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1

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

2

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on work on a comprehensive development contract to develop the technology needed for the steam bottoming cycle of an MHD/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data analysis is included from the latter increments of the 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) eastern coal testing, which was completed in the prior quarter. Plans for analysis of superheater test module (SHTM) tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of coal fired operation are summarized. Facility modification that are needed to prepare the facility for the 2000 hours of western coal POC tests are discussions. The primary changes being made include the modification of the coal processing system to permit processing of a highly reactive and high moisture coal (Montana Rosebud) and a separate seed injection system to permit experiments that expediently vary the potassium to sulfur ratio. Flow train modifications and repairs being made are also described. Dynamic measurements from the dense phase coal processing system during previously conducted tests are included. Finally, the environmental emission measurements from the CFFF stack and at the remote air quality monitoring trailers are summarized. 3 refs. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01

3

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01

4

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

1990-12-01

5

MHD coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generator experiments describing local current distributions are reported along with behavior under conditions of imposed leakage. The shelter for a cold flow modeling facility was constructed. A jet turbine combustor was tested for use as a vitiation burner. Samples taken from the exhaust duct showed that the refractories used performed well in alleviating heat loss while exhibiting acceptable degradation. A resistive power take-off network was designed and implemented.

Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Baucum, W. E.; Brosnan, D. A.; Chapman, J. N.; Cooper, J. A.; Crawford, L. W.; Picks, L. B.; Dowdy, T. E.; Frazier, J. W.

1980-05-01

6

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas, temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), the environmental baseline, and analysis of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, progress and plans for future testing are discussed. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1989-11-01

7

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the final planned test on eastern coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1992-02-01

8

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the special tests on western coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers.

Not Available

1992-04-01

9

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

Not Available

1993-02-01

10

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status with winterization, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and preparations progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater and for removal/disposal of asbestos in the cooling tower. Work continued to progress on archiving the results of the MHD program.

1995-01-01

11

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

12

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility  

SciTech Connect

In this report for the October--December 1989 quarter, UTSI reports on a multitask research and development program directed toward developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant of a combined cycle MHD steam power plant. During this quarter, a 135 hour Proof-of-Concept (POC) test was completed and the results are summarized. Results of more detailed analyses from a 263 hour test conducted the prior quarter are also reported. The primary emphasis was in testing stainless steel tube materials for service in intermediate temperature air heaters and superheaters and in evaluation of particulate removal devices, baghouse and ESP, on the MHD combustion product exhaust. Results of detailed analyses of the test tubes removed after exposure for 500 hours of testing are included. Results of reconfiguration of the superheater test module to achieve the temperatures desired for simulating the retrofit superheater condition are given. Preliminary analysis of results of ESP performance from testing with excess amount of potassium carbonate in the flow are also included. In the environmental program, the results of test conducted to verify compliance with the State operating permit are reported. Data from the remote air quality monitoring stations during the POC test are summarized. Performance of advanced instrumentation devices provided by both UTSI and Mississippi State University is summarized. Materials tests directed toward finding a satisfactory ceramic tube for service in a high temperature air heater are described. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1990-07-01

13

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

1981-03-01

14

Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle for MHD-Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant application. The results of a 205-hour coal fired test are described. Performance of the Low Mass Flow Train components and the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) systems are reported. Failures of components and actions taken to correct problems are discussed. Application of advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and MSU are detailed. The status of other contractual tasks including Studies and Analyses, Environmental Control, Component Development and Management and Administrative Support are reported. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01

15

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and...

1993-01-01

16

Status of proof-of-concept testing at the Coal Fired Flow Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the POC testing at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) during calendar year 1988 are summarized. Emphasis is on the development of technology for the steam bottoming plant for the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The first 500 hours of corrosion testing on candidate boiler tubes were completed and preliminary results are discussed. Ash deposition and

R. C. Attig; M. E. Sanders; J. N. Chapman

1989-01-01

17

Operation of a MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly Technical Progress Report, January-March 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this quarterly progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle components for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. No testing was scheduled this quarter in the Coal Fired Flow Facility and activ...

1987-01-01

18

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01

19

Status of proof-of-concept testing at the Coal Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Results of the POC testing at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) during calendar year 1988 are summarized. Emphasis is on the development of technology for the steam bottoming plant for the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The first 500 hours of corrosion testing on candidate boiler tubes were completed and preliminary results are discussed. Ash deposition and efforts to improve the removal of deposits by sootblowers are outlined. Results of testing the particulate control devices (baghouse and ESP) are included. Finally, plans for future testing are presented. 9 figs.

Attig, R.C.; Sanders, M.E.; Chapman, J.N.

1989-01-01

20

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

21

Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1988  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in proof-of-concept (POC) testing and development of the components for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steam bottoming plant. The primary activities discussed are results of a 252 hour, coal-fired test in the Department of Energy Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF). The performance of the upstream components, which simulate the MHD topping cycle for the generation of test gases with the correct time-temperature history, was significantly more reliable than in previous tests. In the bottoming cycle tests continued on candidate superheater test module (SHTM) tube materials in three different temperature zones. The test achieved all objectives in this area. Difficulties continued in keeping the accumulation of deposits sufficiently blown-off on the high temperature tubes of the first test section and the following cooling section. Particulate loading samples were taken to evaluate the effectiveness of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Results of varying the flow rate through the ESP to determine the minimum specific collection area (SCA) to meet the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) particulate emission standards are reported. Reports of on-going studies and analyses are summarized. Results of utilization of advanced diagnostics by both UTSI and MSU are included. Data and analyses from stack gas analysis, water quality, ambient air sampling and terrestrial ecology programs are summarized and future plans are outlined. 14 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-04-01

22

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and maintenance in preparation for a 225 hour POC test that is scheduled for early next quarter. The modifications to the dry ESP to replace the electrodes with smaller diameter wires is discussed. Continued work on the rotary vacuum filter, which is designed to separate the more soluble potassium carbonate from the potassium sulfate and fly ash, is reported. Environmental activities for the quarter are summarized.

Not Available

1993-07-01

23

(Operation of a MHD coal fired flow facility): Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle components for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. No testing was scheduled this quarter in the Coal Fired Flow Facility and activities reported include modifications and upgrade of the flow train and facility systems to prepare for long term testing scheduled for later this fiscal year. Design of the new circular aerodynamic duct which simulated the MHD topping cycle for downstream is discussed. Other facility modifications deemed necessary to achieve the reliability required for long term testing are discussed. Activities necessary to test candidate tube materials at the temperatures specified by the Downstream Integration Panel in all three superheater test module tube bundles and the installation of the new, larger boiler to provide the steam required to cool them are covered. In addition, brief summaries of analysis of test data from the LMF4-I test conducted last year are included in tube metal corrosion, particulate clean-up and diagnostics. More detailed reports of data analysis are contained in test reports and topical reports on specific technical areas. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-05-01

24

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF), formerly the Research and Development Laboratory, are reported. CFFF Bid Package construction is now virtually complete. The remaining construction effort is being conducted by UTSI. On the quench system, another Task 1 effort, the cyclone was erected on schedule. On Tasks 2 through 6, vitiation heater and nozzle fabrication were completed, an investigation of a fish kill (in no way attributable to CFFF operations) in Woods Reservoir was conducted, major preparation for ambient air quality monitoring was made, a broadband data acquisition system for enabling broadband data to be correlated with all general performance data was selected, a Coriolis effect coal flow meter was installed at the CFFF. On Task 7, an analytical model of the coal flow combustor configuration was prepared, MHD generator testing which, in part, involved continued materials evaluation and the heat transfer characteristics of capped and uncapped electrodes was conducted, agglomerator utilization was studied, and development of a laser velocimeter system was nearly completed.

Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Baucum, W. E.

1980-07-31

25

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Although slowed by incessant rain during several days, work on the CFFF Bid Packages progressed to nearly 100 percent completion, excluding later punchlist items. On the quench system, the cyclone separator was delivered to UTSI, and under Downstream Components, the secondary combustor was received and the radiant slagging furnace was emplaced at the CFFF. Water quality analysis of Woods Reservoir provided the expected favorable results, quite similar to last year's. Generator experiments describing local current distribution are reported along with behavior under conditions of imposed leakage. Also, during the Quarter, the shelter for the cold flow modeling facility was constructed and circuits installation begun. A jet turbine combustor was tested for use as a vitiation burner. Samples taken from the exhaust duct, besides other applications, show that the refractories used are performing well in alleviating heat loss while exhibiting acceptable degredation. A new resistive power take-off network was designed and implemented.

Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R.C. Baucum, W.E.

1980-05-30

26

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility. Technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on work on a comprehensive development contract to develop the technology needed for the steam bottoming cycle of an MHD/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data analysis is included from the latter increments of the 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) eastern coal testing, which was completed in the prior quarter. Plans for analysis of superheater test module (SHTM) tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of coal fired operation are summarized. Facility modification that are needed to prepare the facility for the 2000 hours of western coal POC tests are discussions. The primary changes being made include the modification of the coal processing system to permit processing of a highly reactive and high moisture coal (Montana Rosebud) and a separate seed injection system to permit experiments that expediently vary the potassium to sulfur ratio. Flow train modifications and repairs being made are also described. Dynamic measurements from the dense phase coal processing system during previously conducted tests are included. Finally, the environmental emission measurements from the CFFF stack and at the remote air quality monitoring trailers are summarized. 3 refs. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01

27

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on a multi-task research contract directed toward developing the technology for an MHD steam combined cycle power plant. During the period two tests were conducted in the DOE Coal Fired FLow Facility. Both of these tests were part of the western coal proof-of-concept (POC) test series. The report describes the performance of the tests and provides some preliminary performance data on particulate removal systems during the tests. The performance of ceramic tubes being tested for high temperature air heater application is described. Performance of advanced diagnostics equipment from both UTSI and MSU is summarized. The results of experiments designed to determine the effects of potassium compounds on combustion are included. Plans for analysis of metal tube specimens previously removed from the test train are discussed. Modeling and analysis of previous test data include a deposition model to predict ash deposition on tubes, mass balance results, automated data screening and chemical analyses and the data base containing these analyses. Laboratory tests on sealing ceramic tubes and corrosion analyses of previously tested tubes are reported.

Not Available

1993-12-01

28

Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl{sub 2} and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

1991-01-01

29

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly Progress Report, July-September 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming cycle for MHD-Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant application. The results of a 205-hour coal fired test are described. Performance of ...

1988-01-01

30

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Technical progress report, January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

UTSI reports on the development of the technology for the Steam Bottoming Plant of the Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. Technical efforts are summarized on modeling and measurement of the heat flux and gasdynamics in the radiant furnace. Work is also reported on rebuilding the superheater test module to provide more testing flexibility and increased tube spacing in the convective heat transfer components. Test results analyzing the particulate loading in the ducts leading to the entrance of the ESP and baghouse to determine level of stratification are included. Data that was taken during previous tests to determine the required soot blowing parameters is analyzed in this report. Plans for testing of corrosion probes and ash deposition probes in future tests are discussed. Plans for further evaluation of ceramic tube materials for application to a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of applications of advanced diagnostics equipment are included. Maintenance and modification work on the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is covered. Finally, ongoing studies and analyses as well as efforts in improving chemistry laboratory analyses are summarized. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

31

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the final planned test on eastern coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1992-02-01

32

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas, temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), the environmental baseline, and analysis of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, progress and plans for future testing are discussed. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers. By the use of these quarterly technical progress reports, MHD program participants and others interested in the technology will be able to gain the knowledge necessary for the confident design of a scaled-up steam bottoming plant.

Not Available

1989-11-01

33

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)/steam combined cycle power production. More detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports. Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. Previous reports have provided comprehensive data on NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control, radiant heat transfer, particulate control (baghouse and electrostatic precipitator), environmental monitoring, and analyses of test data on the convective heat transfer components (superheater and air heater). For this quarter, additional data on these subjects, plans for materials testing in future western coal tests and environmental and diagnostic results from the special tests on western coal are reported. Detailed data analyses will be contained in test reports, topical reports or technical papers.

Not Available

1992-04-01

34

Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

In this progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing bottoming cycle components and technology for the Combined Cycle MHD-Steam Power Plant. A test of approximately 185 hours on coal was completed. The performance of flow train components during the test is documented. Primary emphasis is on results of testing radiant and convective heat transfer surface encompassing materials, fouling and heat transfer performance. Comparative performance between a baghouse and ESP in particulate control is reported. The results of application of advanced diagnostics by both Mississippi State University and UTSI to the test are summarized. The status of the environmental monitoring program is reported, including process gas analysis, water quality, terrestrial ecology and ambient air monitoring. Facility operations and maintenance activities are discussed. An analysis of nitrogen oxide decomposition in the radiant furnace by chemical kinetic calculations along computed stream lines is appended. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-05-01

35

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1988  

SciTech Connect

UTSI reports on work under a multi-task development program directed toward development of the technology for the Steam Bottoming Plant of a Combined Cycle MHD/Steam Power plant. During this period a POC test was conducted and results are reported. This test was conducted with careful control of the potassium carbonate seed flow rate to avoid excess quantities so that most of the potassium in the convective heat transfer components and downstream was in the form of potassium sulfate. The results were encouraging insofar as capability to keep the tube surfaces clean enough to avoid excess pressure drop. The ESP performance was also exceptionally good, apparently due to the absence of significant amounts of potassium carbonate, and it was concluded that the ESP will adequately handle a higher flow rate (higher SCA) in future tests. Plans are discussed to modify the superheater test module to provide more flexibility in achieving desired test conditions in future tests. Modifications to the upstream components, that are required to simulate the MHD topping cycle for testing of the downstream, to improve their reliability are reported. Results of application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University are summarized. Reports of other activities, including studies and analyses, operations and maintenance of the CFFF facility and environmental activities are included. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-10-01

36

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

Not Available

1993-02-01

37

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status with winterization, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and preparations progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater and for removal/disposal of asbestos in the cooling tower. Work continued to progress on archiving the results of the MHD program.

NONE

1995-01-01

38

The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum due to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and actions progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater. Data and documentation on results of the MHD program have been identified for archiving and are being maintained for archival storage.

NONE

1995-07-01

39

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

Progress on a multi-task development program directed toward the steam bottoming cycle of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant is reported. A 100 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test is reported that was primarily intended to evaluate the effect of increased sootblower air pressure on the effectiveness of blowing deposits in the molten temperature range. Modifications to the electrostatic precipitator deposits removal system were also evaluated for effectiveness. Results of analyses of the test heat transfer tubes previously removed are summarized. The effectiveness of electrostatic precipitator and baghouse in particulate removal is discussed. Utilization of and results from advanced diagnostics equipment in LMF4-P that was provided by both Mississippi State University and UTSI are reported. The environmental program status is reported, emphasizing the air quality monitoring and terrestrial ecology results. Maintenance and facility modifications underway in the DOE CFFF are summarized. 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1989-05-01

40

(Operation of MHD coal fired flow facility): Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant of a combined cycle MHD-Steam power plant system. The design for the new high reliability aerodynamic replacement duct is described. This duct and the accompanying circular nozzle and modified circular diffuser are designed to provide a reliable upstream that will permit testing of downstream components for longer test periods. Plans for future testing of superheater and air heater materials are discussed. Results of data analysis from the 77 hour test, LMF4-I, conducted last quarter, are included for particle sizing, particle loading and mass balance calculations. The status of modifications and maintenance of the CFFF and LMF Flow Train in preparation for resumption of testing are discussed. A conceptual design for a new circular nozzle, aerodynamic duct, and diffuser was reviewed and approved by DOE for detail design, procurement and fabrication. A computerized instrumentation requirement management system was designed and implemented to enable project leaders to define instrument installation and changes required prior to each testing run. An independent (from TVA) power monitoring and alarm system to provide accurate power usage and demand monitoring was installed and calibrated. A complete Data General computer system model S250, acquired from surplus, was installed to provide additional computational capability and provide enhanced on-line data display characteristics.

