environmental, efficiency, and investment criteria established by electric utilities for new powerplants. The PFBC combined cycle gives an overall energy-conversion-efficiency boost of at least 5% over a conventional pulverized-coal-fired plant equipped with a wet scrubber. PFBC technology has demonstrated in-situ reduction of around 95% of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions - well below all applicable standards. The principles of operation of PFBC are explained and technical problems still to be overcome are discussed.

Makansi, J.

1982-06-01

328

Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

1993-01-01

329

Experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles at low frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles in travelling sound waves. The ranges of variation of the main physical parameters are as follows: acoustic frequency, f=700–3000 Hz; sound pressure level (SPL), SPL=130–147 dB; residence time, t=3–7 s; aerosol number concentration, N0=1.0×105–3.7×105 \\/cm3. A 68.4% decrease in total number concentration is gained under an SPL of 147 dB and

Jianzhong Liu; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Jie Wang; Weidong Zhao; Kefa Cen

2009-01-01

330

Test firing refuse-derived fuel in an industrial coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Research Program entitled, Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler efficiencies and stack emissions were also studied when co-firing RDF and coal. The economics of preparing and utilizing RDF in the boiler are evaluated. The operational characteristics of the RDF feed system and the reliability and practicability of receiving, storing, and firing RDF at an industrial operation are reported.

Vetter, R.J.; Smith, M.L.; Ragland, K.W.; Ham, R.K.; Madding, R.P.

1985-09-01

331

Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species  

SciTech Connect

Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

Will-Wolf, S.

1980-01-01

332

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-12-31

333

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10

334

Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, September 10, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. It will provide a design of an advanced technology furnace/heat exchanger combination in which a ceramic heat exchanger is aerodynamically protected from the corrosive particle laden coal combustion products. The heat exchanger is fired by radiative and convective heat transfer from a moderately clean fuel stream and by radiative heat transfer from the flame of a much larger uncleaned fuel stream. In principle, 35% of the energy will be provided by the former and 65% by the later. The fluid mechanics in the furnace/heat exchanger are controlled so that the flow of the combustion products, from the moderately clean fuel stream, sweeps past the heat exchanger to prevent the contact of coal particles with the uncleaned stream.

Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Yuxin; Pines, D.S.

1993-02-01

335

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. EMISSIONS AND NON-AIR QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

336

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS, PHASE THREE REPORT, SENSITIVITY STUDIES FOR THE SELECTION OF A REVISED STANDARD  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several potential revisions to the current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. The revised NSPS (RNSPS) is assumed to apply to all coal-fire...

337

Integrated gasification combined cycle and carbon capture: A risky option to mitigate CO 2 emissions of coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power sectors of many big economies still rely on coal-fired plants and emit huge amounts of carbon dioxide. Emerging countries like Brazil, China and South Africa plan to expand the use of coal-fired thermal plants in the next decade. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology that facilitates the implementation of carbon capture (CC). The present work

Bettina Susanne Hoffmann; Alexandre Szklo

2011-01-01

338

GUIDELINES FOR NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. PROCEDURES FOR REDUCTION OF NOX EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...

339

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). It is a pulverized fuel- fired boiler/ air heater where steam and gas turbine air are indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and then a pilot plant with a more integrated HIPPS arrangement will be tested. The High Performance Power System is a coal- fired, combined cycle power generating system that will have an efficiency of greater than 47 percent (HHV) with NOx and SOx less than 0.025 Kg/ GJ (0.06 lb/ MMBtu). This performance is achieved by combining a coal pyrolyzation process with a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The pyrolyzation process consists of a pressurized fluidized bed reactor which is operated at about 926 o C (1700 o F) at substoichiometric conditions. This process converts the coal into a low- Btu fuel gas and char. These products are then separated. The char is fired in the HITAF where heat is transferred to the gas turbine compressed air and to the steam cycle. The HITAF is fired at atmospheric pressure with pulverized fuel burners. The combustion air is from the gas turbine exhaust stream. The fuel gas from the pyrolyzation process is fired in a Multi- Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) where it further heats the gas turbine air leaving the HITAF. This type of system results in very high efficiency with coal as the only fuel. We are currently in Phase 2 of the project. In Phase 1, a conceptual plant design was developed and analyzed both technically and economically. The design was found to meet the project goals. The purpose of the Phase 2 work is to develop the information needed to design a prototype plant which would be built in Phase 3. In addition to engineering analysis and laboratory testing, the subsystems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects will be tested at pilot plant scale. The FWDC Second- Generation PFB pilot plant in Livingston, NJ, has been modified to test the pyrolyzer subsystem. The FWDC Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) in Dansville, NY, is being modified to test the char combustion system. When these tests are complete, a more integrated pilot plant will be tested. During this Quarter, some modifications to the Livingston Pyrolyzer Pilot Plant were made and two more test runs were completed. All planned modes of operation with a jetting type of bubbling bed pyrolyzer have been completed. Data reduction for the first two test points is complete, but laboratory analysis for the last two runs is still in progress. The results so far indicate that this type of pyrolyzer will give performance that is acceptable for a HIPPS plant. The bubbling bed pyrolyzer has been run with beds of limestone and alternatively with sand beds. The coal input to the pyrolyzer has been pulverized coal in all cases.

J. Shenker

1997-12-15

340

BACHMAN TREATMENT FACILITY FOR EXCESSIVE STORM FLOW IN SANITARY SEWERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bachman Treatment Facility was built in Dallas, Texas, to provide physical-chemical treatment to those municipal wastewater flows that during periods of heavy precipitation exceed the capacity of a downstream interceptor. The treatments provided in the facility include the ad...

341

Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

2008-11-15

342

Lessons learned in upgrading and refurbishing older coal-fired power plants - a best practices guide for developing APEC economies  

SciTech Connect

The report reviews upgrading and refurbishment projects recently implemented by coal-fired power plants in developing APEC economies, and includes a Best Practice Guide for 15 classes of upgrade and refurbishment items to aid in decision making. There is an urgent need to optimize the performance of older coal-fired power plants in the Asia Pacific region. Refurbished power plants are more efficient and emit less CO{sub 2}. Plants can also be upgraded with new pollution control equipment to emit less CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} NOx, particulates and other emissions, including mercury. 20 figs., 6 tabs., 4 apps.