Not Available

1987-05-01

41

Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

White, M.K.

1993-11-01

42

Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

White, M.

1996-01-01

43

Priority pollutants in solid phase combustion products from the Department of Energy's MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One area not addressed in the past assessments of a coal-fired, open-cycle Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system is the presence, location, and behavior of EPA-listed priority pollutants. Consequently, an effort was started to identify and quantify the minute constituents leaving an MHD system. At the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), representative samples were obtained from the major components of the Department

1990-01-01

44

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

Not Available

1993-06-01

45

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility for the period April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing occurred or was scheduled during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status.

Not Available

1994-07-01

46

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing has occurred or is scheduled, and the planned effort for this period was to maintain the DOE CFFF facility in a standby status and to complete test reports.

Not Available

1994-06-01

47

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force was completed for FY94. No further testing occurred or was scheduled during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status. Plans progressed for environmental actions needed at the site. Work began on archiving the results of the MHD program.

Not Available

1994-10-01

48

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The experimental program was effectively terminated and reoriented to preparation of reports on previous tests and maintaining the DOE facility. In this report, the results of tube corrosion studies for the samples removed after 500 hours of western coal testing are summarized. Plans for evaluating the tube samples after termination of the tests at 1,047 hours are discussed. The status of development of models to predict ash deposition on conductive heat transfer tubes and their validation with experimental data is presented. Modeling and experiments to induce agglomeration of particulate are also discussed. Significant accomplishments, findings and conclusions include: In summary, corrosion measurements on typical, commercial stainless steels and on low and intermediate chromium steels after 639 hours of LMF5 exposure in the SHTM test sections revealed corrosion that was generally acceptable in magnitude if corrosion kinetics are parabolic, but, except for the higher chromium alloys 253MA and 310, not if kinetics are linear. The production of bilayer scales, and the large amount of scale separation and fragmentation make long term parabolic kinetics unlikely, and result in a high likelihood for breakaway corrosion.

Not Available

1994-06-01

49

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility for the period April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multitask contract to develop the necessary technology for the steam bottoming plant of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. A Proof-Of-Concept (POC) test was conducted during the quarter and the results are reported. This POC test was terminated after 88 hours of operation due to the failure of the coal pulverizer main shaft. Preparations for the test and post-test activities are summarized. Modifications made to the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are described and measurements of its performance are reported. The baghouse performance is summarized, together with actions being taken to improve bag cleaning using reverse air. Data on the wet ESP performance is included at two operating conditions, including verification that it met State of Tennessee permit conditions for opacity with all the flow through it. The results of experiments to determine the effect of potassium seed on NO{sub x} emissions and secondary combustion are reported. The status of efforts to quantify the detailed mass balance for all POC testing is summarized. The work to develop a predictive ash deposition model is discussed and results compared with deposition actually encountered during the test. Plans to measure the kinetics of potassium and sulfur on flames like the secondary combustor, are included. Advanced diagnostic work by both UTSI and MSU is reported. Efforts to develop the technology for a high temperature air heater using ceramic tubes are summarized.

Not Available

1993-10-01

50

Proof-of-concept tests of the magnetohydrodynamic steam-bottoming system at the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power can be viewed as consisting of two parts; the topping cycle and the bottoming cycle. The topping cycle consists of the coal combustor, MHD generator and associated components. The bottoming cycle consists of the heat recovery, steam generation, seed recovery/regeneration, emissions control (gas and particulate), ash handling and deposition, and materials evaluation. The report concentrates on the bottoming cycle, for which much of the technology was developed at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Because of the complexity of the required technology, a number of issues required investigation. Of specific concern regarding the bottoming cycle, was the design of the steam cycle components and emissions control. First, the high combustion temperatures and the use of large quantities of potassium in the MHD combustor results in a difference in the composition of the gases entering the bottoming cycle compared to conventional systems. Secondly, a major goal of the UTSI effort was to use a variety of coals in the MHD system, especially the large reserves of high-sulfur coals available in the United States.

Attig, R.C. [ed.

1996-10-09

51

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01

52

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the results of a multi-task contract to develop the technology need for a steam bottoming plant for a combined cycle MHD steam power plant. The primary emphasis is on proof-of-concept (POC) testing of the steam bottoming plant components. During this quarter, a 252 hour test was completed with Eastern coal which completes 1760 hours of the planned 2000 hours of testing with this coal. The performance of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during the test is summarized. The baghouse met new source performance standards (NSPS) for particulate emission. The ESP performance was improved over recent past tests and its performance was mapped as a function of specific collection area (SCA) and plate rapping frequency. The results of analysis of tube materials after the first 500 hours of exposure is noted as being separately published as a topical report. Representative results of deposition on heat transfer tubes during the test are presented along with heat transfer coefficients of the dirty tubes. The results of advanced instrumentation experiments by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) are summarized. Measurements of pollutants dispersed from the CFFF stack to remote air quality monitoring trailers are presented. Test results on a ceramic tube that is a candidate for high temperature air heater service are included. The test of a prototype of the first stage of the TRW 20 MW{sub t} combustor was successfully carried out in the combustor during the POC test this quarter. It was installed with adapter flanges to the 20 MW{sub t} single stage combustor used in the CFFF. A report of the performance of this test article is appended to the report. 2 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

53

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31

54

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31

55

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01

56

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

J.A. Withum

2006-03-07

57

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-01-01

58

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF)

J. A. Withum

2006-01-01

59

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2005-01-01

60

Techno-economic study of CO 2 capture and storage in coal fired oxygen fed entrained flow IGCC power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of fossil fuel as a feedstock for power generation depends on the development of energy conversion systems that are efficient, clean and economical. Coal fired power plants are generally considered to be “dirty” since they have high CO2 emissions, with the exception of those coal fired power plants that employ CO2 capture technology. Among the coal fired options,

Y. Huang; S. Rezvani; D. McIlveen-Wright; A. Minchener; N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

61

Design and implementation of a pulverised coal flow monitoring system for coal-fired power plant applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-line continuous monitoring of pulverised coal in fuel injection pipelines will allow power plant operators to understand fuel conveying conditions and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. This paper presents the design, implementation and trials of an instrumentation system for on-line non-intrusive measurement of pulverised coal in a power plant environment. An array of three identical electrostatic electrodes is housed in a sensing head to determine multiple measurement results from different electrode pairs. Flow parameters such as flow velocity, relative mass flow rate and fuel distribution between injection pipes can be obtained by fusing the multiple results. On-plant trials on 488 mm bore pneumatic conveying pipelines at a 600 MW coal-fired power plant were undertaken following preliminary system evaluation tests on a 50 mm bore laboratory test rig. Experimental results demonstrate that monitoring of pulverised coal flow is achieved using the developed instrumentation system under real industrial conditions. The developed technology is likely to find immediate applications, leading to improved performance of coal-fired power plants, efficient use of fuel, and subsequent reductions in emissions.

Qian, Xiangchen; Hu, Yonghui; Huang, Xiaobin; Yan, Yong

2014-04-01

62

Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

1981-01-01

63

Analysis of coal-firing modes shows pulverized least costly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant owner opting to build a new coal-fired facility has several processes from which to choose. Among the most common are the spreader-stoker- and the pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Since pollution control is now an integral part of any coal-fired operation, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is becoming increasingly popular. Reason: This process does not require auxiliary equipment to control SOâ. Comparing the

R. C. Lutwen; T. J. Fitzpatrick

1986-01-01

64

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facilty. Progress report,January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum due to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and actions progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater. The asbestos in the cooling tower was removed and disposed. Work continued on the preparation for archiving the results of the MHD program.

NONE

1995-05-01

65

Coal firing of process heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal firing as a standard practice was reviewed. With the recent resurgence of coal utilization, coal firing of modern process furnaces was studied in light of significant developments in boiler design. A process heater for coal firing was designed and results were compared with oil fired units. Typical furnaces with oil firing of recent manufacture were used. Results show that furnaces can be built with coal firing under various design philosophies, but all of them are more expensive than for oil firing. All these analyses do not even include coal storage, grinding and feed as well as dust collection and flue gas treatment. Hence, coal firing of process furnaces is far too expensive.

Balthasar, W.; Schoedel, J.; Ruggieri, R.; Vanrijnsoever, J.

1982-04-01

66

Coal Firing Installations 1987. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary of the papers presented at the VGB conference 'Coal Firing Installations 1987'. The individual topics are: Coal dust combustion in industrial steam generators - theory and operating results. Evaluation of optimization measures involvin...

1987-01-01

67

Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

2009-04-01

68

Coal-fired diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

NONE

1997-05-01

69

Emissions by Uncontrolled Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thousands of self-ignited coal fires, naturally occurring coal fires, and coal fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and un-mined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world and pose multiple threats to the global environment due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CO, CH4, and other toxic substances such as mercury (Hg). Estimates of the amount of coal that is involved globally range between 20 and 600 Mt sing simple calculations, the only published peer-reviewed estimate of CO2 and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the United States (U.S.) are between 14 to 290 Mt/yr and 0.1 to 11.5 t/yr, respectively. In comparison, the U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet -the largest known anthropogenic source of CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere in the U.S.- emits ~2.4 Gt, and ~45 t annually, respectively. This paper builds on these results and will present result of a first-of-a-kind U.S.-based field campaign combining airborne remote sensing using thermal infrared technique and ground based measurements as a first step to constraining and scaling-up the emission factors, nature and extent of coal-fire emissions of CO2 and Hg to a global scale, which will allow for these emission sources to be better accounted for in global atmospheric models.

Terschure, A. F.; Engle, M.; Heffern, E.; Hower, J.; Kolker, A.; Prakash, A.; Radke, L.

2010-12-01

70

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

NONE

1994-06-01

71

Reconversion to coal firing at Crystal River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Units 1 and 2 at the Crystal River Plant of Florida Power Corporation were originally designed for coal firing in the 1960's, were converted to heavy fuel oil firing in the early 1970's when oil was readily available and economically priced, and subsequently were reconverted to coal firing by 1980 when coal firing again became more favorable. This paper describes

R. P. McBean; R. J. Ott

1982-01-01

72

Coal-fired asphalt plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired burner system is described for use with an asphalt plant having a rotary drum, the burner system comprising: means for pulverizing coal to particles of a predetermined size; exhaust means for creating an exhaust airflow through and out of the pulverizing means so that the particles of pulverized coal are entrained in the exhaust airflow and carried out

J. D. Brok; J. G. May

1987-01-01

73

Analysis of coal-firing modes shows pulverized least costly  

SciTech Connect

A plant owner opting to build a new coal-fired facility has several processes from which to choose. Among the most common are the spreader-stoker- and the pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Since pollution control is now an integral part of any coal-fired operation, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is becoming increasingly popular. Reason: This process does not require auxiliary equipment to control SO/sub 2/. Comparing the operation and economics of four coal-burning processes can help make this selection a somewhat easier one. This analysis examines four types of combustion: spreader stoker, pulverized coal, bubbling fluidized bed, and circulating fluidized bed. The descriptions are for a 200,000-lb/hr unit operating under like conditions.

Lutwen, R.C.; Fitzpatrick, T.J.

1986-04-01

74

Coal Fire Fighting: Removal of Thermal Energy by Heat Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are mainly controlled by the availability of three parameters: fuel, oxygen and thermal energy (heat). Hence, all extinction methods are related to the reduction of one or more of these parameters. The extensive removal of one of these parameters will stop a fire. The ability of so called heat pipes to remove thermal energy from the underground coal fire was tested by laboratory and field experiments. A heat pipe is a device of very high thermal conductance. By using a heat pipe, considerable quantities of heat can be transported from the underground to the surface. The heat pipe is filled with a working fluid selected for the present temperature range. Heat is applied and conducted from the coal fire to the evaporator part of the heat pipe and causes the liquid to vaporize. The vapor moves to the condenser section above the surface. The vaporized fluid is condensed and the condensate flows back to the evaporator section by gravity force. The energy removed from the fire is rapidly transferred to the condenser section when the fluid condenses there. From there the energy will finally flow to the surrounding air and extended cooling areas (paddles) may facilitate this transfer. Once installed, the process will run continuously. Within the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in North China" prototypes of heat pipes were tested in laboratory scale as well as in the coal fire area in Wuda, China. As the result of the investigations it will become possible to determine the amount of removed heat to define the needed number of installations. The effect of installed heat pipes on the coal fire propagation will be estimated by means of numerical simulations.

Schmidt, M.; Suhendra; Rueter, H.

2009-04-01

75

Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility. Technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on work on a comprehensive development contract to develop the technology needed for the steam bottoming cycle of an MHD/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data analysis is included from the latter ...

1991-01-01

76

Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: Quarterly Technical Progress Report, October-December 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress on a multi-task development program directed toward the steam bottoming cycle of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant is reported. A 100 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test is reported that was primarily intended to evaluate the effect of increa...

1989-01-01

77

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01

78

Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for carbon dioxide injection, there is still a large storage capacity in the basin to the west of the power plants. It will, however, require pipeline construction to transport the carbon dioxide to the injection sites.

Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

2012-08-31

79

Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So

D. Gusat; C. Drebenstedt

2009-01-01

80

Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002  

SciTech Connect

This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

Not Available

2002-12-01

81

Mercury speciation measurements on a 10 MW{sub e} coal-fired boiler simulator  

SciTech Connect

The current trends towards deregulation of electric utilities, air toxic regulations and stringent fine particulate emissions reflect an increased need for coal-based research. In response, Babcock and Wilcox invested in the state-of-the-art 100 million Btu/hr (10 MW, equivalent) Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located in Alliance, Ohio. The representative combustion conditions, flow patterns and residence times permit direct scale-up of CEDF test results to commercial boilers and pollution control devices. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Office of Development, B&W is employing the CEDF to conduct a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. The project specifically targets the control of mercury, the trace element under close scrutiny by the EPA. Due to the various forms of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, accurate mercury speciation measurements are required to develop mercury control strategies. Current uncertainty in the accuracy and mercury speciation capability of mercury sampling methods led B&W to use both EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro procedures to measure mercury emissions from CEDF pollution control devices. A comparison of the speciated mercury emissions is presented.

Evans, A.P.; Nevitt, K.D.

1997-06-01

82

Research and Management of Coal fire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is suffering the heaviest coal fire disaster in the world, distributing in the north of north latitude 35°,between Pamirs Altiplano and Great Xing'an Mountains, locating in arid and semiarid area such as desert, gobi and loess. The earliest underground coal fire ocuured before Palaeozoic era. Since the Quaternary period, there are widespread coal fire in north of China. There

Guan Haiyan; Kong Bing; Wu Chacha

83

Water law constraints to siting and operating coal-fired electric generation plants in Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to reveal possible constraints in the applicable laws to increased siting and continued operation of coal-fired power plants in Kentucky. This study includes not only the law of water availability, but some aspects of water quality as well. Kentucky's system of water resource allocation was reviewed to determine whether energy facilities, particularly steam-electric power plants, will be able to depend on a legally sustainable right to water which is physically available, especially during periods of low flow. A primary link between water quantity and quality is then discussed. Water consumption by cooling towers may limit the availability of water for use by additional power plants, other energy conversion systems, and other water users generally. This matter is largely governed by implementation of the section of the Clean Water Act dealing with discharge of thermal effluent.

Rosemarin, C.S.

1980-11-01

84

Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

85

Coal-fired power materials - Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2008-09-15

86

Ash handling systems for coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the types of ash handling systems that can and are being used to handle the ash waste products from burning coal. The paper discusses systems for the two broad industry subdivisions of bottom ash and fly ash and discusses pulverized coal fired boilers as well as coal versus coal\\/oil direct combinations.

G. D. Mooney; J. Murphy

1982-01-01

87

Industrial wastewater treatment with water reuse at a coal-fired generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case history of an industrial wastewater treatment system at a 200 MW coal-fired generating station built in the early 1920's. Wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in 1979 to treat low volume wastes, coal pile runoff, and ash handling wastes to comply with existing and proposed regulatory requirements. A new ash handling system was constructed simultaneously and included

J. F. Wagner; C. R. Kertell; T. E. Strittmatter

1984-01-01

88

Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for existing boilers. The use of calcium bromide injection as an alternative to activated carbon approaches could save millions of dollars. The technology application described herein has the potential to reduce compliance cost by $200M for a 700 MW facility burning PRB coal.

Berry, Mark Simpson

89

Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation  

SciTech Connect

Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15

90

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary com...

1993-01-01

91

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

UTSI reports on progress in a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power system. The analysis of data from the 2,005 hour POC test series on eastern coal, which was completed prior to this quarter, is continued. Analysis of the tubes of test materials, which were tested at exposures for 1500 and 2,000 hours, is discussed and typical results of tube wastage and impurity penetration presented. A special test with Montana Rosebud western coal and all carbonate seed was completed during the quarter and results of this and the three special tests on this coal completed in prior periods, are reported. Heat fluxes for the topping cycle components are presented and compared with the lower values found with eastern coal. These differences are related to the difference in slag layer thickness in these components, primarily the combustor. These additional heat losses in the topping cycle components are presented as the reason for lower diffuser outlet temperatures. Ash deposition and heat transfer on the superheater and air heater components for the western coal tests are discussed and compared with eastern coal results. Performance of the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse in removing particulate is summarized.

Not Available

1992-08-01

92

Induct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and

Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone; Amedeo Lancia

2008-01-01

93

In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions  

SciTech Connect

In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

2008-12-15

94

Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-06-15

95

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04

96

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

1995-01-01

97

Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of extinguishing underground fires (fig. 2) (see 'Controlling Coal Fires'). In this fact sheet we review how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health. In addition, we describe recent efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and collaborators to measure fluxes of CO2, CO, CH4, and Hg, using groundbased portable detectors, and combining these approaches with airborne thermal imaging and CO2 measurements. The goal of this research is to develop approaches that can be extrapolated to large fires and to extrapolate results for individual fires in order to estimate the contribution of coal fires as a category of global emissions.

Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

2009-01-01

98

Industrial wastewater treatment with water re-use at a coal-fired generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-history is presented of an industrial wastewater treatment system at a 200 MW coal-fired power station. Wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in 1979 to treat low-volume wastes, coal pile runoff and ash handling wastes. A new ash handling system was constructed at the same time. The collection and combustion of various wastewater streams, and clarifier sludge handling are discussed.

1984-01-01

99

Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

100

Development and use of the coal-fired central energy plant operations expert system (CEPES). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising operation and maintenance (OM) costs of central heating plants have forced the Army to seek alternative methods of running these facilities. Computer technology offers a great potential to automate and assist in many OM tasks by helping to diagnose equipment malfunctions and failures. An automated diagnostic tool for coal-fired central heating plant equipment could reduce the demand for human

R. Moshage; T. Magliero; R. Lorand; M. Kantamnemi; T. Blindt

1993-01-01

101

A Computational Model Study of NOx Reduction Strategies for a Coal-Fired Stoker Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, two-phase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been used to model the combustion processes in a coal-fired stoker furnace as a design aid in the evaluation of NOx reduction technologies. A validated spreader stoker combustion model has been incorporated to evaluate the NOx reduction potential of flue gas recirculation (FGR) and water injection strategies in two

J. R. Valentine; K. A. Davis; M. K. Denison; D. Cron; R. Morrow; T. Giaier

102

Investigation of Direct Pulverized Coal Firing of Marine Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the stu...

I. R. Kacir

1983-01-01

103

Externalities and Coal-Fired Power Generation. Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the concept of externalities and environmental cost assessment as applied to coal-fired power generation. The rationale for considering externalities, activities likely to cause externalities, and methodologies for valuing environment...

L. B. Clarke

1996-01-01

104

Initial assessment of coal-fired ship operations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean-going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators and shipyard as well as data published in the literature. The owners and operators of seven of these new ships give a positive endorsement to the feasibility of coal-fired steam propulsion. They

Baham

1984-01-01

105

Initial assessment of coal-fired ship operations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean-going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators, and shipyard as well as data published in the literature. The owners and operators of seven of these new ships give a positive endorsement to the feasibility of coal-fired steam propulsion. They

Baham

1984-01-01

106

A modular approach to an engineering test facility and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of using a new baseload coal-fired power plant as a bottoming plant for a MHD\\/steam generator engineering test facility is examined. Consideration is given to three possible system configurations with increasing levels of combustion gas coupling. The first configuration allows the interaction of only the steam and water flows, duplicating many components and resulting in an expensive system

R. Johnson; D. Rudberg

1979-01-01

107

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

SciTech Connect

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01

108

Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world  

SciTech Connect

Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

2008-01-15

109

Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants  

SciTech Connect

Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

White, M. K.

1980-06-01

110

Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks  

SciTech Connect

A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E. [Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

2007-06-15

111

Development of Coal Fired Fluidized Bed Boilers. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents results of research and large-scale testing performed to develop a new type of boiler using fluidized combustion of coal. Objective of the program is the reduction in cost of coal-fired steam generation, while meeting air pollution con...

A. H. Bagnulo J. W. Bishop S. Ehrlich E. B. Robinson

1971-01-01

112

Initial Assessment of Coal-Fired Ship Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes recent operational experience of a new generation of ocean going coal-fired ships. The experience summarized in this report is based upon direct discussions with shipowners, operators and shipyard as well as data published in the li...

G. J. Baham

1984-01-01

113

Fugitive emissions from coal-fired power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential sources of airborne and waterborne fugitive emissions at coal-fired power plants are identified and discussed. Fugitive emissions are defined as pollutant discharges that do not pass through a chimney, vent, discharge pipe, or other functionally equivalent opening. A search of the literature was conducted to locate, evaluate, and report the available data pertaining to such emissions. Data from various

E. L. Currier; B. D. Neal

1984-01-01

114

MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

115

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical\\/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO is described. The impact of NO control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the

1996-01-01

116

Desulphurization Wastes from Coal-Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the desulphurization process of coal-fired power plants, solid products are formed, which must be handled as waste due to their quality or small use potential. These are sulphite-rich products of the wet-dry process and ashes produced by fluid-bed and ...

J. Ranta M. Wahlstroem J. Ruohomaeki T. Haekkinen P. Lindroos

1987-01-01

117

Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

2009-04-01

118

Conversion from Oil to Coal Firing: Will It Pay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, high oil prices encouraged the conversion of some oil-fired stations to coal firing. This report reviews the experiences, lists the kinds of conversion tests necessary and reviews the economic attractiveness of different oil and coal pric...

L. Verbeek

1986-01-01

119

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of

C. A. Weiss; D. R. Erdmann

1984-01-01

120

Study for decommissioning coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dismantling cost estimates for large coal-fired stations are needed to develop a decomminssioning plan which now is a prerequisite in some states to receiving a certificate of convenience and necessity for proposed plants. APandL has developed a useful study for estimating net salvage figures

1984-01-01

121

Optimized post combustion carbon capturing on coal fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide coal contributes to over 40% of the electricity generation today and its share is expected to increase steadily over the coming decades. The continued dominance of coal in global energy structure and the growing concern of climate change necessitate accelerated development and deployment of new technologies for clean and efficient coal utilization. Coal fired power plants with CO2 capture

Brian Stöver; Christian Bergins; Jürgen Klebes

2011-01-01

122

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) have been completed in preparation for the char combustion test program, this includes installation of the char burner, and the on-line mass spectrometer. A test matrix has been defined, utilizing a statistical design of experiment (SDOE) methodology, for the char combustion program. The first phase of the CETF shakedown has been completed, and all analog devices (thermocouples, transmitters, etc.) have been calibrated.

NONE

1998-10-01

123

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction - Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.  

SciTech Connect

the project proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex, Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. The micronized coal fired boiler would (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emission, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

NONE

1996-09-30

124

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site E  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 180,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurements included O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, S0/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the uncontrolled flyash, and combustible content of the ash. In addition to test results and observations, the report describes the facility tested, coals fired, test equipment, and procedures. This unit was unique: it used paint oven exhaust gases as combustion air. Particulate loading on the unit averaged 5.51 lb/million Btu uncontrolled at high load. Nitric oxide emissions averaged 0.53 lb/million Btu at high load.

Langsjoen, P.L.; Burlingame, J.O.; Gabrielson, J.E.

1980-03-01

125

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site F  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of field measurements made on an 80,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash injection, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurements included O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, HC, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the uncontrolled flyash, and combustible content of the ash. In addition to test results and observations, the report describes the facility tested, coals fired, test equipment, and procedures. Particulate loading on this unit averaged 6.00 lb/million Btu uncontrolled and 1.05 lb/million Btu controlled at full load. Nitric oxide emissions averaged 0.45 lb/million Btu (330 ppM) at all loads.

Langsjoen, P.L.; Tidona, R.J.; Gabrielson, J.E.

1980-03-01

126

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site G  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 75,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Measurements included O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, HC, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the uncontrolled flyash, and combustible content of the ash. In addition to test results and observations, the report describes the facility tested, coals fired, test equipment, and procedures. Particulate loading on this unit averaged 5.09 lb/million Btu uncontrolled and 0.28 lb/million Btu controlled at full load. Nitric oxide emissions averaged 0.49 lb/million Btu (360 ppM) at full load.

Langsjoen, P.L.; Burlingame, J.O.; Gabrielson, J.E.

1980-04-01

127

Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

1990-01-01

128

Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

1980-09-01

129

Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 16th quarterly technical progress report, December 16, 1980-March 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort is reported. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing and corrosion phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Dvore, D.; Freedman, A.; Stanton, A.; Stewart, G.

1981-05-01

130

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

2013-09-30

131

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

132

Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime. Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

2007-12-01

133

Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

During 1999-2001 ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories and others evaluated the feasibility of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric power plant. The power plant analysed was the Conesville No. 5 unit, operated by AEP of Columbus, Ohio. This unit is a nominal 450 MW, pulverized coal-fired, subcritical pressure steam plant. One of the CO{sub 2} capture concepts investigated was a post-combustion system, which used the Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global, Inc.'s commercial MEA process. More than 96% of CO{sub 2} was removed, compressed, and liquefied for usage or sequestration from the flue gas. Based on results from this study a follow-up study is investigating the post-combustion capture systems with amine scrubbing as applied to the Conesville No. 5 unit. The study evaluated the technical and economic impacts of removing CO{sub 2} from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using advanced amine-based post combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems. The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO{sub 2} capture systems. An advanced amine CO{sub 2} scrubbing system is used for CO{sub 2} removal from the flue gas stream. Four (90%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) CO{sub 2} capture levels were investigated in this study. These results indicate that the advanced amine provided significant improvement to the plant performance and economics. Comparing results with recent literature results for advanced amine based capture systems (Econamine FG{sup +} and KS-1) as applied to utility scale coal fired power plants shows very similar impacts.

NONE

2006-12-15

134

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

Not Available

2004-06-01

135

Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

136

Tungsten and tungsten-copper for coal-fired MHD power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHO) can improve the thermal efficiency and reduce levels of SOx and NO emissions of existing coal-fired power generation plants. Although the thermal and electrochemical environments for a coal-fired MHO channel challenge the materials used, platinum, tungsten, and tungsten-copper have been found to be suitable choices. Evaluations indicate these materials perform adequately as electrodes and other gas-side surfaces in the coal-fired MHO channel. Analysis of test elements has resulted in the identification of wear mechanisms. Testing of a prototypical coal-fired MHO channel incorporating these materials is under way and will be completed in 1993.

Farrar, L. C.; Shields, J. A.

1992-08-01

137

Modeling coal-fired cyclone combustors  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model based on the finite-difference solution of momentum, enthalpy, and species conservation equations has been constructed to describe the process of coal combustion in cyclone furnaces. Coal particles are tracked through the flow and the evolution and combustion of volatiles calculated. Most of the char then burns on the walls of the chamber, while held in a molten ash layer, at a rate principally determined by the rate of diffusion of oxygen. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data obtained in the late 1950s at the British Coal Utilization Research Association on a small experimental combustor. Flow and heat transfer data are closely predicted; comparison with the combustion efficiency data cannot be rigorous but no major inconsistencies emerge.

Boysan, F.; Weber, R.; Swithenbank; Lawn, C.J.

1986-02-01

138

Corrosion in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluated the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

Vausher, A.L.

1982-01-01

139

Corrosion in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluate the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

Vausher, A.L.

1982-01-01

140

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

NONE

1995-08-31

141

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

2005-09-21

142

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOEpatents

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01

143

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations.  

PubMed

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region was investigated. The determination methods for mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. The mass of mercury emitted into the air from coal combustion in the power station is in constant relation to the mercury content in the consumed coal during the assumed period. A relationship between mercury emission into the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in electric power stations is derived. PMID:24201800

Mniszek, W

1994-11-01

144

Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Hansen, T.

2006-11-15

145

Evaluation of a candidate material for a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) high temperature recuperative air heater  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve the desired efficiency in the MHD cycle, one of two procedures must be employed. The first is to inject pure oxygen during combustion in order to achieve higher combustion temperatures which will yield better conversion efficiencies. The other is to preheat the combustor air through the use of high temperature air heaters (HTAH). A recuperative air heater heats the combustor air directly by passing it through tubes which are in the exhaust gas flow before sending it into the combustor. The procedure of passing air through the furnace requires a material for the tubes which will withstand the high temperatures and corrosive environment of the furnace and should have a high heat transfer coefficient. All of the necessary properties seem to exist in ceramic materials, so ceramics have begun to be studied for high temperature air heaters as well as other high temperature applications. The present project outlines one such effort to evaluate the performance of a ceramic composite tube in a coal fired MHD facility in order to determine any changes in the tube material after exposure to high temperature and a highly corrosive environment. A recuperative high temperature air heater (HTAH) would be positioned in the radiant furnace, because the radiant furnace provides conditions comparable to an actual MHD facility and is adequate for testing HTAH materials. The temperature conditions in the furnace range from approximately 1600{degree}C to 1890{degree}C, and velocities of approximately 12 m/s to 100 m/s have been measured depending on the location in the furnace. The evaluated tube was placed in the furnace in a reducing environment with approximately 14 m/s velocity, 1650{degree}C gas temperature, and 1230{degree}C tube temperature.

Winkler, J; Dahotre, N B; Boss, W

1993-02-01

146

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury hot spots. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evid...

C. Bu C. Campbell J. Adams M. Bender N. Piccolo T. M. Sullivan

2008-01-01

147

FORMATION AND CONTROL OF NO EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED SPREADER-STOKER BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attenti...

148

Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate control technologies in coal-fired power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models were derived which to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate control systems for coal fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold side electrostatic precipitators; (2) hot side electrostatic precipitators; (3) reverse flow baghouse; (4) shake baghouses; and (5) wet scrubbers. A stream generator performance model was developed, and the output from this model was used as input for the control device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters were used as inputs to the cost models.

Ramanathan, V.; Reigel, S.; Gorman, P.; Farber, P. S.; Tisue, M.; Bennett, F. C.

1980-04-01

149

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01

150

Aspects and Strategies of Numerical Modelling of Underground Coal Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modelling of underground coal fires has become a valuable tool even for practical fire extinction work. The approaches, methods and finally codes that are used depend on the targets that are aimed at by the particular modelling task. The most general one is to fully understand the processes that sustain or suppress the fire. Another purpose is to produce realistic data for regions that are not accessible (e . g. underneath a burning coal seam) or couldn't be investigated (e.g due to limited resources) to estimate the complete energy budget of the fire. Last but not least one would like to forecast the fire dynamics to predict the future damage or to assess the effectivenees of extinction work. These purposes require the consideration of all aspects with respect to thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. At the moment there is no single code that completely covers all these aspects with every degree of complexity. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" we apply existing codes with different foci with respect to THMC processes and try to combine all codes to one comprehensive model. Besides the sophisticated academic modelling approach we also pursue the concept of "Onsite" modelling to enable fire fighting personnel to perform simplified modelling tasks even by means of web-based applications.