Lusica, N.; Xie, T.; Lu, Y.

2008-10-15

343

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

Not Available

1992-12-31

344

[Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].  

PubMed

Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China. PMID:19432307

Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

2009-03-15

345

Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.  

PubMed

In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites. PMID:12648482

Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

2003-03-01

346

Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities.

Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

2013-01-01

347

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

Not Available

1993-11-01

348

PFB coal fired combined cycle development program: commercial plant economic analysis (Task 1. 6)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbine and hot gas cleanup technologies. The Coal-Fired Combined Cycle is the unique power plant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined-cycle power plant. The advantages of the combined cycle for higher efficiency and the potential of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor improvements in emissions could offer a new and attractive option to the electric utility industry. The CFCC approach provides for cooling the fluid bed combustor through the use of steam tubes in the bed which supply a steam turbine generator. The partially cooled combustion gases drive a gas turbine generator after passing through a hot gas cleanup train. The Conceptual CFCC Commercial Plant has been defined in Report No. Fe-2357-28. This design, being conceptual in nature, has not been improved through the formal cost reduction iteration/design program. An economic analysis of this baseline plant is provided in this report. The General Electric Company believes that the combustion of coal by the pressurized fluidized bed process is one of the most effective and efficient means for the utilization of coal with respect to both environmental considerations and the cost of electricity.

Not Available

1980-11-01

349

Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

EPRI hosted the Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants (ICPP) from April 2--4, 1991, in San Francisco, California. The more than 130 conference participants included representatives of utilities, steelmakers, equipment fabricators, architect/engineering firms, government agencies, and R D organizations. Among the countries represented were the United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Israel. This international conference reviewed advances in fossil plant materials, components, and designs, and showcased results from the EPRI Improved Coal-Fired Power Plant project, similar collaborative European projects, and new power plants in Japan. The 54 papers in these proceedings are organized according to the conference sessions listed: General; Advanced Power Plant Designs; Standardized/Modular Power Plants; Improved Boiler Tubes; Improved HP, HP/IP, IP, and HP/LP Rotor Steels; Boiler Thick-Wall 9Cr Applications; Improved LP Rotor Steel; Boiler Water Chemistry, Turbine Valves, Casings, and Bolting Materials; Steam Turbine Design Advances; Power Plant Retrofits; Diagnostics and Controls. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Pace, S.; Poe, G. (eds.)

1992-08-01

350

Now you see it, now you don't: impact of temporary closures of a coal-fired power plant on air quality in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed 14 years of aerosol data spanning 1993-2006 from the IMPROVE site at Wishram, Washington (45.66° N, 121.00° W; 178 m above sea level) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) National Scenic Area (http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/columbia/) of the Pacific Northwest of the US. Two types of analyses were conducted. First, we examined the transport for days with the highest fine mass concentrations (particulate matter with diameter <2.5?m or, PM2.5) using HYSPLIT back-trajectories. We found that the highest PM2.5 concentrations occurred during autumn and were associated with easterly flow, down the CRG. Such flow transports emissions from a large coal power plant and a large agricultural facility into the CRG. This transport was found on 20 out of the 50 worst PM2.5 days and resulted in an average daily concentration of 20.1 ?g/m3, compared with an average of 18.8 ?g/m3 for the 50 highest days and 5.9 ?g/m3 for all days. These airmasses contain not only high PM2.5 concentrations but also elevated aerosol NO3- concentrations. These results suggest that emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources on the east end of the CRG, including the coal-fired power plant at Boardman, Oregon, have a significant impact on air quality in the region. In the second analysis, we examined PM2.5 concentrations in the CRG during periods when the Boardman power plant was shut down due to repairs and compared these values with concentrations when the facility was operating at near full capacity. We also examined this relationship on the days when trajectories suggested the greatest influence from the power plant on air quality in the CRG. From this analysis, we found significantly higher PM concentrations when the power plant was operating at or near full capacity. We use these data to calculate that the contribution to PM2.5 mass in the CRG from the Boardman plant was 0.90 ?g/m3 averaged over the entire year, 3.94 ?g/m3 if only the month of November is considered and 7.40 ug/m3 if only November days when the airflow is "down-gorge" (from east to west). This represents 15-56% of PM2.5 mass in the CRG. In all 3 cases the difference in PM2.5 concentrations are statistically significant at a >95% confidence interval for the comparison of normal plant emissions vs shutdown conditions. We, therefore, find that the coal-fired power plant at Boardman, Oregon is a significant contributor to PM2.5 concentrations in the CRG.

Jaffe, D. A.; Reidmiller, D. R.

2009-06-01

351

Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy`s NO{sub x} reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO{sub x} emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0{sub x} scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER`s 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions up to 92%. The program`s next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER`s Santa Anna test site.

Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1993-02-11

352

Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Instrumental and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. Some tests were conducted at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at UTSI, and the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), Butte, Montana.

Not Available

1989-10-01

353

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for

D. L. Bacchus; O. E. Hill; R. Harold Whitesides

1992-01-01

354

ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2004-09-08

355

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following: (1) There was some correlation between the prevailing wind direction and measured soil and oak leaf concentrations. This correlation was not statistically significant, but higher soil concentrations were generally found in the east and southeast from the plants and lower soil concentrations were found west/southwest from the plants. The prevailing winds are to the east. The Conemaugh plant which was the most southeast of the three plants did have the highest average oak leaf and soil mercury concentrations. Based on emissions, the Keystone plant would be expected to see the highest concentrations as it emitted about 25% more mercury than the other two plants. (2) The results of this study did not turn up strong evidence for large areas (several square miles) of elevated mercury concentrations around the three coal-fired power plants that were tested. This does not mean that there is no effect, there was some evidence of increasing mercury content to the east and south of these plants, however, the trends were not statistically significant suggesting that if the effects exist, they are small.

Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

2008-02-01

356

Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility  

ScienceCinema

What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

357

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot-spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot-spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that n

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

2005-12-01

358

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FISH NEAR A COAL-FIRED GENERATING STATION AND RELATED LABORATORY STUDIES. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Construction of a coal-fired electric generating station on wetlands adjacent to the Wisconsin River has permanently altered about one-half of the original 1,104-ha site. Change in the remaining wetlands continues as a result of waste heat and ashpit effluent produced by the stat...

359

On-line Monitoring of Waterwall Corrosion in a 1300 MW Coal-fired Boiler with Low NOx Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion modifications to minimize NOx emissions have increased the likelihood of waterwall corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As evolving regulations require further NOx emissions reduction, a cost effective approach to satisfying these requirements has been to increase the degree of air staging. However, in many applications, corrosion concerns prevent the use of such fuel rich conditions. The physics and chemistry controlling

Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Jim Valentine; Dave Swensen; Darren Shino; J. J. Letcavits; Randy Sheidler; William Cox; Richard Carr; Stan Harding

360

Study of the Reliability of Large Coal-Fired and Nuclear Power Plants. Factors Affecting Power Plant Reliability. Volume III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study consisted of a comparative evaluation of 2 nuclear units (Indian Point 2 - Consolidated Edison of New York, Turkey Point 4 - Florida Power & Light Company) and 2 coal-fired units (Bull Run and Widows Creek Unit 8 - Tennessee Valley Authority). T...

1975-01-01

361

Stakeholder Participation in Investigating the Health Impacts from Coal?Fired Power Generating Stations in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing an effective stakeholder participation process and communication dialogue continues to be a challenge in dealing with risk issues, particularly those in which the risk is uncertain and people are fearful about the potential impacts. The complex public stakeholder relations and risk communication issues associated with investigating the potential human health effects associated with exposure to the emissions of coal?fired

C. G. Jardine; G. Predy; A. Mackenzie

2007-01-01

362

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

363

STUDY OF PCB DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE FOR A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER. VOLUME 1. TEST AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the adequacy of a large coal-fired utility boiler for disposal of oils containing 50-499 ppm of PCBs under conditions set by the PCB Disposal Regulations. TVA's Widows Creek Boiler No. 1 was used for the tests. In these tests, all effl...

364

Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the

2003-01-01

365

Conceptual Design of a Coal-Fired MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) Retrofit Plant (Scholz Plant - Sneads, FL): Volume 1. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. AC22-87PC79668, has completed a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired MHD retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viabilit...

1989-01-01

366

Conceptual Design of a Coal-Fired MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) Retrofit Plant (Scholz Plant, Sneads, FL): Volume 2. Drawings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US DOE/PETC is funding a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of an MHD system operating within and electric utility environment. Westinghouse Advanc...

1989-01-01

367

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1991--June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal fired MHD retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and...

J. R. Lance F. E. Bernard F. F. Klein

1991-01-01

368

Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First technical quarterly report for period ending September 30, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. During Phase I, detailed research and development will be performed to perfect a staged, slagging, cyclone burner for direct coal

1979-01-01

369

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MASS CONCENTRATION AND LIGHT ATTENUATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are presented on 40 mass concentration-light attenuation tests of particulate emissions at coal-fired power plants with electrostatic precipitator controls, and on particle size measurements at two plants near the high and low extremes in the range of the mass concentration-...

370

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 5. APPENDIX F  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

371

CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATORS: WATER POLLUTION IMPACT. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of one task in a comprehensive program to review the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generating plants. The results compare two alternative standards to the existing NSPS (1.2 lb SO2/million Btu of h...

372

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

NONE

1997-12-31

373

Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other

H. M. McDaniel; R. K. Staubly; V. K. Venkataraman

1994-01-01

374

CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY RELATED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the effects of a coal-fired power plant on terrestrial plants and animals. Research was conducted from 1971 through 1977 at the Columbia Generating Station in the eastern flood-plain of the Wisconsin River in south-central Wisconsin. Initial studies were la...

375

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE E  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 180,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurement...

376

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE G  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 75,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel prop...

377

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE F  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on an 80,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash injection, excess air, boiler load, and coal prope...

378

Eskom's New Coal-Fired Power Stations Programme Case of Bravo Power Station Scheme: Transmission Integration (Feasibility study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet South Africa's future electricity demand, Eskom has initiated a process to evaluate the feasibility of various power generation options. Coal fired generating options are envisaged to remain a fundamental part of South Africa's power generation options. ISEP (integrated strategic electricity planning) indicated that new base load power generation will be required no later than 2011 to

C. Shako Tulamba

2007-01-01

379

Kinds and quantities of organic combustion products in solid and liquid wastes from a coal-fired power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds recovered from solid and liquid wastes from the Four Corners Coal-Fired Power Station at Fruitland, New Mexico, were analyzed. Total organic carbon, total extractable hydrocarbons, and identities and quantities of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are reported. Organic constituents in water and particulate samples were extracted into organic solvents and characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography, mass

F. L. Harrison; D. J. Bishop; B. J. Mallon

1983-01-01

380

INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: A COMPUTER MODEL APPROACH FOR DESIGN AND COST-ESTIMATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), a computerized program that can be used to estimate the cost and performance of pre-combustion, in situ, and post-combustion air pollution control configurations in pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers of 1...

381

IMPACT OF PRIMARY SULFATE AND NITRATE EMISSIONS FROM SELECTED MAJOR SOURCES. PHASE 1. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers Phase one of a two phase study of the near source impacts of primary sulfate and nitrate emission sources. The phase one portion of the study was an investigation of the impact of a coal fired power plant burning high sulfur coal. The study was designed to measu...

382

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [period ending December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.

1988-01-01

383

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT--SITE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and ...

384

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE J  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with chain grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and coa...

385

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE H  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives test results on a coal-fired, overfeed, traveling-grate stoker. The boiler tested is rated at 45,000 lb/hr saturated steam at 140 psig. Measurements include gaseous emissions (O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO3, and HC), uncontrolled particulate mass loading, particle siz...