Wuttke, M. W.; Han, J.; Liu, G.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Gusat, D.; Fischer, Chr.; Hirner, A.; Meyer, U.

2009-04-01

151

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of control are sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur dioxide control for small and medium-sized boilers is usually accomplished by limiting sulfur content in the fuel and using low-sulfur coal. Other sulfur dioxide control methods include flue gas desulfurization and fluidized bed combustion. However, these systems require substantial first costs, increased operating and maintenance costs, and special material handling systems, which are generally not cost effective for small or medium-sized boilers. The primary emphasis in this article is on controlling particulate emissions from small and mediumsized coal-fired, spreader-stoker boilers equipped with mechanical dust-collection systems. However, many of the principles discussed apply to other collection systems as well.

Weiss, C.A.; Erdmann, D.R.

1984-11-08

152

Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system  

SciTech Connect

This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

1997-11-01

153

Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

2012-09-30

154

Repowering a small coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

Miell, R.

2007-11-15

155

Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash. PMID:21090555

Konidaris, Dimitrios N

2010-10-01

156

Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

2005-01-01

157

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

None

2000-12-31

158

Coal-fired central energy plant operations expert system and editor (cepes version 4.3 and cepes editor version 2.4) user`s guide. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising operation and maintenance (OM) costs of central heating plants have forced the Army to seek alternative methods of running these facilities. Computer technology offers a great potential to automate and assist in many OM tasks by helping diagnose equipment malfunctions and failures. An automated diagnostic tool for coal-fired heating plant equipment could reduce the demand for human labor, freeing

R. Moshage; T. Magliero; M. Brewer; M. Kantameni; T. Blindt

1995-01-01

159

Investigation of Spread dynamics, Carbon emissions and Suppression Efficiency of smouldering coal fires using small-scale experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are driven by smouldering which is defined as a slow, low temperature flameless form of combustion sustained by the heat evolved when oxygen directly attacks the surface of a condensed fuel. Once these fires have been ignited, they are difficult to detect, locate and extinguish. Despite extensive fire-fighting attempts in hundreds of cases around the globe, very few cases of successful extinction by human intervention have been confirmed. This work reports two sets of small-scale laboratory experiments that have been used to investigate ignition, spread, emissions and suppression of coal fires. The combustion reaction was characterised by reaching maximum temperatures of 700-1000 C with an average spread rate of 0.11 mm/min. A repeatable coal fire is defined in the smouldering apparatus and suppression is attempt after 300 min of free burning. The effectiveness of three water suppression methods is investigated (pipe,shower, and spray). Water was identified as a good extinguishing agent and it is shown that significant differences in extinguishing efficiency arise from different methods. The amount of water required was measured to be on the order of 1 to 2 litres of water per kg of burning coal. The CO and CO2 emissions are measured using a fire propagation calorimeter and mass flow, yields and the CO to CO2 ratio are reported as a function of the burning conditions. These experiments aim to provide a fundamental step into the understanding of subsurface fires, asses their impact in global emissions and find the best method to extinguish them.

Hadden, Rory; Garcia Saez, Jose; Rein, Guillermo

2010-05-01

160

Cryogenic Flow Research Facility Provisional Accuracy Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Bureau of Standards and the Compressed Gas Association have jointly sponsored a research program on cryogenic flow measurement. A cryogenic flow research facility was constructed and was first used to evaluate commercially available cryogenic...

J. W. Dean J. A. Brennan D. B. Mann C. H. Kneebone

1971-01-01

161

SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.

Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

1992-01-01

162

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

2002-01-01

163

Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers. The survey consisted of a comprehensive questionnaire suitable to statistical interpretation and computer analysis.

J. Reynolds; S. Kreidenweis; L. Theodore

1982-01-01

164

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical report, July - September 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Alli...

1996-01-01

165

PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. Commercial Plant Requirements Definition Update (Task 1.1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power system thermodynamic cycle is illustrated schematically. Pressurized air supplied at the discharge of gas turbine compressors is ducted to the pressure vessel of pressurized, fluidized-bed, combustor-steam genera...

1980-01-01

166

Open Cycle Coal Fired MHD Power Generation. Final Report, 21 May 1971--31 May 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research during the past 3 years on coal-fired MHD has included: critical engineering experiments and studies: (a) modeling of the total MHD system; (b) materials development; (c) coal studies (devolatilization and ash behavior); (d) MHD plasma effects; (...

1975-01-01

167

Coal-Fired Boilers at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study, Phase II and III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual design and parametric cost studies of steam and power generation systems using coal-fired stoker boilers and stack gas scrubbers in several sizes were performed. Central plants containing four equal-sized boilers and central flue gas desulfuriz...

A. I. McCone J. D. Ruby Y. J. Yim T. P. Chen O. Terichow

1979-01-01

168

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

169

Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

Engle, M. A.; Radke, L. F.; Heffern, E. L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C. D.; Hower, J. C.; Hower, J. M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R. J.; ter, Schure, A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K. L.; Stracher, G. B.; Henke, K. R.; Olea, R. A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

2011-01-01

170

MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

171

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

172

Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power, Inc. (ALSTOM) is developing an Ultra-Low NOX Integrated System for Coal Fired Power Plants to address present and anticipated NOX emissions control legislation for US coal-fired boilers. The proposed system will build on ALSTOM's field-proven TFS 2000TM low NOX firing system to achieve furnace outlet NOX emissions at or below 0.15 lb\\/MMBtu for existing tangentially fired boilers firing

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; John L. Marion; Robert Lewis; Chris Smith

173

Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxide (NO) in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. (Stoker-coal-fired furnaces are significant in terms of coal consumption and environmental impact: however, they have received little research attention.) Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel-suspension phase, the

G. P. Starley; D. M. Slaughter; J. M. Munro; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1985-01-01

174

ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

2009-12-01

175

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31

176

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA  

EPA Science Inventory

China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

177

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

2009-06-30

178

Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

2006-06-30

179

Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250{sup o}C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400{sup o}C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

Yan Liu; David J.A. Kelly; Hongqun Yang; Christopher C.H. Lin; Steve M. Kuznicki; Zhenghe Xu [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-08-15

180

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01

181

Design of a 165 MWe reheat coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for Nova Scotia Power Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In October 1989, a contract was awarded to Pyropower Corporation for the design, supply and erection of the 165 MW{sub e} reheat coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for the Point Aconi site in Nova Scotia, Canada. This order represented the largest capacity circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler sold to date. This paper presents the boiler design parameters, design arrangement and specific, unique design features such as the reheat system and reheat temperature control. A particular concern with the boiler design was the relatively high chlorine content in the coal fuel. To resolve this concern, a test burn was conducted in Pyropower's Research and Development facility in December 1989. The test burn and it's results are also examined.

Schaller, B. (Pyropower Corp. (US)); Darguzas, J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Fraser, S. (Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada))

1990-01-01

182

[Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

183

PIV - Jet Flow Facility, Setup, Interior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the setup of the Particle Imaging Velocimeter in the Jet Flow facility. A laser light sheet is generated to the left of the picture and crosses from left to right. The jet flow comes out of the page towards the viewer. The data acquisition system (camera etc.) is located in the odd shaped box towards the botton of the figure.

1996-01-01

184

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-02-26

185

Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Research Center of Power Engineering Problems

2009-02-15

186

REVIEW OF NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume report summarizes a study of the projected effects of several different revisions to the current New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility power boilers. The revision is assumed to apply to all coal-fired uni...

187

Uncontrolled coal fires and their environmental impacts: Investigating two arid mining regions in north-central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled coal fires occur worldwide and pose a great threat to the environment. This paper introduces the problem of coal fires referring to two coalfields in north-central China. These areas were regularly investigated during numerous fieldwork campaigns between 2002 and 2005. Emphasis is put on the environmental impacts of the fires, such as atmospheric influences, land subsidence, landscape degradation, as

Claudia Kuenzer; Jianzhong Zhang; Anke Tetzlaff; Paul van Dijk; Stefan Voigt; Harald Mehl; Wolfgang Wagner

2007-01-01

188

Application of Active Disturbance Rejection Control technology in distributed Control System of coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Control System plays a role of “brain” and control center for coal-fired power generation unit. Super critical (SC) and Ultra-super critical (USC) power generation units with large capacity, high parameters, high efficiency have been the key units of coal fired power industry. Reliability and stability of these units are preconditions for safety of large grid. And the automatic control

Huang Huanpao; Nie Ling; Pan Gang; Xia Ming

2010-01-01

189

Design study of a coal-fired thermionic (THX) topped power plant. Volume IV. Thermionic heat exchanger design and costing  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic conversion is given. The overall Thermionic Heat Exchanger (THX) design, the heat pipe design, and the interaction of the heat pipes with the furnace are presented. Also, the operational characteristics of thermionic converters are described. Details on the computer program used to perform the parametric study are given. The overall program flow is reviewed along with the specifics of how the THX subroutine designed the converter to match the conditions imposed. Also, input costs and variables effecting the THX's performance are detailed. The efficiencies of the various power plants studied are given as a function of the air preheat temperature, size of the power plant, and thermionic level of performance.

Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.

1980-10-15

190

Enhancement of natural radionuclides in the surroundings of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain.  

PubMed

The production of electricity in coal-fired power plants (CFPP) is considered a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) activity because the coals they burn can present relatively high contents of the naturally occurring radionuclides. In this study, the main radiological impact pathways into the surrounding environments of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain were analyzed. These pathways are, first, atmospheric evacuations and wind resuspension and, second, effluent evacuations to nearby rivers or directly to the sea. The atmospheric releases of radionuclides were evaluated by the analyses of soil profiles in the vicinities of the CFPPs. No significant enhancement of radionuclides in the surface soil was observed at the points of maximum deposition of combustion gases, located from 4.3 to 13 km away depending on the considered CFPP. However, an increase of (40)K, (226)Ra, and (232)Th in the surface soils was observed in the first kilometre from the chimney for two CFPPs. This suggested that these radionuclides were released in particulate form. There was also a net influence of the climate in which the CFPPs were located. This was observed in the two CFPPs that were in dry environments, while no increase was observed in the other two, located in more humid environments. The liquid effluents released usually presented an enhancement of dissolved chemical species regarding the initial intake water. Enrichments of the (234,238)U and (226)Ra contents in the water used in the plants' routine procedures were observed, and of (210)Po in the wastewater of just one of the plants. In any case, this enhancement was below the parametric value for the Total Indicative Dose for the hypothetical human consumption of the released waters. As a consequence of these releases of radionuclides, local products destined for human consumption produced in the vicinity of the facilities might incorporate natural radionuclides by these pathways, finding no significant enhancement of the natural radionuclide contents due to the CFPPs. PMID:22330984

Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Guillén, J; Salas, A; Mora, J C; Robles, B; Cancio, D

2012-03-01

191

Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM2.5 emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM2.5-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM2.5, $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO{sub 2}, $500 to $15,000 per ton of NOx, and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO{sub 2} emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances.

Levy, J.I.; Baxter, L.K.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard School of Public Health

2009-07-15

192

Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Nitrogen Flow Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An uncertainty analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology nitrogen flow facility was performed. The facility functions as a cryogenic flow calibration laboratory and as an applied research laboratory for high pressure nitrogen gas flow...

J. L. Scott M. A. Lewis

1994-01-01

193

SAMPLING AND MODELING OF NON-POINT SOURCES AT A COAL-FIRED UTILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, included measurement of overland...

194

Investigation of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the study of converting oil-fired boilers to pulverized coal as well as the use of pulverized coal for fueling the unique boiler of a new construction

Kacir

1983-01-01

195

EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

196

Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants: an application to a coal fired electrical generating station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermodynamic relations between energy and exergy losses and capital costs for thermal systems and equipment are developed and applied to a modern coal fired electrical generating station. Some possible generalizations of the results are also discussed. The application considers the overall station and the following station devices: turbine generators, steam generators, preheating devices and condensers. The data suggest that

Marc A Rosen; Ibrahim Dincer

2003-01-01

197

Theoretical Cost Estimates for a Coal-Fired Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper contains the development of a costing method for coal-fired atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers and the results of applying this method to a 200,000 lb/h boiler. The costs of concern are capital costs. The hardwares are those components att...

V. T. Nguyen M. T. Lethi

1981-01-01

198

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

199

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

200

Applicability of the Thermal DeNOx Process to Coal-Fired Utility Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a projection of the performance and cost of the Exxon Thermal DeNOx Process applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Eight units were selected, representing different boiler manufacturers, sizes, firing methods, and coal types. Thermal DeNO...

G. M. Varga M. E. Tomsho B. H. Ruterbories G. J. Smith W. Bartok

1979-01-01

201

A Pilot Study of Mercury Liberation and Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal

Jin Li; Xiaobing Gao; Bryna Goeckner; Dave Kollakowsky; Bruce Ramme

2005-01-01

202

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

203

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

204

ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE/COSTS OF RETROFITTING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT 12 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and cond...

205

Sampling and Modeling of Non-Point Sources at a Coal-Fired Utility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a measurement and modeling program for nonpoint sources (NPS) from two coal-fired utility plants, and the impact of NPS on receiving waters. The field measurement survey, performed at two utility plants in Pennsylvania, include...

G. T. Brookman

1977-01-01

206

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is

Volker Gundelach

2010-01-01

207

NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

208

MHD generating system. [open-cycle coal-fired two-phase liquid metal MHD generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coal-fired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and

M. Petrick; E. S. Pierson; F. Schreiner

1978-01-01

209

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal?Fired Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility?scale coal?fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated

Michael Whitaker; Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Martin Vorum

2012-01-01

210

Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.  

PubMed

Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. PMID:22326311

Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

2012-03-15

211

Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

2007-01-15

212

Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out

Buckholtz; H. T. Y

1980-01-01

213

Distribution of volatile organic compounds during the combustion process in coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted during combustion processes in coal-fired power stations. Thermal desorption technique was employed to analyse VOC concentrations in gaseous emissions (trapped onto Carbotrap B sorbent) and solid samples (coal, fly ash and slag). An empirical parameter (Y) was employed to evaluate the relationships between the compounds emitted during a real

G Fernández-Mart??nez; P López-Mah??a; S Muniategui-Lorenzo; D Prada-Rodr??guez; E Fernández-Fernández

2001-01-01

214

FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

215

The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

216

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

217

CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

218

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

219

Feasibility Study of Burning Waste Paper in Coal-Fired Boilers on Air Force Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examine...

K. P. Smith

1993-01-01

220

Estimating performance\\/costs of retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the responsibilities of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) is to develop cost and performance information on various methods for reducing the emissions of acid rain precursors. A major factor affecting the cost and performance of SOâ and NOâ controls for coal-fired power plants is the degree of difficulty associated with retrofitting controls at existing boilers. This

J. W. Jones; T. E. Emmel; B. A. Laseke

1987-01-01

221

Modeling and control system design study of coal fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twelfth-order, physically based, nonlinear boiler-turbine model of a 360 MW coal fired power plant is developed for use in control system design. The existing computer controlled feedback and feedforward control system is modeled in the normal operating mode for use in validating the process model. The process and control system models simulate the plant well in the normal operating

Nam

1986-01-01

222

Exergy cost analysis of a coal fired power plant based on structural theory of thermoeconomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a cost analysis method based on thermoeconomics is applied to a 300MW pulverized coal fired power plant located in Yiyang (Hunan Province, China). This method, as derived from the second law of thermodynamics, can provide detailed analysis for cost formation of the power plant as well as the effects of different operating conditions and parameters on the

Chao Zhang; Yan Wang; Chuguang Zheng; Xinsheng Lou

2006-01-01

223

NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

224

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired gas turbine engine or a Diesel-type reciprocating engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulveriz...