386

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE K  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 50,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and...

387

Perspectives on the potential of clean coal technologies to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses how emerging clean coal technologies can play an important role in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. A major issue is whether they will be commercially available for widespread deployment within the time frame needed to meet requirements of acid rain control legislation. On the basis of current reviews and past reports, it appears that clean coal

Fultz

1989-01-01

388

Cloud modification by man-made pollutants: Effects of a coal-fired power plant on cloud drop spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants from coal-fired power plants increase the drop modal radii and broaden the drop spectra of stratocumulus clouds. Additional water from the coal combustion leads to a measurable increase of the liquid water content of polluted clouds. Implied consequences are an increase of the coalescence efficiency, and an increase in acidity, of affected clouds.

Pueschel, R. F.; Barrett, E. W.; Wellman, D. L.; McGuire, J. A.

1981-03-01

389

Study on flyash characteristics and its effect on mercury removal in coal-fired derived flue gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, fly ash sampled at ESP inlet and outlet in a coal fired power station was analyzed, and its characteristics and effect on mercury removal were experimentally studied. It shows that particles consisted in the fly ash are mostly smaller than 50-100 ?m , and some were even smaller than 10 ?m. The main contents in the fly

Jiang Wu; Yanyan Zhang; Weiguo Pan; Ping He; Jianxing Ren; Ruitang Guo; Lei Pan; Peng Wang

2010-01-01

390

Investigation of the use of coal-fired power plant ash ponds for treatment of boiler acid cleaning waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the proper conditions, boiler acid cleaning wastes can be effectively treated in the ash ponds at coal-fired generating plants, producing iron and copper concentrations which are below the regulatory requirements for effluent discharge. This investigation provides the basis for this conclusion and consists of four major parts. First, an introduction which provides a review of existing regulatory requirements and

1988-01-01

391

The Carnol System for methanol production and COâ mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by COâ recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol Process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with COâ recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used

Steinberg

1996-01-01

392

LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

393

Simulation and Optimization of the Power Station Coal-Fired Logistics System Based on Witness Simulation Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing characteristics and relations of the power station coal-fired logistics system, including the choice of coal suppliers, the railroad transport system, the power station stockpile system, the power station coal transfer system and human resources, by Witness software the thesis sets up a simulation and optimization model of fuel coal logistics system and analyzes one example in detail.

Yabin Li; Rong Li

2008-01-01

394

Evaluation of Radian's Report, Water Pollution Impact of Controlling Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Steam Electric Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRI International is pleased to submit the following report, under DOE Master Agreement Number E(04-3)-115, to review, critique, and comment on the draft report entitled Water Pollution Impact of Controlling Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Steam ...

S. S. Lee

1978-01-01

395

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

396

RETROFIT COSTS OF SO2 AND NOX CONTROL AT 200 U.S. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study to improve engineering applying cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2 emitting coal-fired utility plants in the U.S. To accomplish this objective, procedures were d...

397

Constrained Optimization of Combustion at a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Invasive Weed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the requirement of high efficiency and low NOx emission combustion of coal-fired boiler, two constrained optimization objectives were designed based on the practical requirement, the one was that maximization of boiler efficiency under NOx emission constraint, and the other one was that minimization of NOx emission under a good boiler performance. Considering the complexity of response

Huan Zhao; Pei-hong Wang; Xianyong Peng; Jin Qian; Quan Wang

2009-01-01

398

DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

399

Water Recycle/Reuse Alternatives in Coal-Fired Steam-Electric Power Plants; Volume II. Appendixes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an investigation of water recycle/treatment/reuse alternatives in coal-fired power plants. Five power plants from representative U.S. regions were studied. The major water systems encountered were cooling, ash sluicing, and SO2...

J. G. Noblett P. G. Christman

1978-01-01

400

Impacts of Coal-Fired Power Plants on Local Ground-Water Systems: Wisconsin Power Plant Impact Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantitative techniques for simulating the impacts of a coal-fired power plant on the ground-water system of a river flood-plain wetland were developed and tested. Effects related to the construction and operation of the cooling lake and ashpit had the gr...

C. B. Andrews M. P. Anderson

1980-01-01

401

New feasibility study of carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power plants for enhanced oil recovery: A Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes is currently drawing much interest from oil, utility and coal companies in Western Canada. Implementation of such a scheme would provide two important benefits: (i) the captured CO2 could be marketed as a flooding agent which would

Larry Ward

1996-01-01

402

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

403

ECONOMIC IMPACTS RESULTING FROM CO-FIRING BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES COAL-FIRED PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic impacts of using biomass in Southeast United States coal-fired plants are estimated using a county-level biomass database; ORCED, a dynamic electricity distribution model that estimates feedstock value; ORIBAS, a GIS model that estimates feedstock transportation costs; and IMPLAN, an input-output model that determines the impacts of co-firing on economic activity.

Burton C. English; Kimberly L. Jensen; R. Jamey Menard; Marie E. Walsh; Daniel de la Torre Ugarte; Craig Brandt; Jim Van Dyke; Stanton Hadley

2004-01-01

404

High pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Quarterly report, February 1--April 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is a quarterly report on High Pressure Coal-Fired Ceramic Air Heater for Gas Turbine Applications. The tasks covered in this report are Program Management; Component Development -- including erosion/corrosion problems, coal handling system, natural gas fuel system and tube-string development; Component System Integration and Testing; and Testing and Analysis.

NONE

1997-04-01

405

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

406

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01

407

An intelligent ultrasonic flowmeter for improved flow measurement and flow calibration facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing need for reduced uncertainty has forced metrologists to look for novel ways to improve the calibration standards for flow. The NIST is experimenting with the use of an advanced ultrasonic flowmeter (AUFM) to improve flow measurement and to detect the dynamic properties of calibration facilities. Ultrasonic technology is evolving rapidly and technical advances have significantly improved flow measurement

T. T. Yeh; P. I. Espina; Stephen A. Osella

2001-01-01

408

Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

NONE

1996-09-01

409

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO{sub x}, emission reduction from coal fired power plants equipped with SO{sub 2} scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that, performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent, although lower levels of reburning are needed than are traditionally applied in the reburning process. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber.