W. C. Smith L. E. Paulson

1993-01-01

225

Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are

S. C. Morris; L. D. Hamilton

1984-01-01

226

Corrosion and degradation of ceramic particulate filters in direct coal-fired turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic filters show considerable promise for efficient particulate removal from coal combustion systems. Advanced coal utilization processes such as direct coal-fired turbines require particulate-free gas for successful operation. This paper describes the various ceramic particulate filters under development and reviews the degradation mechanisms expected when operated in coal combustion systems.

Sawyer, J. (Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA (US)); Vass, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Brown, J.J. (Center for Advanced Ceramic Materials, CIT TDC, Virginai Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US))

1991-10-01

227

Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

228

CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

229

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

230

Control Strategies of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Hg emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of

Hezhong Tian; Yan Wang; Ke Cheng; Yiping Qu; Jiming Hao; Zhigang Xue; Fahe Chai

2012-01-01

231

PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

232

EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

233

Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

234

Modeling Mercury Behavior in Coal-Fired Boilers with Halogen Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for compliance with regulations for mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, utilities need useful tools for technology assessment and compliance planning. Such tools should capture observed mercury behavior with existing NOx, SO2 or particulate pollution control equipment that provides \\

Connie Senior; Andrew Fry; Brydger Cauch

235

An Intelligent Emissions Controller for Fuel Lean Gas Reburn in Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the

Jaques Reifman; Earl E. Feldman; Thomas Y. C. Wei; Roger W. Glickert

2000-01-01

236

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char, and char generated from the pyrolyzer tests performed at FWDC's pilot plant in Livingston, New Jersey. Construction is to begin next quarter to retrofit the CETF for additional HIPPS char combustion studies in a wall-fired configuration. Design of the char transfer system for the PSDF also progressed during this quarter. A number of arrangements have been developed to modify the existing N-Valve configuration. As an experimental test facility, the PSDF needs to maintain operating flexibility in order to test under a wide range of conditions. Although a new char transfer design is needed to support the HIPPS testing at the facility, the Second Generation PFB program will also utilize this system.

NONE

1999-05-01

237

Corrosion problems in coal-fired boiler superheater and reheater tubes: fireside corrosion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was conducted to develop improved alloys for superheater and reheater tubes in direct coal-fired steam generators in order to extend the service life of the tubes, and to evaluate materials for use at higher operating temperatures than currently in use. The program consisted of a broad literature review and laboratory evaluation involving 19 commercial and semicommercial alloys, 19 custom-melted alloys and 18 types of high-temperature coatings, subjecting them to flowing flue gas and molten alkali-iron trisulfate ash at 1250 and 1450/sup 0/F (675 and 790/sup 0/C). The commercial and semicommercial alloys suffered severe attack and pitting under the laboratory fireside test environment at 1250/sup 0/F (675/sup 0/C). In the custom-melted group, the best alloy (25%Ni-20%Cr-2%Al-2.4%Si) generated a dense, adherent scale which reduced pitting by a factor of four when subjected to the molten trisulfate. The character of the pitting attack is best described as an electrochemical mechanism where the molten trisulfate provides the electrolyte and transfers away the metal consumed at the active anodic areas. Protective scales were observed only on a few alloys of higher silicon content; these alloys are believed to offer significant improvement in useful life in steam generators firing corrosive coals. The magnesium zirconate (MgZrO/sub 3/) coating was resistant to corrosive attack, providing a self-healing mechanism by the formation of high-melting sulfates within its pores. This pore plugging effect withstood exposure cycles which would seriously damage conventional stainless steel tubes.

Rehn, I.M.

1980-11-01

238

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 9, September 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; (2) Reduced air toxics emissions; (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGTJ) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-03-27

239

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Analysis of the arch-fired burner continued during this quarter. Unburned carbon and NOx performance are included in this report. Construction commenced this quarter to modify the CETF for horizontal firing. A new indirect feed system will be required to provide a more stable fuel feed to the new wall-fired burner. The conceptual design of the char transfer system for the PSDF is complete. Final detailed design will commence after FETC has completed all cold model testing. DOE-FETC is utilizing an existing experimental facility to evaluate the performance of the proposed char transfer system.

NONE

1999-10-01

240

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. In order to prepare the CETF for the HIPPS char combustion test program, the following three subsystems were designed during this quarter: (1) Flue Gas Recycle System; (2) Pulverized Coal Feed System; and (3) Limestone Feed System The flue gas recycle system is added to simulate the performance of a commercial char burner fired with gas turbine exhaust. Since synthetically made char will be used for the tests at the CETF, the limestone injection system was added to produce a char more representative of that from an actual pyrolyzer. The pulverized coal system is included to provide a supplemental support fuel if a stable flame can not be maintained with char firing only.

NONE

1998-10-01

241

CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an information collection request (ICR). The ICR required all coal-fired utilities to submit the mercury concentrations in their coal for one year quarterly, and 80 coal-fired power plants were selected to do mercury flue gas analysis. It was decided by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that this project would be suspended until the results of the ICR were known. This report presents the results that were obtained at the two power plants referred to as Sites 111 and E-29. The EERC teamed with Radian International (now URS Corp.) to do the sampling and analysis at these two power plants.

Dennis L. Laudal

2001-08-01

242

EVALUATION OF TUBEWALL CORROSION RATES ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER USING STAGED COMBUSTION FOR NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses NOx emissions, at an existing coal-firing utility boiler, that have been controlled by modifying normal combustion parameters using the boiler's normal operating control system (without adding new hardware). The combustion modifications (CMs) studied included...

243

Design and operation experience with baghouse dust collectors for pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers: Sunbury Station, Holtwood Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fabric filter on a coal-fired boiler is an effective method of meeting today's stringent air pollution requirements, especially for high-resistivity dusts or where sulfur-content of coal varies widely. (PCS)

J. H. Phelan; A. A. Reisinger; N. H. Wagner

1976-01-01

244

ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

245

DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

246

National Coal Research Programme. Status Report of the Programme 'Air Pollution Due to the Emission of Coal Fired Installations'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the National Coal Research Programme is the elimination of barriers to the reintroduction of coal in the Netherlands. The programme 'Air pollution due to the emission of coal fired installations' (Dutch abbreviation 'LUK') was initiated. The a...

1984-01-01

247

Inferential sensor for on-line monitoring of ammonium bisulfate formation temperature in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a byproduct of the selective catalytic reduction system, ammonium bisulfate could lead to frequent unit outages by forming sticky deposits on the surface of air preheaters and heat rate deterioration in coal-fired power plants. Field tests were carried out to investigate the variation of ammonium bisulfate formation temperature at a coal-fired unit, retrofit with an on-line ammonium bisulfate probe.

Fengqi Si; Carlos E. Romero; Zheng Yao; Zhigao Xu; Robert L. Morey; Barry N. Liebowitz

2009-01-01

248

Retrofit costs for lime\\/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime\\/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L\\/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are

T. E. Emmel; J. W. Jones

1990-01-01

249

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction. Technical progress report No. 1, [April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Project proposes in install a new TCS micronized coal fired heating plant for the PHRO Greenhouse Complex in the Town of Krzeszowice, Poland (near Krakow). PHRO utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent housing cooperatives. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy oil, called Mazute. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat load for PHRO, and a portion of the adjacent residential heating, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. TCS, Inc. will maintain primary responsibility for Project implementation and for supply of micronization equipment. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in- town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

NONE

1996-07-08

250

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a technical, financial and environmental assessment study for a project, which would have included a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland. Project site is about 20 miles west of Krakow, Poland. During the project study period, PHRO utilized 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called mazute, The project study was conducted during a period extended from March 1996 through February 1997. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields, The new micronized coal fired boiler would have: (1) provided a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduced sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provided attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

NONE

1997-04-01

251

Tracking new coal-fired power plants: coal's resurgence in electric power generation  

SciTech Connect

This information package is intended to provide an overview of 'Coal's resurgence in electric power generation' by examining proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration in the USA. The results contained in this package are derived from information that is available from various tracking organizations and news groups. Although comprehensive, this information is not intended to represent every possible plant under consideration but is intended to illustrate the large potential that exists for new coal-fired power plants. It should be noted that many of the proposed plants are likely not to be built. For example, out of a total portfolio (gas, coal, etc.) of 500 GW of newly planned power plant capacity announced in 2001, 91 GW have been already been scrapped or delayed. 25 refs.

NONE

2007-05-01

252

Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Zachary, J. [Bechtel Power Corp. (United States)

2008-07-15

253

Time series analysis of CO concentrations from an Eastern Kentucky coal fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fires in natural outcrops, in abandoned and active coal mines, and in coal and coal-refuse piles are responsible for the uncontrolled emissions of gases, including CO, CO2, H2S, hydrocarbons, and volatile aromatics. Typically, measurements of gases at a mine vent are made over a short time interval, perhaps no more than 10min, including the time for replicate measurements. Such

James C. Hower; Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe; Kevin R. Henke; Amirhossein Bagherieh

254

Electrostatic Precipitators, Bag Filters and Emission Standards for Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1980 to 2003, power installed capacity in China grown from 65,869 MW to 384,500 MW, near 6-foldes increased. By the end of 2003, coal-fired power increased to 285,640 MW, thus induced continuosly increased air pollutions. Accompanying the emission standards from tolerant to stringent, high efficiency dust collectors gradually played dominative role. From 1955, precipitators went into Chinese power plant

Wang Liqian; Zhang Dexuan; Yang Xiuyun

255

Magnesia scrubbing applied to a coal-fired power plant. Final report August 1973August 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur coal. The FGD installation was equipped with a first-stage wet scrubber for particle emissions control, followed by

Koehler

1977-01-01

256

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop\\/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-01-01

257

A Sensitivity Analysis for Radiative Heat Transfer in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for the radiative transfer in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. The third order spherical harmonics approximation is used to model the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in an axisymmetric, cylindrical furnace. To account for the highly forward scattering of radiation by the particles, such as pulverized coal, char, and fly-ash, the delta-Eddington phase function approximation is employed. The

M. P. MENGÜC; R. VISKANTA

1987-01-01

258

Characteristics of particulate matter from emissions of four typical coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distribution, microstructure, and chemical composition of particulate matter samples from coal-fired power plants in China were measured using a laser particle analyzer, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The size distribution showed differences between the electrostatic precipitator capture efficiencies for coarse and fine particles. The microstructure measurements showed three typical particulate

Chengfeng Zhang; Qiang Yao; Junming Sun

2005-01-01

259

Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment  

SciTech Connect

Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

Nava, J.C. [ME Technical Services, Bridgeton, MO (United States)

2009-09-15

260

An economic analysis of air pollution from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of air-pollution-control techniques on a coal-fired power plant are simulated with a scientifically based environmental model. Air-pollution-abatement techniques are assessed in terms of their resource cost (measured in dollars) and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage (measured in dollars and healthy days lost). Which air-pollution techniques are most efficient depend upon how much value is placed on a

Robert Mendelsohn

1980-01-01

261

Controlling Mercury Emission for China's Coal Fired Electricity Plants: an Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the least-cost strategy for controlling the emission of mercury from coal-fired electricity generation plants in China, which helps to provide technical guidance to firms and decision making basis for designing mercury control strategy and policy for the government. Based on the analysis and evaluation of technical and economic features of the available technologies\\/alternatives, this study

Dan Wu; Shiqiu Zhang; Tong Zhu

2011-01-01

262

Emissions of volatile organic compounds by coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al~traet--This study concerns the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by coal-fired power stations. The most abundant compounds are aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and benzene) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (tetrachlorocthene). The relative importance of combustion parameters determining the level and the nature of emissions is described. The most important of these is th,e load

J. P. GARCIA; S. BEYNE-MASCLET; G. MOUVIER; P MASCLET

1992-01-01

263

The Fate of Fuel Nitrogen in Coal-Fired Spreader Stokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers are recognized as significant stationary sources of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Abatement of NOx emissions from spreader stokers has received relatively little research attention. The purpo se of this investigation was to assess the role of first-stage stoichiometry and local thermal environment in the fate of fuel nitrogen. The research was specifically concerned with identifying nitrogenous species

G. P. STARLEY; F. W. Bradshaw; C. S. Carrel; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1985-01-01

264

Formation and control of NO emissions from coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study on the formation and control of nitrogen oxides in coal-fired spreader-stoker systems. Three scales of experimental equipment were used to define the evolution and oxidation of fuel nitrogen in the fuel suspension phase, the conversion of fuel nitrogen during fixed-bed combustion, and the coupling between the two combustion phases. The results indicate

G. P. Starley; D. M. Slaughter; J. M. Munro; D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin

1982-01-01

265

Acid rain: control strategies for coal-fired utility boilers. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a detailed evaluation of the cost and effectiveness of conventional controls for emissions of sulfur oxides (SO\\/sub x\\/) and nitrogen oxides (NO\\/sub x\\/) from coal-fired utility boilers. The cost and control efficiency data are based on analyses of the 50 US utility plants emitting these pollutants in the greatest quantities in 1979 (the 50 highest emitters for

M. Szabo; Y. Shah; J. Abraham

1982-01-01

266

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

267

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

Rubin, E.S.

1988-10-01

268

Numerical Investigation of Different Burner Arrangement on a Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of combustion process in a 200 MW coal-fired boiler is performed using CFD software. The work is focused on concentrate-lean burner, which arranges with different horizontal tilts and the air-staging technique. The numerical simulations on the regular burner have been validated with the experiment data. The other simulation results using the same models could be considered for the

Fei Xing; Tingwei Ji; Shuai Zhang; Peiyong Wang

2011-01-01

269

Construction raw materials from coal fired powerstations by-products management and quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to use the potentials of the by-products of coal combustion. Because of environmental, economical and technical reasons full utilization has to be stimulated.In the Netherlands, by-products from coal-fired power stations are fully accepted and utilized for 100% as construction raw materials in the building industry.Vliegasunie has the task to find and encourage responsible (and economically attractive)

J. W. van den Berg; A. Boorsma

1997-01-01

270

Integration of post-combustion capture and storage into a pulverized coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) presents a promising strategy to capture, compress, transport and store CO2 from a high volume–low pressure flue gas stream emitted from a fossil fuel-fired power plant. This work undertakes the simulation of CO2 capture and compression integration into an 800MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant using chemical process simulators. The focus is not only on

Teerawat Sanpasertparnich; Raphael Idem; Irene Bolea; David deMontigny; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

2010-01-01

271

The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be significant shortages in supply if response to new demand is not well-timed.

Robin Stewart

2008-03-12

272

Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.  

PubMed

Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2011-01-01

273

Site specific health risk assessment: discussion of application of methodologies at coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Release of hazardous chemicals into the environment is an issue of growing concern. The primary impetus behind increased attention to this problem has been concern over the potential for development of adverse human health effects from exposure to such chemicals. Health risk assessment is one technique available to address this complex problem in a structured way. The use of health risk assessment methodologies for analysis of the potential for and effects from ground water contamination is discussed in this report. A risk assessment methodology developed for application at coal-fired power plants is used as an example methodology. The preliminary steps and problems with application of the methodology at a specific coal-fired power plant are presented. The report includes: an introduction to the problem of ground water contamination and the use of risk assessment to address that problem; description of the regional and site characteristics of the coal-fired power plant under study; description of the risk assessment; description of the current activities to characterize the subsurface region under the plant; and a discussion of the impetus behind development of site-specific health risk assessment methodologies.

Bailey, D.A.

1985-01-01

274

Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposable. Net station (HHV) efficiency can be increased to 45 percent without increasing the cost of electricity.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [ABB Power Plant Laboratories (United States); Mirolli, M.D. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Inc. (United States)

1995-12-31

275

Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO? allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

2012-04-01

276

[Mercury emission characteristics from coal-fired power plants based on actual measurement].  