Evans, A.; Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1992-05-27

410

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-10-29

411

Plume washout around a major coal-fired power plant: results of a single storm event  

SciTech Connect

Statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry from a 0.67-cm rain event in areas upwind and downwind of a 3160 MW coal-fired power plant indicated significantly higher sulfate and nitrate deposition rates in the target area, but no significant differences in H/sup +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, or trace metal deposition rates or in concentrations of any components between target and control areas. Plume washout of sulfate in the target area exhibited a maximum deposition rate approx. 45% above the mean deposition rate of the control area at a site 12 km from the stack and for a plume residence time of approx. 1 to 2 h. Aerosol washout calculations suggested that approx. 70% of the observed excess deposition rate of sulfate could be attributed to sulfate aerosol; however, the variability in rainfall intensity makes it impossible to ascribe all of the difference in sulfate deposition to plume washout alone.

Chen, N.C.J.; Lindberg, S.E.; Saylor, R.E.

1980-01-01

412

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

413

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

414

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

1999-12-01

415

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

416

Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

Not Available

1994-07-01

417

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

2004-02-01

418

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22

419

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

Rubin, E.S.

1989-10-01

420

Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives  

SciTech Connect

Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper, is to modify the mineral matter/ash chemistry to render it non-adherent through the use of additives. In this way, the complexity and expense of hot gas cleanup is obviated. To date, alumina, boehmite, and a variety of kaolin clay additives have been tested in a coal-water mixture fired gas turbine simulator. A washed kaolin clay has proved to be most effective in reducing airfoil deposition. A mechanism involving in-situ slag decomposition, exsolution, and spontaneous spalling is proposed.

Spiro, C.L.; Chen, C.C.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Schields, P.W. (GE Corporate Research and Development Lab., Schenectady, NY (USA))

1989-01-01

421

Partitioning of natural radionuclides in the waste streams of coal-fired utilities  

SciTech Connect

Five coal-fired electric utility plants were sampled to determine radionuclide concentrations in all major process streams. The results, together with plant operating data, were used to track the following six naturally occurring radionuclides: /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Po, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 230/Th and /sup 232/Th. For each plant, radionuclide balances were computed and the amount and extent of volatilization and enrichment of any radionuclides in the stack effluent were determined. In general, most of the radioactivity was found in boiler bottom ash or particulate control equipment hopper ash; atmospheric emissions were quite small in comparison. Radionuclides in the stack effluent were not detected in the gaseous state and some (especially /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb) were preferentially associated with the smallest fly-ash particles.

Roeck, D.R.; Reavey, T.C.; Hardin, J.M.

1987-03-01

422

Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

2009-08-31

423

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests were conducted. A draft final report for the sorbent evaluations at Valley was submitted. Presentations of the results for this program were given at two conferences. A test plan for sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant was drafted. Work will begin mid October 2003. A no cost time extension for work to be completed by December 31, 2003 was granted by DOE/NETL.

Trevor Ley

2003-10-01

424

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03

425

Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

426

PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Annual report, July 1978-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) is the unique powerplant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle powerplant. On the basis of previous studies and confirming work under this contract, General Electric continues to believe that the CFCC approach offers important advantages over alternate approaches: higher powerplant efficiency in the combustor temperature range of interest; reduced combustor/steam generator corrosion potential, due to low fluid-bed tube temperature (as contrasted to the air in tube cycle); and increased gas turbine bucket life from improved material protection systems. The objective of this program is to evaluate the coal fired combined cycle powerplant conceptual design, and to conduct a supporting development program. The supporting development is required for evaluating the pressurized fluidized bed combustion concept, for developing engineering correlations to be used in optimizing the commercial plant concept, and for evaluating the combustor/steam generator, the hot-gas cleanup, and the advanced gas turbine materials approach for this application. Work to date has identified the need to protect the gas turbine from corrosion caused by substantial amounts of alkali in the submicron aerosol and vapor phase and to protect the turbine from erosion caused by multi-micron-sized particulates. We believe that a solution to the corrosion protection challenge can more confidently and quickly be found by extending turbine materials work in dirty liquid fuels to the PFB environmental levels. Particulate removal for erosion protection has as its objective a better quantification of the erosion tolerance level coupled with work to improve the performance of inertial separators, including electrostatic augmentation, in the less-than-10-..mu..m-particle-size region. A few other testing programs are described briefly.

Not Available

1980-05-01

427

Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor and utility scale power plants  

SciTech Connect

The target species to be analyzed in the DCM extracts are nitrated-PAH, hydroxylated-NO[sub 2]-aromatic PAH (OH-NO[sub 2]-AR/PAH), and PAH derivatives containing either a sulfur (PASH), nitrogen (PANH) or oxygen (oxy-PAH) (see Procedure 02 in the Appendix). Battelle recommends that extracts from particle size ranges A and B for both HD and LD samples be combined together for analysis. This combination will provide a sample quantity of 2.73 mg (0.88 + 0.96 + 0.48 + 0.40, from Table 6) to begin the fractionation into polarity classes. By combining the extracts in this manner it will not be possible to develop data differentiated by (1) particle size within the two size classes or (2) coal firing rate. The overriding factor, in Battelle's opinion, is that without combining the four extracts into one, it is likely that measurements of most of the target species will result primarily in nondetectable results because of the small concentrations of these species in the samples combined with the small quantity of sample. Battelle believes that it is most important to obtain measurable results for the species to guide the planning effort for the power plant study in the summer of 1993. The best opportunity to accomplish this goal for these difficult to measure species is by working with as much material as possible. Two other considerations are that there will still be differentiation of results by particle size for size range C versus the combined A+B. Also, results for PAH and other analytes (not reported herein) suggest that the differences in samples between the two coal firing rates may not be significant. Both of these considerations support Battelle's recommendation to combine the extracts according to the scheme cited above.