PubMed

To sample and test mercury emission characteristics in different power plants, six representative coal-fired power plants were selected. And based on the data of mercury emission concentration from actual measurement, mercury removal rate and mercury average emission factor of every plant can be calculated, and mercury emission characteristics about every level capacity can be given, so as to provide support and foundation for the mercury control in China. The mercury emission concentration is about 4.72-14.54 microg/m3, mercury removal rate is about 20.89%-70.63%, and mercury average emission factor is about 14.09-56.08 microg/(kW x h). To compare the mercury emission characteristics with mercury emission characteristics from coal-fired power plants in USA, it is shown that the concentration of mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in China is far higher than those in USA, and the mercury removal rate is much lower than removal rate required by American national standard. To get conclusion that mercury average emission factor can come down with installed capacity and power generation load went up. And the function relation have been provided through comprehensive simulation between mercury average emission factor and installed capacity, generation load, mercury content in coal, the environmental protection equipment running level, and so on. PMID:21404661

Wang, Sheng; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhu, Fa-Hua; Chen, Hui; Sun, Xue-Li; Zuo, Yi; Liu, Gang

2011-01-01

277

Modelling ash deposition in pulverized coal-fired applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model was applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility. The project is part of a collaborative research programme sponsored

F. C. C. Lee; F. C. Lockwood

1998-01-01

278

Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

Khalid Omar

2008-04-30

279

High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 ?g/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200?g/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global model simulations of BC over our study region, that indicate substantial underestimate against observations in the IGP. Results from this detailed observational study provide an insight into carbonaceous aerosol characteristics in complex and mesoscale environments of coal-fired TPPs, which are major emission sources in the IGP.

Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

2013-12-01

280

Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

Holstein, R.A.

1981-05-01

281

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with nozzles for separate injection of char, coal, and limestone. Burner performance will be rated according to three criteria, carbon conversion efficiency, NOx generation, and flame stability. If initial testing in the arch configuration proves successful, further tests will be performed in the wall-fired arrangement. A complete set of process and instrumentation drawings (P/ID's) were completed for the Combustion and Environmental Test Facility (CETF) this quarter. These drawings established an ISA approved instrument tagging structure, and provided a coherent database for the development of a data acquisition system. The data acquisition system polls tag information (value, range, engineering units, etc.) from the distributed control system (DCS) highway, and provides a platform for data reduction. The quadrupole mass spectrometer, used during the pyrolyzer tests performed at the pilot plant in Livingston, N.J., has been redesigned for use at the CETF. The mass spectrometer is designed to provide on-line gas analysis by identifying all of the chemical components within the secondary air line, the flue gas recycle line, and the furnace exit ducting. The construction effort at the CETF continued this quarter with the completion of the char storage system, reheat burner, flue gas recycle piping, and the pulverized coal feed system.

NONE

1998-11-01

282

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

283

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

284

Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

Not Available

1980-04-01

285

Development of cost-effective noncarbon sorbents for Hg(0) removal from coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Noncarbonaceous materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea, and active additives such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide to examine their potential as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor at coal-fired utility power plants. A number of sorbent candidates such as amine- silica gel, urea- silica gel, thiol- silica gel, amide-silica gel, sulfur-alumina, sulfur-molecular sieve, sulfur-montmorillonite, sodium sulfide-montmorillonite, and sodium polysulfide-montmorillonite, were synthesized and tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system under an argon flow for screening purposes at 70 degrees C and/or 140 degrees C. Several functionalized silica materials reported in previous studies to effectively control heavy metals in the aqueous phase showed insignificant adsorption capacities for Hg(0) control in the gas phase, suggesting that mercury removal mechanisms in both phases are different. Among elemental sulfur-, sodium sulfide-, and sodium polysulfide-impregnated inorganic samples, sodium polysulfide-impregnated montmorillonite K 10 showed a moderate adsorption capacity at 70 degrees C, which can be used for sorbent injection prior to the wet FGD system. PMID:16683613

Lee, Joo-Youp; Ju, Yuhong; Keener, Tim C; Varma, Rajender S

2006-04-15

286

Theory and application of magnetic and self-potential methods in the detection of the Heshituoluogai coal fire, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires are a major problem throughout the world. They threaten the environment and the health of people living nearby and result in significant economic losses. Efficient and economical control of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fire be delineated. In this paper, we first present laboratory experiments, revealing that new preferential alignment of magnetic moments, newly formed magnetite and thermoremanent magnetization are the root causes of magnetic anomalies in coal fire area. The redox potential and Thomson potential, which are the basis of the self-potential anomalies, are proposed additionally for application. Then, the geological setting and an overview of the Fifth Fire Area (FFA) of the Heshituoluogai coal fire in Xinjiang are introduced in detail. Finally, the magnetic and self-potential methods are combined to delineate the extent of the fire. Several data processing methods such as diurnal fluctuation rectification, reduction to pole and upward continuation are used to process the data to make the interpretation of results more straight forward. The locations of subsurface fire regions delineated by the magnetic and self-potential methods are consistent with the results of ground surveys, indicating that these two methods can be used effectively as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing

2014-05-01

287

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-05-09

288

LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

2006-10-31

289

Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

2007-07-19

290

Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.  

PubMed

Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations. PMID:15091862

Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

1993-01-01

291

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

2013-04-01

292

Numerical thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant with support of IPSEpro software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant. The aim of the study was to optimize part of the thermal cycle consisted of high-pressure turbine and two chosen highpressure feed water heaters. Calculations were carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where thermal efficiency and gross power generation efficiency were chosen as objective functions. It was shown that the optimization with newly developed framework is sufficiently precise and its main advantage is the reduction of computation time on comparison to the classical method. The calculations have shown the tendency of the increase in efficiency, with the rise of a number of function variables.

Elsner, Witold; Kowalczyk, ?ukasz; Marek, Maciej

2012-09-01

293

On heat balance in coal-fired MHD systems, channel heat transfer and electrode temperature distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results from heat transfer studies performed in 7.5 MWt and 15 MWt direct coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic systems for electrical power generation. Heat transfer from the various components is measured to determine system heat balance and the influence of parameters related to coal combustion on heat transfer. The measured heat flux from electrode walls is compared with a quasi-one-dimensional model and extended for off-design operation. The heat flux values are used in a computer model to evaluate temperature distributions in electrode frames and caps and are compared with measurements taken during power runs.

Roy, G. D.; Crawford, L. W.

1980-11-01

294

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOEpatents

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01

295

Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

NONE

1995-04-01

296

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.  

SciTech Connect

The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

2004-03-28

297

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-12-31

298

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10

299

GUIDELINES FOR NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. PROCEDURES FOR REDUCTION OF NOX EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...

300

Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

2013-04-01

301

Disposal, recycle, and utilization of modified fly ash from hydrated lime injection into coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle of a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The hydrated lime injection process is being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO/sub 2/ control at coal-fired power plants. In this process, hydrated lime is injected into the upper furnace where the flue gas temperature is about 2200{sup 0}F (1200{sup 0}C). The hydrated lime decomposes, and the resulting quicklime, CaO, captures SO/sub 2/ according to a formula given.

Dahlin, R.S.; Lishawa, C.L.; Clark, C.C. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (USA)); Nolan, P.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1987-01-01

302

Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A. [JSC Khabarovskenergo, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Heat and Power Plant No. 3

1996-05-01

303

Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

Not Available

1992-07-01

304

Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

Not Available

1992-07-01

305

Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

2013-04-01

306

Conceptual design of a coal-fired retrofit liquid-metal MHD power system  

SciTech Connect

The desire to develop a coal-fired energy-conversion system with the high efficiencies and moderate temperatures of two-phase-generator liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) systems led to the open-cycle LMMHD (OC-LMMHD) concept. A liquid metal, most likely copper, that is compatible with combustion gases is used so that the combustion gas can be mixed with the liquid metal to form the two-phase mixture in the LMMHD generator, thereby eliminating the need for a primary heat exchanger. Applications where OC-LMMHD appears to be particularly attractive include central power plants larger than approx. 10 MW(e), retrofit of existing oil- or gas-fired central steam power plants to burn coal, and cogeneration systems requiring high-temperature process heat. The latter two, in particular, benefit from the clean combustion gas stream leaving the copper in the LMMHD system. To explore the technical and economic feasibility of this new LMMHD concept, a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a coal-fired OC-LMMHD topping cycle to a conventional steam plant was selected, and extensive parametric studies carried out to establish the optimum parameter ranges for the retrofit cycle. A conceptual design was developed for the plant and the components with sufficient detail that a cost estimate for the retrofit could be readily made.

Pierson, E.S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.

1981-01-01

307

Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.  

PubMed

China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

2010-06-01

308

Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

EPRI hosted the Third International Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants (ICPP) from April 2--4, 1991, in San Francisco, California. The more than 130 conference participants included representatives of utilities, steelmakers, equipment fabricators, architect/engineering firms, government agencies, and R D organizations. Among the countries represented were the United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Israel. This international conference reviewed advances in fossil plant materials, components, and designs, and showcased results from the EPRI Improved Coal-Fired Power Plant project, similar collaborative European projects, and new power plants in Japan. The 54 papers in these proceedings are organized according to the conference sessions listed: General; Advanced Power Plant Designs; Standardized/Modular Power Plants; Improved Boiler Tubes; Improved HP, HP/IP, IP, and HP/LP Rotor Steels; Boiler Thick-Wall 9Cr Applications; Improved LP Rotor Steel; Boiler Water Chemistry, Turbine Valves, Casings, and Bolting Materials; Steam Turbine Design Advances; Power Plant Retrofits; Diagnostics and Controls. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Pace, S.; Poe, G. (eds.)

1992-08-01

309

Performance/cost estimates for retrofitting control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives results of estimating performance/costs of retrofitting pollution-control technologies at 12 coal-fired power plants. In cooperation with the states of Ohio and Kentucky (in conjunction with EPA's state acid-rain program), efforts were undertaken to visit and conduct detailed evaluations of 12 coal-fired plants--5 in Ohio and 7 in Kentucky and the Tennessee Valley Authority system. A variety of commercial and advanced SO/sub 2/ and NOx control technologies--including precombustion, combustion (in-furnace, and post-combustion (flue gas cleanup) technologies--were applied to each plant through conceptual designs. Retrofit factors (applied to the capital cost of a new pollution control system), cost adders (e.g., movement of existing equipment), and costs were developed for applying the control technologies to the boilers of each plant. Results of these and subsequent efforts will be valuable in evaluations of acid deposition control strategies by federal and state agencies and by electric utilities.

Jones, J.W.; Emmel, T.E.; Laseke, B.A.

1988-01-01

310

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

Not Available

1993-11-01

311

System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

Zauderer, B.

1976-01-01

312

CFD evaluation of waterwall wastage in coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of substoichiometric low NOx combustion in coal-fired utility boilers during recent years, problems with waterwall corrosion have increased. A predictive tool capable of assessing corrosion potential and aiding in the design of problem solutions could help alleviate the utility downtime and cost associated with waterwall wastage. Waterwall wastage has been associated with various mechanisms, including gaseous phase reducing sulfur species, wall deposition of unoxidized sulfur fuel, and fuel chlorine. Integration of predictive correlations for corrosion into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code can provide a framework for evaluation of corrosion potential. In this paper, CFD studies and predictions of corrosion in five utility boilers are examined and compared with observed wastage. The CFD code makes use of approximations of empirically developed corrosion correlations for gaseous phase reducing sulfur species, wall deposition of unoxidized sulfur fuel, and fuel chlorine. Model corrosion predictions are compared with observed or measured wastage in several coal-fired utility boilers, including tangentially fired, wall-fired, and cyclone-fired units. 15 refs., 12 figs.

James R. Valentine; Hong-Shig Shim; Kevin A. Davis; Sang-Il Seo; Tae-Hyung Kim [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2007-01-15

313

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

Not Available

1992-12-31

314

Mineral composition of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is a mineralogical study of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station in NE Spain. After a mineralogical study of the fly ash sampled in the electrostatic precipitators of the power station, several chemical and mineralogical patterns of the fly ash were employed as tracers of the power station emissions. At the same time, the study focused on the downwind evolution of secondary particulate matter, especially particulate sulphate. The studies on the mineralogy of air borne dust allowed us to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic particles. The major mineral phases identified in the samples studied were: gypsum, calcite, clay minerals (kaolinite, clinochlore and illite), quartz, talc and hematite. In addition to these mineral phases which are frequently present in the atmospheric particulate matter of the studied area, other mineral phases, such as feldspars, mullite, and copper sulphates, were detected in minor proportions. The results show that some mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the atmospheric particulate matter may be used as tracers of the influence of coal-fired power plant emissions. These characteristics include spherical morphologies, aluminosilicate glass, mullite, hematite and sulphate-fly ash associations. The possible buffering effect of atmospheric Ca-bearing minerals to neutralize the sulphate deposition is investigated.

Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Mantilla, Enrique; Plana, Felicia

315

Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

316

ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2004-09-08

317

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

318

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following: (1) There was some correlation between the prevailing wind direction and measured soil and oak leaf concentrations. This correlation was not statistically significant, but higher soil concentrations were generally found in the east and southeast from the plants and lower soil concentrations were found west/southwest from the plants. The prevailing winds are to the east. The Conemaugh plant which was the most southeast of the three plants did have the highest average oak leaf and soil mercury concentrations. Based on emissions, the Keystone plant would be expected to see the highest concentrations as it emitted about 25% more mercury than the other two plants. (2) The results of this study did not turn up strong evidence for large areas (several square miles) of elevated mercury concentrations around the three coal-fired power plants that were tested. This does not mean that there is no effect, there was some evidence of increasing mercury content to the east and south of these plants, however, the trends were not statistically significant suggesting that if the effects exist, they are small.

Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

2008-02-01

319

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot-spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot-spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that n

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

2005-12-01

320

CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY RELATED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the effects of a coal-fired power plant on terrestrial plants and animals. Research was conducted from 1971 through 1977 at the Columbia Generating Station in the eastern flood-plain of the Wisconsin River in south-central Wisconsin. Initial studies were la...

321

High pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Quarterly report, February 1--April 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is a quarterly report on High Pressure Coal-Fired Ceramic Air Heater for Gas Turbine Applications. The tasks covered in this report are Program Management; Component Development -- including erosion/corrosion problems, coal handling system, natural gas fuel system and tube-string development; Component System Integration and Testing; and Testing and Analysis.

NONE

1997-04-01

322

The Carnol System for methanol production and COâ mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by COâ recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol Process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with COâ recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used

Steinberg

1996-01-01

323

Design Study of a Coal-Fired Thermionic (THX) Topped Power Plant. Volume III. Study of Integrated Thermionic Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work performed to select optimum design parameters for an integrated coal-fired thermionic-steam power plant is described. The first task was to select a baseline plant configuration for the study in order to define the important interface parameters betw...

B. M. Banda

1980-01-01

324

Design Study of a Coal-Fired Thermionic (THX) Topped Power Plant. Volume IV. Thermionic Heat Exchanger Design and Costing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic ...

R. S. Dick E. J. Britt

1980-01-01

325

WATER RECYCLE/REUSE ALTERNATIVES IN COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS; VOLUME II. APPENDIXES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of water recycle/treatment/reuse alternatives in coal-fired power plants. Five power plants from representative U.S. regions were studied. The major water systems encountered were cooling, ash sluicing, and SO2/particulate scrubbers. R...

326

Design of a 165 MWe reheat coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for Nova Scotia Power Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1989, a contract was awarded to Pyropower Corporation for the design, supply and erection of the 165 MW{sub e} reheat coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for the Point Aconi site in Nova Scotia, Canada. This order represented the largest capacity circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler sold to date. This paper presents the boiler design parameters, design arrangement

B. Schaller; J. Darguzas; S. Fraser

1990-01-01

327

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-237 Kilgroe*, J.D., Sedman*, C.B., Srivastava*, R.K., Ryan*, J.V., and Thorneloe*, S. Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report. EPA-600/R-01-109, Available: NTIS. 12/20/2001 The report provides additional information on mer...

328

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR\\/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing

Guffre

2007-01-01

329

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE G  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 75,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel prop...

330

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE E  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 180,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurement...

331

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE F  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on an 80,000 lb/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash injection, excess air, boiler load, and coal prope...