Not Available

1993-01-01

428

Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

2009-11-01

429

Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have mu...

1994-01-01

430

Trace elements in sediments, water, and American coots ( Fulica americana ) at a coal-fired power plant in Texas, 1979–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the temporal accumulation of trace element concentrations in water, sediments, and waterbirds at a coal-fired power plant ash pond and to document aquatic bird use of the ash pond.

Donald H. White; Kirke A. King; Christine A. Mitchell; Bernard M. Mulhern

1986-01-01

431

Development of advanced NO(sub x) control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1--December 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CombiNO(sub x) is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO(sub x), emission reduction from coal fired po...

A. Evans J. Newhall G. England W. R. Seeker

1992-01-01

432

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO(sub x) reduction Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes results of a technical, financial and environmental assessment study for a project, which would have included a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Kr...

1997-01-01

433

PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION AND ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNER FOR THE CONTROL OF NOâ AND PM{sub 2.5} FOR COAL FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the serious challenge facing coal-fired electric utilities with regards to curbing their NOâ and fine particulate emissions, Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc. conducted a project entitled, ''Particulate Characterization and Ultra Low-NOâ Burner for the Control of NOâ and PM{sub 2.5} for Coal Fired Boilers.'' The project included pilot-scale demonstration and characterization of technologies for removal

Ralph Bailey; Hamid Sarv; Jim Warchol; Debi Yurchison

2001-01-01

434

Estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. Report for November 1985February 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid-rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and conduct detailed evaluations of 12 coal-fired plants--5 in Ohio and 7 in Kentucky and the Tennessee Valley Authority system. A variety

J. W. Jones; T. E. Emmel; B. A. Laseke

1987-01-01

435

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three

Thomas

1988-01-01

436

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three

Thomas

1988-01-01

437

Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. The computational REACH reactor was modeled with PCGC-2. The reactor geometry, inlet flow rates and configurations were investigated via modeling in order to get an optimum operation condition, with which a thorough coal and gas mixture and a required coal particle dispersion can both be achieved. This is to ensure the efficiencies of both coal combustion and aerodynamic cleaning. The aerodynamic cleaning effect of the tertiary air injection was modeled with CELMINT. Various injection schemes investigated show the dramatic impact of the tertiary air and the injection positions on the overall air flow pattern in the reactor which is one of the major influencing factors on the particle dispersion. It is clearly demonstrated that an optimum tertiary injection scheme with a reasonable flow rate is able to keep the heat exchange tubes from particle fouling.

Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

1993-04-01

438

Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

Lucero, R.F.

1988-09-29

439

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-07-30

440

Model-based flow diverter analysis for an improved uncertainty determination in liquid flow calibration facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In liquid flow calibration facilities run in the flying-start-and-finish operation mode, a diverter represents an essentially accuracy-determining functional unit, both with gravimetric and volumetric reference-based installations. Model-based approaches that describe a diverter's operation on the basis of realistic diverter flow conditions and kinematics of the diverting edge provide capabilities to take into account component-related and flow-related effects and processes for

Rainer Engel; Hans-Joachim Baade

2010-01-01

441

Dynamic modelling and analysis of post-combustion CO 2 chemical absorption process for coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-combustion capture by chemical absorption using MEA solvent remains the only commercial technology for large scale CO2 capture for coal-fired power plants. This paper presents a study of the dynamic responses of a post-combustion CO2 capture plant by modelling and simulation. Such a plant consists mainly of the absorber (where CO2 is chemically absorbed) and the regenerator (where the chemical

A. Lawal; M. Wang; P. Stephenson; G. Koumpouras; H. Yeung

2010-01-01

442

Preliminary evaluation of coal-fired fluid bed combustion-augmented compressed-air energy-storage power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highlights are presented of a portion of an ongoing study program to assess the technical and economic feasibility of advanced concepts for generating peak-load electric power from a compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plant incorporating a coal-fired fluid bed combustor (FBC). Specifically, it reviews the analysis performed to select the FBC\\/CAES power plant system configuration for the subsequent

R. D. Lessard; A. J. Giramonti; D. Merrick

1979-01-01

443

Preliminary evaluation of coal-fired fluid bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents highlights of an ongoing study program to assess the technical and economic feasibility of advanced concepts for generating peak-load electric power from a compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plant incorporating a coal-fired fluid bed combustor (FBC). It reviews the analyses performed to select an FBC\\/CAES power plant system configuration for the subsequent conceptual design phase of

R. D. Lessard; A. J. Giramonti; D. Merrick

1980-01-01

444

Primary air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China: Current status and future prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the atmospheric emissions of coal-fired power sector in China, a unit-based method was developed based on detailed information of unit type, fuel quality, emission control technology, and geographical location. During 2000-2005, the period when power sector developed fastest in the past 20 years, SO 2, NO x and PM emissions of coal-fired power plants increased by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.2 times, respectively. The SO 2, emission of coal-fired power sector was estimated to be 16?097 kt in 2005, and would decrease to 11?801 kt in 2010, attributed mainly to the wide application of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The NO x emission, however, would increase from 6965 kt in 2005 to 9680 kt in 2010, since few NO x control measures would be taken during the five years. The TSP, PM 10, and PM 2.5 emissions in 2005 were estimated to be 2774, 1842 and 994 kt, and the values would be 2540, 1824 and 1090 kt in 2010 respectively. The wet FGD would play an important role on dust emission removal. Through faithful implementation of closing small units and emission control policies in the acid rain and sulfur dioxide control zones, approximately 33%, 6% and 25% of SO 2, NO x, and TSP emissions respectively could be further reduced in 2010. Emissions in 2015 and 2020 of coal-fired power plants were predicted applying scenario analysis. For SO 2 and TSP, optimistic situation can be achieved through reasonable control policies; in contrast, NO x would probably be a more serious issue in future.

Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Lei, Yu; Cao, Pengfei; Hao, Jiming

445

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-12-14

446

Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10 s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited

R. G. Stevens; J. R. Pierce; C. A. Brock; M. K. Reed; J. H. Crawford; J. S. Holloway; T. B. Ryerson; L. G. Huey; J. B. Nowak

2011-01-01

447

Detailed modeling of hybrid reburn\\/SNCR processes for NO X reduction in coal-fired furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanism reduction has made the detailed kinetic modeling of combustion problems much easier; it also offers potential improvement of modeling accuracy and flexibility in comparison to global mechanisms. The present work applies mechanism reduction in conjunction with the CHEMKIN library and develops an automatic reduction program code. Regarding the hybrid re-burn\\/selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) (“advanced re-burning”) conditions in coal-fired furnaces

Xiaohai Han; Xiaolin Wei; Uwe Schnell; Klaus R. G. Hein

2003-01-01

448

COMPARISON AND VALIDATION OF OHM AND SCEM MEASUREMENTS FOR A FULL-SCALE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury emission measurements were performed at a 250 MW coal-fired power plant using the Ontario Hydro method (OHM) and semi-continuous emission monitors (SCEM). Flue gas sampling was performed at the inlet of the air preheater and at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator. The results indicated that there is some agreement between the OHM and SCEM measurements on the total mercury

Boshu He; Yan Cao; Carlos E. Romero; Harun Bilirgen; Nenad Sarunac; Hans Agarwal; Wei-Ping Pan

2007-01-01

449

State of the Art of Oxy-Coal Combustion Technology for CO2 Control from Coal-Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development of oxy-coal combustion for CO2 capture from coal-fired boilers has been the subject of numerous studies. Recently, The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) and Air Liquide (AL), with sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), have finished a pilot-scale evaluation of the technology at 1.5 MWth (5 MBtu\\/hr) using scale model commercial boiler equipment. The

450

Mercury distribution in seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  More and more coal-fired power plants equipped with seawater flue gas desulfurization systems have been built in coastal areas.\\u000a They release large amount of mercury (Hg)-containing waste seawater into the adjacent seas. However, very limited impact studies\\u000a have been carried out. Our research targeted the distribution of Hg in the seawater, sediment, biota, and atmosphere, and\\u000a its environmental

Xiyao Liu; Lumin Sun; Dongxing Yuan; Liqian Yin; Jinsheng Chen; Yaoxing Liu; Chengyu Liu; Ying Liang; Fangfang Lin

451

Conversion of existing coal-fired power plants to oxyfuel combustion: Case study with experimental results and CFD-simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyfuel combustion is one of the promising technologies to enable CCS for new and existing coal-fired power plants. For retrofit applications, oxyfuel is an attractive option because it does not have major impact on the boiler-turbine steam cycle. This paper presents a case study for retrofitting oxyfuel combustion technology in large state-of-the-art power plants that are originally commissioned and operated

K.-D. Tigges; F. Klauke; C. Bergins; K. Busekrus; J. Niesbach; M. Ehmann; C. Kuhr; F. Hoffmeister; B. Vollmer; T. Buddenberg; Song Wu; Allan Kukoski

2009-01-01

452

The effect of fly ash on fluid dynamics of CO 2 scrubber in coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncaptured fly ash and\\/or suspended solids from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubbing solutions are one of several factors that will influence the performance and robustness of carbon dioxide capture systems in coal-fired power plants which will be installed prior to the exhaust stack. In this study, a 100mm ID packed column scrubber was tested with different concentrations of ash

Zhisheng Chen; Derek Yates; James K. Neathery; Kunlei Liu

453

Control of sulfur dioxide, chlorine, and trace-element emissions from coal-fired boilers by fabric filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental programs carried out at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) have demonstrated that fabric-filtration systems are effective in controlling emissions of a number of pollutants resulting from the combustion of bituminous coal in boilers. In studies conducted in a 500 lb\\/hr coal-fired furnace equipped with a baghouse, it was found that the baghouse filter cake removed significant portions of

R. J. Demski; J. T. Yeh; J. I. Joubert

2008-01-01

454

Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on

Peter Shyr-Jye Kuo

1997-01-01

455

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

Not Available

1992-10-30

456

Estimation of the health benefits of controlling air pollution from the Yata?an coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health benefits of the flue-gas desulphurisation units of the Yata?an coal-fired power plant were estimated by using the AirPacts model. The primary pollutant emitted from the stack is sulphur dioxide; however, secondary pollutants are created downstream of the source as a result of chemical reactions involving other species that exist in the surrounding atmosphere. The impact pathway approach was

Tayfun Büke; Aylin Çi?dem Köne

457

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1991June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE\\/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal fired MHD retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The utility plant considered in this study is the

J. R. Lance; F. E. Bernard; F. F. Klein

1991-01-01

458

Transformations and Affinities for Sulfur of Chinese Shenmu Coal Ash in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca\\/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t\\/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less

J. Cheng; J. H. Zhou; J. Z. Liu; X. Y. Cao; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

459

Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO in the flue gas are

Khalid Omar

2008-01-01

460

Carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power plants for enhanced oil recovery: A feasibility study in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to sustain the current production capacity of conventional oil in Western Canada, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies must be increasingly applied. Among these, CO2 flooding is a highly attractive alternative. A large amount of CO2 is being produced by coal-fired power plants in this region. The CO2 is currently discharged into the atmosphere and could be a major

Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul; Christine W. Chan; Weerapong Kritpiphat; Colin Jordan; Dave Skoropad; Don Gelowitz; Adisorn Aroonwilas; Frank Mourits; Malcolm Wilson; Larry Ward