332

INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: A COMPUTER MODEL APPROACH FOR DESIGN AND COST-ESTIMATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), a computerized program that can be used to estimate the cost and performance of pre-combustion, in situ, and post-combustion air pollution control configurations in pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers of 1...

333

RETROFIT COSTS OF SO2 AND NOX CONTROL AT 200 U.S. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study to improve engineering applying cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2 emitting coal-fired utility plants in the U.S. To accomplish this objective, procedures were d...

334

RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

335

OHIO/KENTUCKY/TVA (TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY) COAL-FIRED UTILITY S02 AND N0X CONTROL RETROFIT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents initial results from an ongoing National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) study. The objective is to significantly improve engineering cost estimates for retrofit of the following control technologies at the 1980 'top 200' SO2-emitting coal-fired...

336

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE J  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with chain grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and coa...

337

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE K  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 50,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and...

338

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE H  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives test results on a coal-fired, overfeed, traveling-grate stoker. The boiler tested is rated at 45,000 lb/hr saturated steam at 140 psig. Measurements include gaseous emissions (O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO3, and HC), uncontrolled particulate mass loading, particle siz...

339

FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT--SITE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and ...

340

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

341

LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

342

Blend of magnesium oxide and copper oxychloride as calcium oxide deposit inhibitors in coal fired lime kilns  

SciTech Connect

The instant invention is directed to a method of inhibiting and dispersing calcium oxide deposit formation in coal-fired lime kilns, comprising burning the coal in the presence of from 1 to 2 pounds/ton of coal of a blend of 80 to 95%, by weight, magnesium oxide and 5 to 20%, by weight, copper oxychloride.

Sinha, R.K.

1985-03-05

343

CONTROL OF WASTE AND WATER POLLUTION FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: SECOND R AND D REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Flue gas cleaning waste treatment, utilization, and disposal, as well as water reuse technology for coal-fired utility power plants are discussed. Significant areas treated include: coal-pile drainage; ash characterization and disposal; chemical and physical properties and leachi...

344

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-222 NRMRL/APPCD PROJ RPT/SUM Froerter, D., and Jozewicz, W. Cost of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Application for NOx Control on Coal-fired Boilers. 2001. EPA-600/R-01/087 (NTIS PB2002-100499) , Available: NTIS. 10/09/2001 The report provides a methodology for es...

345

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FISH NEAR A COAL-FIRED GENERATING STATION AND RELATED LABORATORY STUDIES. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Construction of a coal-fired electric generating station on wetlands adjacent to the Wisconsin River has permanently altered about one-half of the original 1,104-ha site. Change in the remaining wetlands continues as a result of waste heat and ashpit effluent produced by the stat...

346

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

347

Update report on the performance of 400 megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units. Performance through 1977  

SciTech Connect

Forty-seven nuclear generating units and 125 coal-fired generating plants that have had at least one full year of commercial operation are covered in this report. Their performances are evaluated using the capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate. The data are arranged by state and utility. (DLC)

None

1981-01-01

348

CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATORS: WATER POLLUTION IMPACT. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of one task in a comprehensive program to review a New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generating plants. The results compare two alternative standard to the existing NSPS (1.2 lb SO2/million Btu of hea...

349

STUDY OF PCB DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE FOR A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER. VOLUME 1. TEST AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the adequacy of a large coal-fired utility boiler for disposal of oils containing 50-499 ppm of PCBs under conditions set by the PCB Disposal Regulations. TVA's Widows Creek Boiler No. 1 was used for the tests. In these tests, all effl...

350

RETROFIT COSTS FOR LIME/LIMESTONE FGD AND LIME SPRAY DRYING AT COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying S02 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. he costs of retrofitting conventiona...

351

On-line Monitoring of Waterwall Corrosion in a 1300 MW Coal-fired Boiler with Low NOx Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion modifications to minimize NOx emissions have increased the likelihood of waterwall corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As evolving regulations require further NOx emissions reduction, a cost effective approach to satisfying these requirements has been to increase the degree of air staging. However, in many applications, corrosion concerns prevent the use of such fuel rich conditions. The physics and chemistry controlling

Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Jim Valentine; Dave Swensen; Darren Shino; J. J. Letcavits; Randy Sheidler; William Cox; Richard Carr; Stan Harding

352

Retrofit Costs for Lime/Limestone FGD and Lime Spray Drying at Coal-Fired Utility Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs o...

T. E. Emmel J. W. Jones

1990-01-01

353

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30

354

High-temperature fireside corrosion monitoring in the superheater section of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was the first British in-plant application of continuous online electrochemical corrosion monitoring technology in pulverized coal-fired superheater environments. The work was conducted at Drax Power Station, National Power plc, UK. The investigation was to evaluate the relative corrosion performance of stainless steel Alloys 316 and 310. Two electrochemical sensor assemblies fabricated from the test alloys were attached to the end of a coupon exposure probe which was inserted into the superheater section of a 660MW boiler. The probe assemblies were exposed at a nominal temperature of 665[degrees]C (1229[degrees]F) during the trial. two series of short term temperature scanning tests were carried out. Alloy 310 performed comparatively better than Alloy 316. Minimal corrosion loss was sustained by Alloy 310 whilst a characteristic wastage flat was observed on Alloy 316. It was shown that variations in boiler operation could affect the minute-to-minute corrosion behavior of the test materials. The results of the brief temperature scan program indicated a trend of increasing corrosion with exposure temperature. No evidence was observed of the bell-shaped'' curve behavior reported in laboratory studies of molten salt corrosion. Metallographic examination of the sensors indicated that only small and discrete areas of internal sulfur enrichment beneath the surface scale. This is untypical of the morphology of sulfur enriched scale found in molten salt corrosion systems. The corrosion processes were predominately in the form of oxidation/sulfidation. The formation of a wastage flat was postulated to have been caused by an electrochemical mechanism similar to that of flow assisted corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. These results confirmed that continuous on-line electrochemical instrumentation could be used to investigate, monitor and characterize high temperature oxidation in power generation boiler superheaters.

Mok, W.Y.; Cox, W.M. (Capcis-March Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom))

1992-12-01

355

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

Not Available

1993-10-30

356

Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India's vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10-27.8 mm), low (0-10 mm) and upliftment (-10-0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

Gupta, Nishant; Syed, Tajdarul H.; Athiphro, Ashiihrii

2013-10-01

357

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01

358

Estimates of particle formation and growth in coal-fired boiler exhaust—I. Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected in plumes from coal-fired cyclone boilers are examined to determine particle formation and growth. The emphasis is on fine particles (diameters of 0.2-2 m) most likely to influence plume opacity. For the boilers examined, these particles consist primarily of water-sulfuric acid droplets formed from emitted SO 3. Observations in plumes from SO 2-scrubbed and non-scrubbed boilers, under various operating conditions (with different coal types and SO 3 control methods), are used to interpret the influence of operating conditions on plume opacity. Results suggest that the plume particle size distribution is a complex function of boiler operating conditions. Particle concentrations in the critical size range affecting opacity do vary with the magnitude of SO 3 emissions, but absolute concentrations are generally less than expected. These data provide the basis for testing, as described in a companion paper, the performance of a plume particle model.

Mueller, Stephen F.; Imhoff, Robert E.

359

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

360

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

1991-05-01

361

Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

NONE

1996-09-01

362

Control of fan erosion in coal-fired power plants, Phase 2: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute contracted with Westinghouse to address the problems electric utilities experience caused by fan erosion. The objective of this phase of the research program was to understand how to control erosion damage to coal-fired power plant fans by: Developing fan design modifications that raise the tolerance of fans to fly-ash erosion and that simultaneously improve fan performance. Understanding why fly ashes vary in their erosivities and developing the ability to predict the erosivity of the fly ash from core borings of the fuel to be fired; Evaluating the performance of erosion protection systems we have installed on a number of fans suffering severe fly-ash erosion damage; Developing a method to armor centrifugal fans against fly-ash erosion while providing for easy field replacement of the blade liners; and Developing a computer model that calculates particle trajectories through the inlet box of a fan. 18 refs., 74 figs., 18 tabs.

Sverdrup, E.F.; Albertin, L.; Chamberlin, R.M.; D'Amico, N.J.; El Masri, M.A.; Glasser, A.D.; Menguturk, M.; Rane, A.; Racki, R.; Petlevich, W.J.

1988-11-01

363

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation had developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is the integration of three separate NO control technologies: (1) Gas Reburning, (2) CO-Promoted Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and (3) Methanol Injection/NO{sub 2} Scrubbing.

Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

1991-12-23

364

Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

2009-08-31

365

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

366

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1990-01-01

367

System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

Zauderer, B.

1976-01-01

368

Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

Not Available

1994-07-01

369

Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as the final report for the project “Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants” supported by the US Department of Energy. The project involved measurement of the ambient fine particle concentrations in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, development of source profiles for important source classes in the Pittsburgh region, source apportionment using statistical and deterministic air quality models, and investigation of the response in ambient fine particle concentrations to changes in emissions. The project was led by Carnegie Mellon University in collaboration with universities, companies, national laboratories, and regional, state and local air quality agencies. This report describes the overall approach of the project and its major findings.

Robinson, Allen; Pandis, Spyros; Davidson, Cliff

2005-12-31

370

Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

Rubin, E.S.

1989-10-01

371

Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

1981-01-01

372

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03

373

Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. However, many uncertainties still remain in our knowledge of primary anthropogenic releases of mercury to the atmosphere in China. In situations involving large uncertainties, our previous mercury emission inventory that used a deterministic approach could produce results that might not be a true reflection of reality; and in such cases stochastic simulations incorporating uncertainties need to be performed. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed as an uncertainty case study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content of coal and mercury removal efficiency.

Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

2010-03-01

374

Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10) to 154.6 Mg (P90); and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10) to 75.7 Mg (P90). The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

Wu, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, S. X.; Hao, J. M.

2009-11-01

375

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems  

SciTech Connect

Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

Not Available

1993-10-01

376

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

Sharon Sjostrom

2004-03-01

377

An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system. PMID:10680354

Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

2000-02-01

378

Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure...

K. W. Kinzie B. S. Henderson H. H. Haskin

2005-01-01

379

Retrofitting Control Facilities for Wet-Weather Flow Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared t construction of new conventional control ...

D. P. Davis H. M. Goebel J. J. LaGorga P. E. Moffa

2000-01-01

380

RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

381

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe Power Plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume V. Supplementary Engineering Data (Cont'D).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reference conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open-cycle MHD is summarized. Detailed system design descriptions ar...

1981-01-01

382

Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

383

Laser Shadowgraph for Flow Visualization in the AFFDL Rent Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser shadowgraph is described which has been used for flow visualization in the Air Force Flight Dynamics Reentry Test Facility. The test flows are arc heated, supersonic, high pressure and high energy. The shadowgraph uses a He-Ne laser, spatial filte...

R. F. Carpenter

1975-01-01

384

Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility  

ScienceCinema

What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Mcllroy, Hugh

2013-05-28

385

Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Mcllroy, Hugh

2010-01-01

386

Characterization of Open-Cycle, Coal-Fired MHD Generators. Ninth-Tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report, July 1, 1978-April 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful design of full-scale open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. This repo...

C. E. Kolb J. Wormhoudt V. Yousefian W. Cheng F. Bien

1979-01-01

387

Reliability and Availability Analyses of Coal-Fired Units: Validation of a Predictive Methodology. Final Report (Based on Individual Equipment Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the application of an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) prediction methodology (presented in EPRI Report AP-2202) to operating and hypothetical coal-fired electric...

M. Neely N. Gardner

1983-01-01

388

COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS (EPA/600/R-01/087)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOxreductions in ...

389

Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, December 1988--February 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed description of the background, technology and application for the development of a coal-fired pulse combustor for residential space heating was provided in the first quarterly report for the period October 1986 - December 1986, That material is...

1989-01-01

390

Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have mu...

1994-01-01

391

Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

2012-03-31

392

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

NONE

1996-12-31

393

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-07-30

394

Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

2010-01-01

395

Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. The computational REACH reactor was modeled with PCGC-2. The reactor geometry, inlet flow rates and configurations were investigated via modeling in order to get an optimum operation condition, with which a thorough coal and gas mixture and a required coal particle dispersion can both be achieved. This is to ensure the efficiencies of both coal combustion and aerodynamic cleaning. The aerodynamic cleaning effect of the tertiary air injection was modeled with CELMINT. Various injection schemes investigated show the dramatic impact of the tertiary air and the injection positions on the overall air flow pattern in the reactor which is one of the major influencing factors on the particle dispersion. It is clearly demonstrated that an optimum tertiary injection scheme with a reasonable flow rate is able to keep the heat exchange tubes from particle fouling.

Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

1993-04-01

396

Characterization and inventory of PCDD/F emissions from coal-fired power plants and other sources in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to quantify (1) the emission factors of a variety of dioxin emission sources; (2) the overall dioxin emission inventory in Taiwan as well as in a major metropolitan (KC area); and (3) the contribution of power plants to the overall PCDD/F emission. To achieve these goals, a total of 95 flue gas samples were collected and analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs from 20 sources to develop emission factors. The emission factor of PCDD/Fs from coal-fired power plants (0.62 microgI-TEQton(-1)) obtained in this study is considerably higher than the values reported from different countries including UK, USA, and Spain by a factor of 2-265. It means that the air pollution control devices in certain power plants need to be more efficient. The emission data showed that there is a total annual release to air of 6.1 and 95gI-TEQ from major sources in the KC area and Taiwan, respectively. The dominant sources of PCDD/Fs in the KC area are the coal-fired power plants, secondary aluminum smelting, electric arc furnaces, and open burning of rice straw, which contributed for 56%, 17%, 13%, and 3.3% to the total, respectively. However, in Taiwan, the dominant sources of PCDD/Fs are the iron ore sintering, coal-fired power plants, electric arc furnaces, and open burning of rice straw, which contributed for 32%, 28%, 23%, and 8.1% to the total, respectively. The results of this study showed that coal-fired power plants are very significant sources of PCDD/Fs and also provide an important database to assist the decision makers for formulating policies to alleviate dioxin concerns. PMID:17509649

Lin, Long-Full; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Mao-Sung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

2007-08-01

397

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2010-03-01

398

Primary air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China: Current status and future prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the atmospheric emissions of coal-fired power sector in China, a unit-based method was developed based on detailed information of unit type, fuel quality, emission control technology, and geographical location. During 2000-2005, the period when power sector developed fastest in the past 20 years, SO 2, NO x and PM emissions of coal-fired power plants increased by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.2 times, respectively. The SO 2, emission of coal-fired power sector was estimated to be 16?097 kt in 2005, and would decrease to 11?801 kt in 2010, attributed mainly to the wide application of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The NO x emission, however, would increase from 6965 kt in 2005 to 9680 kt in 2010, since few NO x control measures would be taken during the five years. The TSP, PM 10, and PM 2.5 emissions in 2005 were estimated to be 2774, 1842 and 994 kt, and the values would be 2540, 1824 and 1090 kt in 2010 respectively. The wet FGD would play an important role on dust emission removal. Through faithful implementation of closing small units and emission control policies in the acid rain and sulfur dioxide control zones, approximately 33%, 6% and 25% of SO 2, NO x, and TSP emissions respectively could be further reduced in 2010. Emissions in 2015 and 2020 of coal-fired power plants were predicted applying scenario analysis. For SO 2 and TSP, optimistic situation can be achieved through reasonable control policies; in contrast, NO x would probably be a more serious issue in future.

Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Lei, Yu; Cao, Pengfei; Hao, Jiming

399

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

Not Available

1992-10-30

400

Plerosphere and its role in reduction of emitted fine fly ash particles from pulverized coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particles (PM2.5) emitted from the stacks of the coal-fired power plants are of environmental concern since they can easily enter the human respiratory track. The detailed study of the fly ash particles using scanning electron microscope\\/electron dispersive spectrometry (SEM\\/EDX) show that fine solid spherical particles (microspheres) are contained by the large cenosphere particles (>50?m) during the combustion process. The

F. Goodarzi; H. Sanei

2009-01-01

401

System study for a tens MWe size coal-fired MHD retrofit pilot power plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

System analysis is made in this paper of the coal-fired MHD\\/steam combined cycle pilot power plant in the size range tens\\u000a of MWe. System performance are presented of such plants with three sizes: one 12 MWe unit, two 12 MWe units and one 50 MWe\\u000a unit which are considered as retrofits to the existing Beijing No.3 Heat and Power Plant.

Ningsheng Cai; Yiqian Xu; James N. Chapman; Ciwen Sha

1993-01-01

402

System study for a tens MWe size coal-fired MHD retrofit pilot power plant in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System analysis is made in this paper of the coal-fired MHD/steam combined cycle pilot power plant in the size range tens of MWe. System performance are presented of such plants with three sizes: one 12 MWe unit, two 12 MWe units and one 50 MWe unit which are considered as retrofits to the existing Beijing No.3 Heat and Power Plant. Parametric studies are performed for the 2 × 12 MWe units and the optimum system parameters are obtained.

Cai, Ningsheng; Xu, Yiqian; Chapman, James N.; Sha, Ciwen

1993-03-01

403

Application of hybrid coal reburning\\/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning\\/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg\\/Nm³ from about 540 mg\\/Nm³, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm

W. J. Yang; Z. J. Zhou; J. H. Zhou; L. V. Hongkun; J. Z. Liu; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

404

Impact of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Stations in Delhi, with Particular Reference to Metal Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indraprastha Power Station (IPP Stn) and Rajghat Power House (RPH), owned by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, are both coal-fired power stations located on Ring Road in New Delhi. Ash content of the coal used ranges between 38–47%. The ash is collected in electrostatic precipitators which have an efficiency of 99.3% (IPP station), and 99.7% (RPH). There are instances of major

A. Mehra; M. E. Farago; D. K. Banerjee

1998-01-01

405

Results of Closed-Loop Coal-Fired Boiler Operation Using a TDLAS Sensor and Smart Process Control Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Technologies Laboratory (NETL) has sponsored two technology demonstration projects at coal-fired power plants to reduce CO2 through combustion balancing and optimization. The Zolo Technologies–led projects at DTE Belle River Unit 2 and AEP Amos demonstrate significant reduction of CO2\\/MWh via generation efficiency improvements enabled by new laser-based sensor technology in conjunction with smart process software. The primary

Andrew D. Sappey; Pat Masterson; Eric Huelson; Jim Howell; Mike Estes; Henrik Hofvander; Atilio Jobson

2011-01-01

406

The effect of fly ash on fluid dynamics of CO 2 scrubber in coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncaptured fly ash and\\/or suspended solids from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubbing solutions are one of several factors that will influence the performance and robustness of carbon dioxide capture systems in coal-fired power plants which will be installed prior to the exhaust stack. In this study, a 100mm ID packed column scrubber was tested with different concentrations of ash

Zhisheng Chen; Derek Yates; James K. Neathery; Kunlei Liu

407

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of field measurements made on an 80,000 lb\\/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash injection, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurements included Oâ, COâ, CO, NO, NOâ, SOâ, SOâ, HC, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the

P. L. Langsjoen; R. J. Tidona; J. E. Gabrielson

1980-01-01

408

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site E  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 180,000 lb\\/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and coal properties. Measurements included Oâ, COâ, CO, NO, NOâ, S0â, SOâ, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the uncontrolled flyash, and

P. L. Langsjoen; J. O. Burlingame; J. E. Gabrielson

1980-01-01

409

Field tests of industrial stoker coal-fired boilers for emissions control and efficiency improvement - Site G  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of field measurements made on a 75,000 lb\\/hr coal-fired spreader-stoker boiler. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Measurements included Oâ, COâ, NO, NOâ, SOâ, SOâ, HC, controlled and uncontrolled particulate loading, particle size distribution of the uncontrolled

P. L. Langsjoen; J. O. Burlingame; J. E. Gabrielson

1980-01-01

410

Transformations and Affinities for Sulfur of Chinese Shenmu Coal Ash in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca\\/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t\\/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less

J. Cheng; J. H. Zhou; J. Z. Liu; X. Y. Cao; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

411

Assessing the value of CO 2 capture ready in new-build pulverised coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making new plants CO2 capture ready (CCR) would enable them to retrofit to capture CO2 at a later date at lower cost when the appropriate policy and\\/or economic drivers are in place. In order to understand the economic value and investment characteristics of making new plants CCR in China, a typical 600MW pulverised coal-fired ultra-supercritical power plant, locating in Guangdong

Xi Liang; David Reiner; Jon Gibbins; Jia Li

2009-01-01

412

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

413

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical progress report 2, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired high performance power system was developed, and small scale R and D was done in critical areas of design. The current Phase of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage, and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been identified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs and general operation of the system. These goals are: Total station efficiency of at least 47 percent on a higher heating value basis; emissions: NO{sub x} < 0.06 lb/MMBtu, SO{sub x} < 0.06 lg/MMBtu, and particulates < 0.003 lb/MMBtu; all solid wastes must be benign with regard to disposal; over 95% of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65% of the heat input; and ten percent lower cost of electricity (COE) relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS.

NONE

1996-02-01

414

Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

1994-06-01

415

Modeling of the melt flow in continuous casting facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presented paper we describe the results of the experimental study of a liquid metal flow in a low-temperature model of a continuous casting facility equipped with two electromagnetic stirrers (EMS). The characteristics of turbulent melt flows in such facilities are computed on the basis of a semi-empirical model of "external" friction taking into account the experimental distribution of angular velocities along the liquid core of the ingot. The proposed mathematical model allows us to explain the features of the angular velocities distribution along the liquid core of the ingot. Figs 4, Refs 3.

Golbraikh, E.; Kapusta, A.; Mikhailovich, B.; Lesin, Sh.; Khavkin, M.

2007-06-01

416

Investigation of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a two-phase investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of direct pulverized coal firing of marine boilers. Particular emphasis was placed upon application to Great Lakes bulk carriers. The investigation included the study of converting oil-fired boilers to pulverized coal as well as the use of pulverized coal for fueling the unique boiler of a new construction vessel. The Phase I feasibility analysis involved a study of overall fueling system requirements and the evaluation of major elements including boilers, pulverizers, burners and pollution control equipment. Preliminary conceptual layouts of systems for conversion and new construction vessels were prepared. Phase II established final system design approach and tentative equipment selection for refinement of the Phase I conceptual layouts. Boiler performance comparisons relative to fuel consumption with fuel oil, pulverized and stoker coal are presented. Benefits to be gained, relative to fueling system costs for conversion and new construction vessels, are analyzed in the light of today's availability and price of fuel oil and coal.

Kacir, I.R.

1983-03-01

417

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization 'tools' for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical 'program' based on the notion of self-regulation'' set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical 'many-body' computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,[hor ellipsis]) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend 'sticking' and 'erosion' laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-09-01

418

Theoretical cost estimates for a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized-bed boiler  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains the development of a costing method for coal-fired atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers and the results of applying this method to a 200,000 lb/h boiler. The costs of concern are capital costs. The hardwares are those components attached to the boiler unit, and do not include auxiliary equipment. Costs are expressed in 1979 dollars and include shop fabrication, freight, site preparation, field erection, engineering and construction overhead costs. The installed stripped cost of a 200,000 lb/h AFB boiler is estimated to be $2 million to $2.2 million, depending on the type of coal used. With added contingency, markup, profit and project fee, the calculated cost of the boiler unit varies between $3.06 million to $3.3 million. Assuming that the costs of fabrication materials is 100% above the chosen lowest cost assumed, the cost of the boiler unit increases by 54.5% above the calculated cost.

Nguyen, V.T.; Lethi, M.T.

1981-10-01

419

Pulse-jet fabric filters for coal-fired utility and industrial boilers: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Pulse-jet fabric filters rely on the filtration of dirty flue gas by the outside surface of the bags, which are then cleaned by a shock wave from an air pulse entering each bag from the top. The shock wave travels down each bag, flexing the bag and dislodging dustcake as it travels the length of the bag downward and then upward. A venturi may or may not be used to enhance the pulse, and cleaning may be on-line or off-line. This study provides a convenient and versatile information base about pulse-jet fabric filters on coal-fired boilers. Features include an overview of the pulse-jet concept, a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of pulse-jet cleaning, a survey of vendors and design and hardware features of pulse-jet installations, discussion of these design and hardware characteristics for several vendors, case histories of a wide variety of installations as examples, and a list of pertinent references. The most important part of the study is an exhaustive table of pulse-jet installations and their features, sorted several different ways for accessibility. Predominant features of the installations in the list are analyzed and presented in graphic form.

Dean, A.H.; Cushing, K.M.

1987-09-01

420

Peak Oil and Coal Fires: How Scientific Fact Becomes Debatable Political Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Political consensus in the United States cannot be more different from a scientific consensus. The latter situation allows for resolution of problems large and small based on recognized facts and procedures. Once a compelling problem is recognized the scientific community is able to marshal resources to examine that phenomenon. Political consensus however allows for the unending reconsideration of problems in the political arena depending on the outcome of elections and the intensity and sustained length of citizen interest. Serious problems can be trivialized by election campaign rhetoric, or can fail to rise to the level of aggregation necessary to be considered. Coal fires are an example of the latter while OCS exploration and production is an example of the former. Peak oil is a problem that will be avoided until there is a crisis. With current scientific evidence mounting that an important tipping point is approaching, and that societal collapse is a probable outcome of maintaining the status quo, it is vitally important to understand the structural limitations of government decisions. Long standing consensus in the legislature is transferred to the bureaucracy, which can maintain a policy position long after its electoral support has vanished. A legislature and executive experiencing thin electoral margins (51-54% of the vote or seats) produces a different sort of political environment than what is possible with safe margins (>60%). Supermajorities with veto proof margins (>65%) are rare, but not unknown (e.g. 1935-37; 1965-67) and allow for revolutionary policy innovation.

McCurdy, K. M.

2008-12-01

421

Investigation of local mercury deposition from a coal-fired power plant using mercury isotopes.  

PubMed

Coal combustion accounts for approximately two-thirds of global anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions. Enhanced deposition of Hg can occur close to coal-fired utility boilers (CFUBs), but it is difficult to link specific point sources with local deposition. Measurement of Hg stable isotope ratios in precipitation holds promise as a tool to assist in the identification of local Hg deposition related to anthropogenic emissions. We collected daily event precipitation samples in close proximity to a large CFUB in Crystal River, Florida. Precipitation samples collected in Crystal River were isotopically distinct and displayed large negative ?(202)Hg values (mean = -2.56‰, 1 SD = 1.10‰, n = 28). In contrast, precipitation samples collected at other sites in FL that were not greatly impacted by local coal combustion were characterized by ?(202)Hg values close to 0‰ (mean = 0.07‰, 1 SD = 0.17‰, n = 13). These results indicate that, depending on factors such as powdered coal isotopic composition and efficiency of Hg removal from flue gas, Hg deposited near CFUBs can be isotopically distinct. As this tool is further refined through future studies, Hg stable isotopes may eventually be used to quantify local deposition of Hg emitted by large CFUBs. PMID:22103560

Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D; Keeler, Gerald J; Demers, Jason D; Dvonch, J Timothy

2012-01-01

422

A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.  

PubMed

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented. PMID:15828667

Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

2005-03-01

423

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1991-03-01

424

Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

None

1999-01-01

425

Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

2008-12-31

426

Development of a coal-fired gas turbine cogeneration system: Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Allison Advanced Coal-Fueled Turbine Program is now in the sixth year of a development effort that has led to a POC engine demonstration test on a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. Earlier forecasts by CWS suppliers that suitable CWS fuels would be commercially available at an economic price have not been realized. A program replan has, therefore, been executed that incorporates the use of readily available dry pulverized coal. To support this program, technology issues relating to combustor performance and emission control, hot gas cleanup, and turbine deposition, erosion and corrosion (DEC) have been addressed. In addition, system assessment studies have been performed to evaluate the commercial prospects for small (<8 MWe) coal-fired industrial cogeneration systems and the application of the rich-quench-lean (RQL) coal-combustion technology to larger (> 100 MWe) utility-sized gas turbines. These results are reported by Wenglarz (1992). Combustor and engine tests on dry coal are now planned in preparation for a commercial demonstration that will follow the completion of this program.

Wilkes, C.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Hart, P.J.; Thomas, W.H.; Rothrock, J.W.; Harris, C.N.; Bourke, R.C.

1992-12-01

427

Development of a coal-fired gas turbine cogeneration system: Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Allison Advanced Coal-Fueled Turbine Program is now in the sixth year of a development effort that has led to a POC engine demonstration test on a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. Earlier forecasts by CWS suppliers that suitable CWS fuels would be commercially available at an economic price have not been realized. A program replan has, therefore, been executed that incorporates the use of readily available dry pulverized coal. To support this program, technology issues relating to combustor performance and emission control, hot gas cleanup, and turbine deposition, erosion and corrosion (DEC) have been addressed. In addition, system assessment studies have been performed to evaluate the commercial prospects for small (<8 MWe) coal-fired industrial cogeneration systems and the application of the rich-quench-lean (RQL) coal-combustion technology to larger (> 100 MWe) utility-sized gas turbines. These results are reported by Wenglarz (1992). Combustor and engine tests on dry coal are now planned in preparation for a commercial demonstration that will follow the completion of this program.

Wilkes, C.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Hart, P.J.; Thomas, W.H.; Rothrock, J.W.; Harris, C.N.; Bourke, R.C.

1992-01-01

428

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

2010-08-01

429

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2012-04-01

430

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

NONE

1995-12-01

431

Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

1984-05-01

432

Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress on the program â??Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systemsâ? funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

Anbo Wang; Gary Pickrell

2011-12-31

433

Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain.  

PubMed

This paper is a study of the radiological impact of a coal-fired power plant in Spain. Activity concentrations of six natural radionuclides were determined in coal, ash, mine wastes and sediments by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (210)Pb, (232)Th and (40)K in coal were 24, 30, 28, 41, 23 and 242 Bq kg(-1)  and in ash were 103, 128, 101, 124, 88 and 860 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The enrichment factor, radium equivalent activity and alpha index in the ash sample have been estimated. For the five waste pile samples, the absorbed dose rate was higher than the world average dose rate (60 nGy h(-1)). The dependence of radionuclide concentration on the grain size of nine sediments was also studied. The analysis of the radionuclides in waste and sediment samples will demonstrate the distribution and mobility of these elements through the environment, where a potential risk of contamination can be detected. PMID:22807496

Charro, Elena; Peña, Víctor

2013-01-01

434

Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter.  

PubMed

A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The "gross" thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concrete and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. PMID:12781221

Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

2003-01-01

435

Design and operation of a supersonic annular flow facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supersonic annular flow passages exist in propulsion applications that include dual combustion ramjet engines where a supersonic annular flow (the outer flow) mixes with a sonic (or supersonic) gas generator flow (the inner flow) in the shock expansion zone downstream of the gas generator nozzle exit. Other engine designs include components in the form of annular ducts whose cross-sectional area varies in the streamwise flow direction. In some of these configurations, it is necessary to support the outer shroud (cowl) by means of struts positioned between the cowl and centerbody. To investigate the distorting influence of these struts on the local flow structure, it is first necessary to ensure that the intrinsic flow without struts is free of wave reflections and the effects of upstream disturbances. It is also necessary to demonstrate that the intrinsic flow exhibits the characteristics of a well-defined turbulent boundary layer flow, so that changes in the local flow structure induced by the presence of struts can be interpreted properly. The purpose of this Note is to demonstrate that a supersonic flow facility that meets these objectives has been developed.

Williams, K. E.; Gessner, F. B.; Harloff, G. J.

1994-01-01

436

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

4