1996-01-01

461

ASSESING THE IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITION OF MERCURY ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury emissions from coal fired plants will be limited by regulations enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be on a plant specific basis or a nationwide basis. The nationwide basis allows a Cap and Trade program similar to that for other air pollutants. Therefore, a major issue is the magnitude and extent of local deposition. Computer modeling suggests that increased local deposition will occur on a local (2 to 10 Km) to regional scale (20 to 50 Km) with the increase being a small percentage of background deposition on the regional scale. The amount of deposition depends upon many factors including emission rate, chemical form of mercury emitted (with reactive gaseous mercury depositing more readily than elemental mercury), other emission characteristics (stack height, exhaust temperature, etc), and meteorological conditions. Modeling suggests that wet deposition will lead to the highest deposition rates and that these will occur locally. Dry deposition is also predicted to deposit approximately the same amount of mass as wet deposition, but over a much greater area. Therefore, dry deposition rates will contribute a fraction of total deposition on the regional scale. The models have a number of assumptions pertaining to deposition parameters and there is uncertainty in the predicted deposition rates. A key assumption in the models is that the mixture of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) to elemental mercury Hg(0) is constant in the exhaust plume. Recent work suggests that RGM converts to Hg(0) quickly. Deposition measurements around coal-fired power plants would help reduce the uncertainties in the models. A few studies have been performed to examine the deposition of mercury around point sources. Measurement of soil mercury downwind from chlor-alkali plants has shown increased deposition within a few Km. Studies of soils, sediments, and wet deposition around coal plants typically find some evidence of enhanced deposition; however, the statistical significance of the results is generally weak. A review of these studies is found in Lipfert. This study combines modeling of mercury deposition patterns with soil mercury measurements. The model used emissions data, meteorological conditions, and plant data to define sample locations likely to exhibit deposition in excess of background, that can be attributed to the power plant. Data were collected at the specified locations in November, 2003.

SULLIVAN, T.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; OGEKA, C.; LIPFERT, F.; RENNINGER, S.

2004-03-28

462

Mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant in Japan  

PubMed

The emissions study for mercury was conducted at a 700 MW coal-fired plant for the combustion of three types of coal with mercury concentrations of 0.0063, 0.0367 and 0.065 mg/kg. The power plant is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator and wet type flue gas desulfurization system. During full load operation of the boilers, samples of the input and output streams such as coal, coal ash, ESP ash and post-ESP particulates and flue gas were collected. The Hg concentrations in solid were measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Gaseous Hg was collected using a mixed solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid and the Hg concentrations in the samples were measured using cold-vapor AAS. The results were used to examine: (1) overall mass balances; (2) relative distribution in the power plant; (3) equilibrium of Hg species using MALT-2 calculation program; and (4) Hg concentrations in stack emissions. The mass balances estimated in this study were 100, 138 and 89%, respectively, for the coals. Total Hg concentrations in stack gas were 1.113, 0.422 and 0.712 microg(m3N), respectively, for the coals. More than 99.5% of the Hg in the stack emissions were in gaseous form and the proportion in particulate form was extremely low. The relative distribution of Hg in ESP, FGD and Stack ranged from 8.3 to 55.2%, 13.3 to 69.2% and 12.2% to 44.4%, respectively. The results indicated that factors other than the Hg concentration of coals and efficiency of pollution control devices might affect Hg emissions from coal-fired plant. The calculated equilibrium of the distribution of Hg species using the MALT2 program suggest that it is necessary to consider condensation mechanism to interpret the affect of Hg species on the variations of the removal efficiencies of Hg in the ESP. PMID:11032139

Yokoyama; Asakura; Matsuda; Ito; Noda

2000-10-01

463

Combining support vector regression and ant colony optimization to reduce NOx emissions in coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Combustion optimization has recently demonstrated its potential to reduce NOx emissions in high capacity coal-fired utility boilers. In the present study, support vector regression (SVR), as well as artificial neural networks (ANN), was proposed to model the relationship between NOx emissions and operating parameters of a 300 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The predicted NOx emissions from the SVR model, by comparing with that of the ANN-based model, showed better agreement with the values obtained in the experimental tests on this boiler operated at different loads and various other operating parameters. The mean modeling error and the correlation factor were 1.58% and 0.94, respectively. Then, the combination of the SVR model with ant colony optimization (ACO) to reduce NOx emissions was presented in detail. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce NOx emissions from the coal-fired utility boiler by about 18.69% (65 ppm). A time period of less than 6 min was required for NOx emissions modeling, and 2 min was required for a run of optimization under a PC system. The computing times are suitable for the online application of the proposed method to actual power plants. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Ligang Zheng; Hao Zhou; Chunlin Wang; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

2008-03-15

464

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical progress report 2, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired high performance power system was developed, and small scale R and D was done in critical areas of design. The current Phase of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage, and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been identified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs and general operation of the system. These goals are: Total station efficiency of at least 47 percent on a higher heating value basis; emissions: NO{sub x} < 0.06 lb/MMBtu, SO{sub x} < 0.06 lg/MMBtu, and particulates < 0.003 lb/MMBtu; all solid wastes must be benign with regard to disposal; over 95% of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65% of the heat input; and ten percent lower cost of electricity (COE) relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS.

NONE

1996-02-01

465

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01

466

Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-07-01

467

The Power Systems Development Facility -- Current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) has entered into a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build and operate the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), currently under construction in Wilsonville, Alabama, 40 miles southeast of Birmingham. The objectives of the PSDF are to develop advanced coal-fired power generation technologies through testing and evaluation of hot gas cleanup

T. E. Pinkston; J. D. Maxwell; R. F. Leonard; P. Vimalchand

1995-01-01

468

Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates

D. J. Bents; R. W. Bercaw; J. A. Burkhart; T. S. Mroz; H. S. Rigo; C. V. Pearson; D. K. Warinner; A. M. Hatch; M. Borden; D. A. Giza

1981-01-01

469

Power Systems Development Facility: Design, Construction, and Commissioning Status  

SciTech Connect

This paper will provide an introduction to the Power Systems Development Facility, a Department of Energy sponsored, engineering scale demonstration of two advanced coal-fired power technologies; and discuss current status of design, construction and commissioning of this facility. 28 viewgraphs, including 2 figs.

Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand; Hendrix, H.L.; Honeycut, P.M.

1996-12-31

470

[Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].  

PubMed

A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions. PMID:20825011

Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

2010-07-01

471

Investigation of local mercury deposition from a coal-fired power plant using mercury isotopes.  

PubMed

Coal combustion accounts for approximately two-thirds of global anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions. Enhanced deposition of Hg can occur close to coal-fired utility boilers (CFUBs